Sample records for widths hyperfine structure

  1. Hyperfine structure studies with the COMPLIS facility

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J E; Le Blanc, F; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Zemlyanoi, S G; Verney, D; Pinard, J; Cabaret, L A; Duong, H T; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Sebastian, V; Girod, M; Peru, S; Genevey, J; Ibrahim, F; Lettry, Jacques


    COMPLIS is an experimental facility designed to carry out spectroscopic studies on radioisotopes produced by disintegration of elements available at CERN's Booster-ISOLDE on-line isotope separator. During recent series of experimental runs, hyperfine structure measurements have yielded information on nuclear moments and deformations of platinum and iridium isotopes, For the first time, population by alpha -decay from Hg was exploited to investigate /sup 178/-/sup 181/Pt-the most neutron-deficient Pt isotopes yet studied. Successful measurements have recently been carried out on /sup 182-189/Ir. (10 refs).

  2. Improved Study of the Antiprotonic Helium Hyperfine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pask, T.; Dax, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Hori, M.; Horvath, D.; Juhasz, B.; Malbrunot, C.; Marton, J.; Ono, N.; Suzuki, K.; Zmeskal, J.; Widmann, E.


    We report the initial results from a systematic study of the hyperfine (HF) structure of antiprotonic helium (n,l) = (37,~35) carried out at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. We performed a laser-microwave-laser resonance spectroscopy using a continuous wave (cw) pulse-amplified laser system and microwave cavity to measure the HF transition frequencies. Improvements in the spectral linewidth and stability of our laser system have increased the precision of these measurements by a factor of five and reduced the line width by a factor of three compared to our previous results. A comparison of the experimentally measured transition frequencies with three body QED calculations can be used to determine the antiproton spin magnetic moment, leading towards a test of CPT invariance.

  3. Hyperfine structure of S-states of muonic tritium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynenko F.A.


    Full Text Available On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we carry out a precise calculation of hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic tritium. The one-loop and two-loop vacuum polarization corrections, relativistic effects, nuclear structure corrections in first and second orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The contributions to hyperfine structure are obtained in integral form and calculated analytically and numerically. Obtained results for hyperfine splitting can be used for a comparison with future experimental data of CREMA collaboration.

  4. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen in a beam

    CERN Document Server

    Widmann, E.; Juhasz, B.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K.; Wunschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Federmann, S.; Kuroda, N.; Ulmer, S.; Yamazaki, Y.


    A measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen promises one of the best tests of CPT symmetry. We describe an experiment planned at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN to measure this quantity in a beam of slow antihydrogen atoms.

  5. Quantum Theory of Hyperfine Structure Transitions in Diatomic Molecules. (United States)

    Klempt, E.; And Others


    Described is an advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment in which radio-frequency transitions between molecular hyperfine structure states may be observed. Aspects of the quantum theory applied to the analysis of this physical system, are discussed. (Authors/BT)

  6. Spin-torsion effects in the hyperfine structure of methanol (United States)

    Coudert, L. H.; Gutlé, C.; Huet, T. R.; Grabow, J.-U.; Levshakov, S. A.


    The magnetic hyperfine structure of the non-rigid methanol molecule is investigated experimentally and theoretically. 12 hyperfine patterns are recorded using molecular beam microwave spectrometers. These patterns, along with previously recorded ones, are analyzed in an attempt to evidence the effects of the magnetic spin-torsion coupling due to the large amplitude internal rotation of the methyl group [J. E. M. Heuvel and A. Dymanus, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 47, 363 (1973)]. The theoretical approach setup to analyze the observed data accounts for this spin-torsion in addition to the familiar magnetic spin-rotation and spin-spin interactions. The theoretical approach relies on symmetry considerations to build a hyperfine coupling Hamiltonian and spin-rotation-torsion wavefunctions compatible with the Pauli exclusion principle. Although all experimental hyperfine patterns are not fully resolved, the line position analysis yields values for several parameters including one describing the spin-torsion coupling.

  7. Hadronic deuteron polarizability contribution the hyperfine structure in muonic deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskin A.V.


    Full Text Available The calculation of the contribution to the polarizability of the nucleus to hyperfine structure of muonic hydrogen is carried out within the unitary isobar model and on the basis of experimental data on the structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-proton and lepton-deuteron scattering. The calculation of virtual absorption cross sections of transversely and longitudinally polarized photons by nucleons in the resonance region is performed in the framework of the program MAID.

  8. Measurement of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in Gd II (United States)

    Del Papa, Dylan F.; Rose, Christopher D. M.; Rosner, S. David; Holt, Richard A.


    We have applied fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the isotope shifts of 73 optical transitions in the wavelength range 421.5-455.8 nm and the hyperfine structures of 35 even parity and 33 odd parity levels in Gd II. Many of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure measurements are the first for these transitions and levels. These atomic data can be used to correct for saturation and blending in the analysis of stellar spectra to determine chemical abundances. As a result, they have an important impact on studies of the history of nucleosynthesis in the Universe and on the use of photospheric abundance anomalies in Chemically Peculiar stars to infer indirect information about stellar interiors.

  9. Measurements of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in Ti II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Z; Rosner, S D; Holt, R A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Li, R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6 T 2A3 (Canada); Scholl, T J, E-mail: rholt@uwo.c [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada)


    We have applied fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the isotope shifts of 38 transitions in the wavelength range 429-457 nm and the hyperfine structures (hfs) of 22 levels in Ti II. The isotope shift and hfs measurements are the first for these transitions and levels. These atomic data are essential for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines.

  10. Theoretical study of hyperfine structure constants of Ga isotopes (United States)

    Wang, Q. M.; Li, J. G.; Fritzsche, S.; Godefroid, M.; Chang, Z. W.; Dong, C. Z.


    The hyperfine structure constants for the ground 4s24p 2P°3/2 and lowest excited states 4s25s 2S1/2 of 71Ga are calculated using the GRASP2K package based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Furthermore, the magnetic dipole (μ) and the electric quadrupole (Q) moments of the Ga isotopes from 67Ga to 81Ga are derived.

  11. Calculation of hyperfine structure constants of small molecules using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework is employed to calculate the parallel and perpendicular components of the magnetic hyperfine structure constant of a few small alkaline earth hydrides (BeH, MgH, and CaH) and fluorides (MgF and CaF). We have compared our Z-vector results with the values ...

  12. Deuterium hyperfine structure in interstellar C3HD (United States)

    Bell, M. B.; Watson, J. K.; Feldman, P. A.; Matthews, H. E.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.


    The deuterium nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of the transition 1(10)-1(01) of the ring molecule cyclopropenylidene-d1 (C3HD) has been observed in emission from interstellar molecular clouds. The narrowest linewidths (approximately 7 kHz) so far observed are in the cloud L1498. The derived D coupling constants Xzz = 186.9(1.4) kHz, eta=0.063(18) agree well with correlations based on other molecules.

  13. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift study in singly ionized lead (United States)

    Wąsowicz, T. J.; Drozdowski, R.; Kwela, J.


    Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in five optical transitions: 424.5 nm (6s^25f ^2textrm{F}_{7/2} 6s^26d^2 textrm{D}_{5/2}), 537.2 nm (6s^25f ^2textrm{F}_{7/2} 6s6p^2 ^4textrm{P}_{5/2}), 554.5 nm (6s^27d ^2textrm{D}_{5/2} 6s^27p ^2textrm{P}_{3/2}), 560.9 nm (6s^27p^2 textrm{P}_{3/2} 6s^27s ^2textrm{S}_{1/2}) and 666.0 nm (6s^27p ^2textrm{P}_{1/2} 6s^27s ^2textrm{S}_{1/2}) of Pb II have been measured. As a light source the discharge tube was used. The hyperfine structure measurements were performed using metallic isotope 207Pb. For isotope shifts measurements natural lead was used. The high resolution spectral apparatus consisted of a silver coated Fabry-Perot etalon and a grating spectrograph combined with a CCD camera used as a detector. In the analysis of the spectra a computer simulation technique was used. The hyperfine structure observations yielded the splitting constants A for seven levels of Pb II. The isotope shift studies enabled to separate the mass and the field shifts and to determine values of changes of the mean square nuclear charge radii.

  14. Hyperfine Structure Measurements of Antiprotonic $^3$He using Microwave Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Friedreich, Susanne

    The goal of this project was to measure the hyperfine structure of $\\overline{\\text{p}}^3$He$^+$ using the technique of laser-microwave-laser spectroscopy. Antiprotonic helium ($\\overline{\\text{p}}$He$^+$) is a neutral exotic atom, consisting of a helium nucleus, an electron and an antiproton. The interactions of the angular momenta of its constituents cause a hyperfine splitting ({HFS}) within the energy states of this new atom. The 3\\% of formed antiprotonic helium atoms which remain in a metastable, radiative decay-dominated state have a lifetime of about 1-3~$\\mu$s. This time window is used to do spectroscopic studies. The hyperfine structure of $\\overline{\\text{p}}^4$He$^+$ was already extensively investigated before. From these measurements the spin magnetic moment of the antiproton can be determined. A comparison of the result to the proton magnetic moment provides a test of {CPT} invariance. Due to its higher complexity the new exotic three-body system of $\\overline{\\text{p}}^3$He$^+$ is a cross-check...

  15. Hyperfine Structure and Isotope Shifts in Dy II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan F. Del Papa


    Full Text Available Using fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy (FIBLAS, we have measured the hyperfine structure (hfs of 14 levels and an additional four transitions in Dy II and the isotope shifts (IS of 12 transitions in the wavelength range of 422–460 nm. These are the first precision measurements of this kind in Dy II. Along with hfs and IS, new undocumented transitions were discovered within 3 GHz of the targeted transitions. These atomic data are essential for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines. Lanthanide abundances are important in diffusion modeling of stellar interiors, and in the mechanisms and history of nucleosynthesis in the universe. Hfs and IS also play an important role in the classification of energy levels, and provide a benchmark for theoretical atomic structure calculations.

  16. Full hyperfine structure analysis of singly ionized molybdenum (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa


    For a first time a parametric study of hyperfine structure of Mo II configuration levels is presented. The newly measured A and B hyperfine structure (hfs) constants values of Mo II 4d5, 4d45s and 4d35s2 configuration levels, for both 95 and 97 isotopes, using Fast-ion-beam laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy [1] are gathered with other few data available in literature. A fitting procedure of an isolated set of these three lowest even-parity configuration levels has been performed by taking into account second-order of perturbation theory including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Moreover the same study was done for Mo II odd-parity levels; for both parities two sets of fine structure parameters as well as the leading eigenvector percentages of levels and Landé-factor gJ, relevant for this paper are given. We present also predicted singlet, triplet and quintet positions of missing experimental levels up to 85000 cm-1. The single-electron hfs parameter values were extracted in their entirety for 97Mo II and for 95Mo II: for instance for 95Mo II, a4d01 =-133.37 MHz and a5p01 =-160.25 MHz for 4d45p; a4d01 =-140.84 MHz, a5p01 =-170.18 MHz and a5s10 =-2898 MHz for 4d35s5p; a5s10 =-2529 (2) MHz and a4d01 =-135.17 (0.44) MHz for the 4d45s. These parameter values were analysed and compared with diverse ab-initio calculations. We closed this work with giving predicted values of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hfs constants of all known levels, whose splitting are not yet measured.

  17. High resolution spectroscopy of the hyperfine structure splitting in 97,99Tc (United States)

    Raeder, Sebastian; Kron, Tobias; Heinke, Reinhard; Henares, Jose L.; Lecesne, Nathalie; Schönberg, Pascal; Trümper, Marcel; Wendt, Klaus


    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry is an efficient tool for detecting trace amounts of long-lived radio-isotopes in environmental samples. For absolute quantification a tracer with identical atomic properties and chemical behavior is needed to prevent a possible dependency onto the absolute efficiency for the analytical method. For an application in 99Tc, the isotope 97Tc could serve as a potential tracer. Therefore the optical transitions of an efficient ionization scheme for technetium were investigated for the two odd mass isotopes 97,99Tc, both with a nuclear spin of I={9}/{2}. Using a pulsed, single mode laser with narrow bandwidth, the hyperfine structures (HFS) of two transitions were fully resolved. The observed isotope shift is small in comparison to the width of the hyperfine structure splitting. This is ideal for the application of 97Tc as tracer isotope for 99Tc quantification. The evaluation of the observed HFS splitting results in a first experimental value for the magnetic dipole for 97Tc of μ=+5.82(9) μ N .

  18. Structural properties and hyperfine characterization of Sn-substituted goethites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larralde, A.L. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Bs. As. (Argentina); Tufo, A.E. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Sileo, E.E., E-mail: [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and tin-doped goethites were synthesized from Sn(II) solutions at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement of PXRD data indicated that Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substitution provoked unit cell expansion, and a distortion of the coordination polyhedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy showed a lower magnetic coupling as tin concentration increased. - Abstract: Tin-doped goethites obtained by a simple method at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, and {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The particles size and the length to width ratios decreased with tin-doping. Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions provoking unit cell expansion and increasing the crystallinity of the particles with enlarged domains that grow in the perpendicular and parallel directions to the anisotropic broadening (1 1 1) axis. Intermetallic E, E Prime and DC distances also change although the variations are not monotonous, indicating different variations in the coordination polyhedron. In general, the Sn-substituted samples present larger intermetallic distances than pure goethite, and the greatest change is shown in the E Prime distance which coincides with the c-parameter. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV) in the samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) presence was not detected by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, suggesting the existence of vacancies in the Sn-doped samples. A lower magnetic coupling is also evidenced from the average magnetic hyperfine field values obtained as tin

  19. Proton structure in the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen


    Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir


    We present the leading-order prediction of baryon chiral perturbation theory for the proton polarizability contribution to the 2S hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen, and compare with the results of dispersive calculations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluzzi, Luca [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    A correct modeling of the scattering polarization profiles observed in some spectral lines of diagnostic interest, the sodium doublet being one of the most important examples, requires taking hyperfine structure (HFS) and quantum interference between different J-levels into account. An atomic model suitable for taking these physical ingredients into account is the so-called multiterm atom with HFS. In this work, we introduce and study the transfer and relaxation rates due to isotropic inelastic collisions with electrons, which enter the statistical equilibrium equations (SEE) for the atomic density matrix of this atomic model. Under the hypothesis that the electron–atom interaction is described by a dipolar operator, we provide useful relations between the rates describing the transfer and relaxation of quantum interference between different levels (whose numerical values are in most cases unknown) and the usual rates for the atomic level populations, for which experimental data and/or approximate theoretical expressions are generally available. For the particular case of a two-term atom with HFS, we present an analytical solution of the SEE for the spherical statistical tensors of the upper term, including both radiative and collisional processes, and we derive the expression of the emission coefficient in the four Stokes parameters. Finally, an illustrative application to the Na i D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} lines is presented.

  1. Lamb shifts and hyperfine structure in 6Li+ and 7Li+: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, E.; Sinclair, A. G.; Poulsen, Ove


    High-precision laser-resonance measurements accurate to +/-0.5 MHz, or better are reported for transitions among the 1s2s S-3(1)-1s2p P-3(J) hyperfine manifolds for each of J = 0, 1, and 2 in both Li-6(+) and Li-7(+). A detailed analysis of hyperfine structure is performed for both the S and P st...

  2. Hyperfine structure and g-factor measurements in ion traps (United States)

    Knab, H.; Knöll, K. H.; Arbes, F.; Becker, O.; Werth, G.


    We report about measurements on ground-state hyperfine splitting constants of stable Eu+ isotopes in radio frequency ion traps and experiments on the electronic g-factor of Ba+ in a Penning trap. From the precision of both measurements, which ranges between 3·10-6 and 5·10-7, we conclude that precise determination of the differential Bohr-Weisskopf effect in chains of isotopes will be possible in the near future.

  3. Hyperfine structure of the hydroxyl free radical (OH) in electric and magnetic fields (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Wall, Michael L.; Carr, Lincoln D.


    We investigate single-particle energy spectra of the hydroxyl free radical (OH) in the lowest electronic and rovibrational level under combined static electric and magnetic fields, as an example of heteronuclear polar diatomic molecules. In addition to the fine-structure interactions, the hyperfine interactions and centrifugal distortion effects are taken into account to yield the zero-field spectrum of the lowest 2Π3 / 2 manifold to an accuracy of less than 2kHz. We also examine level crossings and repulsions in the hyperfine structure induced by applied electric and magnetic fields. Compared to previous work, we found more than 10 percent reduction of the magnetic fields at level repulsions in the Zeeman spectrum subjected to a perpendicular electric field. In addition, we find new level repulsions, which we call Stark-induced hyperfine level repulsions, that require both an electric field and hyperfine structure. It is important to take into account hyperfine structure when we investigate physics of OH molecules at micro-Kelvin temperatures and below. This research was supported in part by AFOSR Grant No.FA9550-11-1-0224 and by the NSF under Grants PHY-1207881 and NSF PHY-1125915. We appreciate the Aspen Center for Physics, supported in part by the NSF Grant No.1066293, for hospitality.

  4. The Theory of ESR Hyperfine-Structure Narrowing as Applied to Wide-Gap Semimagnetic Semiconductors (United States)

    Aliev; Tagirov; Tagiev


    The theory of ESR hyperfine-structure exchange narrowing is developed. The kinetic equations describing the nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of hyperfine components of ESR spectra are derived by using the nonequilibrium statistical-operator method. Numerical solution of these general equations is applied to the simulation of the experimental spectra of (Cd, Mn)Te crystals with a Mn2+ ion content of between 0.05 and 0.5%. The hyperfine-splitting constant, homogeneous ESR linewidth, and mean-square value of the exchange fluctuation frequency are obtained from the fitting of the spectra for different concentrations of manganese ions. The concentration dependence of the latter quantity is discussed in relation to the spatial dependence of magnetic-ion exchange interaction and the gap value in the band structure of semimagnetic semiconductors.

  5. Measurement of hyperfine structure in the $\\rm D_1$ line of $^{87}$Rb

    CERN Document Server

    Datar, Durgesh; Ananthamurthy, Sharath; Natarajan, Vasant


    This work reports a new measurement of the hyperfine structure constant of the $\\rm D_1 $ line in $ \\rm ^{87}Rb $ through precision laser spectroscopy. In a departure from methods that rely on locking the laser on the transitions of interest, the technique reported here relies on scanning around the transition. This is carried out so as to overcome potential frequency shifts caused by various noise sources including electronic noise and thermal fluctuations. The value of the hyperfine constant reported here is $ A = 408.29(25) $ MHz, which is in variance from an earlier value reported from our lab but is consistent with other recent measurements.

  6. Experimental investigation of the hyperfine structure of praseodymium-I lines using laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Khan, Shamim; Gamper, Bettina; Iqbal, S. Tanweer; Windholz, Laurentius


    The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium 59Pr141 is [Xe] 4f3 6s2 , with ground state level 4I9 / 2 . Our research is mainly devoted to find previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines on the basis of their hyperfine (hf) structure. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp, praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signal is then recorded using lock-in detection techniques. From the recorded hyperfine structure we determine J-values and hyperfine constants A of the combining levels. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of the involved new levels. Up to now we have discovered a large number of previously unknown energy levels with various angular momentum values. We present here the characteristic data (energy, parity, angular momentum J and magnetic hyperfine constant A) of ca. 40, until now unknown energy levels.

  7. Hyperfine Structure and Exchange Narrowing of Paramagnetic Resonance (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Turkevich, J.


    Discussion of electronic paramagnetic resonance for the free radical á, á-diphenyl â-picryl hydrazyl as observed by its effect on the transmission of microwave through a TE{sub 01} cavity with a small amount of the free radical placed approximately on the axis of the cavity; the half-width of this resonance at half maximum absorption was 1.45 oersteds.

  8. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of even configuration system of atomic terbium (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Elantkowska, M.; Ruczkowski, J.; Furmann, B.


    In this work a parametric study of the fine structure (fs) and the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented, based in considerable part on the new experimental results. Measurements on 134 spectral lines were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge lamp; on this basis, the hyperfine structure constants A and B were determined for 52 even-parity levels belonging to the configurations 4f85d6s2, 4f85d26s or 4f96s6p; in all the cases those levels were involved in the transitions investigated as the lower levels. For 40 levels the hfs was examined for the first time, and for the remaining 12 levels the new measurements supplement our earlier results. As a by-product, also preliminary values of the hfs constants for 84 odd-parity levels were determined (the investigations of the odd-parity levels system in the terbium atom are still in progress). This huge amount of new experimental data, supplemented by our earlier published results, were considered for the fine and hyperfine structure analysis. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was performed, taking into account second-order of perturbation theory, including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Predicted values of the level energies, as well as of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, are quoted in cases when no experimental values are available. By combining our experimental data with our own semi-empirical procedure it was possible to identify correctly the lower and upper level of the line 544.1440 nm measured by Childs with the use of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique (Childs, J Opt Soc Am B 9;1992:191-6).

  9. Towards isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements of the element nobelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, Premaditya; Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Block, Michael; Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, D-55122 Mainz (Germany); Kunz, Peter [TRIUMF, D-V6T2A3 Vancouver (Canada)


    Laser spectroscopy on the heaviest elements is of great interest as it allows the study of the evolution of relativistic effects on their atomic structure. In our experiment we exploit the Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy technique and use excimer-laser pumped dye lasers to search for the first time the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level in {sup 254}No. Etalons will be used in the forthcoming experiments at GSI, Darmstadt, to narrow down the bandwidth of the dye lasers to 0.04 cm{sup -1}, for the determination of the isotope shift and hyperfine splitting of {sup 253,} {sup 255}No. In this talk results from preparatory hyperfine structure studies in nat. ytterbium and the perspectives for future experiments of the heaviest elements are discussed.

  10. Electronic structure and hyperfine parameters of substitutional Al and P impurities in silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Stokbro, Kurt


    The electronic structure of substitutional Al and P impurities in silica is investigated using supercell calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Evaluation of hyperfine matrices for the magnetic nuclei facilitates comparison to experimental data. It is found that the......The electronic structure of substitutional Al and P impurities in silica is investigated using supercell calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Evaluation of hyperfine matrices for the magnetic nuclei facilitates comparison to experimental data. It is found......, there is an "asymmetry" between electrons and holes in the electronic states of the silica network: The hole present at the Al impurity goes into a nonbonding O orbital while the extra electron present at the P impurity goes into a P-O antibonding state....

  11. New precise measurement of muonium hyperfine structure interval at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y., E-mail: [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Aoki, M. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Fukao, Y. [KEK (Japan); Higashi, Y.; Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Iinuma, H.; Ikedo, Y. [KEK (Japan); Ishida, K. [RIKEN (Japan); Ito, T. U. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN (Japan); Kadono, R. [KEK (Japan); Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN (Japan); Kanda, S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Kawall, D. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Department of Physics (United States); Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Kojima, K. M. [KEK (Japan); Kubo, M. K. [International Christian University, Graduate School of Arts and Science (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Mibe, T. [KEK (Japan); and others


    MuSEUM is an international collaboration aiming at a new precise measurement of the muonium hyperfine structure at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). Utilizing its intense pulsed muon beam, we expect a ten-fold improvement for both measurements at high magnetic field and zero magnetic field. We have developed a sophisticated monitoring system, including a beam profile monitor to measure the 3D distribution of muonium atoms to suppress the systematic uncertainty.

  12. Development of atomic spectroscopy technologies - Hyperfine structure of 2 period atoms using optogalvanic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Nam Ic [Hankuk University of foreign studies, Seoul (Korea)


    The source of anomalous broad linewidth of 3{sup 3}P{sub 1},{sub 2},{sub 3}-3{sup 3}D{sub 2},{sub 3},4(3s') transition was explained. The broad optogalvanic spectrum was consisted of two gaussian peaks of different linewidths, and they are separated by 250 MHz. The Narrow peak, which has linewidth of room temperature, is from oxygen atoms already separated, and the shifted broad peak, which has linewidth corresponding to a temperature of 9000 K, is from weakly bound molecular ions. Obtained hyperfine spectrum of fluorine atom at the expected frequency, was too weak to analyze hyperfine structure constants. Microwave discharge might be necessary for higher density of excited state. 16 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  13. Host material induced hyperfine structure of F{sup +} centres EPR spectra in CaS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, Viktor, E-mail:; Dolgov, Sergei; Maaroos, Aarne


    The hyperfine structure (HFS) of F{sup +} centres in CaS single crystals due to the interaction with {sup 33}S and {sup 43}Ca nuclei was observed in EPR spectra for the first time. Angular variations of the HFS were measured for rotation of magnetic field in {100} and {110} crystallographic planes. Using measured orientation-dependent EPR spectra and the EPR NMR program, the parameters of the spin Hamiltonian were determined. In case of {sup 33}S nucleus there is a strong dependence of the F{sup +} centre EPR spectrum on the quadrupole term whereas for {sup 43}Ca nucleus this dependence is insignificant.

  14. Analysis of structure of hyperfine poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibers (PHB) for controlled drug delivery (United States)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Kosenko, R. Yu; Markin, V. S.; Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Karpova, S. G.; Iordanskii, A. L.


    Hyperfine fibers based on biodegradable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) with encapsulated drug substance (dipyridamol) were obtained by using electrospinning method. Addition of dipyridamol has a significant effect on geometrical shape and structure of microfibers as well as total porosity of fibrous material. Observation of fibers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method showed that without or at lower dipyridamol content (structures did not practically form, and fiber’s shape became cylindrical. The totality of morphological and structural characteristics determined the rate of dipyridamol diffusive transports. The simplified model of drug desorption from fibrous matrix was presented. In current work it was showed that the rate-limiting stage of transport was the diffusion of dipyridamol in the bulk of cylindrical fibers.

  15. Hyperfine structure in 229gTh3+ as a probe of the 229gTh→ 229mTh nuclear excitation energy. (United States)

    Beloy, K


    We identify a potential means to extract the 229gTh→ 229mTh nuclear excitation energy from precision microwave spectroscopy of the 5F(5/2,7/2) hyperfine manifolds in the ion 229gTh3+. The hyperfine interaction mixes this ground fine structure doublet with states of the nuclear isomer, introducing small but observable shifts to the hyperfine sublevels. We demonstrate how accurate atomic structure calculations may be combined with the measurement of the hyperfine intervals to quantify the effects of this mixing. Further knowledge of the magnetic dipole decay rate of the isomer, as recently reported, allows an indirect determination of the nuclear excitation energy.

  16. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part VIII: Hyperfine structure HPC calculations for terbium atom (United States)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Sikorski, Andrzej; Dembczyński, Jerzy


    A parametric analysis of the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented in this work. We introduce the complete set of 4fN-core states in our high-performance computing (HPC) calculations. For calculations of the huge hyperfine structure matrix, requiring approximately 5000 hours when run on a single CPU, we propose the methods utilizing a personal computer cluster or, alternatively a cluster of Microsoft Azure virtual machines (VM). These methods give a factor 12 performance boost, enabling the calculations to complete in an acceptable time.

  17. Structural, electronic, and hyperfine properties of pure and Ta-doped m-ZrO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M.A.; Alonso, R.E.; Errico, L.A.


    A combination of experiments and ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations has been applied to examine electronic, structural, and hyperfine interactions in pure and Ta-doped zirconium dioxide in its monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2). From the theoretical point of view, the full-potential linear augmente...

  18. Rotational spectra, nuclear quadrupole hyperfine tensors, and conformational structures of the mustard gas simulent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (United States)

    Tubergen, M. J.; Lesarri, A.; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, A. C.; Jensen, J. O.; Ellzy, M. W.; Lochner, J. M.


    Rotational spectra have been recorded for both the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopic forms of two structural conformations of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The rotational constants of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopomers were used to identify the conformational isomers. A total of 236 hyperfine transitions have been assigned for 47 rotational transitions of the 35Cl isotope of a GGT conformer, and 146 hyperfine have been assigned for 37 rotational transitions of the 37Cl isotopomer. For the second conformer, a total of 128 (110) hyperfine and 30 (28) rotational transitions have also been assigned to the 35Cl ( 37Cl) isotopes of a TGT conformation. The extensive hyperfine splitting data, measured to high resolution with a compact Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, were used to determine both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors in the inertial tensor principal axis system. The experimental rotational constant data, as well as the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors, were compared to the results from 27 optimized ab initio (HF/6-311++G ∗∗ and MP2/6-311++G ∗∗) model structures.

  19. Structural, magnetic and hyperfine characterizations of nanocrystalline Zn-Cd doped nickel ferrites (United States)

    Aakash; Nordblad, Per; Rajendra Mohan; Mukherjee, Samrat


    In our present work, we have synthesized a series of Cd-Zn doped nickel ferrite ((Cd0.5-xZnx)Ni0.5Fe2O4; x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) through standard chemical co-precipitation method to study the influence of diamagnetic ions (Cd, Zn) on the magnetic properties of ferrites. XRD and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterizations. The refinement of the X-ray diffractogram data augmented by the Williamson-Hall plots showed the presence of Cd2+ vacancies and a strained crystal structure. The vibrational spectroscopy indicated the presence of lower space-group symmetry and a distorted crystal structure. Magnetic measurements showed the samples possessed low magnetic anisotropy along with a canted spin structure. The Mössbauer measurements confirmed the cation distribution and gave evidence of super transferred hyperfine interactions arising due to canted spin structure of the system.

  20. Wavelengths, energy levels and hyperfine structure of Mn II and Sc II. (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Townley-Smith, Keeley I. M.; Hala, .


    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Groups at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Imperial College London (ICL) have measured atomic data of astronomical interest. Our spectrometers include Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at NIST and ICL covering the region 1350 Å to 5.5 μm and a 10.7-m grating spectrometer at NIST covering wavelengths from 300 - 5000 Å. Sources for these spectra include high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) lamps, Penning discharges, and sliding spark discharges. Recent work has focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure (HFS) constants for iron-group elements. The analysis of FT spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn II is being led by ICL and is described in a companion poster [1]. Current work being led by NIST includes the analysis of HFS in Mn II, analysis of Mn II in the vacuum ultraviolet, and a comprehensive analysis of Sc II.Comprehensive HFS constants for Mn II are needed for the interpretation of stellar spectra and incorrect abundances may be obtained when HFS is omitted. Holt et al. [2] have measured HFS constants for 59 levels of Mn II using laser spectroscopy. We used FT spectra of Mn/Ni and Mn/Cu HCLs covering wavelength ranges from 1350 Å to 5.4 μm to confirm 26 of the A constants of Holt et al. and obtain values for roughly 40 additional levels. We aim to obtain HFS constants for the majority of lines showing significant HFS that are observed in chemically-peculiar stars.Spectra of Sc HCLs have been recorded from 1800 - 6700 Å using a vacuum ultraviolet FT spectrometer at NIST. Additional measurements to cover wavelengths above 6700 Å and below 1800 Å are in progress. The spectra are being analyzed by NIST and Alighar Muslim University, India in order to derive improved wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters.This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK

  1. Systematic model calculations of the hyperfine structure in light and heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaselli, M; Nörtershäuser, W; Ewald, G; Sánchez, R; Fritzsche, S; Karshenboim, S G


    Systematic model calculations are performed for the magnetization distributions and the hyperfine structure (HFS) of light and heavy ions with a mass close to A ~ 6 208 235 to test the interplay of nuclear and atomic structure. A high-precision measurement of lithium-isotope shifts (IS) for suitable transition, combined with an accurate theoretical evaluation of the mass-shift contribution in the respective transition, can be used to determine the root-mean-square (rms) nuclear-charge radius of Li isotopes, particularly of the halo nucleus /sup 11/Li. An experiment of this type is currently underway at GSI in Darmstadt and ISOLDE at CERN. However, the field-shift contributions between the different isotopes can be evaluated using the results obtained for the charge radii, thus casting, with knowledge of the ratio of the HFS constants to the magnetic moments, new light on the IS theory. For heavy charged ions the calculated n- body magnetization distributions reproduce the HFS of hydrogen-like ions well if QED...

  2. Unravelling the local structure of topological crystalline insulators using hyperfine interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Phenomena emerging from relativistic electrons in solids have become one the main topical subjects in condensed matter physics. Among a wealth of intriguing new phenomena, several classes of materials have emerged including graphene, topological insulators and Dirac semi-metals. This project is devoted to one such class of materials, in which a subtle distortion of the crystalline lattice drives a material through different topological phases: Z$_{2}$ topological insulator (Z$_{2}$-TI), topological crystalline insulator (TCI), or ferroelectric Rashba semiconductor (FERS). We propose to investigate the local structure of Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te and Ge$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te (with $\\textit{x}$ from 0 to 1) using a combination of experimental techniques based on hyperfine interactions: emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (eMS) and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). In particular, we propose to study the effect of composition ($\\textit{x}$ in Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te and Ge$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te) on: \\\\ \\\\(1) the mag...

  3. Spectroscopy Apparatus for the Measurement of The Hyperfine Structure of Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Malbrunot, C.; Diermaier, M.; Dilaver, N.; Friedreich, S.; Kolbinger, B.; Lehner, S.; Lundmark, R.; Massiczek, O.; Radics, B.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M.; Widmann, E.; Wolf, M.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.


    The ASACUSA CUSP collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic spectroscopy beamline. We describe here the latest developments on the spectroscopy apparatus developed to be coupled to the antihydrogen production setup (CUSP).

  4. Nuclear radiative recoil corrections to the hyperfine structure of S-states in muonic hydrogen (United States)

    Faustov, R. N.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, F. A.; Sorokin, V. V.


    Nuclear radiative recoil corrections of order α( Zα)5 to the hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic hydrogen are calculated on the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The calculation is performed in the infrared safe Fried-Yennie gauge. Modern experimental data on the proton form factors are used.

  5. First-principles investigation of electronic structure and hyperfine properties of heme and nitrosyl-hemoglobin systems (United States)

    Pujari, Minakhi

    This thesis is devoted to study of electronic structures and associated hyperfine properties of molecular systems. The main emphasis of our work is on the electronic structure and hyperfine properties of nitrosyl-hemoglobin and the sensitiveness of the structure to external conditions as this compound is closely related to deoxy-hemoglobin, the most important enzyme of the human body. The other two systems of compounds, sixth group hexafluorides and five-liganded halogen-heme compounds have been studied to test the accuracy of the Hartree-Fock procedure employed in explaining the properties of systems related in different degrees to nitrosyl-hemoglobin. In the hexafluoride systems, the theoretical values obtained in our work for the Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constant (NQCC) of 19F*, explain the experimental trend of continuous decrease from lightest to the heaviest systems. This is in keeping with the empirical Townes and Dailey relation and the expected increase in ionicity in going to the heavier systems. In bromo-hemin and iodo-hemin, the magnetic hyperfine properties of 57Fe, 14N, 13C, protons and halogen nuclei were studied. The associated charge and unpaired spin population obtained using their calculated electronic structures indicated more localized charge and spin distribution than were found by the semi-empirical method of Self-Consistent Charge Extended Hückel Procedure. Our results for the hyperfine constants showed satisfactory agreement with available experimental data. The contact and dipolar contribution to the hyperfine constant and their breakdown into direct and exchange polarization contributions were analyzed. The isomer shift at the 57Fe nucleus for both the systems, bromo-hemin and iodo-hemin were also studied and the observed trend was in agreement with that for other related compounds. The studies of the sixth group hexafluorides, and bromo- hemin and iodo-hemin systems, have encouraged us to use the Hartree-Fock Roothaan procedure for

  6. Experimental investigation of the hyperfine spectra of Pr I - lines: discovery of new fine structure levels with low angular momentum (United States)

    Shamim, K.; Siddiqui, I.; Windholz, L.


    We present 39 odd and 15 even parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with low angular momentum: J = 1/2, 3/2 and 5/2. Spectral lines in the range 4200 Å to 7500 Å were experimentally investigated using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The levels were discovered by analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns of the investigated transitions. With the help of these levels, 119 spectral lines were classified directly by laser excitation and 127 lines were classified as fluorescence lines.

  7. Hyperfine-induced hysteretic funnel structure in spin blockaded tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots at low magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, A.; Wicha, A.; Harack, B.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Payette, C.; Austing, D. G. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada and National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    We outline the properties of the hyperfine-induced funnel structure observed in the two-electron spin blockade region of a weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Hysteretic steps in the leakage current occur due to dynamic nuclear polarization when either the bias voltage or the magnetic field is swept up and down. When the bias voltage is swept, an intriguing ∼3 mT wide cusp near 0 T appears in the down-sweep position, and when the magnetic field is swept, the current at 0 T can be switched from 'low' to 'high' as the bias is increased.

  8. High-precision QED calculations of the hyperfine structure in hydrogen and transition rates in multicharged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotka, A.V.


    Studies of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen are strongly motivated by the level of accuracy achieved in recent atomic physics experiments, which yield finally model-independent informations about nuclear structure parameters with utmost precision. Considering the current status of the determination of corrections to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state in hydrogen, this thesis provides further improved calculations by taking into account the most recent value for the proton charge radius. Comparing theoretical and experimental data of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen the proton-size contribution is extracted and a relativistic formula for this contribution is derived in terms of moments of the nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. An iterative scheme for the determination of the Zemach and magnetic radii of the proton is proposed. As a result, the Zemach and magnetic radii are determined and the values are compared with the corresponding ones deduced from data obtained in electron-proton scattering experiments. The extraction of the Zemach radius from a rescaled difference between the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen and in muonium is considered as well. Investigations of forbidden radiative transitions in few-electron ions within ab initio QED provide a most sensitive tool for probing the influence of relativistic electron-correlation and QED corrections to the transition rates. Accordingly, a major part of this thesis is devoted to detailed studies of radiative and interelectronic-interaction effects to the transition probabilities. The renormalized expressions for the corresponding corrections in one- and twoelectron ions as well as for ions with one electron over closed shells are derived employing the two-time Green's function method. Numerical results for the correlation corrections to magnetic transition rates in He-like ions are presented. For the first time also the frequency-dependent contribution is calculated, which has to be

  9. Transitions between hyperfine-structure states of the 2s metastable muonic hydrogen in collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaplinski, W.


    Hyperfine effects in the symmetric collisions of the 2s metastable muonic hydrogen with hydrogen atoms: (p{mu}){sub 2s} + H, (d{mu}){sub 2s} + D, (t{mu}){sub 2s} + t are presented. Elastic and spin-flip cross sections for the scattering of The 2s muonic atoms are calculated in the two-level approximation as a function of collision energy. The corresponding formulae are derived with inclusion of electron screening and Lamb-shift between 2s and 2p energy levels of the muonic atom. The obtained spin-flip cross sections are about two orders of magnitude higher than their ground state counterparts and are much more influenced by electron screening. The rates of the spin-flip transitions are also calculated and are found to be about three orders of magnitude higher than the decay rate of the 2s state. (author). 65 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs.

  10. Structural and hyperfine evolution of the (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} system under milling time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas UNLP, IFLP-CONICET. C.C. 67 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F.; Desimoni, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas UNLP, IFLP-CONICET. C.C. 67 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    The evolution with milling time (t{sub m}) of the structural and hyperfine properties of mechanically alloyed (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 0.85}Cu{sub 0.15} and (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 0.70}Cu{sub 0.30} nominal composition samples are reported. The samples milled during t{sub m} = 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 h are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. From the XRD results two phases are observed, a BCC one corresponding to {alpha}-Fe(Mn, Cu) and a FCC-phase associated to Fe-Mn-Cu solid solution. Moessbauer spectra show complex structure evidencing several Fe environments. Two hyperfine magnetic field distributions were used to reproduce the spectra, a high magnetic field interaction ascribed to the BCC phase and a low hyperfine magnetic field distribution linked to the FCC solid solution. An increment in the average hyperfine magnetic field (B{sub hf}) and in the isomer shift ({delta}) values of the low hyperfine magnetic field distribution is observed when the milling time increases. All the structural and hyperfine parameters remain without changes after 9 h of milling. Once this stationary regime is archived, the B{sub hf} of the (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 0.85}Cu{sub 0.15} sample resulted higher than that of the (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 0.70}Cu{sub 0.30} one.

  11. Laser Spectroscopic Measurements of Isotope Shift and Hyperfine Structure in BISMUTH-207 and BISMUTH-208. (United States)

    Fang, Zuyun


    Measurements of the hyperfine spectra of 38-yr ^{207}Bi and 3.7 times 10^5-yr ^{208}Bi in the 6p^3 ^4S_{3/2} - 6p^27s ^4P_{1/2} 306.7-nm resonance line were made using laser spectroscopic methods. The atomic excitation was produced with use of the frequency doubled output of a tunable ring dye laser. Laser absorption spectroscopy was used for the ^ {208}Bi measurement, while fluorescence spectroscopy, with photon counting detection, was used for ^{208}Bi. The experiments of ^{207}Bi were performed in both zero and high (0.7515 T) magnetic fields. The latter also provided a reliable measurement of the nuclear spin of ^{207}Bi. The results obtained from the ^ {208}Bi spectra are: A(^4P _{1/2}) = 4911(17)MHz and B( ^4S_{3/2}) = -314(92)MHz. These give the values: mu = 4.523(16) mu_{N} and Q = - 0.39(12)b. The measured isotope shift is: IS( ^{208}Bi-^{209 }Bi) = 1870(63)MHz. The results for ^{207} Bi are: I = 9/2, A(^4P_{1/2 }) = 4900.0(8.1)MHz, A(^4S_ {1/2}) = -444.6(1.5)MHz and B(^4S_{1/2}) = -443(17)MHz. These give the values: mu = 4.062(8)mu_ {N} and Q = -0.55(2)b. The measured isotope shift is: IS(^{207 }Bi-^{209}Bi) = 2997(10)MHz. The isotope shift odd-even staggering parameter for ^{208}Bi, gamma = 0.752(43), was derived and used for an isotonic comparison. The measured nuclear magnetic moments are in agreement with theoretical predictions. An improved calculation of the isotope shift constant using a diffuse nuclear charge model is given and a weak, but significant, model dependence of the isotope shifts was found.

  12. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D2(17)O and HD(17)O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen. (United States)

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Harding, Michael E; Vázquez, Juana; Gauss, Jürgen


    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing (17)O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined (17)O spin-rotation constants of D2 (17)O and HD(17)O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H2 (17)O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  13. Calculation of vibrational branching ratios and hyperfine structure of 24Mg19F and its suitability for laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Yin, Yanning; Wei, Bin; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping


    More recently, laser cooling of the diatomic radical magnesium monofluoride (24Mg19F ) is being experimentally preformed [Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092701 (2015), 10.7567/APEX.8.092701 and Opt. Express 22, 28645 (2014), 10.1364/OE.22.028645] and was also studied theoretically [Phys. Rev. A 91, 042511 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042511]. However, some important problems still remain unsolved, so, in our paper, we perform further theoretical study for the feasibility of laser cooling and trapping the 24Mg19F molecule. At first, the highly diagonal Franck-Condon factors of the main transitions are verified by the closed-form approximation, Morse approximation, and Rydberg-Klein-Rees inversion methods, respectively. Afterwards, we investigate the lower X 2Σ1/2 + hyperfine manifolds using a quantum effective Hamiltonian approach and obtain the zero-field hyperfine spectrum with an accuracy of less than 30 kHz ˜5 μ K compared with the experimental results, and then find out that one cooling beam and one or two repumping beams with their first-order sidebands are enough to implement an efficient laser slowing and cooling of 24Mg19F . Meanwhile, we also calculate the accurate hyperfine structure magnetic g factors of the rotational state (X 2Σ1/2 +,N =1 ) and briefly discuss the influence of the external fields on the hyperfine structure of 24Mg19F as well as its possibility of preparing three-dimensional magneto-optical trapping. Finally we give an explanation for the difference between the Stark and Zeeman effects from the perspective of parity and time reversal symmetry. Our study shows that, besides appropriate excitation wavelengths, the short lifetime for the first excited state A 2Π1 /2 , and lighter mass, the 24Mg19F radical could be a good candidate molecule amenable to laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping.

  14. Fringe structures and tunable bandgap width of 2D boron nitride nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Feng


    Full Text Available We report studies of the surface fringe structures and tunable bandgap width of atomic-thin boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs. BNNSs are synthesized by using digitally controlled pulse deposition techniques. The nanoscale morphologies of BNNSs are characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In general, the BNNSs appear microscopically flat in the case of low temperature synthesis, whereas at high temperature conditions, it yields various curved structures. Experimental data reveal the evolutions of fringe structures. Functionalization of the BNNSs is completed with hydrogen plasma beam source in order to efficiently control bandgap width. The characterizations are based on Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and FTIR transmittance spectra. Red shifts of spectral lines are clearly visible after the functionalization, indicating the bandgap width of the BNNSs has been changed. However, simple treatments with hydrogen gas do not affect the bandgap width of the BNNSs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowmya, K.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru (India); Stenflo, J. O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Interference between magnetic substates of the hyperfine structure states belonging to different fine structure states of the same term influences the polarization for some of the diagnostically important lines of the Sun's spectrum, like the sodium and lithium doublets. The polarization signatures of this combined interference contain information on the properties of the solar magnetic fields. Motivated by this, in the present paper, we study the problem of polarized scattering on a two-term atom with hyperfine structure by accounting for the partial redistribution in the photon frequencies arising due to the Doppler motions of the atoms. We consider the scattering atoms to be under the influence of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength and develop a formalism based on the Kramers–Heisenberg approach to calculate the scattering cross section for this process. We explore the rich polarization effects that arise from various level-crossings in the Paschen–Back regime in a single scattering case using the lithium atomic system as a concrete example that is relevant to the Sun.

  16. Experimental investigation of the hyperfine spectra of Pr I-lines: Discovery of new fine structure levels with high angular momentum (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Windholz, Laurentius


    We present 66 even and 58 odd parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with high angular momentum: J = 15/2, 17/2 and 19/2 and 21/2. Spectral lines in the range 4200 Å to 7500 Å were experimentally investigated using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The levels were discovered by analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns of the investigated transitions. More than 800 spectral lines could be classified with help of these levels. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Alonso, José Luis [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Unidad Asociada CSIC, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)


    The rotational spectrum of the mono-deuterated isotopologue of water, HD{sup 16}O, has been investigated in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequency regions, up to 1.6 THz. The Lamb-dip technique has been exploited to obtain sub-Doppler resolution and to resolve the hyperfine (hf) structure due to the deuterium and hydrogen nuclei, thus enabling the accurate determination of the corresponding hf parameters. Their experimental determination has been supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations. The Lamb-dip measurements have been supplemented by Doppler-limited measurements (weak high-J and high-frequency transitions) in order to extend the predictive capability of the available spectroscopic constants. The possibility of resolving hf splittings in astronomical spectra has been discussed.

  18. Decoupling of hyperfine structure of Cs $D_1$ line in strong magnetic field studied by selective reflection from a nanocell

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, Armen; Hakhumyan, Grant; Tonoyan, Ara; Papoyan, Aram; Leroy, Claude; Sarkisyan, David


    Decoupling of total electronic and nuclear spin moments of Cs atoms in external magnetic field for the case of atomic $D_1$ line, leading to onset of the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Selective reflection of laser radiation from an interface of dielectric window and atomic vapor confined in a nanocell with 300 nm gap thickness was implemented for the experimental studies. The real time derivative of selective reflection signal with a frequency position coinciding with atomic transitions was used in measurements, providing $\\sim$ 40 MHz spectral resolution and linearity of signal response in respect to transition probability. Behavior of 28 individual Zeeman transitions in a wide range of longitudinal magnetic field (0 - 6 kG) has been tracked under excitation of Cs vapor by a low-intensity $\\sigma^+$- polarized cw laser radiation. For $B\\ge 6~$kG, only 8 transitions with nearly equal probabilities and the same frequency slope remained in the spectrum, which i...

  19. Width and rugosity of the topological plasma flow structures and their relation to the radial flights of particle tracers (United States)

    García, L.; Llerena Rodríguez, I.; Carreras, B. A.


    An analysis of the distributions of the width and rugosity of topological plasma flow structures is presented for some resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence results. The distributions of the radial excursions of particle tracers during trappings are compared with those of the width and rugosity of the flow structures.

  20. The hyperfine structure of the lowest doublet states of the LiO2 isomers: a density-functional-theory assessment (United States)

    Oliveira, João P. C.; Rivelino, Roberto


    Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations of the hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) are systematically reported for the lithium superoxide (LiO2) structural isomers in the doublet ground states, \\tilde X 2A2 and 2Π. Also, structure, harmonic frequencies, rotational constants and dipole moments have been computed at different levels of theory. Our results calculated for the 2A2 state are compared with the available data of matrix-isolated LiO2. Geometric parameters and vibrational modes compare well with available experimental data. However, the present density-functional results show a strong dependence of the isotropic HFCCs on the level of approximation as well as the molecular geometry. Our results confirm that the anisotropic contributions are less sensitive to the exchange-correlation potentials and basis sets. We have obtained the best estimate of the isotropic HFCC (in comparison with the experimental trends) by using the hybrid scheme that combines the Perdew-Wang's 1991 correlation functional with the adiabatic connection. This study allows us to gauge DFT methods for future applications in the alkali superoxide series, as well as open-shell metal centres interacting with dioxygen in biological systems.

  1. The hyperfine structure of the lowest doublet states of the LiO{sub 2} isomers: a density-functional-theory assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao P C; Rivelino, Roberto, E-mail: rivelino@ufba.b [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)


    Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations of the hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) are systematically reported for the lithium superoxide (LiO{sub 2}) structural isomers in the doublet ground states, (tilde X){sup 2}A{sub 2} and {sup 2{Pi}}. Also, structure, harmonic frequencies, rotational constants and dipole moments have been computed at different levels of theory. Our results calculated for the {sup 2}A{sub 2} state are compared with the available data of matrix-isolated LiO{sub 2}. Geometric parameters and vibrational modes compare well with available experimental data. However, the present density-functional results show a strong dependence of the isotropic HFCCs on the level of approximation as well as the molecular geometry. Our results confirm that the anisotropic contributions are less sensitive to the exchange-correlation potentials and basis sets. We have obtained the best estimate of the isotropic HFCC (in comparison with the experimental trends) by using the hybrid scheme that combines the Perdew-Wang's 1991 correlation functional with the adiabatic connection. This study allows us to gauge DFT methods for future applications in the alkali superoxide series, as well as open-shell metal centres interacting with dioxygen in biological systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sneden, C. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cowan, J. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)


    New experimental absolute atomic transition probabilities are reported for 203 lines of V II. Branching fractions are measured from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer and an echelle spectrometer. The branching fractions are normalized with radiative lifetime measurements to determine the new transition probabilities. Generally good agreement is found between this work and previously reported V II transition probabilities. Two spectrometers, independent radiometric calibration methods, and independent data analysis routines enable a reduction in systematic uncertainties, in particular those due to optical depth errors. In addition, new hyperfine structure constants are measured for selected levels by least squares fitting line profiles in the FTS spectra. The new V II data are applied to high resolution visible and UV spectra of the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937 to determine new, more accurate V abundances. Lines covering a range of wavelength and excitation potential are used to search for non-LTE effects. Very good agreement is found between our new solar photospheric V abundance, log ε(V) = 3.95 from 15 V II lines, and the solar-system meteoritic value. In HD 84937, we derive [V/H] = –2.08 from 68 lines, leading to a value of [V/Fe] = 0.24.

  3. Hyperfine structure and magnetic properties of Zn doped Co{sub 2}Z hexaferrite investigated by high-field Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jung Tae; Kim, Chul Sung, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)


    The polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were synthesized by the standard solid-state-reaction method. Based on the XRD patterns analyzed by Rietveld refinement, the structure was determined to be single-phased hexagonal with space group of P6{sub 3}/mmc. With increasing Zn ion concentration, the unit cell volume (V{sub u}) of samples was increased, as the sites of Fe{sup 3+} ions changed from tetrahedral to octahedral sites. We have obtained zero-field Mössbauer spectra of all samples at various temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 750 K. The measured spectra below T{sub C} were analyzed with six distinguishable sextets due to the superposition of ten-sextets for Fe sites, corresponding to the Z-type hexagonal ferrite. Also, the hyperfine field (H{sub hf}) and electric quadrupole shift (E{sub Q}) have shown abrupt changes around spin transition temperature (T{sub S}). In addition, Mössbauer spectra of all samples at 4.2 K were taken with an applied field ranging from 0 to 50 kOe, which indicates the decrease in the canting angle between applied field and H{sub hf} of samples with increasing Zn concentration.

  4. P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brandstädt


    Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.

  5. The hyperfine structure in the rotational spectra of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O: Confirmation of the absolute nuclear magnetic shielding scale for oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail:; Cazzoli, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università degli Studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Harding, Michael E. [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Campus Nord, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Vázquez, Juana [Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)


    Guided by theoretical predictions, the hyperfine structures of the rotational spectra of mono- and bideuterated-water containing {sup 17}O have been experimentally investigated. To reach sub-Doppler resolution, required to resolve the hyperfine structure due to deuterium quadrupole coupling as well as to spin-rotation (SR) and dipolar spin-spin couplings, the Lamb-dip technique has been employed. The experimental investigation and in particular, the spectral analysis have been supported by high-level quantum-chemical computations employing coupled-cluster techniques and, for the first time, a complete experimental determination of the hyperfine parameters involved was possible. The experimentally determined {sup 17}O spin-rotation constants of D{sub 2}{sup 17}O and HD{sup 17}O were used to derive the paramagnetic part of the corresponding nuclear magnetic shielding constants. Together with the computed diamagnetic contributions as well as the vibrational and temperature corrections, the latter constants have been employed to confirm the oxygen nuclear magnetic shielding scale, recently established on the basis of spin-rotation data for H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)].

  6. Evolution of structure, microstructure and hyperfine properties of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkouche, K. [LMMC, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Boukherroub, N. [LMMC, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Souami, N. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria)


    Nanostructured Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} powders were prepared by mechanical alloying of Fe and Co elements in a vario-planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural properties, morphology changes and local iron environment variations were investigated as a function of milling time (in the 0-200 h range) by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The complete formation of bcc Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} solid solution is observed after 100 h milling. As the milling time increases from 0 to 200 h, the lattice parameter decreases from 0.28655 nm for pure Fe to 0.28523 nm, the grain size decreases from 150 to 14 nm, while the meal level of strain increases from 0.0069% to 1.36%. The powder particle morphology at different stages of formation was observed by SEM. The parameters derived from the Moessbauer spectra confirm the beginning of the formation of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} phase at 43 h of milling. After 200 h of milling the average hyperfine magnetic field of 35 T suggests that a disordered bcc Fe-Co solid solution is formed. - Highlights: > Nanostructured Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} powders were successfully prepared by mechanical alloying process. > Final average grain size value achieved after 200 h of milling was 14 nm. > For the longest milling time the majority of particle grains observed by SEM exhibits a round shape with small diameter.

  7. Hyperfine structure analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: from astrophysical measurements towards endogenous biosensors in human tissue; Hyperfeinstruktur-Analyse in der Magnetresonanzspektroskopie: von astrophysikalischen Messungen zu endogenen Biosensoren in menschlichem Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The hyperfine interaction of two spins is a well studied effect in atomic systems. Magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that the detectable dipole transitions are determined by the magnetic moments of the constituents and the external magnetic field. Transferring the corresponding quantum mechanics to molecular bound nuclear spins allows for precise prediction of NMR spectra obtained from metabolites in human tissue. This molecular hyperfine structure has been neglected so far in in vivo NMR spectroscopy but contains useful information, especially when studying molecular dynamics. This contribution represents a review of the concept of applying the Breit-Rabi formalism to coupled nuclear spins and discusses the immobilization of different metabolites in anisotropic tissue revealed by 1H NMR spectra of carnosine, phosphocreatine and taurine. Comparison of atomic and molecular spin systems allows for statements on the biological constraints for direct spin-spin interactions. Moreover, the relevance of hyperfine effects on the line shapes of multiplets of indirectly-coupled spin systems with more than two constituents can be predicted by analyzing quantum mechanical parameters. As an example, the superposition of eigenstates of the AMX system of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and its application for better quantification of 31P-NMR spectra will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Effect of particle size distribution on the structure, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Das, G. C. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pati, Satya P.; Das, D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K., E-mail: [Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano powders were synthesized by an auto combustion method and then heat treated at different temperatures in air for a fixed time. As a consequence, a distribution in particle size and strain was incorporated within the specimens, as estimated from the Rietveld refinement analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data. The changes in the microstructure and crystal structure parameters were carefully extracted through the refinement analysis. Thermal annealing causes increment in the dispersion and mean of the size distribution. Reallocation of cations in the lattice sites occur as a consequence of the heat treatment which was manifested in their altered unit cell length (a), r.m.s. strain (〈ε{sup 2}〉{sup 1/2}), oxygen positional parameter (u), metal-oxygen bond lengths (R{sub OA} and R{sub OB}), and the band positions (ν{sub 1}and ν{sub 2}) in the vibrational spectroscopy. We also investigate the hyperfine and magnetic properties of the samples using different instrumental techniques (with different operating time scales) like Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Results show that the effect of particle size distribution was manifested in their hyperfine field distribution profile, paramagnetic resonance spectra, and magnetic anisotropy energy distribution profile. Co-existence of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic phase was recorded at room temperature in the samples when annealed at lower temperature. However, with increase in annealing temperature, the nature of the size distribution changes and ferrimagnetic ordering predominates for the larger size nanoparticles. Thus, the effect of particle size distribution on the structural, hyperfine, and magnetic properties of various Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated herein which hitherto has not been discussed in the literature.

  9. 7P1/2 hyperfine splitting in 206 , 207 , 209 , 213Fr and the hyperfine anomaly (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.


    We perform precision measurements on francium, the heaviest alkali with no stable isotopes, at the recently commissioned Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. A combination of RF and optical spectroscopy allows better than 10 ppm (statistical) measurements of the 7P1 / 2 state hyperfine splitting for the isotopes 206 , 207 , 209 , 213Fr, in preparation for weak interaction studies. Together with previous measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure, it is possible to extract the hyperfine anomaly. This is a correction to the point interaction of the nuclear magnetic moment and the electron wavefunction, known as the Bohr Weisskopf effect. Our measurements extend previous measurements to the neutron closed shell isotope (213) as well as further in the neutron deficient isotopes (206, 207). Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.

  10. A viscoelastic Unitary Crack-Opening strain tensor for crack width assessment in fractured concrete structures (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Benboudjema, Farid


    A post-processing technique which allows computing crack width in concrete is proposed for a viscoelastic damage model. Concrete creep is modeled by means of a Kelvin-Voight cell while the damage model is that of Mazars in its local form. Due to the local damage approach, the constitutive model is regularized with respect to finite element mesh to avoid mesh dependency in the computed solution (regularization is based on fracture energy).

  11. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)


    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  12. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts...... with the two different molding technologies. Focus of the experimental work was the assessment of the IM and ICM processes capabilities to replicate different channels widths (240 nm, 440 nm and 1040 nm) at different positions from the gate based on the deviations of their dimensions from the corresponding...

  13. Investigations of the ground-state hyperfine atomic structure and beta decay measurement prospects of 21Na with improved laser trapping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mary Anderson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis describes an experiment in which a neutral atom laser trap loaded with radioactive 21Na was improved and then used for measurements. The sodium isotope (half-life=22 sec) is produced on line at the 88 in. cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The author developed an effective magnesium oxide target system which is crucial to deliver a substantive beam of 21Na to the experiment. Efficient manipulation of the 21Na beam with lasers allowed 30,000 atoms to be contained in a magneto-optical trap. Using the cold trapped atoms, the author measured to high precision the hyperfine splitting of the atomic ground state of 21Na. She measured the 3S1/2(F=1,m=0)-3S1/2(F=2,m=0) atomic level splitting of 21Na to be 1,906,471,870±200 Hz. Additionally, she achieved initial detection of beta decay from the trap and evaluated the prospects of precision beta decay correlation studies with trapped atoms.

  14. The hyperfine properties of iron-gallium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M., E-mail:; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Al-Azri, Maya [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman); Al-Barwani, M. [NYU Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The hyperfine properties at Fe site in iron-gallium alloy are calculated using the full-potential linear-augmented-plane-waves method. We have calculated the Fermi contact field (B{sub hf}) and isomer shift (δ) at the Fe site versus the number of neighbouring Ga atoms. We found that B{sub hf} decrease whereas δ increases with increasing number of neighbouring G atom. In addition we have calculated the hyperfine properties of FeGa system with DO{sub 3} structure, where various distributions of 4 the Ga atoms in the conventional unit cell are considered (including the regular DO{sub 3} structure). We found that the DO{sub 3} structure has the lowest energy as compared to the other configurations. The two distinct A and D sites of the ordered DO{sub 3} conventional unit cell have two distinct values for B{sub hf} and δ. On changing the atomic arrangement of the Ga atoms within the conventional unit cell, the configuration of the A site is maintained whereas that of the D site becomes imperfect. The contact magnetic hyperfine fields of the D-like sites in the imperfect structures are lower than that of the DO{sub 3}D site.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Hyperfine Transitions of Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbinger, B.; Diermaier, M.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M.C.; Widmann, E.


    One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.

  16. Ground state structure and conductivity of quantum wires of infinite length and finite width (United States)

    Malet, F.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Lipparini, E.


    We have studied the ground state structure of quantum strips within the local spin-density approximation, for a range of electronic densities between ˜5×104 and 2×106cm-1 and several strengths of the lateral confining potential. The results have been used to address the conductance G of quantum strips. At low density, when only one subband is occupied, the system is fully polarized and G takes a value close to 0.7(2e2/h) , decreasing with increasing electron density in agreement with experiments. At higher densities the system becomes paramagnetic and G takes a value near (2e2/h) , showing a similar decreasing behavior with increasing electron density. In both cases, the physical parameter that determines the value of the conductance is the ratio K/K0 of the compressibility of the system to the free one.

  17. Hyperfine Level Interactions of Diamond Nitrogen Vacancy Ensembles Under Transverse Magnetic Fields (United States)


    excited and ground state cross- ings, which have been used for nuclear spin polarization to decrease resonance line width and increase resonance ...into ac- count the zero-field splitting, nuclear and electronic zee- man shifts, stark shifts, hyperfine splitting, and nuclear quadrupole effects: Hgs...describing interactions with local nuclear spins, Pgs is the nuclear electric quadrupole parameter, and Sk is the spin projection onto the k axis with

  18. Hyperfine characterization of {beta}-zirconium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, P.C.; Martinez, J.A.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Lopez Garcia, A.R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Dejneka, M. [Rutgers University, Center for Ceramic Research (United States)


    The evolution of the hyperfine quadrupole interaction in {beta}-ZrF{sub 4} at Zr sites, is measured between 273 and 740 K via the Perturbed Angular Correlations technique. Two different quadrupole interactions, in a ratio 1:2 of relative fractions, are determined. It is observed that the compound remains stable all over the thermal range. Moisture exposure at room temperature seems not to affect the hyperfine interaction suggesting that {beta}-ZrF{sub 4} is less sensitive to air water than other varieties of zirconium fluoride.

  19. Hyperfine interaction of Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 : An electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy study (United States)

    Guillot-Noël, O.; Goldner, Ph.; Du, Y. Le; Baldit, E.; Monnier, P.; Bencheikh, K.


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of rare earth ions in crystals is a powerful tool to analyze the hyperfine structure of the rare earth ground state. This can be useful for coherent spectroscopy and quantum information applications where the hyperfine structure of the electronic levels is used. In this work, we give a detailed analysis of the hyperfine structure of the ground state [I15/24(0)] of Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 . The electronic Zeeman, hyperfine, and quadrupole matrices are obtained from angular variations of the magnetic field in three orthogonal crystal planes. An excellent agreement is obtained between experimental and simulated magnetic field positions and relative intensities of EPR lines.

  20. Population inversion in hyperfine states of Rb with a single nanosecond chirped pulse in the framework of a four-level system (United States)

    Liu, G.; Zakharov, V.; Collins, T.; Gould, P.; Malinovskaya, S. A.


    We implement a four-level semiclassical model of a single pulse interacting with the hyperfine structure in ultracold rubidium aimed at control of population dynamics and quantum state preparation. We discuss a method based on pulse chirping to achieve population inversion between hyperfine states of the 5S shell. The results may prove useful for quantum operations with ultracold atoms.

  1. Structural vs electronic origin of renormalized band widths in TTF-TCNQ: An angular dependent NEXAFS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M; Meyer, J; Hoinkis, M


    in the topmost surface layer. We find that the tilt angles of the molecules with respect to the one-dimensional axis are essentially the same as in the bulk. Thus, we can rule out surface relaxation as the origin of the renormalized band widths which were inferred from the analysis of photoemission data within...

  2. Hyperfine electric parameters calculation in Si samples implanted with {sup 57}Mn→{sup 57}Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Y., E-mail: [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Calle 30 No. 502 e/5ta y 7ma Ave., 11300 Miramar, Playa, La Habana (Cuba); Cruz, C.M.; Piñera, I.; Leyva, A.; Cabal, A.E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Calle 30 No. 502 e/5ta y 7ma Ave., 11300 Miramar, Playa, La Habana (Cuba); Van Espen, P. [Departement Chemie, Universiteit Antwerpen, Middelheimcampus, G.V.130, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Van Remortel, N. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Middelheimcampus, G.U.236, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)


    Nowadays the electronic structure calculations allow the study of complex systems determining the hyperfine parameters measured at a probe atom, including the presence of crystalline defects. The hyperfine electric parameters have been measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy in silicon materials implanted with {sup 57}Mn→{sup 57}Fe ions, observing four main contributions to the spectra. Nevertheless, some ambiguities still remain in the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra interpretation in this case, regarding the damage configurations and its evolution with annealing. In the present work several implantation environments are evaluated and the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters are calculated. The observed correlation among the studied local environments and the experimental observations is presented, and a tentative microscopic description of the behavior and thermal evolution of the characteristic defects local environments of the probe atoms concerning the location of vacancies and interstitial Si in the neighborhood of {sup 57}Fe ions in substitutional and interstitial sites is proposed.

  3. Direct observation of the hyperfine transition of ground-state positronium. (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Miyazaki, A; Suehara, T; Namba, T; Asai, S; Kobayashi, T; Saito, H; Ogawa, I; Idehara, T; Sabchevski, S


    We report the first direct measurement of the hyperfine transition of the ground state positronium. The hyperfine structure between ortho-positronium and para-positronium is about 203 GHz. We develop a new optical system to accumulate about 10 kW power using a gyrotron, a mode converter, and a Fabry-Pérot cavity. The hyperfine transition has been observed with a significance of 5.4 standard deviations. The transition probability is measured to be A = 3.1(-1.2)(+1.6) × 10(-8) s(-1) for the first time, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value of 3.37 × 10(-8) s(-1).

  4. Muons as hyperfine interaction probes in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, Khashayar, E-mail:; MacLean, Amy [Mount Allison University, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry (Canada)


    Spin polarized positive muons injected in matter serve as magnetic probes for the investigation of physical and chemical properties of free radicals, mechanisms of free radical reactions and their formations, and radiation effects. All muon techniques rely on the evolution of spin polarization (of the muon) and in that respect are similar to conventional magnetic resonance techniques. The applications of the muon as a hyperfine probe in several fields in chemistry are described.

  5. Improving the calculation of electron paramagnetic resonance hyperfine coupling tensors for d-block metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Kongsted, Jacob; Sauer, Stephan P. A.


    Calculation of hyperfine coupling constants (HFCs) of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance from first principles can be a beneficial compliment to experimental data in cases where the molecular structure is unknown. We have recently investigated basis set convergence of HFCs in d-block complexes...

  6. Measurement and modeling of hyperfine parameters in ferroic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, João Nuno; Correia, J G

    This thesis presents the results of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments , an experimental technique which measures the hyperfine interaction at probes (radioactive ions implanted in the materials to study), from which one infers local information on an atomic scale. Furthermore, abinitio calculations using density functional theory electronic obtain results that directly complement the experiments, and are also used for theoretical research. These methods were applied in two families of materials. The manganites, with the possible existence of magnetic, charge, orbital and ferroelectric orders, are of fundamental and technological interest. The experimental results are obtained in the alkaline-earth manganites (Ca, Ba, Sr), with special interest due to the structural variety of possible polymorphs. With probes of Cd and In the stability of the probe and its location in a wide temperature range is established and a comparison with calculations allows the physical interpretation of the results. Cal...

  7. Directionally independent energy gap formation due to the hyperfine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel


    We study energy gap formation at the level-crossing point due to the hyperfine interaction. In contrast to the energy gap induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the gap induced by the hyperfine interaction is independent of the direction of the magnetic field. We also study the dynamics

  8. Structural Measurements for Monitoring Change in Glaucoma: Comparing Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness With Minimum Rim Width and Area. (United States)

    Gardiner, Stuart K; Boey, Pui Yi; Yang, Hongli; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F; Demirel, Shaban


    Minimum rim width (MRW) and area (MRA) have been introduced as anatomically defensible measures of neuroretinal rim tissue observable using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). They have been reported to change earlier than retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in glaucoma. This study sought to determine which is better to distinguish subsequent change from variability, using the previously described longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR). Data from 157 eyes of 157 participants with high-risk ocular hypertension or non-end-stage glaucoma (mean deviation [MD] from -22 to +3 dB) were used. Participants were tested approximately every 6 months for at least six visits. For each eye, MRW, MRA, and RNFLT were regressed linearly against time. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio for each eye was defined as the rate of change over time (signal) divided by the standard deviation of residuals from this trend (noise). These were compared between parameters using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. The median LSNRs were -0.58y⁻¹ for RNFLT (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval -0.69 to -0.48y⁻¹); -0.44y⁻¹ (-0.59 to -0.32y⁻¹) for MRW; and -0.23y⁻¹ (-0.32 to -0.08y⁻¹) for MRA. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratios were significantly more negative for RNFLT than for MRW (P = 0.025) or for MRA (P < 0.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by SDOCT had a better LSNR than MRW or MRA. Although MRW and MRA may be more sensitive for early detection of glaucomatous damage, these data suggest that RNFLT may be preferable for monitoring change.

  9. Electrical detection of hyperfine interactions in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Felix


    The main focus of this work was the measurement of hyperfine interactions of defects in silicon using EDMR. We combined the high sensitivity of EDMR when compared to conventional ESR with the two most commonly used methods for the measurement of hyperfine interactions: ESEEM and ENDOR. We first demonstrated the electrical detection of ESEEM by measuring the hyperfine interactions of {sup 31}P donors in Si:P with {sup 29}Si nuclear spins. We then apply EDESEEM to P{sub b0} defects at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. In isotopically engineered, we observe an ESEEM modulation with a characteristic beating caused by {sup 29}Si nuclei at 4th and 5th nearest neighbor lattice sites. Then we combine pulsed ENDOR with the high sensitivity of EDMR (EDENDOR). First we demonstrate the measurement of {sup 31}P nuclear spin hyperfine transitions and the coherent manipulation and readout of the {sup 31}P nuclear spins under continuous illumination with above bandgap light. We further show that the EDENDOR method can be greatly improved by switching off the illumination during the microwave and rf pulses. This improves the signal-to-noise ratio by two orders of magnitude and removes the non-resonant background induced by the strong rf pulse allowing to measure ENDOR with a sensitivity <3000 nuclear spins. We apply EDENDOR to the {sup 31}P-P{sub b0} spin system and the {sup 31}P-SL1 spin system allowing us to compare the hyperfine interactions of bulk and interface-near donors. The pulsed illumination also makes spectroscopy of the {sup 31}P{sup +} nuclear spin possible, which due to its long coherence time of 18 ms compared to 280 {mu}s for the {sup 31}P{sub 0} nuclear spin, might be a candidate for a nuclear spin memory. In the last part, we devise a scheme for the hyperpolarization of {sup 31}P nuclei by combining pulsed optical excitation and pulsed ENDOR and demonstrate a {sup 31}P nuclear spin polarization of more than 50%. Crucial for these experiments was the development of a

  10. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)


    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100 mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (ΔI/I ∼ 11%) than at the low-energy red end (∼4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  11. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.


    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  12. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [University of Delhi South Campus, Department of Biochemistry (India); Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Zakharova, A. P. [Ural Federal University, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)


    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)–O {sub 2} bond.

  13. Hyperfine fields of Fe in Nd2Fe14BandSm2Fe17N3 (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako


    High saturation magnetization of rare-earth magnets originates from Fe and the strong magnetic anisotropy stems from f-states of rare-earth elements such as Nd and Sm. Therefore the hyperfine fields of both Fe and rare-earth provide us with important pieces of information: Fe NMR enable us to detect site dependence of the local magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy (Fe sites also contribute to the magnetic anisotropy) while rare-earth NQR directly give the information of electric field gradients (EFG) that are related to the shape of the f-electron cloud as well as the EFG produced by ligands. In this study we focus on the hyperfine fields of materials used as permanent magnets, Nd2Fe14BandSm2Fe17N3 from theoretical points of view. The detailed electronic structure together with the hyperfine interactions are discussed on the basis of the first-principles calculation. In particular, the relations between the observed hyperfine fields and the magnetic properties are studies in detail. The effects of doping of those materials by other elements such as Dy and the effects of N adding in Sm2Fe17N3 will be discussed. This work was supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  14. Hyperfine field distributions in disordered Mn2CoSn and Mn2NiSn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mössbauer studies using Sn-119 were carried out to investigate the hyperfine fields present at the Sn site in these alloys. The hyperfine field distribution in these alloys as well as X-ray studies point to the chemical disorder present in both alloys. Co-existence of a paramagnetic portion along with the magnetic hyperfine part.

  15. Kinetic models in spin chemistry. 1. The hyperfine interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, M.; Pedersen, J. B.


    Kinetic models for quantum systems are quite popular due to their simplicity, although they are difficult to justify. We show that the transformation from quantum to kinetic description can be done exactly for the hyperfine interaction of one nuclei with arbitrary spin; more spins are described...

  16. Effect of thermal history on Mossbauer signature and hyperfine interaction parameters of copper ferrite (United States)

    Modi, K. B.; Raval, P. Y.; Dulera, S. V.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Trivedi, U. N.; Chandra, Usha


    Two specimens of copper ferrite, CuFe2O4, have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique with different thermal history i.e. slow cooled and quenched. X-ray diffractometry has confirmed single phase fcc spinel structure for slow cooled sample while tetragonal distortion is present in quenched sample. Mossbauer spectral analysis for slow-cooled copper ferrite reveals super position of two Zeeman split sextets along with paramagnetic singlet in the centre position corresponds to delafossite (CuFeO2) phase that is completely absent in quenched sample. The hyperfine interaction parameters are highly influenced by heat treatment employed.

  17. Cryogenic tunable microwave cavity at 13 GHz for hyperfine spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Suzukia, K; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Caspers, Friedhelm; Eades, John; Horib, M; Barna, D; Horváth, D; Juhász, B; Torie, H A; Yamazakif, T


    For the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure of antiprotonic helium, microwave radiation of 12.9 GHz frequency is needed, tunable over . A cylindrical microwave cavity is used whose front and rear faces are meshed to allow the antiprotons and laser beams to enter. The cavity is embedded in a cryogenic helium gas target. Frequency tuning of with Q values of 2700?3000 was achieved using over-coupling and an external triple stub tuner. We also present Monte-Carlo simulations of the stopping distribution of antiprotons in the low-density helium gas using the GEANT4 package with modified energy loss routines.

  18. Cryogenic Tunable Microwave Cavity at 13 GHz for Hyperfine Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, D; Eades, John; Gilg, H; Hayano, R S; Hori, Masaki; Horváth, M; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Juhász, B; Sakaguchi, J; Suzuki, K; Torii, H A; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Yamazaki, T


    For the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure of antiprotonic helium microwave radiation of 12.9 GHz frequency is needed, tunable over ±100 MHz. A cylindrical microwave cavity is used whose front and rear faces are meshed to allow the antiprotons and laser beams to enter. The cavity is embedded in a cryogenic helium gas target. Frequency tuning of 300 MHz with Q values of 2700-3000 was achieved using over-coupling and an external triple stub tuner. We also present Monte-Carlo simulations of the stopping distribution of antiprotons in the low-density helium gas using the GEANT4 package with modified energy loss routines.

  19. Hyperfine splitting in simple ions for the search of the variation of fundamental constants (United States)

    Oreshkina, Natalia S.; Cavaletto, Stefano M.; Michel, Niklas; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H.


    Numerous few-electron atomic systems are considered which can be used effectively for observing a potential variation of the fine-structure constant α and the electron-proton mass ratio me/mp . We examine optical magnetic dipole transitions between hyperfine-structure components in heavy highly charged H-like and Li-like ions with observably high sensitivity to a variation of α and me/mp . The experimental spectra of the proposed systems consist of a strong single line, which simplifies significantly the data analysis and shortens the necessary measurement time. Furthermore, we propose systems for an experimental test of the variation of quark masses and discuss the expected level of accuracy in assessing its limitations. Finally, we establish which constraints on the variation of these fundamental constants could be provided by measurements with a hyperfine-structure highly-charged-ion clock and some reference clock, showing that a significant improvement of the current limitations can be reached.

  20. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (HISKP- Bonn) (Germany). Helmholtz - Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik


    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at {sup 111}Cd sites in SnO{sub 2} doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of {sup 111}In and the chemical process in which {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} solution is added during the preparation of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of {sup 111}In in SnO{sub 2} doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF{sub 2} detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO{sub 2} powder samples using {sup 111}In-{sup 111}Cd probe. (author)

  1. ENDOR investigations of the Ce.sup.3+./sup. ions in YAG: Transferred hyperfine interaction with nearest aluminum ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azamat, Dmitry; Badalyan, A. G.; Feng, D.H.; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Baranov, P. G.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Bayer, M.


    Roč. 122, č. 24 (2017), s. 1-3, č. článku 243903. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser materials * magnetic resonance imaging * electron nuclear double resonance * hyperfine structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  2. Experimental and ab initio study of the hyperfine parameters of ZnFe {sub 2}O{sub 4} with defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, J. Melo; Salcedo Rodríguez, K. L.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Zélis, P. Mendoza; Stewart, S. J., E-mail:; Rodríguez Torres, C. E.; Errico, L. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT- La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67 (Argentina)


    We present a combined Mössbauer and ab initio study on the influence of oxygen-vacancies on the hyperfine and magnetic properties of the ZnFe {sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite. Samples with different degree of oxygen-vacancies were obtained from zinc ferrite powder that was thermally treated at different temperatures up to 650 {sup ∘}C under vacuum.Theoretical calculations of the hyperfine parameters, magnetic moments and magnetic alignment have been carried out considering different defects such as oxygen vacancies and cation inversion. We show how theoretical and experimental approaches are complementary to characterize the local structure around Fe atoms and interpret the observed changes in the hyperfine parameters as the level of defects increases.

  3. Electron spin dynamics due to hyperfine coupling in quantum dots (United States)

    Woods, L. M.; Reinecke, T. L.; Rajagopal, A. K.


    The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum dots often is controlled by their hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins. We develop a straightforward and efficient approach to describe the dynamics and the effective decoherence of the electron spins due to hyperfine coupling in realistic quantum dots. Systems with a large number of nuclei and an arbitrary initial nuclear polarization for which the number of nuclei initially flipped over is much less than the total number of nuclei are treated. This treatment employs a pole approximation within a Schrödinger equation of motion for the state of the coupled electron and nuclear spin system, and it allows us to treat systems with arbitrary initial conditions. We find that typical time scales for the effective spin decoherence are on the order of tens of microseconds.

  4. The first direct measurement of the hyperfine splitting in positronium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehara, T; Ishida, A; Namba, T; Asai, S; Kobayashi, T [Department of Physics and ICEPP, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 33-0033 (Japan); Saitot, H [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Idehara, T; Ogawa, I; Kobayashi, S [FIR Center, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str., 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the QED. The hyperfine splitting of positronium (Ps-HFS) is sensitive to the new physics beyond the Standard Model via a vacuum oscillation. Previous experimental results of the Ps-HFS show 3.5 {sigma} discrepancy from the QED calculation, and it might be caused by uncertainties of the indirect method with static magnetic field and a few GHz RF. We developed a new direct measurement system of the Ps-HFS without static magnetic field, using a sub-THz gyrotron and a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot cavity. Status (hopefully the first result) of the direct positronium hyperfine transition observation will be presented.

  5. Chiral Extrapolation of Lattice Data for Heavy Meson Hyperfine Splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.-H. Guo; P.C. Tandy; A.W. Thomas


    We investigate the chiral extrapolation of the lattice data for the light-heavy meson hyperfine splittings D*-D and B*-B to the physical region for the light quark mass. The chiral loop corrections providing non-analytic behavior in m{sub {pi}} are consistent with chiral perturbation theory for heavy mesons. Since chiral loop corrections tend to decrease the already too low splittings obtained from linear extrapolation, we investigate two models to guide the form of the analytic background behavior: the constituent quark potential model, and the covariant model of QCD based on the ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The extrapolated hyperfine splittings remain clearly below the experimental values even allowing for the model dependence in the description of the analytic background.

  6. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten


    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  7. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)


    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Controlling the Rotational and Hyperfine State of Ultracold $^{87}$Rb$^{133}$Cs Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Philip D; Hutson, Jeremy M; Cornish, Simon L


    We demonstrate coherent control of both the rotational and hyperfine state of ultracold, chemically stable $^{87}$Rb$^{133}$Cs molecules with external microwave ?fields. We create a sample of ~2000 molecules in the lowest hyperfine level of the rovibronic ground state N = 0. We measure the transition frequencies to 8 different hyperfine levels of the N = 1 state at two magnetic fields ~23 G apart. We determine accurate values of rotational and hyperfine coupling constants that agree well with previous calculations. We observe Rabi oscillations on each transition, allowing complete population transfer to a selected hyperfine level of N = 1. Subsequent application of a second microwave pulse allows transfer of molecules back to a different hyperfine level of N = 0.

  9. Computation of hyperfine tensors for dinuclear Mn(III) Mn(IV) complexes by broken-symmetry approaches: anisotropy transfer induced by local zero-field splitting. (United States)

    Schraut, Johannes; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Schinzel, Sandra; Kaupp, Martin


    Based on broken-symmetry density functional calculations, the (55)Mn hyperfine tensors of a series of exchange-coupled, mixed-valence, dinuclear Mn(III) Mn(IV) complexes have been computed. We go beyond previous quantum chemical work by fully including the effects of local zero-field splitting (ZFS) interactions in the spin projection, following the first-order perturbation formalism of Sage et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 7239]. This allows the ZFS-induced transfer of hyperfine anisotropy from the Mn(III) site to the Mn(IV) site to be described with full consideration of the orientations of local hyperfine and ZFS tensors. After scaling to correct for systematic deficiencies in the quantum chemically computed local ZFS tensors, good agreement with experimental (55)Mn anisotropies at the Mn(IV) site is obtained. The hyperfine coupling anisotropies on the Mn(III) site depend sensitively on structural distortions for a d(4) ion. The latter are neither fully reproduced by using a DFT-optimized coordination environment nor by using experimental structures. For very small exchange-coupling constants, the perturbation treatment breaks down and a dramatic sensitivity to the scaling of the local ZFS tensors is observed. These results are discussed with respect to ongoing work to elucidate the structure of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II by analysis of the EPR spectra. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Exchange variation of hyperfine characteristics of tetrameric [Mn 3(III)Mn(IV)] and [Mn 3(IV)Mn(III)] clusters (United States)

    Belinskii, M. I.


    The dependences of the cluster g-factor, the effective hyperfine constants Ai and the hyperfine structure of the EPR signal on the exchange interaction were studied for the [Mn 3(III)Mn(IV)] and [Mn 3(IV)Mn(III)] clusters - possible prototypes of the Mn center of Photosystem II in the S 2 state. The mixing of the states with different S12 intermediate spins in the Heisenberg model HB = -2[ J12s1s2 + Jα( s1s3 + s1s4) + Jβ( s2s3 + s2s4) + J34s3s4] leads to essential exchange modification of the expectation values for each manganese ion. The exchange dependence of the Ki = / coefficients results in the exchange modification and reduction of the cluster g-factor. The / variations control also the values and signs of the effective hyperfine constants Ai. The Ai( Jtm) exchange dependences for the S = 1/2 ground state of the [Mn 3(III)Mn(IV)] and [Mn 3(IV)Mn(III)] clusters with complex structures were obtained in the framework of the general Heisenberg model of tetramer. The calculated hyperfine structures show a strong dependence on the total spin, intermediate spins and on the variation of the Heisenberg exchange parameters.

  11. Calculated hyperfine coupling constants for 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide radical products in water and benzene (United States)

    Nardali, Ş.; Ucun, F.; Karakaya, M.


    The optimized structures of some radical adducts of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide were computed by different methods on ESR spectra. As trapped radicals, H, N3, NH2, CH3, CCl3, OOH in water and F, OH, CF3, CH2OH, OC2H5 in benzene solutions were used. The calculated isotropic hyperfine coupling constants of all the trapped radicals were compared with the corresponding experimental data. The hyperfine coupling constant due to the β proton of the nitroxide radical was seen to be consist with the McConnel's relation αβ = B 0 + B 1cos2θ and, to be effected with the opposite spin density of oxygen nucleus bonded to the nitrogen. It was concluded that in hyperfine calculations the DFT(B3PW91)/LanL2DZ level is superior computational quantum model relative to the used other level. Also, the study has been enriched by the computational of the optimized geometrical parameters, the hyper conjugative interaction energies, the atomic charges and spin densities for all the radical adducts.

  12. Structural, microstructural and hyperfine properties of nanocrystalline iron particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guittoum, A., E-mail: guittoum@yahoo.f [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Alger (Algeria); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Tafat, H. [Faculte de Mecanique et Genie des Procedes, USTHB de Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Alger (Algeria)


    Nanocrystalline Fe particles were successfully prepared by the mechanical milling process using a high-energy planetary ball mill. The physical properties of the samples were investigated as a function of the milling time, t (in the 0-54 h range) by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. After 54 h of milling, the lattice parameter increases from 0.28620 (3) nm for the starting Fe powder to 0.28667 (3) nm, the grain size decreases from 110 to 13 nm, while the strain increases from 0.09% to 0.7%. The powder particle morphology was observed by SEM at different stages of milling. For t less than 24 h, the Moessbauer spectra are characterized by one sextet corresponding to the crystalline bcc Fe phase, while for t greater than 24 h, the iron particles exhibit a two-component Moessbauer spectrum due to the presence of two phases: the crystallites bcc Fe phase and the grain-boundary region. The appearance and the increase in intensity of the second sextet with t may indicate that the interfacial region effect increases with milling time due to the grain size reduction and a probable disordered state of the grain boundaries.

  13. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED. (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried


    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  14. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C.; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried


    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209Bi82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209Bi82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  15. Hyperfine interactions at europium sites in oxide glasses (United States)

    Concas, G.; Congiu, F.; Muntoni, C.; Bettinelli, M.; Speghini, A.


    The shape of the γ resonance absorption peak of the Eu3+ ion in a disordered structure was investigated in some phosphate, borate, and silicate glasses by using 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy. The quality of the fits was tested by using the Durbin-Watson d statistics. The observed full width at half maximum of the peak was resolved in a contribution of the broadening and a contribution of the quadrupole splitting, due to the distortion of the Eu site compared to a cubic symmetry. The Eu-O bond was found to have a covalent admixture with 6s character. The axial component of the electric-field gradient at the Eu site was found to be correlated with the optical basicity of the glass.

  16. A study of platinum-supported catalysts through hyperfine interactions (United States)

    Saitovitch, H.; Silva, P. R. J.; Rodriguez, A. M.; Weberszpil, J.; Passos, F. B.; Schmal, M.


    The effect of indium addition on alumina-supported platinum catalysts was investigated by measurements of hyperfine interactions. Via lime differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (TDPAC) on111Cd, Pt/Al2O3 catalysts were studied in the flow of a heptane/H2 gas stream. The results indicate that some amount of indium sticks to platinum which is then dispersed on the support surface. The amount of In that is free from platinum is mobile under reaction conditions, being capable of diluting platinum particles and draining off coke precursors from the platinum surface.

  17. A study of platinum-supported catalysts through hyperfine interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitovitch, H. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Silva, P.R.J. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Rodriguez, A.M. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Weberszpil, J. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Passos, F.B. (Dept. Eng. Quimica, Univ. Fed. Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)); Schmal, M. (COPPE/EQ, Univ. Fed. Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil))


    The effect of indium addition on alumina-supported platinum catalysts was investigated by measurements of hyperfine interactions. Via time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (TDPAC) on [sup 111]Cd, Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts were studied in the flow of a heptane/H[sub 2] gas stream. The results indicate that some amount of indium sticks to platinum which is then dispersed on the support surface. The amount of In that is free from platinum is mobile under reaction conditions, being capable of diluting platinum particles and draining off coke precursors from the platinum surface. (orig.)

  18. Hyperfine interaction and tuning of magnetic anisotropy of Cu doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam, E-mail: [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Salah, Dina [Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Khalifa El-Maamon, Street, 11566 Cairo (Egypt); Kumar, Gagan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mahavir [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171005 (India); Abd El-sadek, M. [Nanomaterials Lab, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Mir, Feroz Ahmad [University Science Instrumentation Centre, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006 (India); Imran, Ahamad [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box-2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Jameel, Daler Adil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Center, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    Ferrimagnetic oxides may contain single or multi domain particles which get converted into superparamagnetic state near a critical size. To explore the existence of these particles, we have made Mössbauer and magnetic studies of Cu{sup 2+} substitution effect in CoFe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} Ferrites (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5). All the samples have a cubic spinel structure with lattice parameters increasing linearly with increase in Cu content. The hysteresis loops yield a saturation magnetization, coercive field, and remanent magnetization that vary significantly with Cu content. The magnetic hysteresis curves shows a reduction in saturation magnetization and an increase in coercitivity with Cu{sup 2+} ion substitution. The anisotropy constant, K{sub 1,} is found strongly dependent on the composition of Cu{sup 2+} ions. The variation of saturation magnetization with increasing Cu{sup 2+} ion content has been explained in the light of Neel's molecular field theory. Mössbauer spectra at room temperature shows two ferrimagnetically relaxed Zeeman sextets. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, line width and hyperfine magnetic field on Cu{sup 2+} ion concentration have been discussed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of the nanoparticles of Cu doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles. • The samples were characterized for the structural, morphological and magnetic studies using XRD, TEM, VSM and Mossbauer spectroscopy. • It has been found that the all the magnetic and Mossbauer parameters are diluted with the addition of Cu content in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix. • The Mossbauer and magnetic properties were studied in the light of size of nanoparticles and also with respect to the doping composition.

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková


    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  20. A deterministic width function model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Puente


    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  1. Study of structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Cr doped Ni–Mg ferrite nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Information Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Roy, Aashis S. [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka (India); Parveen, Ameena [Department of Physics, Govt. First Grade College, Gurmitkal Yadgir 585 214, Karnataka (India); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Shalendra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jotania, R.B. [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 171 005, HP (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India)


    Highlights: • Our studies reveal that the all samples (x = 0.0–1.0) have mixed spinel structure. • The lattice constant and H{sub hf} decrease with increasing Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Cr{sup 3+} ions occupy at B-site confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Line width of both the sextets increase with increasing Cr{sup 3+} ions. • The ac resistivity decreases with increasing the frequency. - Abstract: We have reported the effect of Cr{sup 3+} ion doping on the structural, ac transport and Mössbauer spectral studies of ferrite nanoparticles Ni{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) prepared by sol–gel auto combustion technique. The micro-structural studies of the samples were obtained by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dependence of Mössbauer parameters, viz., line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field on Cr{sup 3+} substitution have been analysed. Hyperfine magnetic field and isomer shift values decreases whereas line width increases with Cr{sup 3+} substitution. Rietveld refinement and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal that the Ni{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4} with various concentrations of x belongs to mixed spinel structure. Nèel’s molecular field model is used to explain the variation of hyperfine magnetic field with increasing Cr{sup 3+} substitution.

  2. Spectra of charmed and bottom baryons with hyperfine interaction (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yang; Qi, Jing-Juan; Guo, Xin-Heng; Wei, Ke-Wei


    Up to now, the excited charmed and bottom baryon states have still not been well studied experimentally or theoretically. In this paper, we predict the mass of , the only L = 0 baryon state which has not been observed, to be 6069.2 MeV. The spectra of charmed and bottom baryons with the orbital angular momentum L = 1 are studied in two popular constituent quark models, the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) model and the one gluon exchange (OGE) hyperfine interaction model. Inserting the latest experimental data from the “Review of Particle Physics", we find that in the GBE model, there exist some multiplets (Σc(b), and Ωc(b)) in which the total spin of the three quarks in their lowest energy states is 3/2, but in the OGE model there is no such phenomenon. This is the most important difference between the GBE and OGE models. These results can be tested in the near future. We suggest more efforts to study the excited charmed and bottom baryons both theoretically and experimentally, not only for the abundance of baryon spectra, but also for determining which hyperfine interaction model best describes nature. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175020, 11575023, U1204115)

  3. Hyperfine anomalies in Fr: boundaries of the spherical single particle model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Aubin, S; Behr, J A; Gomez, E; Gwinner, G; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R; Sprouse, G D


    We have measured the hyperfine splitting of the $7P_{1/2}$ state at the 100 ppm level in Fr isotopes ($^{206g,206m, 207, 209, 213, 221}$Fr) near the closed neutron shell ($N$ = 126 in $^{213}$Fr). The measurements in five isotopes and a nuclear isomeric state of francium, combined with previous determinations of the $7S_{1/2}$ splittings, reveal the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization, i.e. the Bohr-Weisskopf effect. We compare our results with a simple shell model consisting of unpaired single valence nucleons orbiting a spherical nucleus, and find good agreement over a range of neutron-deficient isotopes ($^{207-213}$Fr). Also, we find near-constant proton anomalies for several even-$ N$ isotopes. This identifies a set of Fr isotopes whose nuclear structure can be understood well enough for the extraction of weak interaction parameters from parity non-conservation studies.

  4. Hyperfine Anomalies in Fr: Boundaries of the Spherical Single Particle Model (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Tandecki, M.; Collister, R.; Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sprouse, G. D.; FrPNC Collaboration


    We have measured the hyperfine splitting of the 7 P1 /2 state at the 100 ppm level in Fr isotopes (206g,206m,207,209,213,221Fr) near the closed neutron shell (N =126 in 213Fr). The measurements in five isotopes and a nuclear isomeric state of francium, combined with previous determinations of the 7 S1 /2 splittings, reveal the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization, i.e., the Bohr-Weisskopf effect. We compare our results with a simple shell model consisting of unpaired single valence nucleons orbiting a spherical nucleus, and find good agreement over a range of neutron-deficient isotopes (207-213Fr). Also, we find near-constant proton anomalies for several even-N isotopes. This identifies a set of Fr isotopes whose nuclear structure can be understood well enough for the extraction of weak interaction parameters from parity nonconservation studies.

  5. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to Hyperfine Splitting in p3/2 States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T


    A recent calculation of the one-loop radiative correction to hyperfine splitting (hfs) of p{sub 1/2} states that includes binding corrections to all orders is extended to p{sub 3/2} states. Nuclear structure plays an essentially negligible role for such states, which is highly advantageous, as difficulties in controlling the Bohr-Weisskopf effect complicate the isolation of QED contributions for both s{sub 1/2} and p{sub 1/2} states. Three cases are studied. We first treat the hydrogen isoelectronic sequence, which is completely nonperturbative in Z{alpha} for high Z. Secondly the lowest lying p{sub 3/2} states of the neutral alkalis are treated, and finally lithium-like bismuth, where extensive theoretical and experimental studies of the hfs of 2s and 2p{sub 1/2} states have been made, is addressed.

  6. Fine and hyperfine excitation of C2H by collisions with He at low temperature (United States)

    Spielfiedel, A.; Feautrier, N.; Najar, F.; Ben Abdallah, D.; Dayou, F.; Senent, M. L.; Lique, F.


    Modelling of molecular emission from interstellar clouds requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation by collisions with the most abundant species. From a new, highly correlated, two-dimensional potential energy surface, rotational excitation of the C2H(X2Σ+) molecule by collision with He is investigated. State-to-state collisional excitation cross-sections between the 25 first fine structure levels of C2H are calculated for energies up to 800 cm-1 which yields after thermal averaging rate coefficients up to T= 100 K. The exact spin splitting of the energy levels is taken into account. The recoupling technique introduced by Alexander & Dagdigian allows us to deduce the corresponding temperature-dependent hyperfine state-to-state rate coefficients. Propensity rules are discussed.

  7. Mössbauer studies of hyperfine fields in disordered Fe CrAl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paramagnetic part of the hyperfine field is explained in terms of the clustering of Cr atoms. Keywords. Mössbauer spectroscopy; disordered alloy; magnetic hyperfine fields. PACS Nos 75.50.Bb; 61.18.Fs. 1. Introduction. Heusler alloys are ternary alloys of stoichiometric composition bearing the general for- mula X2YZ.

  8. Detection of the Direct Hyperfine Transition of Positronium Atoms using sub-THz High-power Radiation


    Suehara, T.; Miyazaki, A.; Yamazaki, T; G. Akimoto; Ishida, A; NAMBA, T; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T; Saito, H.(Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan); Yoshida, M.; IDEHARA, T; Ogawa, I.; Urushizaki, Y.; SABCHEVSKI, S


    Hyperfine splitting of positronium is an important parameter for particle physics. This paper gives experimental techniques and results of R&D studies of our experiment to observe direct hyperfine transition of ortho-positronium to para-positronium.

  9. Resolution of hyperfine transitions in metastable 83Kr using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Tiwari, V B; Singh, S; Rawat, H S


    Narrow linewidth signals of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in the metastable 83Kr have been observed for the first time. Various hyperfine transitions in 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds of 83Kr have been identified through the experimentally observed EIT signals. Some unresolved or poorly resolved hyperfine transitions in saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) are clearly resolved in the present work. Using the spectral separation of these EIT identified hyperfine transitions, the magnetic hyperfine constant (A) and the electric quadrupole hyperfine constant (B) are determined with improved accuracy for 4p55s[3/2]2 and 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds.

  10. Fine and hyperfine collisional excitation of C6H by He (United States)

    Walker, Kyle M.; Lique, François; Dawes, Richard


    Hydrogenated carbon chains have been detected in interstellar and circumstellar media and accurate modelling of their abundances requires collisional excitation rate coefficients with the most abundant species. Among them, the C6H molecule is one of the most abundant towards many lines of sight. Hence, we determined fine and hyperfine-resolved rate coefficients for the excitation of C6H(X2Π) due to collisions with He. We present the first interaction potential energy surface for the C6H-He system, obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations and characterized by a large anisotropy due to the length of the molecule. We performed dynamical calculations for transitions among the first fine structure levels (up to J = 30.5) of both spin-orbit manifolds of C6H using the close-coupling method, and rate coefficients are determined for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The largest rate coefficients for even ΔJ transitions conserve parity, while parity-breaking rate coefficients are favoured for odd ΔJ. Spin-orbit changing rate coefficients are several orders of magnitude lower than transitions within a single manifold. State-to-state hyperfine-resolved cross-sections for the first levels (up to J = 13.5) in the Ω = 3/2 spin-orbit manifold are deduced using recoupling techniques. Rate coefficients are obtained and the propensity rule ΔJ = ΔF is seen. These new data will help determine the abundance of C6H in astrophysical environments such as cold dense molecular clouds, star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes, and will help in the interpretation of the puzzling C6H-/C6H abundance ratios deduced from observations.

  11. A source of antihydrogen for in-flight hyperfine spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, N; Murtagh, D J; Van Gorp, S; Nagata, Y; Diermaier, M; Federmann, S; Leali, M; Malbrunot, C; Mascagna, V; Massiczek, O; Michishio, K; Mizutani, T; Mohri, A; Nagahama, H; Ohtsuka, M; Radics, B; Sakurai, S; Sauerzopf, C; Suzuki, K; Tajima, M; Torii, H A; Venturelli, L; Wünschek, B; Zmeskal, J; Zurlo, N; Higaki, H; Kanai, Y; Lodi Rizzini, E; Nagashima, Y; Matsuda, Y; Widmann, E; Yamazaki, Y


    Antihydrogen, a positron bound to an antiproton, is the simplest antiatom. Its counterpart—hydrogen—is one of the most precisely investigated and best understood systems in physics research. High-resolution comparisons of both systems provide sensitive tests of CPT symmetry, which is the most fundamental symmetry in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Any measured difference would point to CPT violation and thus to new physics. Here we report the development of an antihydrogen source using a cusp trap for in-flight spectroscopy. A total of 80 antihydrogen atoms are unambiguously detected 2.7 m downstream of the production region, where perturbing residual magnetic fields are small. This is a major step towards precision spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using Rabi-like beam spectroscopy.

  12. Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune

    The main object of the research work presented in this paper is to establish design tools for concrete structures where main reinforcement is combined with addition of short discrete steel fibers. The work is concerned with calculating and measuring crack widths in structural elements subjected...... to bending load. Thus, the aim of the work is to enable engineers to calculate crack widths for flexural concrete members and analyze how different combinations of amounts of fibers and amounts of main reinforcement can meet a given maximum crack width requirement. A mathematical model including...... the ductility of the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is set up and experimental work is conducted in order to verify the crack width model. The ductility of the FRC is taken into account by using the stress crack width relation. The constitutive model for the FRC is based on the idea that the initial part...

  13. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  14. Role of zero-point vibrational corrections to carbon hyperfine coupling constants in organic π radicals. (United States)

    Chen, X; Rinkevicius, Z; Ruud, K; Ågren, H


    By analyzing a set of organic π radicals, we demonstrate that zero-point vibrational corrections give significant contributions to carbon hyperfine coupling constants, in one case even inducing a sign reversal for the coupling constant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the computational analysis of electron paramagnetic spectra based on hyperfine coupling constants evaluated at the equilibrium geometry of radicals. In particular, we note that a dynamical description that involves the nuclear motion is in many cases necessary in order to achieve a semi-quantitatively predictive theory for carbon hyperfine coupling constants. In addition, we discuss the implications of the strong dependence of the carbon hyperfine coupling constants on the zero-point vibrational corrections for the selection of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory studies of these constants.

  15. Study of the evolution of the hyperfine parameters in nanostructured Fe-Mn-Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, M., E-mail:; Cabrera, A. F.; Desimoni, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas UNLP, Departamento de Fisica (Argentina)


    Hyperfine parameters evolution with the Cu content obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy from mechanical milled (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} (x = 0.00 to 0.30) are presented. Results indicate that the Cu addition favors the formation of a FCC phase with two different magnetic states at room temperature. The trend of the hyperfine parameters with Cu composition suggests the incorporation of the Cu atoms at the regular FCC lattice sites.

  16. Exchange variation of hyperfine characteristics of tetrameric (Mn3(III)Mn(IV) and (Mn3(IV)Mn(III)) clusters (United States)

    Belinskii, M. I.


    The dependences of the cluster g-factor, the effective hyperfine constants A(sub i) and the hyperfine structure of the EPR signal on the exchange interaction were studied for the (Mn3(III)Mn(IV) and (Mn3(IV)Mn(III)) clusters - possible prototypes of the Mn center of Photosystem II in the S2 state. The mixing of the states with different S12 intermediate spins in the Heisenberg model H(sub B) = -2(J12 s1 s2 J-alpha(s1 s3 + s1 s4) + J-beta(s2 s3 + s2 s4) + J34 s3 s4) leads to essential exchange modification of the expectation values the average value of s(sub iz) for each manganese ion. The exchange dependence of the K(sub i) = the average value of s(sub iz)/the average value of S(sub Z) coefficients results in the exchange modification and reduction of the cluster g-factor. The average value of s(sub iz)/the average value of S(sub Z) variations control also the values and signs of the effective hyperfine constants A(sub i). The A(sub i)J(sub lm) exchange dependences for the S = 1/2 ground state of the (Mn2(III)Mn(IV) and (Mn3(IV)Mn(III)) clusters with complex structures were obtained in the framework of the general Heisenberg model of tetramer. The calculated hyperfine structures show a strong dependence on the total spin, intermediate spins and on the variation of the Heisenberg exchange parameters.

  17. Hyperfine coupling constants from internally contracted multireference perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozaki, Toru


    We present an accurate method for calculating hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) based on the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The HFCCs are computed as a first-order property using the relaxed CASPT2 spin-density matrix that takes into account orbital and configurational relaxation due to dynamical electron correlation. The first-order unrelaxed spin-density matrix is calculated from one- and two-body spin-free counterparts that are readily available in the CASPT2 nuclear gradient program [M. K. MacLeod and T. Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 051103 (2015)], whereas the second-order part is computed directly using the newly extended automatic code generator. The relaxation contribution is then calculated from the so-called Z-vectors that are available in the CASPT2 nuclear gradient program. Numerical results are presented for the CN and AlO radicals, for which the CASPT2 values are comparable (or, even superior in some cases) to the ones computed ...

  18. Hyperfine interactions of Er3 + ions in Y2SiO5 : Electron paramagnetic resonance in a tunable microwave cavity (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, Xavier; Horvath, Sebastian P.; Rakonjac, Jelena V.; Longdell, Jevon J.


    The hyperfine structure of the ground state of erbium-doped yttrium orthosilicate is analyzed with the use of electron paramagnetic resonance experiments in a tunable microwave resonator. This work was prompted by the disagreement between a recent measurement made at zero magnetic field and a previously published spin Hamiltonian. The ability to vary magnetic field strength, resonator frequency, and the orientation of our sample enabled us to monitor how the frequencies of hyperfine transitions change as a function of a vector magnetic field. We arrived at a different set of spin Hamiltonian parameters, which are also broadly consistent with the existing data. We discuss the reliability of our spin Hamiltonian parameters to make predictions outside the magnetic field and frequency regimes of our data. We also discuss why it proved to be difficult to determine spin Hamiltonian parameters for this material and present data collection strategies that improve the model reliability.

  19. Hyperfine field, electric field gradient, quadrupole coupling constant and magnetic properties of challenging actinide digallide (United States)

    Khan, Sajid; Yazdani-Kachoei, M.; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar


    In this paper, we explore the structural and magnetic properties as well as electric field gradient (EFG), hyperfine field (HFF) and quadrupole coupling constant in actinide digallide AcGa2 (Ac = U, Np, Pu) using LDA, GGA, LDA+U, GGA+U and hybrid functional with Wu-Cohen Generalized Gradient approximation HF-WC. Relativistic effects of the electrons are considered by including spin-orbit coupling. The comparison of the calculated structural parameters and magnetic properties with the available experimental results confirms the consistency and hence effectiveness of our theoretical tools. The calculated magnetic moments demonstrate that UGa2 and NpGa2 are ferromagnetic while PuGa2 is antiferromagnetic in nature. The EFG of AcGa2 is reported for the first time. The HFF, EFG and quadrupole coupling constant in AcGa2 (Ac = U, Np, Pu) are mainly originated from f-f and p-p contributions of Ac atom and p-p contribution of Ga atom.

  20. Transition from spin-orbit to hyperfine interaction dominated spin relaxation in a cold fluid of dipolar excitons (United States)

    Finkelstein, Ran; Cohen, Kobi; Jouault, Benoit; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Vladimirova, Masha; Rapaport, Ronen


    We measure the spin-resolved transport of dipolar excitons in a biased GaAs double quantum well structure. From these measurements we extract both spin lifetime and mobility of the excitons. We find that below a temperature of 4.8 K there is a sharp increase in the spin lifetime of the excitons, together with a sharp reduction in their mobility. Below a critical power the spin lifetime increases with increasing mobility and density, while above the critical power the opposite trend is observed. We interpret this transition as evidence of the interplay between two different spin dephasing mechanisms: at low mobility the dephasing is dominated by the hyperfine interaction with the lattice nuclei spins, while at higher mobility the spin-orbit interaction dominates and a Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation takes over. The excitation power and temperature regime where the hyperfine interaction induced spin dephasing is observed correlates with the regime where a dark dipolar quantum liquid was reported recently on a similar sample.

  1. Hyperfine and Zeeman measurements in the infrared spectrum of doubly charged molecule D sup 3 sup 5 C1 sup 2 sup +

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, S G


    An experimental investigation of the X sup 3 SIGMA sup - ground electronic state of the doubly charged molecule D sup 3 sup 5 Cl sup 2 sup + was performed using the Fast-lon-Beam/Laser-Beam-Spectrometer (FIBLBS), with a CO sub 2 infrared laser acting as the source of exciting radiation. Hyperfine resolved transitions between the nu=1->2 vibrational bands were observed for D sup 3 sup 5 Cl sup 2 sup +. The observed spectrum was analysed for transition frequencies, linewidths and relative signal intensities. A solenoid was designed, built and incorporated into the FIBLBS for the inducement of Zeeman splitting in the hyperfine structure of D sup 3 sup 5 Cl sup 2 sup +. The solenoid was used to investigate the splitting of a P branch hyperfine quartet over a variety of magnetic fields and was subsequently assigned unambiguously as a P sub Q sub sub 2 sub sub 3 (6) transition, with F quantum numbers 7/2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2

  2. Evolution of the quadrupole hyperfine interaction while milling a Si-HfO{sub 2} blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C.Y., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Ferrari, S.; Damonte, L.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Martinez, J.A.; Pasquevich, A.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA) (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed angular correlations and X-ray diffraction studies in equimolar Si-HfO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixture subjected to progressive mechanical milling and a final annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short milling distorts monoclinic hafnia to tetragonal forms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long milling forms hafnon precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate temperature annealing ends in hafnon. - Abstract: As HfO{sub 2} appears as a good candidate to replace SiO{sub 2} in Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices, a refined knowledge of the possible solid-state reactions between Si and HfO{sub 2} is valuable. Being the Perturbed Angular Correlations technique a very sensitive method to detect small changes in solid state, the goal of this work is to follow the different stages that occur while ball milling a blend Si-HfO{sub 2} by inspecting the hyperfine quadrupole interaction at Hf sites. The characterization is complemented by X-ray diffraction analysis. For comparison, a similar study on pure m-HfO{sub 2} is carried out. The results seem to reveal a gradual incorporation of Si in a tetragonal defective phase of hafnia with milling time. In addition, the formation of precursor arrays of the HfSiO{sub 4} structure takes place. After an annealing at 1000 Degree-Sign C an important amount of crystalline hafnon appears.

  3. In-beam measurement of the hydrogen hyperfine splitting and prospects for antihydrogen spectroscopy (United States)

    Diermaier, M.; Jepsen, C. B.; Kolbinger, B.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Zmeskal, J.; Widmann, E.


    Antihydrogen, the lightest atom consisting purely of antimatter, is an ideal laboratory to study the CPT symmetry by comparison with hydrogen. With respect to absolute precision, transitions within the ground-state hyperfine structure (GS-HFS) are most appealing by virtue of their small energy separation. ASACUSA proposed employing a beam of cold antihydrogen atoms in a Rabi-type experiment, to determine the GS-HFS in a field-free region. Here we present a measurement of the zero-field hydrogen GS-HFS using the spectroscopy apparatus of ASACUSA's antihydrogen experiment. The measured value of νHF=1,420,405,748.4(3.4) (1.6) Hz with a relative precision of 2.7 × 10-9 constitutes the most precise determination of this quantity in a beam and verifies the developed spectroscopy methods for the antihydrogen HFS experiment to the p.p.b. level. Together with the recently presented observation of antihydrogen atoms 2.7 m downstream of the production region, the prerequisites for a measurement with antihydrogen are now available within the ASACUSA collaboration.

  4. Helium Pressure Shift of the Hyperfine Clock Transition in Hg-201(+) (United States)

    Larigani, S. Taghavi; Burt, E. A.; Tjoelker, R. L.


    There are two stable odd isotopes of mercury with singly ionized hyperfine structure suitable for a microwave atomic clock: Hg-199(+) and Hg-201(+). We are investigating the viability of a trapped ion clock based on Hg-201(+) in a configuration that uses a buffer gas to increase ion loading efficiency and counter ion heating from rf trapping fields. Traditionally, either helium or neon is used as the buffer gas at approx. 10(exp -5) torr to confine mercury ions near room temperature. In addition to the buffer gas, other residual background gasses such as H2O, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and CH2 may be present in trace quantities. Collisions between trapped ions and buffer gas or background gas atoms/molecules produce a momentary shift of the ion clock transition frequency and constitute one of the largest systematic effects in this type of clock. Here we report an initial measurement of the He pressure shift in Hg-201(+) and compare this to Hg-199(+).

  5. Towards the measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Bertalan, E-mail: [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics (Austria)


    The ASACUSA collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic beam line, which will consist of a superconducting cusp trap as a source of partially polarized antihydrogen atoms, a radiofrequency spin-flip cavity, a superconducting sextupole magnet as spin analyser, and an antihydrogen detector. This will be a measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment, and also a test of the CPT invariance. Monte Carlo simulations predict that the antihydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting can be determined with a relative precision of better than {approx} 10{sup - 6}. The first preliminary measurements of the hyperfine transitions will start in 2011.

  6. Hyperfine frequency shift of atomic hydrogen in the presence of helium buffer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochemsen, R.; Berlinsky, A.J. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Physics)


    A quantum mechanical thermal average is performed to obtain the temperature dependence of the hyperfine frequency shift (HFS) of hydrogen atoms in the presence of He buffer gas. The calculations are based on existing ab initio calculations of the hyperfine frequency shift as a function of internuclear separation and of the interatomic potential. We find that the HFS changes sign at fairly low temperature and has a small negative value at T = 1 K in agreement with recent measurements. The overall temperature dependence is shown to be quite sensitive to the interatomic potential.

  7. Hyperfine fields and field gradients of thin films of face-centred-cubic Fe on Cu(001)

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, J A


    The discrete variational method in density functional theory was employed to perform first-principles electronic structure calculations for embedded clusters representing thin films of face-centred-cubic Fe on a Cu(001) substrate. 3, 4 and 5 ML of Fe were investigated; the ferromagnetic and several types of antiferromagnetic spin configurations were considered. Layer-by-layer calculations of the contact and dipolar components of the magnetic hyperfine field are reported, as well as electric-field gradients at the surface and interface layers. Significant field gradients were found at the surfaces. Clusters modelling the interdiffusion of Fe and Cu between two layers at the interface were also investigated, to determine the effects on the properties.

  8. Hyperfine-induced valley mixing and the spin-valley blockade in carbon-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyi, Andras; Burkard, Guido [Department of Physics, University Konstanz (Germany)


    Hyperfine interaction (HFI) in carbon nanotube and graphene quantum dots is due to the presence of {sup 13}C atoms. We theoretically show that in these structures the short-range nature of the HFI gives rise to a coupling between the valley degree of freedom of the electron and the nuclear spin, in addition to the usual electron spin-nuclear spin coupling. We predict that this property of the HFI affects the Pauli blockade transport in carbon-based double quantum dots. In particular, we show that transport is blocked only if both the spin and the valley degeneracies of the quantum dot levels are lifted, e.g., by an appropriately oriented magnetic field. The blockade is caused by four ''supertriplet'' states in the (1,1) charge configuration.

  9. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements; Etude du couplage hyperfin dans les alliages gadolinium-praseodyme par mesures de chaleur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le couplage hyperfin d'alliages de gadolinium-praseodyme par des mesures de chaleur specifique jusqu'a 0.3 K. Dans la premiere partie de cette etude nous decrivons le dispositif experimental. La deuxieme partie est consacree a des considerations theoriques. Nous avons etudie en detail le cas du praseodyme qui est une exception dans la serie des terres rares. La troisieme partie est consacree aux resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  10. Resonance width distribution for open quantum systems


    Shchedrin, Gavriil; Zelevinsky, Vladimir


    Recent measurements of resonance widths for low-energy neutron scattering off heavy nuclei show large deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. We propose a new resonance width distribution based on the random matrix theory for an open quantum system. Two methods of derivation lead to a single analytical expression; in the limit of vanishing continuum coupling, we recover the Porter-Thomas distribution. The result depends on the ratio of typical widths $\\Gamma$ to the energy le...

  11. Towards Measuring the Ground State Hyperfine Splitting of Antihydrogen -- A Progress Report

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerzopf, C.


    We report the successful commissioning and testing of a dedicated field-ioniser chamber for measuring principal quantum number distributions in antihydrogen as part of the ASACUSA hyperfine spectroscopy apparatus. The new chamber is combined with a beam normalisation detector that consists of plastic scintillators and a retractable passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector.

  12. ENDOR study of nitrogen hyperfine and quadrupole tensors in vanadyl porphyrins of heavy crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracheva I.N., Gafurov M.R., Mamin G.V., Biktagirov T.B., Rodionov A.A., Galukhin A.V., Orlinskii S.B.


    Full Text Available We report the observation of pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR spectrum caused by interactions of the nitrogen nuclei 14N with the unpaired electron of the paramagnetic vanadyl complexes VO2+ of vanadyl porphyrins in natural crude oil. We provide detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of the nitrogen hyperfine and quadrupole tensors.

  13. Hyperfine contributions to spin-exchange frequency shifts in the hydrogen maser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, B.J.; Koelman, J.M.V.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Luiten, O.J.; Crampton, S.B.


    We have rigorously included hyperfine interactions during electron-spin-exchange collisions between ground state hydrogen atoms. We predict additional frequency shifts which are not compensated for by the usual methods of tuning maser cavities. These shifts are large compared to the potential

  14. Towards measuring the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen – a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerzopf, C., E-mail:; Capon, A. A.; Diermaier, M. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Dupré, P. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Higashi, Y. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Kaga, C. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Kolbinger, B. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Leali, M. [Università di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’ Informazione (Italy); Lehner, S. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Rizzini, E. Lodi [Università di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’ Informazione (Italy); Malbrunot, C. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Mascagna, V. [Università di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’ Informazione (Italy); Massiczek, O. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y.; Radics, B. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Simon, M. C.; Suzuki, K. [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Tajima, M. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Ulmer, S. [Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, RIKEN (Japan); and others


    We report the successful commissioning and testing of a dedicated field-ioniser chamber for measuring principal quantum number distributions in antihydrogen as part of the ASACUSA hyperfine spectroscopy apparatus. The new chamber is combined with a beam normalisation detector that consists of plastic scintillators and a retractable passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector.

  15. Relativistic DFT calculations of hyperfine coupling constants in the 5d hexafluorido complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Pi Ariane Bresling; Repisky, Michal; Komorovsky, Stanislav


    ions. We find that both methods lead to very similar deviations from the experimental values for the [ReF6]2- complex, i.e. ~20% for the coupling constant using hybrid functionals. None of the methods is, however, able to reproduce the large anisotropy of the [ReF6]2- hyperfine tensor. For [IrF6...

  16. Hyperfine Quenching of the 2s2p 3P0 State of Berylliumlike Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K T; Chen, M H; Johnson, W R


    The hyperfine-induced 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}-2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} transition rate for Be-like {sup 47}Ti{sup 18+} was recently measured in a storage-ring experiment by Schippers et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 033001 (2007)]. The measured value of 0.56(3) s{sup -1} is almost 60% larger than the theoretical value of 0.356 s{sup -1} from a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation by Marques et al. [Phys. Rev. A 47, 929 (1993)]. In this work, we use a large-scale relativistic configuration-interaction method to calculate these hyperfine-induced rates for ions with Z = 6-92. Coherent hyperfine-quenching effects between the 2s2p {sup 1,3}P{sub 1} states are included in a perturbative as well as a radiation damping approach. Contrary to the claims of Marques et al., contributions from the {sup 1}P{sub 1} state are substantial and lead to a hyperfine-induced rate of 0.67 s{sup -1}, in better agreement with, though larger than, the measured value.

  17. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine interactions in human liver ferritin and its iron-polymaltose analogues: the heterogeneous iron core model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Alenkina, I. V.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)


    Human liver ferritin and its iron-polymaltose pharmaceutical analogues Ferrum Lek, Maltofer® and Ferrifol® were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy at 295 and 90 K. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted on the basis of a new model of heterogeneous iron core structure using five quadrupole doublets. These components were related to the corresponding more or less close-packed iron core layers/regions demonstrating some variations in the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters for the studied samples.

  18. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.


    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  19. Comparison of Arch Width Changes Following Orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 21, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with pre- and post-treatment digital models from 240 patients. ... this distance was maintained in calculating posttreatment measurements (T2). Mandibular and maxillary arch ... Arch width changes after different treatment modalities or posterior arch width ...

  20. A phase width for CaGaSn. Crystal structure of mixed intermetallic Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} and SmGa{sub x}Sn{sub 3−x}, stability, geometry and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillard, Monique, E-mail:


    X-ray single-crystal structure has been established for new compositions in intermetallic systems of tin and gallium. Crystals were successfully obtained in alloys prepared from elements. The structure of SmGaSn{sub 2} (cubic Pm3̄m, a=4.5778(8) Å, Z=1, R1=0.012) is described with atomic disorder at all Sn/Ga positions and the structure of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} (hexagonal, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=4.2233(9), c=17.601(7) Å, Z=1, R1=0.062) raises an interesting question about existence of a composition domain for CaGaSn. Finally, Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} should be considered as a particular composition of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}, a compound assumed to exist in the range x ~ 0−1. Partial atomic ordering characterizes the Sn/Ga puckered layers of hexagons whose geometries are analyzed and discussed comparatively with analogous arrangements in AlB{sub 2} related hexagonal compounds. The study is supported by rigid band model and DFT calculations performed for different experimental and hypothetic arrangements. - Graphical abstract: A phase width for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} belonging to the hexagonal YPtAs structure-type. - Highlights: • Single crystals of mixed tin gallium ternary intermetallics were obtained. • Partial ordering at metal sites and phase width are evidenced for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}. • Layer deviation to flatness is studied comparatively with related structures. • Geometry and stability analyses based on DFT calculations are provided.

  1. Resonance width distribution for open quantum systems (United States)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; Zelevinsky, Vladimir


    Recent measurements of resonance widths for low-energy neutron scattering off heavy nuclei show large deviations from the Porter-Thomas distribution. We propose a “standard” width distribution based on the random matrix theory for a chaotic quantum system with a single open decay channel. Two methods of derivation lead to a single analytical expression that recovers, in the limit of very weak continuum coupling, the Porter-Thomas distribution. The parameter defining the result is the ratio of typical widths Γ to the energy level spacing D. Compared to the Porter-Thomas distribution, the new distribution suppresses small widths and increases the probabilities of larger widths. We show also that it is necessary to take into account the γ channels.

  2. Symphysis pubis width and unaffected hip joint width in patients with slipped upper femoral epiphysis: widening compared with normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; Haddaway, Mike [RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shropshire (United Kingdom)


    The exact pathomechanism of slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) remains elusive. This paper suggests a generalised abnormality of the development or maturation of cartilage as a possible cause. It is proposed that SUFE is part of a generalised abnormality of the cartilage formation or maturation resulting in abnormal measurements of cartilaginous joint structures. Radiographs of SUFE patients were assessed for the width of the unaffected hip joint and the symphysis pubis. Comparison with previously published normal values was made. Fifty-one patients were assessed, 35 male, 16 female. The average age was 12 years and 11 months combined for both sexes, 13 years 8 months for boys, 11 years 4 months for girls. Width of the symphysis pubis was assessed on 46 datasets, and comparison with normal values was performed using the Wilcoxon paired rank test. Statistical significance was set as p < 0.05. The average expected width was 5.8 mm (5.4-6.2 mm), the average measured width was 7.3 mm (3.5-12 mm), median value 7.0 mm, and the difference is statistically significant. Cartilage thickness of the uninvolved hip joint could be assessed in 46 cases, and comparison using the Wilcoxon paired rank test resulted in a statistically significant difference (significance set as p < 0.05). The average expected width was 4.9 mm (3.6-6.5 mm), the average measured width was 5.5 mm (4-8 mm), and median 5.3 mm. The results indicate that SUFE patients display a generalised increased width of joint cartilage for their age. This could be due to increased cartilage formation or decreased maturation or a combination of the two, and could explain the increased mechanical vulnerability of these children to normal or abnormal stresses, despite histologically normal organisation of the physis as shown in previous studies. (orig.)

  3. Self-Oscillating Fluxgate Current Sensor with Pulse Width Modulated Feedback


    Milan Ponjavić; Radivoje Đurić


    A self-oscillating fluxgate current sensor with pulse-width modulated feedback is discussed in the paper. The current feedback creates additional dissipation in the circuit which could be reduced by applying the method of pulse-width modulation. For simplicity, the pulse-width modulator is realized as a selfoscillating structure whosefrequency is adjusted by means of the hysteresis of a regenerative comparator, and the feedback is realized with no additional winding.

  4. Mössbauer studies of hyperfine fields in disordered Fe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heusler-like alloy Fe2CrAl was prepared and studied. Structure determination was done by X-ray. The structure was found to conform to the B2 type. Magnetic hyperfine fields in this sample were studied by the Mössbauer effect. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded over a range of temperature from 40 to 296 K. The ...

  5. Probing an Excited-State Atomic Transition Using Hyperfine Quantum Beat Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Christopher G; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J


    We describe a method to observe the dynamics of an excited-state transition in a room temperature atomic vapor using hyperfine quantum beats. Our experiment using cesium atoms consists of a pulsed excitation of the D2 transition, and continuous-wave driving of an excited-state transition from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state to the 7S$_{1/2}$ state. We observe quantum beats in the fluorescence from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state which are modified by the driving of the excited-state transition. The Fourier spectrum of the beat signal yields evidence of Autler-Townes splitting of the 6P$_{3/2}$, F = 5 hyperfine level and Rabi oscillations on the excited-state transition. A detailed model provides qualitative agreement with the data, giving insight to the physical processes involved.

  6. Robust Two-Qubit Gates for Donors in Silicon Controlled by Hyperfine Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachpon Kalra


    Full Text Available We present two strategies for performing two-qubit operations on the electron spins of an exchange-coupled pair of donors in silicon, using the ability to set the donor nuclear spins in arbitrary states. The effective magnetic detuning of the two electron qubits is provided by the hyperfine interaction when the two nuclei are prepared in opposite spin states. This can be exploited to switch SWAP operations on and off with modest tuning of the electron exchange interaction. Furthermore, the hyperfine detuning enables high-fidelity conditional rotation gates based on selective resonant excitation. The latter requires no dynamic tuning of the exchange interaction at all and offers a very attractive scheme to implement two-qubit logic gates under realistic experimental conditions.

  7. Determination of hyperfine-induced transition rates from observations of a planetary nebula. (United States)

    Brage, Tomas; Judge, Philip G; Proffitt, Charles R


    Observations of the planetary nebula NGC3918 made with the STIS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the first unambiguous detection of a hyperfine-induced transition 2s2p 3P(o)(0)-->2s2 1S0 in the berylliumlike emission line spectrum of N IV at 1487.89 A. A nebular model allows us to confirm a transition rate of 4x10(-4) sec(-1)+/-33% for this line. The measurement represents the first independent confirmation of the transition rate of hyperfine-induced lines in low ionization stages, and it provides support for the techniques used to compute these transitions for the determination of very low densities and isotope ratios.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulay


    Full Text Available Ab-Initio simulation of electronic features of sensoring nanomaterials based on rare earth oxides has been made by the example of yttrium oxide. The simulation method for thin films of nanometer scale consisted in the simulation of the material layer of the thickness equal to unit crystal cell size has been proposed within the VASP simulation package. The atomic bond breakdown in the crystal along one of the coordinate axes is simulated by the increase of a distance between the atomic layers along this axis up to values at which the value of free energy is stabilized. It has been found that the valence and conductivity bands are not revealed explicitly and the band gap is not formed in the hyperfine rare earth oxide film (at the film thickness close to 1 nm. In fact the hyperfine rare earth oxide film loses dielectric properties which were exhibited clear enough in continuum.

  9. Measurement of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling in NV centers via dynamic nuclear polarization (United States)

    Poggiali, F.; Cappellaro, P.; Fabbri, N.


    Precise knowledge of a quantum system's Hamiltonian is a critical pre-requisite for its use in many quantum information technologies. Here, we report a method for the precise characterization of the nonsecular part of the excited-state Hamiltonian of an electronic-nuclear spin system in diamond. The method relies on the investigation of the dynamic nuclear polarization mediated by the electronic spin, which is currently exploited as a primary tool for initializing nuclear qubits and performing enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance. By measuring the temporal evolution of the population of the ground-state hyperfine levels of a nitrogen-vacancy center, we obtain the first direct estimation of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling between its electronic and nitrogen nuclear spin. Our method could also be applied to other electron-nuclear spin systems, such as those related to defects in silicon carbide.

  10. Radiative widths of neutral kaon excitations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we limit the radiative widths Γr(K*(1410)) and Γr(K*. 2(1430)) to 52.9 and 5.4 keV, respectively, at 90% CL. While there is no prediction for Γr(K*(1410)), Babcock and Rosner [9] used SU(3) invariance to predict that excitations with JPC = 1++ or 2++ would have vanishing radiative widths. In the limit of SU(3), K*. 2(1430) has.

  11. Magnetic field dependent intensity variation in the hyperfine split Rb D1 and D2 lines (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Ummal Momeen, M.


    We present the variation of intensity in Doppler-free hyperfine lines for rubidium atoms with the application of magnetic field. Different polarization configurations have been studied systematically with varying magnetic fields. There is a significant increase in the intensity variation with applied magnetic field related to different polarization configurations. These variations are explained with the theoretical calculations. The calculations are performed by adopting Nakayama's four level model with the varying magnetic field induced transition probability.

  12. Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N in TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukiko [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Izumikawa, Takuji; Tanigaki, Minoru [and others


    Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N (I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup -}, T{sub 1/2} 11ms) in TiO{sub 2} has been studied. A {beta}-NMR spectrum on the polarized {sup 12}N implanted in TiO{sub 2} shows that {sup 12}N are located at two different sites and maintain about 100% of initial polarization. These are the first phenomena observed in ionic crystals. (author)

  13. Investigation of ferromagnetic spinel semiconductors by hyperfine interactions of implanted nuclear probes

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalov, V; Dietrich, M; Schneider, F; Tiginyanu, I M; Tsurkan, V; Unterricker, S


    The semiconducting ferromagnetic spinel compounds CdCr//2Se //4, CdCr //2S//4, HgCr//2Se//4 and CuCr//2Se//4 (metallic) were investigated by the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) method with the radioactive probes **1**1**1In, **1**1**1**mCd, **1**1**1Ag, **1**1**7Cd, **1**9**9**mHg and **7**7Br. The probes were implanted at the ISOLDE on-line separator (CERN-Geneva) into single crystals. From the time dependence of the PAC spectra and the measured hyperfine interaction parameters: electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine field, the probe positions and the thermal behavior of the probes could be determined. Cd, Ag and Hg are substituted at the A-site, In at the A- and B-site in the semiconducting compounds and Br at the anion position. Electric and magnetic hyperfine fields were used as test quantities for theoretical charge and spin density distributions of LAPW calculations (WIEN97).

  14. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in DNA nitrogenous bases using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos; Carbonari, Artur Wilson; Lapolli, Andre Luis; Saxena, Rajendra Narain [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saitovitch, Henrique, E-mail: [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Perturbed γγ angular correlations (PAC) spectroscopy has been used to study the DNA nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), using {sup 111}In→{sup 111}Cd and {sup 111m}Cd→{sup 111}Cd probe nuclei. One of the advantages of applying PAC technique to biological molecules is that the experiments can be carried out on molecules in aqueous solution [1], approaching the function of molecules under conditions that are close to in vivo conditions. The measurements were carried out for DNA nitrogenous bases molecules at 295 K and 77 K in order to investigate dynamic and static hyperfine interactions, respectively. The interpretation of the results was based on the measurements of dynamic interaction characterized by the decay constant from which valuable information on the macroscopic behavior of the molecules was obtained [2; 3]. On the other hand, PAC measurements at low temperature showed interaction frequency (ν{sub Q}), asymmetry parameter (η) and the distribution of the quadrupole frequency (δ). These parameters provide a local microscopic description of the chemical environment in the neighborhood of the probe nuclei. Results showed differences in the hyperfine interactions of probe nuclei bound to the studied biomolecules. Such differences were observed by variations in the hyperfine parameters, which depended on the type of biomolecule and the results also showed that the probe nuclei bounded at the molecules in some cases and at others did not. (author)

  15. Hyperfine properties of La(V{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x})O{sub 3} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tupan, L. F. S.; Ivashita, F. F.; Barco, R. [Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Brazil); Hallouche, B. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (Brazil); Paesano, A., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Brazil)


    LaV{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} perovskites were synthesized in the vanadium-rich concentration range (i.e., x < 0.5) and characterized structurally and for the hyperfine properties of the iron nuclear probe. The aim of this investigation was to better understand the physical transformations that take place in the undoped compound (LaVO{sub 3}) at low temperatures. For that, X-ray diffraction analysis and, more extensively, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied. The results revealed that the LaV{sub 1}-xFexO{sub 3} vanadium-rich perovskites are orthorhombic at RT, and their lattice parameters decrease with increasing vanadium concentration. Lowering the temperature, the system becomes magnetic, with the iron moment freezing progressively. The presence of two magnetic subspectral components obtained at the lowest measurement temperatures suggests that the vanadium-rich samples, including LaVO{sub 3}, undergo a phase transition from an orthorhombic to a monoclinic structure at low temperatures.

  16. Effect of stimulus width on simultaneous contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Shi


    Full Text Available Perceived brightness of a stimulus depends on the background against which the stimulus is set, a phenomenon known as simultaneous contrast. For instance, the same gray stimulus can look light against a black background or dark against a white background. Here we quantified the perceptual strength of simultaneous contrast as a function of stimulus width. Previous studies have reported that wider stimuli result in weaker simultaneous contrast, whereas narrower stimuli result in stronger simultaneous contrast. However, no previous research has quantified this relationship. Our results show a logarithmic relationship between stimulus width and perceived brightness. This relationship is well matched by the normalized output of a Difference-of-Gaussians (DOG filter applied to stimuli of varied widths.

  17. Preequilibrium escape widths of giant resonances (United States)

    Roos, M. O.; Dias, H.; Rodriguez, O.; Teruya, N.; Hussein, M. S.


    In this work we present a calculation of the 2p-2h preequilibrium escape width of giant resonances for the nuclei 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb. The problem studied here involves an excited nucleus in the 1p-1h configuration, evolving to the 2p-2h configuration with the 1p in the continuum. The theoretical approach used for our calculations is based on the statistical multistep compound theory of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) and on the particle-hole state densities given by Obložinský. Our calculations show that although different state densities supply a similar result for the damping width, the escape width is strongly dependent on the nuclei, on the binding energy of the emitted nucleon, and the excitation energy of the giant resonance.

  18. Association of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Width With Anterior Knee Laxity. (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Min; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J


    Greater anterior knee laxity (AKL) has been identified as an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factor. The structural factors that contribute to greater AKL are not fully understood but may include the ACL and bone geometry. To determine the relationship of ACL width and femoral notch angle to AKL. Cross-sectional study. Controlled laboratory. Twenty recreationally active females (age = 21.2 ± 3.1 years, height = 1.66.1 ± 7.3 cm, mass = 66.5 ± 12.0 kg). Anterior cruciate ligament width and femoral notch angle were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of the knee and AKL was assessed. Anterior cruciate ligament width was measured as the width of a line that transected the ACL and was drawn perpendicular to the Blumensaat line. Femoral notch angle was formed by the intersection of the line parallel to the posterior cortex of the femur and the Blumensaat line. Anterior knee laxity was the anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur (mm) at 130 N of an applied force. Ten participants' magnetic resonance imaging data were assessed on 2 occasions to establish intratester reliability and precision. Using stepwise backward linear regression, we examined the extent to which ACL width, femoral notch angle, and weight were associated with AKL. Strong measurement consistency and precision (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] ± SEM) were established for ACL width (0.98 ± 0.3 mm) and femoral notch angle (0.97° ± 1.1°). The regression demonstrated that ACL width (5.9 ± 1.4 mm) was negatively associated with AKL (7.2 ± 2.0 mm; R(2) = 0.22, P = .04). Femoral notch angle and weight were not retained in the final model. A narrower ACL was associated with greater AKL. This finding may inform the development of ACL injury-prevention programs that include components designed to increase ACL size or strength (or both). Future authors should establish which other factors contribute to greater AKL in order to best inform injury-prevention efforts.

  19. Raman transitions between hyperfine clock states in a magnetic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Naber, J B; Hubert, T; Spreeuw, R J C


    We present our experimental investigation of an optical Raman transition between the magnetic clock states of $^{87}$Rb in an atom chip magnetic trap. The transfer of atomic population is induced by a pair of diode lasers which couple the two clock states off-resonantly to an intermediate state manifold. This transition is subject to destructive interference of two excitation paths, which leads to a reduction of the effective two-photon Rabi-frequency. Furthermore, we find that the transition frequency is highly sensitive to the intensity ratio of the diode lasers. Our results are well described in terms of light shifts in the multi-level structure of $^{87}$Rb. The differential light shifts vanish at an optimal intensity ratio, which we observe as a narrowing of the transition linewidth. We also observe the temporal dynamics of the population transfer and find good agreement with a model based on the system's master equation and a Gaussian laser beam profile. Finally, we identify several sources of decoheren...

  20. Annihilation detector for an in-beam spectroscopy apparatus to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens, E-mail: [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Capon, Aaron A.; Diermaier, Martin; Fleck, Markus; Kolbinger, Bernadette [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Malbrunot, Chloé [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Massiczek, Oswald; Simon, Martin C.; Vamosi, Stefan; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard [Stefan Meyer Institute for subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria)


    The matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in the universe today still lacks a quantitative explanation. One possible mechanism that could contribute to the observed imbalance is a violation of the combined Charge-, Parity- and Time symmetries (CPT). A test of CPT symmetry using anti-atoms is being carried out by the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator using a low temperature beam of antihydrogen—the most simple atomic system built only of antiparticles. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, antihydrogen is produced in very small quantities in a laboratory framework. A detector for in-beam measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure of antihydrogen has to be able to detect very low signal rates within high background. To fulfil this challenging task, a two layer barrel hodoscope detector was developed. It is built of plastic scintillators with double sided readout via Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The SiPM readout is done using novel, compact and cost efficient electronics that incorporate power supply, amplifier and discriminator on a single board. This contribution will evaluate the performance of the new hodoscope detector. - Highlights: • A novel detector for Antihydrogen was successfully commissioned. • A time of flight resolution of better than 1 ns was achieved. • Rudimentary 3D tracking is possible without bar segmentation.

  1. An efficient algorithm for equal width (United States)

    Bakodah, Huda. O.; Banaja, Mona. A.


    The new modification of Laplace Adomian decomposition method (ADM) to obtain numerical solution of the equal width equation is presented. The performance of the method illustrated by solving some test examples of the problem. By computing the absolute error the results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  2. Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Research (IISER) Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, S.A.S. Nagar,. P.O. Manauli 140 306, India. *Corresponding author. E-mail:; ..... Logika 39(4) (2000) 395–440, translation in Algebra and Logic 39(4) (2000) 224–251. [4] Bardakov V G and Gongopadhyay K, Palindromic width of free nilpotent ...

  3. Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram


    Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a

  4. Comparative evaluation of modified pulse width modulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative evaluation of modified pulse width modulation schemes of Z-source inverter for various applications and demands. ... In this paper, for the common boost factor and modulation index, the output voltage, output current, output line harmonics profile of the inverters with different PWM schemes powered by the ...

  5. Hyperfine interaction in the Autler-Townes effect: The formation of bright, dark, and chameleon states (United States)

    Kirova, T.; Cinins, A.; Efimov, D. K.; Bruvelis, M.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Auzinsh, M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Ekers, A.


    This paper is devoted to clarifying the implications of hyperfine (HF) interaction in the formation of adiabatic (i.e., "laser-dressed") states and their expression in the Autler-Townes (AT) spectra. We first use the Morris-Shore model [J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevA.27.906] to illustrate how bright and dark states are formed in a simple reference system where closely spaced energy levels are coupled to a single state with a strong laser field with the respective Rabi frequency ΩS. We then expand the simulations to realistic hyperfine level systems in Na atoms for a more general case when non-negligible HF interaction can be treated as a perturbation in the total system Hamiltonian. A numerical analysis of the adiabatic states that are formed by coupling of the 3 p3 /2 and 4 d5 /2 states by the strong laser field and probed by a weak laser field on the 3 s1 /2-3 p3 /2 transition yielded two important conclusions. Firstly, the perturbation introduced by the HF interaction leads to the observation of what we term "chameleon" states—states that change their appearance in the AT spectrum, behaving as bright states at small to moderate ΩS, and fading from the spectrum similarly to dark states when ΩS is much larger than the HF splitting of the 3 p3 /2 state. Secondly, excitation by the probe field from two different HF levels of the ground state allows one to address orthogonal sets of adiabatic states; this enables, with appropriate choice of ΩS and the involved quantum states, a selective excitation of otherwise unresolved hyperfine levels in excited electronic states.

  6. What the multiline signal (MLS) simulation data with average of weighted computations reveal about the Mn hyperfine interactions and oxidation states of the manganese cluster in OEC? (United States)

    Baituti, Bernard


    Understanding the structure of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) fully still remains a challenge. Lately computational chemistry with the data from more detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) OEC structure, has been used extensively in exploring the mechanisms of water oxidation in the OEC (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). Knowledge of the oxidation states is very crucial for understanding the core principles of catalysis by photosystem II (PSII) and catalytic mechanism of OEC. The present study involves simulation studies of the X-band continuous wave electron-magnetic resonance (CW-EPR) generated S 2 state signals, to investigate whether the data is in agreement with the four manganese ions in the OEC, being organised as a `3 + 1' (trimer plus one) model (Gatt et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 12025-12028 2012; Petrie et al., Chem. A Eur. J. 21, 6780-6792 2015; Terrett et al., Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50, 8-11 2014) or `dimer of dimers' model (Terrett et al. 2016). The question that still remains is how much does each Mn ion contribute to the " g2multiline" signal through its hyperfine interactions in OEC also to differentiate between the `high oxidation state (HOS)' and `low oxidation state (LOS)' paradigms? This is revealed in part by the structure of multiline (ML) signal studied in this project. Two possibilities have been proposed for the redox levels of the Mn ions within the catalytic cluster, the so called `HOS' and `LOS' paradigms (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). The method of data analysis involves numerical simulations of the experimental spectra on relevant models of the OEC cluster. The simulations of the X-band CW-EPR multiline spectra, revealed three manganese ions having hyperfine couplings with large anisotropy. These are most likely Mn III centres and these clearly support the `LOS' OEC paradigm model, with a mean oxidation of 3.25 in the S2 state. This is consistent with the earlier data by Jin et

  7. Forward two-photon exchange in elastic lepton-proton scattering and hyperfine-splitting correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)


    We relate the forward two-photon exchange (TPE) amplitudes to integrals of the inclusive lepton-proton scattering cross sections. These relations yield an alternative way for the evaluation of the TPE correction to hyperfine-splitting (HFS) in the hydrogen-like atoms with an equivalent to the standard approach (Iddings, Drell and Sullivan) result implying the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule. For evaluation of the individual effects (e.g., elastic contribution) our approach yields a distinct result. We compare both methods numerically on examples of the elastic contribution and the full TPE correction to HFS in electronic and muonic hydrogen. (orig.)

  8. Variations of 57Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Dubiel, S. M.; Semionkin, V. A.


    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC4H2O4) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Mössbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the 57Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  9. Exploring template-bound dinuclear copper porphyrin nanorings by EPR spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Description of the experimental conditions and parameters applied; supplementary data sets and simulations; visualization of the calculated hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole tensors. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01810f Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Richert, Sabine; Cremers, Jonathan; Anderson, Harry L.


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular geometry as well as metal–ligand interactions in ten-membered porphyrin nanorings (c-P10Cu2) containing two copper and eight zinc centers. The presence of copper in the structures allows intramolecular interactions, including dipolar interactions between electron spins and hyperfine interactions to be quantified. Results obtained for c-P10Cu2 samples bound to two molecular templates with four or five binding sites, respectively, are compared to those obtained for a sample of the porphyrin ring in the absence of any templates. It is shown that the observed lower binding affinity of the nitrogen ligand to copper as compared to zinc has a strong impact on the geometries of the respective template-bound c-P10Cu2 structures. The interaction between the central copper atom and nitrogen ligands is weak, but pulsed EPR hyperfine techniques such as ENDOR and HYSCORE are very sensitive to this interaction. Upon binding of a nitrogen ligand to copper, the hyperfine couplings of the in-plane nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin core are reduced by about 3 MHz. In addition, the copper hyperfine couplings as well as the g-factors are altered, as detected by continuous wave EPR. DFT calculations of the hyperfine coupling tensors support the assignment of the measured couplings to the nuclei within the structure and reproduce the experimentally observed trends. Finally, Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) is used to measure the distances between the copper centers in a range between 2.5 and 5 nm, revealing the preferred geometries of the template-bound nanorings. PMID:28451129

  10. K- nuclear states: Binding energies and widths (United States)

    Hrtánková, J.; Mareš, J.


    K- optical potentials relevant to calculations of K- nuclear quasibound states were developed within several chiral meson-baryon coupled-channels interaction models. The applied models yield quite different K- binding energies and widths. Then the K- multinucleon interactions were incorporated by a phenomenological optical potential fitted recently to kaonic atom data. Though the applied K- interaction models differ significantly in the K-N subthreshold region, our self-consistent calculations of kaonic nuclei across the periodic table lead to conclusions valid quite generally. Due to K- multinucleon absorption in the nuclear medium, the calculated widths of K- nuclear states are sizable, ΓK-≥90 MeV, and exceed substantially their binding energies in all considered nuclei.

  11. Hyperfine interactions and some thermomagnetic properties of amorphous FeZr(CrNbBCu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukiewska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the magnetic phase transition by Mössbauer spectroscopy and using vibrating sample magnetometer for amorphous Fe86-xZr7CrxNb2Cu1B4 (x = 0 or 6 alloys in the as-quenched state and after accumulative annealing in the temperature range 600-750 K. The Mössbauer investigations were carried out at room and nitrogen temperatures. The Mössbauer spectra of the investigated alloys at room temperature are characteristic of amorphous paramagnets and have a form of asymmetric doublets. However, at nitrogen temperature, the alloys behave like ferromagnetic amorphous materials. The two components are distinguished in the spectrum recorded at both room and nitrogen temperatures. The low field component in the distribution of hyperfine field induction shifts towards higher field with the annealing temperature. It is assumed that during annealing at higher temperature, due to diffusion processes, the grains of α-Fe are created in the area corresponding to this component. Both investigated alloys show the invar effect and the decrease of hyperfine field induction after annealing at 600 K for 10 min is observed. It is accompanied by the lowering of Curie temperature.

  12. Precision measurement of the +25Mg ground-state hyperfine constant (United States)

    Xu, Z. T.; Deng, K.; Che, H.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.


    We report an experimental determination of the ground-state hyperfine constant A of the +25Mg ions by measuring the | S1 /2,F =2 ,m =0 〉 to | S1 /2,F =3 ,m =0 〉 transition (0-0 transition) frequency of the two ground-state hyperfine energy levels. The frequency is measured by rf resonant method in a Paul trap under a magnetic field of about 0.1 mT. The result is A =-596.254 248 7(42) MHz. Different frequency shifts and uncertainties are evaluated. The main effect is quadratic Zeeman shift. Since the Paul trap is driven by rf on the electrodes, ac magnetic field can be induced by the rf at the site of the ion. The ac magnetic field causes quadratic Zeeman shift for ion frequency standards and also reduces the coherence time when the ion acts as a quantum bit. Precision measurement of this ac magnetic field can help evaluating the related uncertainty when a single-ion optical clock is established on the trap.

  13. Continuum RPA calculation of escape widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertse, T. (Inst. of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)); Curutchet, P.; Liotta, R.J. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bang, J. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Giai, N. van (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France))


    Particle-hole partial decay widths are calculated within the continuum RPA exactly, i.e. without any further approximation, in a square well plus Coulomb potential and using a separable residual interaction. The results are compared with the ones obtained by making pole expansions of the single-particle Green functions (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler). It is found that the Berggren and Mittag-Leffler expansions give results in good agreement with the 'exact' ones. (orig.).

  14. Dynamics of niche width and resource partitioning.


    Dobrev, S.; Kim, T-Y; Hannan, M.T.


    This article examines the effects of crowding in a market center on rates of change in organizational niche width and on organizational mortality. It proposes that, although firms with wide niches benefit from risk spreading and economies of scale, they are simultaneously exposed to intense competition. An analysis of organizational dynamics in automobile manufacturing firms in France, Germany, and Great Britain shows that competitive pressure not only increases the hazard of disbanding but a...

  15. Testing Computability by Width Two OBDDs (United States)

    Ron, Dana; Tsur, Gilad

    Property testing is concerned with deciding whether an object (e.g. a graph or a function) has a certain property or is “far” (for some definition of far) from every object with that property. In this paper we give lower and upper bounds for testing functions for the property of being computable by a read-once width-2 Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD), also known as a branching program, where the order of the variables is known. Width-2 OBDDs generalize two classes of functions that have been studied in the context of property testing - linear functions (over GF(2)) and monomials. In both these cases membership can be tested in time that is linear in 1/ɛ. Interestingly, unlike either of these classes, in which the query complexity of the testing algorithm does not depend on the number, n, of variables in the tested function, we show that (one-sided error) testing for computability by a width-2 OBDD requires Ω(log(n)) queries, and give an algorithm (with one-sided error) that tests for this property and performs tilde{O}(log(n)/ɛ) queries.

  16. Hyperfine and Spin-Orbit Coupling Effects on Decay of Spin-Valley States in a Carbon Nanotube (United States)

    Pei, T.; Pályi, A.; Mergenthaler, M.; Ares, N.; Mavalankar, A.; Warner, J. H.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.


    The decay of spin-valley states is studied in a suspended carbon nanotube double quantum dot via the leakage current in Pauli blockade and via dephasing and decoherence of a qubit. From the magnetic field dependence of the leakage current, hyperfine and spin-orbit contributions to relaxation from blocked to unblocked states are identified and explained quantitatively by means of a simple model. The observed qubit dephasing rate is consistent with the hyperfine coupling strength extracted from this model and inconsistent with dephasing from charge noise. However, the qubit coherence time, although longer than previously achieved, is probably still limited by charge noise in the device.

  17. Narrow structure in the coherent population trapping resonance in sodium (United States)

    Gozzini, S.; Marmugi, L.; Lucchesini, A.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Nasyrov, K.


    We present a detailed study of coherent population trapping (CPT) in the Hanle configuration in sodium atoms confined inside a glass cell and irradiated with a broadband multimode dye laser light resonant with the D1 line. The presence of several modes spaced by tens of MHz is effective in inhibiting hyperfine optical pumping, thus reducing losses and allowing for efficient trapping. A narrow resonance, whose width is of the order of 1 mG, is observed superimposed on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance. Such a structure is more than two orders of magnitude narrower than the broader one, with significantly reduced power broadening. In order to describe this phenomenon, we developed a theoretical model, based on numerical solutions of density matrix equations, which takes into account the peculiarity of CPT induced by broadband multimode laser light. Results are shown to be in very good agreement with the experimental data. In this framework, the small width and the small amount of power broadening exhibited by this narrow spectral structure are related to the time spent by the atoms to re-enter the laser beam volume after collisions that preserve the orientation. This study offers insight into the mechanisms of atoms depolarization caused by collisions with the cell walls and represents a starting point for the development of techniques for the diagnostics of cell-coating parameters and new applications in metrology and magnetometry.

  18. Ultrasonic nondestructive characterization of mortars by the width of the resonances (United States)

    Bita, H.; Faiz, B.; Moudden, A.; Lotfi, H.; Ouacha, El H.


    In this work, we study the width of the resonances of the ultrasound waves reflection coefficient backscattered by a plane structure of the mortar. We establish the relationship between this width with two parameters which are widely used in non-destructive characterization of cementitious materials namely the velocity and attenuation. Monitoring the hydration of three solutions of mortars produced with different sizes of sand grains shows that the experimental results confirmed the theoretical predictions. Linear correlations are established between the width of resonance and the two ultrasonic parameters.

  19. Hyperfine interactions in nanocrystallized NANOPERM-type metallic glass containing Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesnek, M., E-mail: [Czech Technical University in Prague, Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering (Czech Republic); Kubániová, D.; Kohout, J.; Křišťan, P.; Štěpánková, H.; Závěta, K. [Charles University, Department of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic); Lančok, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR (Czech Republic); Štefánik, M.; Miglierini, M. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering (Czech Republic)


    NANOPERM-type alloy with chemical composition Fe{sub 76}Mo{sub 8}CuB{sub 15} was studied by combination of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe({sup 10}B, {sup 11}B) nuclear magnetic resonance in order to determine distribution of hyperfine magnetic fields and evolution of relative concentration of Fe-containing crystalline phases within the surface layer and the volume of the nanocrystallized ribbons with annealing temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed two crystallization stages at T{sub x1} ∼ 510 {sup ∘}C and T{sub x2} ∼ 640 {sup ∘}C, connected to precipitation of α-Fe and Fe(Mo,B) nanocrystals, respectively. The amorphous and partially crystalline state was obtained by annealing at several temperatures in the range 510-650 {sup ∘}C. The combination of conversion electron (CEMS) and transmission Mössbauer spectrometry (TMS) showed that annealing induces crystallization starting from both surfaces of the ribbons. For the as-quenched sample, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CEMS revealed significant differences in the “air” and “wheel” sides of the ribbons, crystallites were preferentially formed at the latter. While SEM micrographs of annealed samples showed various mean diameters of the crystals at opposite sides of the ribbons, the amounts of crystalline volume derived from the CEMS spectra approximately equaled. Mössbauer spectra of annealed samples contained narrow sextet ascribed to crystalline α-Fe phase, three sextets with distribution of hyperfine field assigned to the interface regions of the nanocrystals and the contribution of the amorphous phases. In-field TMS performed at 4.2 K with magnetic moments aligned by external magnetic field enabled to properly determine in particular the contribution of the amorphous phases in the samples. Resulting distributions of the hyperfine fields were compared with {sup 57}Fe({sup 10}B, {sup 11}B) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra.

  20. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.


    spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...... increases considerably at voltages above the boundary voltage because of the abrupt increase of the internal damping due to Josephson self-coupling. The influence of FFO parameters, in particular the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and with the applied magnetic field...

  1. Digital Pulse-Width-Modulation Circuit (United States)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.


    Digital pulse-width-modulation circuit provides programmable duration from 1 microsecond to full on, at repetition rate of 1 kHz. Designed for use in controlling CO2 laser, also used in applications in which precision and flexibility of digital control of pulse durations needed. Circuit incorporates low-power Schottky transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) devices in critical high-speed parts. Designed in TTL to make it compatible with Pro-Log 7914 (or equivalent) decoder input/output (I/O) utility printed-circuit card.

  2. Characterization of Oxygen Bridged Manganese Model Complexes Using Multifrequency (17)O-Hyperfine EPR Spectroscopies and Density Functional Theory. (United States)

    Rapatskiy, Leonid; Ames, William M; Pérez-Navarro, Montserrat; Savitsky, Anton; Griese, Julia J; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Shafaat, Hannah S; Högbom, Martin; Neese, Frank; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Cox, Nicholas


    Multifrequency pulsed EPR data are reported for a series of oxygen bridged (μ-oxo/μ-hydroxo) bimetallic manganese complexes where the oxygen is labeled with the magnetically active isotope (17)O (I = 5/2). Two synthetic complexes and two biological metallocofactors are examined: a planar bis-μ-oxo bridged complex and a bent, bis-μ-oxo-μ-carboxylato bridge complex; the dimanganese catalase, which catalyzes the dismutation of H2O2 to H2O and O2, and the recently identified manganese/iron cofactor of the R2lox protein, a homologue of the small subunit of the ribonuclotide reductase enzyme (class 1c). High field (W-band) hyperfine EPR spectroscopies are demonstrated to be ideal methods to characterize the (17)O magnetic interactions, allowing a magnetic fingerprint for the bridging oxygen ligand to be developed. It is shown that the μ-oxo bridge motif displays a small positive isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of about +5 to +7 MHz and an anisotropic/dipolar coupling of -9 MHz. In addition, protonation of the bridge is correlated with an increase of the hyperfine coupling constant. Broken symmetry density functional theory is evaluated as a predictive tool for estimating hyperfine coupling of bridging species. Experimental and theoretical results provide a framework for the characterization of the oxygen bridge in Mn metallocofactor systems, including the water oxidizing cofactor of photosystem II, allowing the substrate/solvent interface to be examined throughout its catalytic cycle.

  3. Hyperfine splitting in positronium to O({alpha}{sup 7}m{sub e}). One-photon annihilation contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Penin, A.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Piclum, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik


    We present the complete result for the O({alpha}{sup 7}m{sub e}) one-photon annihilation contribution to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state energy levels in positronium. Numerically it increases the prediction of quantum electrodynamics by 217{+-}1 kHz.

  4. Energy-Level Related Nuclear-Spin Effects and Super-Hyperfine Spectral Patterns: how Molecules do Self-Nmr (United States)

    Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin


    At several points in his defining works on molecular spectroscopy, Herzberg notes that ``because nuclear moments ldots are so very slight ldots transitions between species ldots are very strictly forbiddenldots '' Herzberg's most recent statement of such selection rules pertained to spherical top spin-species. It has since been shown that spherical top species (as well as those of lower symmetry molecules) converge exponentially with momentum quanta J and K to degenerate level clusters wherein even ``very slight'' nuclear fields and moments cause pervasive resonance and total spin species mixing. Ultra-high resolution spectra of Borde, et .al and Pfister et .al shows how SF_6 and SiF_4 Fluorine nuclear spin levels rearrange from total-spin multiplets to NMR-like patterns as their superfine structure converges. Similar super-hyperfine effects are anticipated for lower symmetry molecules exhibiting converging superfine level-clusters. Examples include PH_3 molecules and asymmetric tops. Following this we consider models that treat nuclear spins as coupled rotors undergoing generalized Hund-case transitions from spin-lab-momentum coupling to various spin-rotor correlations. G. A. Herzberg, Electronic Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules, (Von Norstrand Rheinhold 1966) p. 246. W G. Harter and C. W Patterson, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2277 (1979) W. G. Harter, Phys. Rev. A 24, 192 (1981). Ch. J. Borde, J. Borde, Ch. Breant, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Van Lerberghe, and Ch. Salomon, in Laser Spectroscopy VII, T. W Hensch and Y. R. Shen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985). O. Pfister, F. Guernet, G. Charton, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Herlemont, and J. Legrand, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1521 (1993). O. Pfister, Ch. Chardonnet, and Ch. J. Bordè, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4516 (1996) S. N. Yurchenko, W. Thiel, S. Patchkovskii, and P. Jensen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.7, 573 (2005)

  5. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)


    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  6. Toward the measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)


    The recent Lamb shift experiment at PSI and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen and extracting the proton Zemach radius. The efficiency of the experimental method depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases in the near epithermal energy range. As long as the available experimental data only give the average transfer rate in the whole epithermal range, and the detailed theoretical calculations have not yet been verified, an experiment has been started for the measurement of the transfer rate in thermalized gas target at different temperatures and extracting from the data an estimate of the transfer rate for arbitrary energies. We outline the underlying mathematical method and estimate its accuracy.

  7. Ramsey fringe width compared to the spectral width of the driving pulse pair (United States)

    Supplee, James; Makhija


    In a population inversion versus detuning curve, fringes due to a Ramsey pulse-pair are vastly narrower than a peak due to just one of the pulses would be. For subtler reasons, the Ramsey fringe width is also less than the inversion peak that would be obtained using one long pulse with duration as long as the entire Ramsey pair including the time between pulses. This narrowing is by a factor of about 0.6 in many typical circumstances, but that factor can vary (sometimes significantly) depending on parameters such as pulse duration, pulse area, and time between pulses. We are doing calculations using an idealized semiclassical model with a two-level quantum system to address the following question: In which parameter regimes is the Ramsey fringe width well explained just by the spectral width of the driving pulse pair?

  8. Hyperfine structure investigations of Pr-I lines in the region 4200-4450 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Tanweer Iqbal, Syed; Windholz, Laurentius [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A 8010 Graz (Austria)


    Praseodymium I spectral lines were investigated using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The investigations led to the discovery of new Pr I energy levels of even and odd parity. A high resolution Fourier transform (FT) spectrum was used to extract promising excitation wavelengths. In the FT spectrum the investigated line 4375.53 A shows up as a narrow peak hfs with a weak SNR. Nevertheless, the line was excited and fluorescence signals were observed on 6 lines (4163 A, 4816 A, 5091 A, 5164 A, 5209 A, 5233 A). The hfs of the line was recorded by scanning the laser frequency and was fitted to obtain angular momentum J and hf constant A of the combining levels. We got J{sub up}=5/2, A{sub up}=1028.30 MHz, J{sub lo}=7/2 and A{sub lo}=861.46 MHz (the subscripts refer to upper and lower level). Assuming an unknown upper level, a known lower level was searched among the known levels having sufficient values of J and A. The level 7617.440 cm{sup -1}, even parity, J{sub lo}=7/2 and A{sub lo}=868 MHz fulfils these requirements. Using the center of gravity wave number of the line 4375.53 A and the energy of the lower level, the unknown upper level was calculated to have 30465.424 cm{sup -1}, odd parity, J{sub up}=5/2 and A{sub up}=1033(6) MHz.

  9. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  10. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.


    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  11. Complexity in the high latitude HF radar spectral width boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson


    Full Text Available SuperDARN radars are sensitive to the collective Doppler characteristics of decametre-scale irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. The radars routinely observe a distinct transition from large spectral width (>100 m s−1 located at higher latitudes to low spectral width (<50 m s−1 located at lower latitudes. Because of its equatorward location, the TIGER Tasmanian radar is very sensitive to the detection of the spectral width boundary (SWB in the nightside auroral ionosphere. An analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and 2-D beam-swinging vectors suggests the meso-scale (~100 km convection is more erratic in the high spectral width region, but slower and more homogeneous in the low spectral width region. The radar autocorrelation functions are better modelled using Lorentzian Doppler spectra in the high spectral width region, and Gaussian Doppler spectra in the low spectral width region. However, paradoxically, Gaussian Doppler spectra are associated with the largest spectral widths. Application of the Burg maximum entropy method suggests the occurrence of double-peaked Doppler spectra is greater in the high spectral width region, implying the small-scale (~10 km velocity fluctuations are more intense above the SWB. These observations combined with collective wave scattering theory imply there is a transition from a fast flowing, turbulent plasma with a correlation length of velocity fluctuations less than the scattering wavelength, to a slower moving plasma with a correlation length greater than the scattering wavelength. Peak scaling and structure function analysis of fluctuations in the SWB itself reveals approximately scale-free behaviour across temporal scales of ~10 s to ~34 min. Preliminary scaling exponents for these fluctuations, αGSF=0.18±0.02 and αGSF=0.09±0.01, are even smaller than that expected for MHD turbulence.

  12. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, HWHM (half-width at half-maximum) of the resultant PSF has been defined to characterize the resolution of the detection system. ... Department of Physics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India; Department of Humanities & Sciences, C.M.R. Institute of Technology ...

  13. Width gauging of surface slot using laser-generated Rayleigh waves (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyong; Sun, Anyu; Xue, Maosheng; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xiong, Jichuan; Xu, Xiaodong


    A method of width gauging of surface slot using laser-generated Rayleigh waves in time domain is presented. A two-step detection is employed in this method, Rayleigh waves are first generated on one side of the surface slot and then on the other side. Incident and reflected Rayleigh waves from surface slot are detected respectively on both sides of the slot in the two detections. Width of surface slot is calculated based on the arrival time of incident and reflected Rayleigh waves. Experiment results agree well with the measured results by digital microscope and validate the feasibility of the proposed method. The approach will open the way for simultaneous measurement of the depth and width of surface slot and provide a potential application for characterization of surface slot in extreme environment and width gauging of subsurface structure.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser po...

  15. Circuit multiplies pulse width modulation, exhibits linear transfer function (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Furciniti, A.


    Modulation multiplier provides a simple means of multiplying the width modulation of a pulse train by a constant factor. It operates directly on a pulse width modulated input signal to generate an output pulse train having a greater degree of width modulation than the input signal.

  16. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... developed for friction factors and Nusselt numbers for a fully developed turbulent swirl flow, which are applicable to full width as well as reduced width twisted tapes, using a modified twist ratio as pitch to width ratio of the tape. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010, pp. 107-118 ...

  17. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ghosh


    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  18. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.


    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  19. Measurement of a strong atomic hyperfine field allowing the determination of nuclear g-factors in (sub)nanosecond states

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvey, K; Cottenier, S; Balabanski, D L; Coulier, N; Coussement, R; Georgiev, G; Lépine-Szily, A; Ternier, S; Teughels, S


    An extension of the time-integrated atomic decoupling technique to measure g-factors of (sub)nanosecond isomers and/or the magnetic hyperfine field induced by highly excited atomic electrons on nuclei recoiling into vacuum is discussed. A high average field B sub h sub f =1080 sub - sub 1 sub 7 sub 5 sup + sup 2 sup 7 sup 0 T and an average atomic spin J=2.7(2) is deduced using the known magnetic moment of a 4.05(7) mu s isomer in sup 6 sup 9 Ge. Such high magnetic fields allow g-factor measurements of (sub)nanosecond states. Ab initio calculations show that the combination of a high average magnetic hyperfine field and a high average atomic spin is only possible if a considerable fraction of the ions is in a metastable excited state.

  20. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology (United States)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul


    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  1. Linking Local Environments and Hyperfine Shifts: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical 31P and 7Li Solid–State NMR Study of Paramagnetic Fe(III) Phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonsik [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Middlemiss, Derek S. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Chernova, Natasha [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zhu, Ben Y.H. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Masquelier, Christian [SUNY Binghamton, NY (United States); Grey, Clare P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)


    Iron phosphates (FePO4) are among the most promising candidate materials for advanced Li-ion battery cathodes. This work reports upon a combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental and periodic density functional theory (DFT) computational study of the environments and electronic structures occurring in a range of paramagnetic Fe(III) phosphates comprising FePO4 (heterosite), monoclinic Li3Fe2(PO4)3 (anti-NASICON A type), rhombohedral Li3Fe2(PO4)3 (NASICON B type), LiFeP2O7, orthorhombic FePO4·2H2O (strengite), monoclinic FePO4·2H2O (phosphosiderite), and the dehydrated forms of the latter two phases. Many of these materials serve as model compounds relevant to battery chemistry. The 31P spin-echo mapping and 7Li magic angle spinning NMR techniques yield the hyperfine shifts of the species of interest, complemented by periodic hybrid functional DFT calculations of the respective hyperfine and quadrupolar tensors. A Curie-Weiss-based magnetic model scaling the DFT-calculated hyperfine parameters from the ferromagnetic into the experimentally relevant paramagnetic state is derived and applied, providing quantitative finite temperature values for each phase. The sensitivity of the hyperfine parameters to the composition of the DFT exchange functional is characterized by the application of hybrid Hamiltonians containing admixtures 0%, 20%, and 35% of Fock exchange. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values is obtained, provided that the residual magnetic couplings persisting in the paramagnetic state are included. The potential applications of a similar combined experimental and theoretical NMR approach to a wider range of cathode materials are discussed.

  2. Hyperfine Interactions in the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectra of Point Defects in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors (United States)


    between the 5s electron and the silver nucleus. Breit and Rabi [5] described this hyperfine interaction in the context of the Stern-Gerlach...experiment, and Rabi et al. [6] were the first to directly measure nuclear magnetic moments with this beam technique [7]. 1 quantum angular momentum or an interruption in the periodicity of a crystal lattice that is localized within a few lattice sites. A crystal lattice is composed of a Bravais

  3. Transferred hyperfine interaction between the rare-earth ions and the fluorine nuclei in rare-earth trifluorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Nevald, Rolf; Guggenheim, H. G.


    The isotropic and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions between F ions in the two chemically inequivalent sites and the rare-earth ions (R) have been derived from 19F NMR measurements in the temperature region 100-300 K on single crystals of TbF3 and DyF3. The isotropic interactions are ...... to vary only slightly with temperature. They are further assigned to definite R's in the unit cell, which cannot be done from macroscopic magnetic measurements....

  4. Experiment for the first direct measurement of the hyperfine splitting of positronium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, A; Ishida, A; Asai, S [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 133-0033 (Japan); Suehara, T; Namba, T; Kobayashi, T [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, H [Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Idehara, T; Ogawa, I; Urushizaki, Y [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui (FIR-FU), 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str., 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. The hyperfine splitting of positronium (Ps-HFS: about 203 GHz) is a good tool to test QED and also sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model via a quantum oscillation between an ortho-Ps and a virtual photon. Previous experimental results show 3.9 {sigma} (15 ppm) discrepancy from the QED calculation. All previous experiments used an indirect method with static magnetic field to cause Zeeman splitting (a few GHz) between triplet states of ortho-Ps, from which the HFS value was derived. One possible systematic error source of the indirect method is non-uniformity of the static magnetic field. We are developing a new direct Ps-HFS measurement system without static magnetic field. In this measurement we use a gyrotron, a novel sub-THz light source, with a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity to obtain enough radiation power at 203 GHz. The present status of the optimization studies and current design of the experiment are described.

  5. Leggett-Garg inequalities violation via the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobejko, Marcin; Dajka, Jerzy [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, University of Silesia, Chorzow (Poland)


    In this paper we examine theoretically how the spin-spin interaction between a nuclei and an electron in the atom affects violation of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. We consider the simplest case of atoms in the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} state that in the valence shell have just a single electron and the evolution in time of the spin is dictated only by the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction. We found that for special initial conditions and a particular measured observable the high spin nucleus couple to the valence electron such that violation of Leggett-Garg inequalities increases with total spin of states. Consequently, our results show that for the Hydrogen, the smallest atom in Nature, the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequalities is the smallest whereas for the largest atom, the Cesium, the violation is the largest. Moreover, this violation does not depend on a principal quantum number, thus our model can be used for Rydberg atoms in order to test macrorealism for 'almost macroscopic' objects. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems (United States)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr


    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  7. Crack Width Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Ulbinas


    Full Text Available The article investigates the effectiveness of steel fiber reinforcement in RC concrete members in regard to ordinary reinforcement. The advantages and disadvantages of different shapes of steel fibers are discussed. The algorithm for calculating crack width based on EC2 and Rilem methodologies is presented. A comparison of theoretical and experimental crack widths has been performed. The relative errors of crack width predictions at different load levels were defined.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Hyperfine interaction measurements in biological compounds: the case of hydroxyapatite; Medidas de interacoes hiperfinas em compostos biologicos: o caso da hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite Neto, Osmar Flavio da Silveira


    The use o nanoparticles in current medicine are under intense investigation. The possible advantages proposed by these systems are very impressive and the results may be quite schemer. In this scenario, the association of nanoparticles with radioactive materials (radionuclide) may be the most important step since the discovery of radioactive for nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy, especially for cancer targeting and therapy. The hyperfine interaction of the nuclear probe {sup 111}Cd in the Hydroxyapatite compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy in room temperature for the hydroxyapatite made in the temperatures of 90°C, 35°C and with Ho doped, both thermalized and not. The thermalized samples were heated to T= 1273 K for 6 h. The {sup 111}Cd was broadcast in the structure of the material by diffusion, closing in quartz tubes were heated – together with the radioactive PAC probe {sup 111}In/{sup 111}Cd to T = 1073 K for 12 h. In not thermalized samples the PAC spectra indicate a distribution of frequency, but in the thermalized samples, the PAC spectra shows the presence of β-tri calcium phosphate in the structure of this kind of Hydroxyapatite. (author)

  9. Distribution of resonance widths and dynamics of continuum coupling. (United States)

    Celardo, G L; Auerbach, N; Izrailev, F M; Zelevinsky, V G


    We analyze the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of continuum coupling, such a system reveals growing deviations from the standard chi-square (Porter-Thomas) width distribution. The deviations emerge from the process of increasing interaction of intrinsic states through common decay channels; in the limit of perfect coupling this process leads to the superradiance phase transition. The width distribution depends also on the intrinsic dynamics (chaotic versus regular). The results presented here are important for understanding the recent experimental data concerning the width distribution for neutron resonances in nuclei.

  10. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Khubab


    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  11. Hyperfine interactions in MnAs studied by perturbed angular correlations of $\\gamma$-rays using the probe $^{77}$Br $\\rightarrow ^{77}$Se and first principles calculations for MnAs and other Mn pnictides

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, J N; Correia, J G; Lopes, A M L


    The MnAs compound shows a first-order transition at T$_{c}$≈ 42$^{\\circ}$C, and a second-order transition at T$_{t}$ ≈120$^{\\circ}$C. The first-order transition, with structural (hexagonal-orthorhombic), magnetic (FM-PM) and electrical conductivity changes, is associated to magnetocaloric, magnetoelastic, and magnetoresistance effects. We report a study in a large temperature range from −196$^{\\circ}$C up to 140$^{\\circ}$C, using the $\\gamma\\!-\\!\\gamma$ perturbed angular correlations method with the radioactive probe $^{77}$Br→$^{77}$Se, produced at the ISOLDE-CERN facility. The electric field gradients and magnetic hyperfine fields are determined across the first- and second-order phase transitions encompassing the pure and mixed phase regimes in cooling and heating cycles. The temperature irreversibility of the 1st order phase transition is seen locally, at the nanoscopic scale sensitivity of the hyperfine field, by its hysteresis, detailing and complementing information obtained with macroscopic me...

  12. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures–New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 5, 2014 ... High energy photons from the decay of giant dipole resonances (GDR) built on excited states provide an excellent probe in the study of nuclear structure properties, damping mechanisms etc., at finite temperatures. The dependence of GDR width on temperature () and angular momentum () has been the ...

  13. Efficient 2D double-quantum solid-state NMR spectroscopy with large spectral widths. (United States)

    Märker, Katharina; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël


    2D double-quantum single-quantum correlation spectra with arbitrary spectral widths can be recorded with SR26 and related supercycled recoupling sequences when applying Supercycle-Timing-Compensation (STiC) phase shifts. This concept widely extends the applicability of supercycled sequences, most importantly for obtaining long-range distance constraints for structure determination with solid-state NMR.

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of Solar Corona VI: Trend in Line-width ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VI: Trend in Line-width Variation of Coronal Emission Lines with Height Independent of the Structure of Coronal Loops. Jagdev Singh. 1,∗. , Takashi Sakurai. 2. , Kiyoshi Ichimoto. 2. & S. Muneer. 3. 1Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. 2National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, ...

  15. Spreading widths of giant resonances in spherical nuclei: Damped transient response (United States)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Åberg, S.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.


    We propose a general approach to describe spreading widths of monopole, dipole, and quadrupole giant resonances in heavy and superheavy spherical nuclei. Our approach is based on the ideas of the random matrix distribution of the coupling between one-phonon and two-phonon states generated in the random-phase approximation. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states of the doubly magic nuclei 132Sn, 208Pb, and 310126. Our results demonstrate that the approach enables to us to describe a gross structure of the spreading widths of the giant resonances considered.

  16. Widths of narrow mesons made from heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Farrar, Glennys R S; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Shifman, M A; Voloshin, M B; Zakharov, V I


    Presents predictions for the electronic widths of neutral vector mesons made from heavy quarks. Relying principally on dispersion relations and asymptotic freedom of QCD, these results are quite model-independent. Photonic and total hadronic widths of C-even mesons are also discussed. (6 refs).

  17. A design aid for determining width of filter strips (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer


    watershed planners need a tool for determining width of filter strips that is accurate enough for developing cost-effective site designs and easy enough to use for making quick determinations on a large number and variety of sites.This study employed the process-based Vegetative Filter Strip Model to evaluate the relationship between filter strip width and trapping...

  18. Comparison of arch width changes following orthodontic treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of arch width changes following orthodontic treatment with and without extraction using three-dimensional models. ... Conclusion: Extraction treatment mechanics did not cause narrow dental arches, but nonextraction treatment increased arch width in all 3 measurements. Treatments with only upper arch ...

  19. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton


    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  20. The dynamics of growth of width in distance, velocity and acceleration. (United States)

    Gasser, T; Kneip, A; Ziegler, P; Largo, R; Molinari, L; Prader, A


    In this paper the dynamics and intensity of the growth of bihumeral and biiliac width and of humerus and femur bicondylar diameter are studied and compared, and sex differences are established. The analysis is based on a newly introduced statistical tool, the structural average curve for distance, velocity and acceleration. It accounts for individual developmental tempo and allows pooling data for a sample of subjects. In all four variables studied, a sharp decline in velocity after birth is followed by a more gradual decline in infancy and childhood. A mid-growth spurt (MS) at about age 7 can be found in all variables, of about equal timing and intensity for the two sexes. The pubertal spurt (PS) is earlier for girls, and less intense except for biiliac width. The study shows a characteristic pattern across variables of width regarding the intensity of growth in different periods. The accentuated MS and PS for bihumeral width, contrasting with relatively early and small PS for the bicondylar width of femur, are remarkable.

  1. Hyperfine and magnetic properties of a Y{sub x}La{sub 1−x}FeO{sub 3} series (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristóbal, A.A.; Botta, P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA), CONICET-UNMdP, Av. J.B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bercoff, P.G., E-mail: [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. IFEG (CONICET), Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [CONICET and Centro Atómico Constituyentes (CAC), CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Y{sub x}La{sub 1−x}FeO{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by mechanochemistry. • Two magnetic contributions were identified in the series. • A paramagnetic state is associated with a fraction of the smallest particles. • A ferromagnetic state is attributed to the larger particles. • Annealing of samples favored the formation of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} impurities. - Abstract: A series of orthoferrites Y{sub x}La{sub 1−x}FeO{sub 3} in the entire range of composition was synthesized at room temperature by mechanochemical activation of oxide mixtures. Phase composition, structure and microstructure of the obtained powder materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Hyperfine interactions and magnetic properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, SQUID and vibrating sample magnetometry. Two magnetic contributions could be identified in the series of materials: a paramagnetic state, associated with a fraction of the smallest particles and a ferromagnetic state, attributed to the larger particles. The results showed that the relative proportion of both contributions is very dependent on x, the Y content of samples. From M vs T measurements, it was possible to estimate the blocking temperature distribution for the end members of the series. Annealing of samples produced the elimination of the superparamagnetic behavior and the formation of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} impurities.

  2. Pulsed EPR investigations of systems modeling molybdenum enzymes: hyperfine and quadrupole parameters of oxo-17O in [Mo 17O(SPh)4]-. (United States)

    Astashkin, Andrei V; Neese, Frank; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Cooney, J Jon A; Bultman, Eric; Enemark, John H


    Ka band ESEEM spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine (hfi) and nuclear quadrupole (nqi) interaction parameters for the oxo-17O ligand in [Mo 17O(SPh)4]-, a spectroscopic model of the oxo-Mo(V) centers of enzymes. The isotropic hfi constant of 6.5 MHz found for the oxo-17O is much smaller than the values of approximately 20-40 MHz typical for the 17O nucleus of an equatorial OH(2) ligand in molybdenum enzymes. The 17O nqi parameter (e2qQ/h = 1.45 MHz, eta approximately = 0) is the first to be obtained for an oxo group in a metal complex. The parameters of the oxo-17O ligand, as well as other magnetic resonance parameters of [Mo 17O(SPh)4]- predicted by quasi-relativistic DFT calculations, were in good agreement with those obtained in experiment. From the electronic structure of the complex revealed by DFT, it follows that the SOMO is almost entirely molybdenum d(xy) and sulfur p, while the spin density on the oxo-17O is negative, determined by spin polarization mechanisms. The results of this work will enable direct experimental identification of the oxo ligand in a variety of chemical and biological systems.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine quantum beats in HCl and pyrimidine measured by the pump-probe method using REMPI/LIF detection (United States)

    Lammer, H.; Carter, R. T.; Huber, J. R.


    Coherent time resolved IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy with REMPI and/or LIF detection has been used to measure the nuclear hyperfine structure of a diatomic and a polyatomic molecule. The pump-probe technique was applied and the experimental set up was optimized to achieve highest spectral resolution. Following excitation of the HCl fundamental vibrational transition by a nanosecond IR laser pulse, the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were determined to be eQq = -69.51(22) MHz for H35Cl and eQq = -54.40(16) MHz for H37Cl in the J = 1 and J = 2 states of the υ = 1 level. Nuclear (Cl) spin-rotation interaction was shown to be active with the corresponding coupling constant being C I = 0.068(10) MHz for H35Cl and C I = 0.049(8) MHz for H37Cl. For pyrimidine a C-H stretch vibration ν 13 was excited and the quadrupole tensor elements for the rovibronic states J K a , K c = 110 and 101 of the υ 13 = 1 level were found to be χ aa = -3.095(10) MHz, χ bb = 0.227(10) MHz and χ cc = 3.322(10) MHz. In this case the residual frequency error was reduced to 8 kHz. The results of these jet experiments independently confirm those from millimeter wave and microwave measurements on static gas samples.

  4. Measurement of radiative widths at COMPASS


    Krämer, Markus


    COMPASS is a multipurpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which addresses a wide variety of physic topics, in particular the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. Diffractive dissociation of pions on nuclear targets allows for clean access to the light meson spectrum. In addition meson production can be studied in pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect, where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. At low pion-photon center-...

  5. Controls on channel width in an intermontane valley of the frontal zone of the northwestern Himalaya (United States)

    Parida, Sukumar; Tandon, S. K.; Singh, Vimal


    Channel width is an important parameter of the hydraulic geometry of a river and can be linked to the tectonic, topographic, lithologic, and climatic controls in a particular reach. As such, variations in channel width can be the result of one or many factors acting at a specific location. For the rivers flowing in the intermontane valleys along the frontal Himalaya, active tectonics plays a major role in controlling their geometry by providing the space, energy, and sediment. Dehra Dun is an intermontane valley in the northwestern Himalaya where the rivers have their source in the Lesser Himalaya and Sub-Himalaya; they show remarkable variability in the channel width along their course. In this work, we have attempted to identify and evaluate the relative importance of various controlling factors on the channel width of these drainage systems. We selected 20 streams (six North Flank rivers - NFRs; two Main Axial rivers - MARs; twelve South Flank rivers - SFRs) flowing in the valley. In the hilly stretches, the NFRs flow over the Lesser Himalaya and the SFRs flow over the poorly consolidated upper Siwalik gravelly sediments. Channel width in the mountainous region varies generally from 5 to 30 m. The SFRs that have smaller catchments are relatively wider than the NFRs in the mountainous areas. In the Dun, the width variation is mostly between 50 and 400 m. The NFRs show widening in their middle stretches except for the Tons River, which is wide in its lower stretch. Channels widen as they cross the structural zones (i.e., the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the Santaurgarh Thrust (ST), and the Bhauwala Thrust (BT)) as a result of the change in the gradient across the structures. Large sediment supply generated by mass wasting processes from the weak zones (i.e., fault-related zones) and uplifted surfaces make the river transport limited, resulting in the deposition of the sediments. Consequently, channel bed armoring in these gravel-bed rivers protects the channel

  6. Impact of silica environment on hyperfine interactions in ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubíčková, Lenka, E-mail:; Kohout, Jaroslav [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic); Brázda, Petr; Veverka, Miroslav [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Kmječ, Tomáš; Kubániová, Denisa [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic); Bezdička, Petr [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Klementová, Mariana; Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Závěta, Karel [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)


    Magnetic nanoparticles have found broad applications in medicine, especially for cell targeting and transport, and as contrast agents in MRI. Our samples of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by annealing in silica matrix, which was leached off and the bare particles were then coated with amorphous silica layers of various thicknesses. The distribution of particle sizes was determined from the TEM pictures giving the average size ∼20 nm and the thickness of silica coating ∼5; 8; 12; 19 nm. The particles were further characterized by the XRPD and DC magnetic measurements. The nanoparticles consisted mainly of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with admixtures of ∼1 % of the α phase and less than 1 % of the γ phase. The hysteresis loops displayed coercivities of ∼2 T at room temperature. The parameters of hyperfine interactions were derived from transmission Mössbauer spectra. Observed differences of hyperfine fields for nanoparticles in the matrix and the bare ones are ascribed to strains produced during cooling of the composite. This interpretation is supported by slight changes of their lattice parameters and increase of the elementary cell volume deduced from XRD. The temperature dependence of the magnetization indicated a two-step magnetic transition of the ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles spread between ∼85 K and ∼150 K, which is slightly modified by remanent tensile stresses in the case of nanoparticles in the matrix. The subsequent coating of the bare particles by silica produced no further change in hyperfine parameters, which indicates that this procedure does not modify magnetic properties of nanoparticles.



    Çini, Uğur


    Pulse-Width Modulated Digital-Analog Converter (PWM DAC) is the most popular digital-analog conversion structure in embedded system design. However, there is no explicit formulation existing in the literature for the efficient utilization of PWM DAC implementation regarding to resolution and switching noise considerations. In this paper, PWM frequency selection formulization is given to limit switching noise less than least significant bit in the implemented DAC structure. In addition, to ext...

  8. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  9. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield


    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  10. Influence of electrical sheet width on dynamic magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, T; Cornut, B


    Effects of the width of electrical steel sheets on dynamic magnetic properties are investigated by solving diffusion equation on the cross-section of the sheet. Linear and non-linear cases are studied, and are compared with measurement on Epstein frame. For the first one an analytical solution is found, while for the second, a 2D finite element simulation is achieved. The influence of width is highlighted for a width thickness ratio lower than 10. It is shown that the behaviour modification in such cases is conditioned by the excitation signal waveform, amplitude and also frequency.

  11. Width of gene expression profile drives alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wegmann

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing generates an enormous amount of functional and proteomic diversity in metazoan organisms. This process is probably central to the macromolecular and cellular complexity of higher eukaryotes. While most studies have focused on the molecular mechanism triggering and controlling alternative splicing, as well as on its incidence in different species, its maintenance and evolution within populations has been little investigated. Here, we propose to address these questions by comparing the structural characteristics as well as the functional and transcriptional profiles of genes with monomorphic or polymorphic splicing, referred to as MS and PS genes, respectively. We find that MS and PS genes differ particularly in the number of tissues and cell types where they are expressed.We find a striking deficit of PS genes on the sex chromosomes, particularly on the Y chromosome where it is shown not to be due to the observed lower breadth of expression of genes on that chromosome. The development of a simple model of evolution of cis-regulated alternative splicing leads to predictions in agreement with these observations. It further predicts the conditions for the emergence and the maintenance of cis-regulated alternative splicing, which are both favored by the tissue specific expression of splicing variants. We finally propose that the width of the gene expression profile is an essential factor for the acquisition of new transcript isoforms that could later be maintained by a new form of balancing selection.

  12. SOL width and intermittent fluctuations in KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Garcia


    Full Text Available Radial profiles of the ion saturation current and its fluctuation statistics are presented from probe measurements in L-mode, neutral beam heated plasmas at the outboard mid-plane region of KSTAR. The results are consistent with the familiar two-layer structure, seen elsewhere in tokamak L-mode discharges, with a steep near-SOL profile and a broad far-SOL profile. The profile scale length in the far-SOL increases drastically with line-averaged density, thereby enhancing plasma interactions with the main chamber walls. Time series from the far-SOL region are characterised by large-amplitude bursts attributed to the radial motion of blob-like plasma filaments. Analysis of a data time series of several seconds duration under stationary plasma conditions reveals the statistical properties of these fluctuations, including the rate of level crossings and the average duration of periods spent above a given threshold level. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with predictions of a stochastic model, giving novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events.

  13. SOL width and intermittent fluctuations in KSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, O E; Theodorsen, A; Bak, J -G; Hong, S -H; Kim, H -S; Pitts, R A


    Radial profiles of the ion saturation current and its fluctuation statistics are presented from probe measurements in L-mode, neutral beam heated plasmas at the outboard mid-plane region of KSTAR. The familiar two-layer structure, seen elsewhere in tokamak L-mode discharges, with a steep near-SOL profile and a broad far-SOL profile, is observed. The profile scale length in the far-SOL increases drastically with line-averaged density, thereby enhancing plasma interactions with the main chamber walls. Time series from the far-SOL region are characterised by large-amplitude bursts attributed to the radial motion of blob-like plasma filaments. Analysis of a data time series of several seconds duration under stationary plasma conditions reveals the statistical properties of these fluctuations, including the rate of level crossings and the average duration of periods spent above a given threshold level. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with predictions of a stochastic model, giving novel predictions of pl...

  14. Measurement of radiative widths at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Markus


    COMPASS is a multipurpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which addresses a wide variety of physic topics, in particular the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. Diffractive dissociation of pions on nuclear targets allows for clean access to the light meson spectrum. In addition meson production can be studied in pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect, where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. At low pion-photon center-of-mass energies, these reactions are governed by chiral dynamics and contain information relevant for chiral perturbation theory. At higher energies, resonances are produced and their radiative coupling is investigated. During a short run using a 190GeV $\\pi^-$ beam and a lead target in the year 2004, 3 million exclusive $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ events in the region of small squared four-momentum transfer, i.e. t' < 0:01GeV$^2$=c$^2$, have been recorded. At very low t' < 0:001GeV$^2$=c$^2$, the contribution from electroma...

  15. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts,; Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM), Nielson; Gregory, N [Albuquerque, NM


    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  16. Sweep Width Estimation for Ground Search and Rescue (United States)


    that may influence sweep width were measured during the experiments. Promising variables include SAR background, height, age, color - blindness , fatigue...123 8.3.9 Color Blindness ................................................................................................... 124... Color Blindness ................................................................................................ 200 Searcher Profile

  17. Hyperfine interactions in dilute Se doped Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} bulk alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitesh, E-mail:; Agrawal, Naveen [The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Physics (India); Chawda, Mukesh [Polytechnic, The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Applied Physics (India)


    Hyperfine Interaction technique like Moessbauer spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool to study the local probe interactions in Iron doped alloys and compounds. We report here the Moessbauer study of the effect of Fe concentration variations in dilute magnetic semiconducting Se{sub 0.004}Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} alloys for x = 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Neutron depolarization and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The FTIR result shows the semiconducting behavior of the alloys with band gap of 0.18 eV. From Moessbauer spectroscopy two magnetic sites (A and B) were observed. The value of hyperfine magnetic fields (HMF) of ∼ 308 kOe (site A) and 270 kOe (site B) was constant with increase in Fe concentration. A nonmagnetic interaction was also observed with quadrupole splitting (QS) of 1.26 mm/sec (site C) for x = 0.004 and x = 0.008. The Neutron depolarization studies indicate that the clusters of Fe or Fe based compounds having net magnetic moments with a size greater than 100 Å is absent.

  18. Frequency tripled 1542 nm telecom laser diode stabilized to iodine hyperfine line in the 10-15 range

    CERN Document Server

    Philippe, Charles; Holleville, David; Lours, Michel; Minh-Pham, Tuam; Hrabina, Jan; Burck, Frederic Du; Wolf, Peter; Acef, Ouali


    We report on telecom laser frequency stabilization to narrow iodine hyperfine line in the green range of the optical domain, after a frequency tripling process using two nonlinear PPLN crystals. We have generated up to 300 mW optical power in the green (P3w), from 800 mW of infrared power (Pw). This result corresponds to an optical conversion efficiency eta= P3w/Pw ~ 36 %. To our knowledge, this is the best value ever demonstrated for a CW frequency tripling process. We have used a narrow linewidth iodine hyperfine line (component a1 of the 127I2 R 35 (44-0) line) to stabilize the IR laser yielding to frequency stability of 4.8x10-14 t-1/2 with a minimum of 6x10-15 reached after 50 s of integration time. The whole optical setup is very compact and mostly optically fibered. This approach opens the way for efficient and elegant architecture development for space applications as one of several potential uses.

  19. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measured GDR widths for a wide range of nuclei at temperatures (1.5 <. T < 2.5 MeV) and spins ... perature region below 1.5 MeV has rarely been investigated to verify if such a behaviour is really true. In Sn and nearby nuclei (A ∼ 120), mostly investigated so far, only a sin- gle GDR width .... The average temperature.

  20. Comparing fixed and variable-width Gaussian networks. (United States)

    Kůrková, Věra; Kainen, Paul C


    The role of width of Gaussians in two types of computational models is investigated: Gaussian radial-basis-functions (RBFs) where both widths and centers vary and Gaussian kernel networks which have fixed widths but varying centers. The effect of width on functional equivalence, universal approximation property, and form of norms in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) is explored. It is proven that if two Gaussian RBF networks have the same input-output functions, then they must have the same numbers of units with the same centers and widths. Further, it is shown that while sets of input-output functions of Gaussian kernel networks with two different widths are disjoint, each such set is large enough to be a universal approximator. Embedding of RKHSs induced by "flatter" Gaussians into RKHSs induced by "sharper" Gaussians is described and growth of the ratios of norms on these spaces with increasing input dimension is estimated. Finally, large sets of argminima of error functionals in sets of input-output functions of Gaussian RBFs are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First observation of o-Ps to p-Ps transition and first direct measurement of positronium hyperfine splitting with sub-THz light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takayuki, E-mail:; Miyazaki, Akira; Suehara, Taikan; Namba, Toshio; Asai, Shoji; Kobayashi, Tomio [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, and International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (Japan); Saito, Haruo [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Urushizaki, Yuichi; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [University of Fukui, Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region (Japan); Sabchevski, Svilen [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)


    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. The hyperfine splitting of positronium (Ps-HFS, about 203 GHz) is an important observable but all previous measurements of Ps-HFS had been measured indirectly using Zeeman splitting. There might be the unknown systematic errors on the uniformity of magnetic field. We are trying to measure Ps-HFS directly using sub-THz radiation. We developed an optical system to accumulate high power (about 10 kW) radiation in a Fabry-Perot resonant cavity and observed the positronium hyperfine transition for the first time.

  2. Direct Determination of Ground-State Transition Widths and Natural Level Widths with the Method of Relative Self Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romig C.


    Full Text Available The method of relative self absorption is based on the technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. It allows for a model-independent determination of ground-state transition widths, natural level widths, and, consequently, of branching ratios to the ground state for individual excitations. Relative self–absorption experiments have been performed on the nuclei 6Li and 140Ce. In order to investigate the total level width for the 0+1, T = 1 level at 3563 keV in 6Li, a high-precision self-absorption measurement has been performed. In the case of 140Ce, self absorption has been applied for the first time to study decay widths of dipole-excited states in the energy regime of the pygmy dipole resonance.

  3. Extended calculations of energy levels, radiative properties, AJ, BJ hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors for oxygen-like Kr XXIX (United States)

    Wang, K.; Jönsson, P.; Ekman, J.; Si, R.; Chen, Z. B.; Li, Y. G.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.


    Using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method and the second-order many-body perturbation theory method, highly accurate calculations are performed for the lowest 344 fine-structure levels arising from the 2s2 2p4 , 2s2 2p5 , 2p6 , 2s2 2p3 3 s , 2s2 2p3 3 p , 2s2 2p3 3 d , 2s2 2p4 3 s , 2s2 2p4 3 p , 2s2 2p4 3 d , 2p5 3 s , 2p5 3 p , 2p5 3 d , 2s2 2p3 4 s , 2s2 2p3 4 p , 2s2 2p3 4 d , 2s2 2p3 4 f , and 2s 2p4 4 s configurations in O-like Kr XXIX. Complete and consistent atomic data, including excitation energies, lifetimes, wavelengths, hyperfine structures, Landé gJ-factors, and E1, M1, E2, M2 transition rates, line strengths, and oscillator strengths among these 344 levels are obtained. Comparisons are made between our two different sets of results, as well as with the other available experimental and theoretical values. For O-like Kr only a few levels have been experimentally established. The accuracy of our calculated energies is however high enough to facilitate identifications of observed lines involving the n=3,4 levels. The calculated data are also useful for modeling and diagnosing fusion plasmas.

  4. A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Ganji


    Full Text Available Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20 patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI & (GI, Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS, Probing depth (PD, and Biologic Width (BW. Statistical Analysis Used. Student “t” Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55 mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group and 1.95 mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15 mm and 1.25 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening.

  5. Tunable line width all solid state double spectral line sodium beacon laser (United States)

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiafei; Ren, Huaijin; Wei, Bin; Yuan, Liao; Gong, Shenggang; Li, Tao; Gu, Jingliang; Wan, Min; Fan, Guobin


    We developed a tunable-line-width 101 W average-power all-solid-state 589nm double spectral line sodium beacon laser. The laser was based on the technical route of 1064nm and 1319nm Nd:YAG laser extra cavity sum frequency generation. The laser contained two spectral lines: 589.1591 nm and 589.1571 nm. The former line was matched to the sodium D2a absorption line with the average power of 81W, while the other line was matched to the sodium D2b absorption line with the average power of 20W. The beam quality of the two spectral line lasers was both less than 1.3. The two lasers were polarized-combined to transmit coaxially. The initial line width of the laser was about 0.3GHz, which was in the comb-like discrete structure of about three longitudinal modes. We used a white noise generator to modulate the 1064nm single frequency seed laser in frequency domain. The line width's tunability was accomplished by tuning the driving power of the white noise generator. The final line width tuning range of the 589nm laser was 0.3GHz to 1.1GHz.

  6. Does Cleft Palate Width Correlate With Veau Classification and Outcome? (United States)

    Wu, Robin; Cheraghlou, Shayan; Parsaei, Yassmin; Travieso, Roberto; Steinbacher, Derek M


    Wider cleft palates are thought to be associated with increased complications and poorer outcomes following cleft palate repair. Objective cleft palate photographic measurement and assessment of complications have not been previously performed. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively characterize a series of cleft palate dimensions and to investigate possible correlations with Veau classification and intra-, peri-, and postoperative outcomes. The analytic sample included primary cleft palate repairs performed by the senior author over a 2-year period. Standard photographs of clefts taken at the time of repair were analyzed using Image-J software. Demographic, intraoperative, perioperative, and postoperative information were collected. Width measurements were correlated with Veau classification, intraoperative variables, perioperative variables, and adverse outcomes. Statistical tests performed included simple regression analyses and multiple regression analysis. Out of 70 patients, 50 had adequate photographic documentation for inclusion in the study; 44% of patients were classified as Veau I with an average cleft width of 5.4 mm, 28% Veau II with an average of 8.9 mm, 16% Veau III with an average of 11.3 mm, and 12% Veau IV with an average of 10.0 mm. No patients exhibited postoperative bleeding, dehiscence, airway problems, infection, fistula formation, or return to the operating room. The authors found that increasing cleft width significantly predicts increasing Veau classification (P clefts) significantly predicts fluid emission (P cleft width did not predict fluid emission. Increased cleft width did not significantly predict length of stay. Our data demonstrate that wider preoperative cleft palates correlate with Veau classification, increased operating time, and slightly worsened postoperative sequela. There were no perioperative instances of bleeding, dehiscence, respiratory complications, infection, fistula formation, and return to

  7. Polarizing filter based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons with varying width (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Liu, Qiyong; Kong, Weijin; Yun, Maojin


    In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a polarizing filter consisted of graphene ribbon arrays with varying width placed on the top surface of dielectric and a metal reflector rested at the bottom of the structure. It is found that proper ribbon width, which corresponds to resonant frequency of graphene plasmons, is a crucial factor that can significantly influence the absorption effect. The results of fullwave numerical simulations indicate that total absorption of more than 90% for TE polarization and approaching to 1% for TM polarization can be achieved at normal incidence in the infrared range. Therefore, this characteristic can be applied into polarizing filter by adjusting the coupling effect between the graphene ribbon arrays. Such structure will be beneficial to the manufacture of infrared nano-photonic devices for optical filtering and selective absorption.

  8. Resonance Width Distribution for Open Chaotic Quantum Systems (United States)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil


    Recent measurements of resonance widths, γ, for low-energy neutron scattering off heavy nuclei claim significant deviations from the standard chi-square 2̂1(γ), or the Porter-Thomas, distribution. The unstable nucleus is an open quantum system, where the intrinsic dynamics has to be supplemented by the coupling of chaotic internal states through the continuum. We propose a new resonance width distribution based on the random matrix theory for an open quantum system. For a single open channel, the new distribution is P(γ)=C2̂1(γ)√sinhκ/κ where κ=πγ/2D and D is the mean energy level spacing. This result naturally recovers the Porter-Thomas distribution for small κ and can be directly applied to a whole range of mesoscopic systems, and is invariant under γ->η-γ, whereη is the total width. The realistic situation in nuclei is not that of a single neutron channel. Many photon channels are always opened which modifies the width distribution into P(,)=C2̂1(γ-γ)√sinhκγ/κγ with κγ=π(γ-γ)/2D, and the whole distribution is shifted by γ, an average radiation width.

  9. The effects of lane width, shoulder width, and road cross-sectional reallocation on drivers' behavioral adaptations. (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis


    Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic moment of Ag-104(m) and the hyperfine magnetic field of Ag in Fe using nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Golovko, V.V.; Phalet, T.; Delaure, B.; Beck, M.; Kozlov, V.Yu.; Coeck, S.; Wauters, F.; Herzog, P.; Tramm, Ch.; Zakoucky, D.; Venos, D.; Srnka, D.; Honusek, M.; Koster, U.; Severijns, N.


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR/ON) measurements with beta- and gamma-ray detection have been performed on oriented Ag-104(g,m) nuclei with the NICOLE He-3-He-4 dilution refrigerator setup at ISOLDE/CERN. For Ag-104(g) (I-pi = 5(+)) the gamma-NMR/ON resonance signal was found at nu = 266.70(5) MHz. Combining this result with the known magnetic moment for this isotope, the magnetic hyperfine field of Ag impurities in an Fe host at low temperature (< 1 K) is found to be vertical bar B-hf(AgFe)vertical bar = 44.709(35) T. A detailed analysis of other relevant data available in the literature yields three more values for this hyperfine field. Averaging all four values yields a new and precise value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe; that is, vertical bar B-hf(AgFe)vertical bar = 44.692(30) T. For Ag-104(m) (I-pi = 2(+)), the anisotropy of the beta particles provided the NMR/ON resonance signal at nu = 627.7(4) MHz. Using the new value for the hyperfine field of Ag in Fe, this frequency corresponds to the mag...

  11. Transferred hyperfine interaction at 295 K between the rare-earth ions and the fluorine and lithium nuclei in lithium rare-earth fluorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Nevald, Rolf


    The nuclear-magnetic-resonance rotation spectra for the fluorine and lithium nuclei in LiTbF4, LiDyF4, LiHoF4, and LiErF4 have been obtained at 295 K. They are separated in contributions from the dipole and the transferred hyperfine interactions. In general, the latter consists of an isotropic part...

  12. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Nanomaterials, Magnetic Ions and Magnetic Semiconductors Studied Mostly by Hyperfine Interactions (IWNMS 2004) held in Baroda, India, 10–14 February 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Somayajulu, D. R. S; IWNMS 2004


    Proceedings of the Baroda Workshop IWNMS 2004, held in Baroda, India, 10-14 February, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 160, 1-4

  13. Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.


    Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.

  14. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Makowski


    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of the ne, Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with the heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.

  15. Direct measurement of excited-state dipole matrix elements using electromagnetically induced transparency in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Daniel J; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G


    Applying large magnetic fields to gain access to the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime can isolate three-level systems in a hot alkali metal vapors, thereby simplifying usually complex atom-light interactions. We use this method to make the first direct measurement of the $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}| er||\\mathrm{5D}\\rangle|$ matrix element in $^{87}$Rb. An analytic model with only three-levels accurately models the experimental electromagnetically induced transparency spectra and extracted Rabi-frequencies are used to determine the dipole matrix element. We measure $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}_{3/2}|er||\\mathrm{5D}_{5/2}\\rangle| = (2.290\\pm0.002_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.05_{\\rm syst})~ea_{0}$ which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations of Safronova, Williams and Clark, Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 022509 (2004).

  16. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine interactions in the iron-bearing phases in some LL ordinary chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Maksimova, A. A.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)


    The study of several LL ordinary chondrites such as NWA 6286 LL6, NWA 7857 LL6 and Chelyabinsk LL5 fragments with different lithology was carried out using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 295 K. Small variations in the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters were revealed for the M1 and M2 sites in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene as well as for α-Fe(Ni, Co), α{sub 2}-Fe(Ni, Co) and γ-Fe(Ni, Co) phases, and for troilite in different samples of studied LL ordinary chondrites.

  17. Separating hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in organic semiconductors by multi-octave magnetic resonance using coplanar waveguide microresonators (United States)

    Joshi, G.; Miller, R.; Ogden, L.; Kavand, M.; Jamali, S.; Ambal, K.; Venkatesh, S.; Schurig, D.; Malissa, H.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.


    Separating the influence of hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in spin-dependent carrier recombination and dissociation processes necessitates magnetic resonance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequencies. We have designed compact and versatile coplanar waveguide resonators for continuous-wave electrically detected magnetic resonance and tested these on organic light-emitting diodes. By exploiting both the fundamental and higher-harmonic modes of the resonators, we cover almost five octaves in resonance frequency within a single setup. The measurements with a common π-conjugated polymer as the active material reveal small but non-negligible effects of spin-orbit interactions, which give rise to a broadening of the magnetic resonance spectrum with increasing frequency.

  18. Separating hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in organic semiconductors by multi-octave magnetic resonance using coplanar waveguide microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, G.; Miller, R.; Ogden, L.; Kavand, M.; Jamali, S.; Ambal, K.; Malissa, H.; Boehme, C., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Venkatesh, S.; Schurig, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Lupton, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)


    Separating the influence of hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in spin-dependent carrier recombination and dissociation processes necessitates magnetic resonance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequencies. We have designed compact and versatile coplanar waveguide resonators for continuous-wave electrically detected magnetic resonance and tested these on organic light-emitting diodes. By exploiting both the fundamental and higher-harmonic modes of the resonators, we cover almost five octaves in resonance frequency within a single setup. The measurements with a common π-conjugated polymer as the active material reveal small but non-negligible effects of spin-orbit interactions, which give rise to a broadening of the magnetic resonance spectrum with increasing frequency.

  19. Reversibility of the preferred hyperfine field direction in the electrochemically deposited Fe-Ni-P amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcik, T. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie); Kuzmann, E. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Lab. of Nuclear Chemistry); Hemschik, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften, Dresden (Germany, F.R.). Zentralinstitut fuer Festkoerperphysik und Werkstofforschung)


    Electrochemically deposited Fe(-Ni)-P alloys exhibit in the as-deposited state a strong magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis perpendicular to the foil plane. Using {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer measurements in three transmission directions and an evaluation procedure modified with respect to that reported previously, it is shown that the Fe{sub 43}Ni{sub 45}P{sub 12} alloy indeed possesses a pronounced normal orientation of the hyperfine field, i.e. the spontaneous magnetization. Application of an in-plane external field leads to an alignment of magnetic domains in field direction, whereas remanent-state results agree with those in the as-deposited state. (orig.).

  20. P ,T -odd and magnetic hyperfine-interaction constants and excited-state lifetime for HfF+ (United States)

    Fleig, Timo


    Parity- and time-reversal-symmetry violating interaction constants required for the interpretation of a recent measurement [W. B. Cairncross et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 153001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.153001] of corresponding symmetry violations in the Ω =1 (3Δ1) science state of the HfF+ molecular ion are reported. Using a relativistic four-component all-electron multireference configuration interaction model the nucleon-electron scalar-pseudoscalar interaction constant is determined as WS=20.0 [kHz]. An updated result for the electron electric-dipole-moment effective electric field of | Eeff|=22.7 [GV/cm ] is obtained. Further results of relevance in the context of the search for leptonic charge-parity violation such as the 177Hf magnetic hyperfine interaction constant and electronic G tensor for HfF+ are presented.

  1. Hyperfine magnetic field on iron atoms as indication of stoichiometry in Co{sub 2}FeSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenofontov, Vadim; Balke, Benjamin; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz (Germany); Wojcik, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Wurmehl, Sabine [Department of Applied Physics, Physics of Nanostructures, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Schneider, Horst; Jakob, Gerhard [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)


    The Heusler compound Co{sub 2}FeSi is a promising half-metallic material for thin films spintronic applications. Among the factors reducing spin-polarization, the defects and antisite disordering in such materials play a crucial role. To clarify effects of the non-stoichiometry, the continuous series of model solid solutions Co{sub 3-x}Fe{sub x}Si (0.96hyperfine magnetic fields on Fe can be used to monitor a non-stoichiometry in Co{sub 2}FeSi-based bulk samples and thin films.

  2. Hyperfine magnetic field on iron atoms and Co-Fe disordering in Co2FeSi (United States)

    Ksenofontov, Vadim; Wójcik, Marek; Wurmehl, Sabine; Schneider, Horst; Balke, Benjamin; Jakob, Gerhard; Felser, Claudia


    The Heusler compound Co2FeSi is a prospective half-metallic material for spintronic applications. Defects and antisite disordering play a crucial role among the factors reducing spin polarization in such materials. To clarify effects of possible off-stoichiometry, a continuous series of model solid solutions Co3-xFexSi (0.6≤x≤1.4) was investigated by F57e Mössbauer spectroscopy and C59o nuclear magnetic resonance. It has been shown that the hyperfine magnetic fields on Fe can be used to monitor Co-Fe disordering in Co2FeSi-based bulk samples and thin films.

  3. Intercalation effect on hyperfine parameters of Fe in FeSe superconductor with Tc = 42 K (United States)

    Shylin, Sergii I.; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Sedlmaier, Stefan J.; Clarke, Simon J.; Cassidy, Simon J.; Wortmann, Gerhard; Medvedev, Sergey A.; Felser, Claudia


    57Fe-Mössbauer spectra of superconducting β-FeSe, the Li/NH3 intercalate product and a subsequent sample of this intercalate treated with moist He gas have been measured in the temperature range 4.7-290 K. A correlation is established between hyperfine parameters and critical temperature T{c} in these phases. A strong increase of the isomer shift upon intercalation is explained by a charge transfer from the Li/NH3 intercalate to the FeSe layers resulting in an increase of T{c} up to 42 K. A significant decrease of the quadrupole splitting above 240 K has been attributed to diffusive motion of Li+ ions within the interlamellar space.

  4. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristroph, Leif [UT-AUSTIN; Thrasher, Matthew [UT-AUSTIN; Swinney, Harry [UT-AUSTIN


    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  5. Characteristics of pulse width for an enhanced second harmonic generation (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Hyodo, Masaharu; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chuangtian; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Masayoshi


    Temporal characteristics of a cavity enhancement second harmonic (SH) generation for picosecond laser pulse are investigated. We experimentally measured pulse width changes that were indued by group velocity mismatching (GVM), SH process, and enhancement cavity. It indicates that the generated pulse width is a combined effect of the GVM and SH process. Meanwhile, the effect of the enhancement cavity can be avoided by controlling its free spectrum range. A interferometric autocorrelator with a KBBF-PCD as nonlinear crystal is also composed and this extends the measurement light wavelength below 410 nm.

  6. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E


    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  7. Resonance widths in open microwave cavities studied by harmonic inversion


    Kuhl, U.; Hoehmann, R.; Main, J; Stoeckmann, H. -J.


    From the measurement of a reflection spectrum of an open microwave cavity the poles of the scattering matrix in the complex plane have been determined. The resonances have been extracted by means of the harmonic inversion method. By this it became possible to resolve the resonances in a regime where the line widths exceed the mean level spacing up to a factor of 10, a value inaccessible in experiments up to now. The obtained experimental distributions of line widths were found to be in perfec...

  8. Monitoring of Varying Joint Gap Width During Laser Beam Welding by a Dual Vision and Spectroscopic Sensing System (United States)

    Nilsen, Morgan; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Ancona, Antonio

    A vision and spectroscopic system for estimation of the joint gap width in autogenous laser beam butt welding is presented. Variations in joint gap width can introduce imperfections in the butt joint seam, which in turn influence fatigue life and structural integrity. The aim of the monitoring approach explored here is to acquire sufficiently robust process data to be used to guide post inspection activities and/or to enable feedback control for a decreased process variability. The dual-sensing approach includes a calibrated CMOS camera and a miniature spectrometer integrated with a laser beam tool. The camera system includes LED illumination and matching optical filters and captures images of the area in front of the melt pool in order to estimate the joint gap width from the information in the image. The intensity of different spectral lines acquired by the spectrometer has been investigated and the correlation between the intensity of representative lines and the joint gap width has been studied. Welding experiments have been conducted using a 6 kW fiber laser. Results from both systems are promising, the camera system is able to give good estimations of the joint gap width, and good correlations between the signal from the spectrometer and the joint gap width have been found. However, developments of the camera setup and vision algorithm can further improve the joint gap estimations and more experimental work is needed in order to evaluate the robustness of the systems.

  9. Dependence of residual displacements on the width and depth of compliant fault zones: a 3D study (United States)

    Kang, J.; Duan, B.


    Compliant fault zones have been detected along active faults by seismic investigations (trapped waves and travel time analysis) and InSAR observations. However, the width and depth extent of compliant fault zones are still under debate in the community. Numerical models of dynamic rupture build a bridge between theories and the geological and geophysical observations. Theoretical 2D plane-strain studies of elastic and inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquake have been conducted by Duan [2010] and Duan et al [2010]. In this study, we further extend the experiments to 3D with a focus on elastic response. We are specifically interested in how residual displacements depend on the structure and properties of complaint fault zones, in particular on the width and depth extent. We conduct numerical experiments on various types of fault-zone models, including fault zones with a constant width along depth, with decreasing widths along depth, and with Hanning taper profiles of velocity reduction. . Our preliminary results suggest 1) the width of anomalous horizontal residual displacement is only indicative of the width of a fault zone near the surface, and 2) the vertical residual displacement contains information of the depth extent of compliant fault zones.

  10. Q-angle, Pelvic width, and Intercondylar notch width as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the left notch for the injured group, while INW for the right and left of the non injured group were between 1.7mm to ... gender, age, and type of physical activity. Sport is defined as physical activity involving a structured ... without contact from another person and most often ... factors such as differences in the anatomical.

  11. The second spectrum of niobium: I. Accurate fine structure study of even-parity levels (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa


    For the first time, a parametric analysis of the fine and hyperfine structure for even-parity levels of Nb II, involving 17 configurations, has been performed. The interpretation has been carried out based on a linked-parameter method of level-fitting calculations in a large multiconfiguration basis. The sets of fine structure parameters, the leading eigenvector percentages of levels, as well as their calculated magnetic Landé g-factors are newly given. Furthermore, we confirm on the whole the validity of the attributions to term designations, previously proposed. The single-electron hyperfine structure parameters are determined in their entirety for 93Nb II for the model space (4d + 5s)4 with a good accuracy and confirmed by ab initio calculations. Finally, a complete list of the predicted magnetic hyperfine structure constants A of all levels of this model space was generated.

  12. Novel dual-probes atomic force microscope for line width measurements (United States)

    Wang, Hequn; Gao, Sitian; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Li, Qi; Li, Shi


    Dual-probe Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) can effectively eliminate the influence of the probe size on measurement of the line width, and realize true three-dimensional measurement. Novel dual-probe AFM consists of probe system, scanning system, alignment system and displacement measurement system. As displacement measurement system, the interferometers are added to the novel dual-probes AFM. In order to simplify the dual-probe AFM structure, self-sensing tuning fork probe is used. Measurement method has two steps: the first step is to align two probes and obtain the reference point; the second step is to scan two sides of measured line by two probes separately, and calculate the line width value according to the reference point. In the alignment of two probes, the alignment method is improved by using the edge alignment and the feedback scanning alignment.

  13. Widths of the atomic K-N7 levels

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, J L


    Atomic level widths obtained from experimental measurements are collected in Table I, along with the corresponding theoretical widths derived from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; these EADL values are based upon the Dirac-Hartree-Slater version of the independent-particle model. In a minority of cases, many-body theory predictions are also provided. A brief discussion of the manner in which the experimental widths were deduced from spectroscopic data is included. The bulk of the data are for elements in the solid state, but a few data for gases and simple compounds are included. For the K, L2, L3, and M5 levels, where Coster-Kronig contributions do not contribute or contribute only to a small extent to the overall widths, the EADL predictions appear satisfactory for elements in the solid state. For other levels, where Coster-Kronig and super-Coster-Kronig transitions have large probabilities within the independent-particle model, this model is not satisfacto...

  14. Crack width analysis of steel fibers reinforced concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šahinagić-Isović Merima


    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced concrete in recent years has grown from experimental material to a practical usable material, due to its positive properties such as increased tensile strength, bending strength, toughness etc. However, still there are many unanswered questions that are the subject of many research. In this paper results and analysis of crack width of concrete beams with steel fibres are presented. This analysis considers influence of steel fibre addition on the crack width of reinforced concrete beams (dimensions 15/28/300 cm loaded up to fracture during short-term ultimate static load with one unloading cycle. Concrete beams were made of two types of concrete: ordinary strength concrete (OSC - C30/37 and high strength concrete (HSC - C60/70, with and without 0.45% of steel fibres. The results indicate that there is a significant influence of fibre addition on crack width, especially for ordinary concrete. At the end, empirical calculations of the concrete elements' crack width with steel fibres according to the recommendations of RILEM and ACI building code are given.

  15. Frequency width of open channels in multiple scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.; Goorden, S.A.; Mosk, Allard


    We report optical measurements of the spectral width of open transmission channels in a three-dimensional diffusive medium. The light transmission through a sample is enhanced by efficiently coupling to open transmission channels using repeated digital optical phase conjugation. The spectral

  16. Directed path-width and monotonicity in digraph searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barat, Janos


    Directed path-width was defined by Reed, Thomas and Seymour around 1995. The author and P. Hajnal defined a cops-and-robber game on digraphs in 2000. We prove that the two notions are closely related and for any digraph D, the corresponding graph parameters differ by at most one. The result is ac...

  17. Stark Widths of Spectral Lines of Neutral Neon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne I spec- tral lines which are needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, collisional widths and shifts (the so-called Stark broadening parameters) of 29 iso- lated spectral lines of neutral neon have been determined within the impact semiclassical perturbation method.

  18. An Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Aoki, Masato; /Fermilab; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.


    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Lambda}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Lambda}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the CKM matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb'}| < 0.59 for a high mass fourth generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth generation quark mixing matrix.

  19. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian


    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...

  20. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  1. Width adjustment: relative dominance in unstable alluvial streams (United States)

    Simon, Andrew


    The mechanisms that control the relative dominance of width adjustment in unstable streams are described. Specifically, the role of the following factors affecting the fluvial environment were investigated: vertical processes and fluvial action, bed-material particle, cohesive strength of bank material, and riparian vegetation.

  2. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    width twisted tape inserts, ASME Transactions, Vol. 122, pp. 143-149. Naphon P., 2006. Heat transfer and pressure drop in the horizontal double pipes with and without twisted tape insert, International communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 33, pp. 166-175. Promvonge P. and Eiamsa-ard S., 2007. Heat transfer ...

  3. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels (United States)

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.


    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q channel width was attributed to a calculated peak runoff discharge on sealed cropland, the application field of the regression equation was extended towards larger discharges (i.e. 5 × 10channels revealed that the discharge exponent (distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to width equation for concentrated flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  4. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... 2*Sri Sai College of Engineering and Technology, Loluru(V), Anantapur(Dist.) ..... tape acting as fin. It is observed that the reduction in tape width causes reduction in Nusselt numbers as well as reduction in pressure drop. From Figure 7, the percentage ...

  5. Echo width of foam supports used in scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Solodukhov, V. V.


    Theoretically and experimentally determined echo widths of dielectric cylinders having circular, triangular, and quadratic cross sections have been compared. The cylinders were made of foam material having a relative dielectric constant of about 1.035. The purpose of the investigation was to find...

  6. Harmonic Orientation of Pulse Width Modulation Technique in Multilevel Inverters


    Urmila Bandaru; Subba D Rayudu


    The Multilevel Inverter topology gives the advantages of usage in high power and high voltage application with reduced harmonic distortion without a transformer. This paper presents a comparative study of orientation of higher ordered harmonics with increase in switching frequency around the frequency modulation index of nine level diode clamped inverter for different Switching frequency Multicarrier Pulse width Modulation.

  7. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi


    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any......, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  8. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a utility interfaced pulse-width modulation of solar-fed voltage source single phase full bridge inverter. The proposed system has to do with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, ...

  9. Analyzing bin-width effect on the computed entropy (United States)

    Purwani, Sri; Nahar, Julita; Twining, Carole


    The Shannon entropy is a mathematical expression for quantifying the amount of randomness which can be used to measure information content. It is used in objective function. Mutual Information (MI) uses Shannon entropy in order to determine shared information content of two images. The Shannon entropy, which was originally derived by Shannon in the context of lossless encoding of messages, is also used to define an optimum message length used in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle for groupwise registration. Majority of papers used histogram for computing MI, and hence the entropy. We therefore, aim to analyze the effect of bin-width on the computed entropy. We first derived the Shannon entropy from the integral of probability density function (pdf), and found that Gaussian has maximum entropy over all possible distribution. We also show that the entropy of the flat distribution is less than the entropy of the Gaussian distribution with the same variance. We then investigated the bin-width effect on the computed entropy, and analyzed the relationship between the computed entropy and the integral entropy when we vary bin-width, but fix variance and the number of samples. We then found that the value of the computed entropy lies within the theoretical predictions at small and large bin-widths. We also show two types of bias in entropy estimator.

  10. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  11. The width of the gamma-ray burst luminosity function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    We examine the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) luminosity function through the distribution of GRB peak count rates, Cpeak, as detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (1993). In the context of Galactic corona spatial distribution models, we attempt to place constaints on the

  12. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.

  13. Particle and heat flux measurements from XGC1 simulations: Spatial patterns and SOL width implications (United States)

    Keramidas Charidakos, Ioannis; Myra, James; Parker, Scott; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chowdhury, Jugal; Churchill, Michael; Hager, Robert; Chang, Choong-Seock


    Strong turbulence near the separatrix is believed to produce filamentary structures (blobs), whose detachment from the bulk can account for the intermittent nature of edge turbulence and impact the heat flux width. The SOL width is a parameter of paramount importance in modern tokamaks as it controls the amount of power deposited at the divertor plates, directly affecting thus the viability of fusion. Here, we analyze the results of simulations performed with the full-f, gyrokinetic code XGC1 which includes both turbulence and neoclassical effects in realistic divertor geometry. More specifically, we calculate the integrated particle and heat fluxes across the separatrix and present their spatial pattern. The flux is impacted by neoclassical effects and ExB turbulent-blobby motion. We isolate the ExB turbulent flux and estimate its contribution to the SOL width. Furthermore, we offer an interpretation of the observed patterns, tying them to the sheared perpendicular and parallel flows. We acknowledge computing resources on Titan at OLCF through the 2015 INCITE and the 2016 ALCC awards. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  14. The Effect of Crack Width on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li


    Full Text Available When subjected to loading or thermal shrinkage, reinforced concrete structures usually behave in a cracking state, which raises the risk of bar corrosion from the working environment. The influence of cover cracking on chloride-induced corrosion was experimentally investigated through a 654-day laboratory test on cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride solution. The concrete specimens have a dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm × 400 mm and a single prefabricated crack at the midspan. When the percentage concentration of chloride ion (0.6%, 1.2%, 2.1%, 3.0%, and 6.0% and crack width (uncracked, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm are taken as variables, the experimental results showed that the corrosion rates for cracked specimens increased with increasing percentage concentration of chloride and increasing crack width. This study also showed the interrelationship between crack width and percentage concentration of chloride on the corrosion rate. In addition, an empirical model, incorporating the influence of the cover cracking and chloride concentration, was developed to predict the corrosion rate. This model allows the prediction of the maximum allowable wcr based on the given percentage concentration of chloride in the exposure condition.

  15. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu


    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  16. Substrate Oxide Layer Thickness Optimization for a Dual-Width Plasmonic Grating for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Biosensor Applications. (United States)

    Bauman, Stephen J; Brawley, Zachary T; Darweesh, Ahmad A; Herzog, Joseph B


    This work investigates a new design for a plasmonic SERS biosensor via computational electromagnetic models. It utilizes a dual-width plasmonic grating design, which has two different metallic widths per grating period. These types of plasmonic gratings have shown larger optical enhancement than standard single-width gratings. The new structures have additional increased enhancement when the spacing between the metal decreases to sub-10 nm dimensions. This work integrates an oxide layer to improve the enhancement even further by carefully studying the effects of the substrate oxide thickness on the enhancement and reports ideal substrate parameters. The combined effects of varying the substrate and the grating geometry are studied to fully optimize the device's enhancement for SERS biosensing and other plasmonic applications. The work reports the ideal widths and substrate thickness for both a standard and a dual-width plasmonic grating SERS biosensor. The ideal geometry, comprising a dual-width grating structure atop an optimal SiO₂ layer thickness, improves the enhancement by 800%, as compared to non-optimized structures with a single-width grating and a non-optimal oxide thickness.

  17. Flow separation at the inner (convex) and outer (concave) banks of constant-width and widening open-channel bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.; Kleinhans, M.G.; McLelland, S.J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Murphy, B.J.; Kruijs, A. van der; Parsons, D.R.; Chen, Q.


    There is a paucity of data and insight in the mechanisms of, and controls on flow separation and recirculation at natural sharply-curved river bends. Herein we report on successful laboratory experiments that elucidate flow structure in one constant-width bend and a second bend with an outer-bank

  18. Joint space width in dysplasia of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K


    . Neither subjects with dysplasia nor controls had radiological signs of ongoing degenerative disease at admission. The primary radiological discriminator of degeneration of the hip was a change in the minimum joint space width over time. There were no significant differences between these with dysplasia...... and controls in regard to age, body mass index or occupational exposure to daily repeated lifting at admission.We found no significant differences in the reduction of the joint space width at follow-up between subjects with dysplasia and the control subjects nor in self-reported pain in the hip......In a longitudinal case-control study, we followed 81 subjects with dysplasia of the hip and 136 control subjects without dysplasia for ten years assessing radiological evidence of degeneration of the hip at admission and follow-up. There were no cases of subluxation in the group with dysplasia...

  19. The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O. [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Determination of the width of the top quark. (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L


    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  1. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Troy [Univ. of College, London (United Kingdom)


    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  2. Influence of Doppler Bin Width on GNSS Detection Probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Bernhard C


    The acquisition stage in GNSS receivers determines Doppler shifts and code phases of visible satellites. Acquisition is thus a search in two continuous dimensions, where the digital algorithms require a partitioning of the search space into cells. We present analytic expressions for the acquisition performance depending on the partitioning of the Doppler frequency domain. In particular, the impact of the number and width of Doppler bins is analyzed. The presented results are verified by simulations.

  3. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.


    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  4. Measurement of the mass and width of the W boson

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija


    The mass and width of the W boson are measured using e+e- -> W+W- events from the data sample collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 170 GeV and 209 GeV. The mass (mw) and width (gw) are determined using direct reconstruction of the kinematics of W+W- -> qqbarlv and W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. When combined with previous OPAL measurements using W+W- -> lvlv events and the dependence on mw of the WW production cross-section at threshold, the results are determined to be mw = 80.415 +- 0.042 +- 0.030 +- 0.009 GeV gw = 1.996 +- 0.096 +- 0.102 +- 0.003 GeV where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to uncertainties in the value of the LEP beam energy. By measuring mw with several different jet algorithms in the qqbarqqbar channel, a limit is also obtained on possible final-state interactions due to colour reconnection effects in W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. The consistency of the results for the W mass and width with those inferred from other ele...

  5. The meatal/urethral width in healthy uncircumcised boys. (United States)

    Orkiszewski, Marek; Madej, Joanna


    Knowledge of normal meatal/urethral width in a growing boy is important to create a neourethra of adequate size to correct hypospadias. Thus far, normal size values have been based on the study of circumcised, awake boys. The aim of this study was to measure normal urethral width in healthy uncircumcised boys under general anesthesia to provide a tool to create a neourethra of adequate size. Sixty healthy uncircumcised boys, aged 5 months through 16 years, were examined. Measurements were carried out under general anesthesia with Hegar dilators, size 1-8mm. Care was taken not to dilate or injure the urethra. The patients were divided into age groups similar to those in the literature and those recommended for hypospadias surgery. The data were analyzed in relation to age, body length and weight. With minimum size 3.5mm and maximum 7.5mm, the mean width was significantly larger in the age groups 5 months-2 years and 2-4 years than in the literature (P<0.001). This study presents a practical tool for surgeons involved in hypospadias repair. Standardization of procedure may result in better assessment of results and education. Copyright © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The width of the {omega} meson in the nuclear medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona (Spain); Tolos, L. [Facultat de Ciencies, Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molina, R. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Ibaraki (Japan); Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Aptdo. 22085, Valencia (Spain)


    We evaluate the width of the {omega} meson in nuclear matter. We consider the free decay mode of the {omega} into three pions, which is dominated by {rho}{pi} decay, and replace the {rho} and {pi} propagators by their medium-modified ones. We also take into account the quasielastic and inelastic processes induced by a vector-baryon interaction dominated by vector meson exchange, as well as the contributions coming from the {omega}{yields}K anti K mechanism with medium-modified K, anti K propagators. We obtain a substantial increase of the {omega} width in the medium, reaching a value of 121 {+-} 10 MeV at normal nuclear matter density for an {omega} at rest, which comes mainly from {omega}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N, {omega}NN {yields} {pi}NN processes associated to the dominant {omega} {yields} {rho}{pi} decay mode. The value of the width increases moderately with momentum, reaching values of around 200MeV at 600MeV/c. (orig.)

  7. Width-modulated square-wave pulses for ultrasound applications. (United States)

    Smith, Peter R; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven


    A method of output pressure control for ultrasound transducers using switched excitation is described. The method generates width-modulated square-wave pulse sequences that are suitable for driving ultrasound transducers using MOSFETs or similar devices. Sequences are encoded using an optimized level-shifted, carrier-comparison, pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy derived from existing PWM theory, and modified specifically for ultrasound applications. The modifications are: a reduction in carrier frequency so that the smallest number of pulses are generated and minimal switching is necessary; alteration of a linear carrier form to follow a trigonometric relationship in accordance with the expected fundamental output; and application of frequency modulation to the carrier when generating frequency-modulated, amplitude- tapered signals. The PWM method permits control of output pressure for arbitrary waveform sequences at diagnostic frequencies (approximately 5 MHz) when sampled at 100 MHz, and is applicable to pulse shaping and array apodization. Arbitrary waveform generation capability is demonstrated in simulation using convolution with a transducer's impulse response, and experimentally with hydrophone measurement. Benefits in coded imaging are demonstrated when compared with fixed-width square-wave (pseudo-chirp) excitation in coded imaging, including reduction in image artifacts and peak side-lobe levels for two cases, showing 10 and 8 dB reduction in peak side-lobe level experimentally, compared with 11 and 7 dB reduction in simulation. In all cases, the experimental observations correlate strongly with simulated data.

  8. Stark widths regularities within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence (United States)

    Trklja, Nora; Tapalaga, Irinel; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš


    Stark widths within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence have been studied. This is a unique approach that includes both neutrals and ions. Two levels of problem are considered: if the required atomic parameters are known, Stark widths can be calculated by some of the known methods (in present paper modified semiempirical formula has been used), but if there is a lack of parameters, regularities enable determination of Stark broadening data. In the framework of regularity research, Stark broadening dependence on environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters has been investigated. The aim of this work is to give a simple model, with minimum of required parameters, which can be used for calculation of Stark broadening data for any chosen transitions within sodium like emitters. Obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not been measured or calculated yet. This system enables fast data processing by using of proposed theoretical model and it provides quality control and verification of obtained results.

  9. Study of the hyperfine properties of the nickel-zinc ferrite using coprecipitation process; Estudo das propriedades hiperfinas de ferrita de niquel e zinco obtida por coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Adriana Silva de; Almeida Macedo, Waldemar Augusto de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    In this work were studied the synthesis by coprecipitation of the Ni Zn ferrite, Ni {sub 0,5} Zn{sub 0,5} Fe{sub 2} O{sub 4}``, and its hyperfine properties. The ferrite specimens were prepared using metallic nitrates in aqueous solutions as precursor agents and the precipitation processes were promoted by addition of ammonium or sodium hydroxide. The obtained powders were calcined and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, and by {sup 57} Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The liquid phase was analysed by atomic absorption. The samples of stoichiometric Ni Zn ferrite were obtained using Na O H as precipitating agent. The ferrite powders presented different particles size related with changing in the preparation method,and then, different hyperfine properties. Moessbauer effect measurements reveled the superparamagnetic nature of the ferrite samples that presented particles size smaller than 30 nm. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions and 17th International Symposium on Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions (HFI/NQI 2004) Bonn, Germany, 22–27 August 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K; HFI/NQI 2004


    Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions and 17th International Symposium on Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions, HFI/NQI 2004, held in Bonn, Germany, 22-27 August, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 158/159.

  11. Differences of the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters in both oxyhemoglobin and spleen from normal human and patient with primary myelofibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S. [Ural State Medical Academy (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)


    Study of oxyhemoglobin in red blood cells and spleen tissues from normal human and patient with primary myelofibrosis was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters were evaluated and small variations in quadrupole splitting were revealed for both normal human and patient's oxyhemoglobin and both normal human and patient's spleen.

  12. Measurements of the Mass, Total Width and Two-Photon Partial Width of the $\\eta_{c}$ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, G; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Vogel, H; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Urner, D; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J


    Using 13.4 $fb^{-1}$ of data collected with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have observed 300 events for the two-photon production of ground-state pseudo-scalar charmonium in the decay $\\eta_c$ -> $K_S K^{\\mp} \\pi^{\\pm}$. We have measured the $\\eta_c$ mass to be (2980.4 +- 2.3 (stat) +- 0.6 (sys)) MeV and its full width as (27.0 +- 5.8 (stat) +- 1.4 (sys)) MeV. We have determined the two-photon partial width of the $\\eta_c$ meson to be (7.6 +- 0.8 (stat) +- 0.4 (sys) +- 2.3 (br)) keV, with the last uncertainty associated with the decay branching fraction.

  13. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker


    Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  14. Superfast multifrequency phase-shifting technique with optimal pulse width modulation. (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song


    The technique of generating sinusoidal fringe patterns by defocusing squared binary structured ones has numerous merits for high-speed three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. However, it is challenging for this method to realize a multifrequency phase-shifting (MFPS) algorithm because it is difficult to simultaneously generate high-quality sinusoidal fringe patterns with different periods. This paper proposes to realize an MFPS algorithm utilizing an optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique that can selectively eliminate high-order harmonics of squared binary patterns. We successfully develop a 556 Hz system utilizing a three-frequency algorithm for simultaneously measuring multiple objects.

  15. The magnetic structure on the ground state of the equilateral triangular spin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Kazuki, E-mail:; Goto, Takayuki [Sophia University, Physics Division (Japan); Manaka, Hirotaka [Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Miura, Yoko [Suzuka National College of Technology (Japan)


    The ground state of the frustrated equilateral triangular spin tube CsCrF{sub 4} is still hidden behind a veil though NMR spectrum broaden into 2 T at low temperature. In order to investigate the spin structure in an ordered state by {sup 19}F-NMR, we have determined the anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors for each three fluorine sites in the paramagnetic state. The measurement field was raised up to 10 T to achieve highest resolution. The preliminary analysis using the obtained hyperfine tensors has shown that the archetypal 120°-type structure in ab-plane does not accord with the NMR spectra of ordered state.

  16. NMR investigation of domain wall dynamics and hyperfine field anisotropy in magnets by the magnetic video-pulse excitation method (United States)

    Gavasheli, Ts A.; Mamniashvili, GI; Gegechkori, T. O.


    Two-pulse nuclear spin echoes were studied experimentally depending on the time of application and pulse amplitudes of the DC magnetic field-magnetic video-pulses (MVP) as well as on the value of the external magnetic field. The measurements were performed with nanopowders and polycrystals of metallic cobalt, in lithium ferrite and half metal Co2MnSi. Two types of dependences of these signals on time of application of MVP with respect to moments of application of exciting radio-frequency pulses were established, which were determined by the degree of anisotropy of local hyperfine fields. The mechanisms of influence of the pinning and mobility of domain walls on the revealed specific features of the signals under study are also discussed. It is shown that temporal spectra of the MVP effect on two-pulse echoes in multidomain magnets are determined by the parameters of domain walls and can be used for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the domain wall dynamics of magnets.

  17. Precision measurement of the 87Rb tune-out wavelength in the hyperfine ground state F =1 at 790 nm (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Mayer, Daniel; Hohmann, Michael; Lausch, Tobias; Kindermann, Farina; Widera, Artur


    We report on a precision measurement of the D line tune-out wavelength of 87 in the hyperfine ground state |F =1 ,mF=0 ,±1 > manifold at 790 nm , where the scalar ac Stark shifts of the D1 and the D2 lines cancel. This wavelength is sensitive to usually neglected contributions from vector and tensor ac Stark shifts, transitions to higher principle quantum numbers, and core electrons. The ac Stark shift is probed by Kapitza-Dirac scattering of a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical lattice in free space and controlled magnetic environment. The tune-out wavelength of the magnetically insensitive mF=0 state was determined to 790.01858 (23 )n m with sub-pm accuracy. An in situ absolute polarization, and magnetic background field measurement is performed by employing the ac vector Stark shift for the mF=±1 states. Comparing our findings to theory, we get quantitative insight into atomic physics beyond commonly used two-level atom approximations or the neglect of inner shell contributions.

  18. First-principles study of spin-state crossovers and hyperfine interactions of ferric iron in magnesium silicate perovskite (United States)

    Hsu, Han; Blaha, Peter; Cococcioni, Matteo; Wentzcovitch, Renata


    The spin-state crossover in iron-bearing MgSi O3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the Earth, may significantly affect the properties of Earth's lower mantle. However, details of this phenomenon have been very unclear, owing to the complicated nature of this mineral, mainly the coexistence of ferrous and ferric iron. Using the density functional theory plus Hubbard U (DFT+ U) methods, we investigated the spin states and hyperfine interactions of ferric iron in this mineral. We show that a crossover from high-spin to low-spin state occurs within the lower-mantle pressure range, and it is accompanied by a noticeable volume reduction and an increase in iron nuclear quadrupole splitting (QS). These results are consistent with recent x-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements [K. Catalli et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 289, 68 (2010)]. This work is primarily supported by the MRSEC Program of NSF under DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885, and partially supported by EAR-0810212 and EAR-1047629. P.B. was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (P20271-N17). Calculations were performed at MSI.

  19. Potential dominance of oscillating crescent waves in finite width tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.


    Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of previously observed oscillating crescent water wave patterns, created by class II (three-dimensional) instabilities which are in principle not dominant, could in fact be explained as an artifact of a finite width tank, combined with a suppression...... of the class I (Benjamin-Feir) instability. Within this context, we investigate quantitatively the dominance of class II deep water wave instabilities for particular transversal wavenumbers, and it is shown that the regions where non-phase-locked (oscillating) crescent wave patterns are locally dominant...

  20. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui


    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  1. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.


    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  2. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory. (United States)

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J


    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  3. Width Criterion For Weld-Seam-Tracking Data (United States)

    Lincir, Mark R.


    Image-processing algorithm in "through-torch-vision" (T3V) system developed to guide gas/tungsten arc welding robot along weld seam modified, according to proposal, reducing incidence of inaccurate tracking of weld seam. Developmental system intended to provide closed-loop control of motion of welding robot along weld seam on basis of lines in T3V image identified by use of image-processing algorithm and assumed to coincide with edges of weld seam. Use of width criterion prevents tracking of many false pairs of lines, with consequent decrease in incidence of inaccurate tracking and increase in confidence in weld-tracking capability of robotic welding system.

  4. CGC beyond eikonal accuracy: finite width target effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altinoluk Tolga


    Full Text Available We present a method to systematically include the corrections to the eikonal approximation that are associated with the finite width of the target. The retarded gluon propagator in background field is calculated at next-to-next-to-eikonal (NNE accuracy by using this method. The corrections to the strict eikonal limit of the gluon propagator are found to be Wilson lines decorated by gradients of the background field of the target. The result is then applied to single inclusive gluon production and to single transverse spin asymmetry for a polarized target in pA collisions.

  5. LADAR Range Image Interpolation Exploiting Pulse Width Expansion (United States)


    pulse width expansion of each pulse in this study. The Pearson’s Product -moment coefficient, described by [27] ρ = 1 N N∑ n=1 ( dn − d̄ ) (rn − r̄...until after the simulations were conducted. But, the obvious question arose about whether the subsitution of the slope angle for the magnitude of the...Attack System,” 2006, [Online]. Available at products /l/locaas.htm. [Accessed 23-September- 2011]. 3. A. V. Oppenheim and R. W

  6. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K


    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  7. The Effect of Deck Width Addition Toward Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge: Case Study of Siak Sri Indrapura Bridge, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Bambang


    Full Text Available An aeroelastic interaction always take places in long-span bridge, i.e. the dynamic relationship between wind forces (aerodynamic and bridge structural motion (dynamics. Wind forces may lead to serviceability and safety problems, and may even cause instability of the whole bridge structure due to the flexibility nature of long span bridge structures.The slimer girder plate will make the structure more unstable as can be seen from the occurrence of lateral deformation. This paper presents the results analysis of cable stayed bridge that has total span of 640 m, two planes configuration of harp-typed hanger cable, the A shape pylons span along 320 m (main span,and side span of 160m. Structural analysis was conducted to determine the optimum ratio between width and spans of cable stayed bridge. The bridge was modeled with various width of 7 to 22 m. Structural modelling was conducted using SAP2000 software to analyze the structural stability of cable stayed bridge under wind load at speed of 35 m/s.The influence of wind loads to the cable stayed bridge stability can be seen based on the bridge deck deformation at the Y-axis (U2, in which for the width of the bridge deck of 7 m, 8 m, 9 m and 10 m, the deformation of U2 are 0.26 m; 0.17 m; 0.12 m and 0.10 m, respectively. Meanwhile, for bridge’s width of 11-22 m, the value of U2 axis deformation is relatively constant between 0.08 m to 0.07 m. This finding suggests that the ratio between width and length of bridge greatly affect the stability of the cable stayed bridge. Cable-stayed bridge, especially for concrete bridge, with two plain system having optimum ratio of width and length show no sign of an aerodynamic instability when fulfills the requirements of B ≥ L / 3.

  8. Reflectionless wave dynamics in channels of variable depth and width (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Didenkulova, Ira; Shurgalina, Ekaterina


    In this work we discuss long wave dynamics in rectangular channels of variable depth and width. Demonstrated, that for conditions of "self-consistent channel" when Bc = const (B is a channel width, and c is a celerity), the wave propagates without inner reflection from the channel bottom and walls even if the function c(x) is arbitrary. It is shown, in the framework of the linear shallow-water theory, that the temporal shape of the travelling wave does not change with the distance; its amplitude and duration are constant. However, the spatial shape of the wave varies due to the change in celerity along the channel. In the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory, it is shown that the travelling wave deforms while the inner reflection from the channel bottom and walls is still absent. In this case dispersive effects lead to a disintegration of the initial wave into solitons. This process is studied in detail. Such unusual waves may propagate over long distances without loss of energy.

  9. Measurement of the Higgs decay width in the diphoton channel

    CERN Document Server

    Adolfsson, Jonatan


    In this note, a projected measurement of the Higgs decay width ($\\Gamma_{H}$) is presented, based on interference in the diphoton channel. Two different hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis A assumes that the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ cross-section is proportional to $\\Gamma_{H}^{-1}$, whereas hypothesis B assumes that this cross-section is constant and instead uses the overall change in $m_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ line shape. Events were simulated using Sherpa 2.1, and were used to produce test statistics in order to obtain a 95 % confidence limit of $\\Gamma_{H}$. The standard model width was tested using Asimov data sets, which were validated using pseudo-experiments for the integrated luminosities of Run 1, Run 2 and HL-LHC. The obtained limits are significantly improved with respect to previous studies, but further validations of the test are required. The expected limits for 300 fb$^{-1}$ are $1.19\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis A and $24\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis B.

  10. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.


    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  11. Validity of joint space width measurements in hand osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Kwok, W Y; Bijsterbosch, J; Malm, S H; Biermasz, N R; Huetink, K; Nelissen, R G; Meulenbelt, I; Huizinga, T W J; van 't Klooster, R; Stoel, B C; Kloppenburg, M


    To investigate the validity of joint space width (JSW) measurements in millimeters (mm) in hand osteoarthritis (OA) patients by comparison to controls, grading of joint space narrowing (JSN), and clinical features. Hand radiographs of 235 hand OA patients (mean age 65 years, 83% women) and 471 controls were used. JSW was measured with semi-automated image analysis software in the distal, proximal interphalangeal and metacarpal joints (DIPJs, PIPJs and MCPJs). JSN (grade 0-3) was assessed using the osteoarthritis research society international (OARSI) atlas. Associations between the two methods and clinical determinants (presence of pain, nodes and/or erosions, decreased mobility) were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equations with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and mean width of proximal phalanx. JSW was measured in 5631 joints with a mean JSW of 0.98 mm (standard deviation (SD) 0.21), being the smallest for DIPJs (0.70 (SD 0.25)) and largest for MCPJs (1.40 (SD 0.25)). The JSN=0 group had a mean JSW of 1.28 mm (SD 0.34), the JSN=3 group 0.17 mm (SD 0.23). Controls had larger JSW than hand OA patients (P-valuemeasurement is a valid method to measure joint space and shows a good relation with clinical features. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation (United States)

    Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen


    A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

  13. Thumbnail with Integrated Blur Based on Edge Width Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Tatt Koik


    Full Text Available Thumbnail image is widely used in electronic devices to help the user to scan through original high resolution images. Hence, it is essential to represent the thumbnail image correspondingly to the original image. A blur image should not appear to be a clear image in thumbnail form, where this situation might mislead the perceptual analysis of user. The main purpose of this research work is to develop a downsampling algorithm to create a thumbnail image which includes blur information. The proposed method has three stages involved to obtain the proposed output thumbnail, which are preliminary processes, blur detection, and lastly image downsampling. For preliminary processes, Sobel first-order derivatives, gradient magnitude, and gradient orientation are determined. In blur detection stage, local maximum, local minimum, and gradient orientation are ultilized to calculate the edge width. The thumbnail image with blur information is generated using the average edge width map as a weightage to integrate blur information. This proposed method has achieved satisfying results and has high potential to be applied as one of the thumbnail generation options for photo viewing.

  14. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF. (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S


    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  15. Doping Properties of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors Investigated by the Hyperfine Interaction of Implanted Radioisotopes

    CERN Multimedia


    One of the most promising prospective applications of semiconductors will be in the field of spinelectronics. Thereby polarized spins must be injected into semiconductor structures. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMS) have a potential for such applications because of the coexistence of semiconducting and ferromagnetic properties. A special group of such FMS are the chromium chalcogenides of type AB$_{2}$C$_{4}$ with B = Cr. They crystallise in the structure of normal spinel. In this Proposal the application of the perturbed angular correlation technique (= PAC) for the investigation of nuclear probes in these substances is described. The radioactive probes will be implanted at the ISOLDE separator. We will start these investigations with the substances CdCr$_{2}$Se$_{4}$, CdCr$_{2}$S$_{4}$, HgCr$_{2}$Se$_{4}$, CuCr$_{2}$Se$_{4}$ and CuCr$_{2}$S$_{4}$ which are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures between 84.5 and 460 K. In addition to the popular $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd), which we get from other facilities, we ...

  16. Optimal width of quasicrystalline slabs of dielectric cylinders to microwave radiation transmission contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andueza, Ángel; Sevilla, Joaquín [Dpto. Ing. Eléctrica y Electrónica Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Smart Cities Institute, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Wang, Kang [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Pérez-Conde, Jesús [Dpto. de Física Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)


    Light confinement induced by resonant states in aperiodic photonic structures is interesting for many applications. A particular case of these resonances can be found in 2D quasicrystalline arrangements of dielectric cylinders. These systems present a rather isotropic band gap as well as isolated in-gap photonic states (as a result of spatially localized resonances). These states are built by high symmetry polygonal clusters that can be regarded as photonic molecules. In this paper, we study the transmission properties of a slab of glass cylinders arranged in approximants of the decagonal quasicrystalline structure. In particular, we investigate the influence of the slab width in the transmission contrast between the states and the gap. The study is both experimental and numerical in the microwave regime. We find that the best transmission contrast is found for a width of around three times the radiation wavelength. The transmission in the band gap region is mediated by the resonances of the photonic molecules. If the samples are thin enough, they become transparent except around a resonance of the photonic molecule which reflects the incoming light.

  17. What Do s- and p-Wave Neutron Average Radiative Widths Reveal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mughabghab, S.F.


    A first observation of two resonance-like structures at mass numbers 92 and 112 in the average capture widths of the p-wave neutron resonances relative to the s-wave component is interpreted in terms of a spin-orbit splitting of the 3p single-particle state into P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} components at the neutron separation energy. A third structure at about A = 124, which is not correlated with the 3p-wave neutron strength function, is possibly due to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance. Five significant results emerge from this investigation: (i) The strength of the spin-orbit potential of the optical-model is determined as 5.7 {+-} 0.5 MeV, (ii) Non-statistical effects dominate the p-wave neutron-capture in the mass region A = 85 - 130, (iii) The background magnitude of the p-wave average capture-width relative to that of the s-wave is determined as 0.50 {+-} 0.05, which is accounted for quantitatively in tenns of the generalized Fermi liquid model of Mughabghab and Dunford, (iv) The p-wave resonances arc partially decoupled from the giant-dipole resonance (GDR), and (v) Gamma-ray transitions, enhanced over the predictions of the GDR, are observed in the {sup 90}Zr - {sup 98}Mo and Sn-Ba regions.

  18. Clinical evaluation of the biological width following surgical crown-lengthening procedure: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown-lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 6 months. Sites were divided into 3 groups: treated (TT sites, adjacent (AD sites and nonadjacent (NAD sites. Free gingival margin [FGM], attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width [BW] were recorded at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Student t test and ANOVA were used. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 and 6 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1, 3 and 6 months compared to that at baseline. However, at all sites, BW was reestablished to the baseline value at the end of 6 months. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BW at TT sites was reestablished to its original vertical dimension by 6 months. In addition, a consistent 2-mm gain of coronal tooth structure was observed at the 1, 3 and 6-month examinations.

  19. FG Width Scalability of the 3-D Vertical FG NAND Using the Sidewall Control Gate (SCG) (United States)

    Seo, Moon-Sik; Endoh, Tetsuo

    Recently, the 3-D vertical Floating Gate (FG) type NAND cell arrays with the Sidewall Control Gate (SCG), such as ESCG, DC-SF and S-SCG, are receiving attention to overcome the reliability issues of Charge Trap (CT) type device. Using this novel cell structure, highly reliable flash cell operations were successfully implemented without interference effect on the FG type cell. However, the 3-D vertical FG type cell has large cell size by about 60% for the cylindrical FG structure. In this point of view, we intensively investigate the scalability of the FG width of the 3-D vertical FG NAND cells. In case of the planar FG type NAND cell, the FG height cannot be scaled down due to the necessity of obtaining sufficient coupling ratio and high program speed. In contrast, for the 3-D vertical FG NAND with SCG, the FG is formed cylindrically, which is fully covered with surrounded CG, and very high CG coupling ratio can be achieved. As results, the scaling of FG width of the 3-D vertical FG NAND cell with S-SCG can be successfully demonstrated at 10nm regime, which is almost the same as the CT layer of recent BE-SONOS NAND.

  20. Optimal inverter logic gate using 10-nm double gate-all-around (DGAA transistor with asymmetric channel width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myunghwan Ryu


    Full Text Available We investigate the electrical characteristics of a double-gate-all-around (DGAA transistor with an asymmetric channel width using three-dimensional device simulation. The DGAA structure creates a silicon nanotube field-effect transistor (NTFET with a core-shell gate architecture, which can solve the problem of loss of gate controllability of the channel and provides improved short-channel behavior. The channel width asymmetry is analyzed on both sides of the terminals of the transistors, i.e., source and drain. In addition, we consider both n-type and p-type DGAA FETs, which are essential to forming a unit logic cell, the inverter. Simulation results reveal that, according to the carrier types, the location of the asymmetry has a different effect on the electrical properties of the devices. Thus, we propose the N/P DGAA FET structure with an asymmetric channel width to form the optimal inverter. Various electrical metrics are analyzed to investigate the benefits of the optimal inverter structure over the conventional inverter structure. Simulation results show that 27% delay and 15% leakage power improvement are enabled in the optimum structure.

  1. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther


    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent is inver......In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent....../min 2.6 kWThe quality level is measured according to ISO 13919-1. Qualities of the butt welds with the maximum gap width listed in the table are mainly grouped in level B (stringent). The maximum gap width should be chosen with respect to the application requirements....

  2. Feedback optimization of pulse width in the SORC sequence. (United States)

    Schiano, J L; Routhier, T; Blauch, A J; Ginsberg, M D


    A method for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements by automatically adjusting a pulse parameter in real-time is presented. This approach is useful in situations where the optimal pulse parameters cannot be chosen beforehand due to lack of knowledge regarding the system. For example, NQR provides a means for detecting explosives by revealing the presence of (14)N. In this particular application, the distance between the search coil and the explosive, as well as the temperature of the explosive, is unknown. As a result, a fixed set of pulse parameters will not yield the largest SNR for all possible search applications. This paper describes a feedback algorithm that uses measurements of the NQR signal to automatically adjust the pulse width in the strong off-resonant comb sequence to maximize the SNR of the NQR measurement. Experimental results obtained using a sample of sodium nitrite are presented. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Pulsed lasers in speckle photography: error owing to pulse width. (United States)

    Joenathan, C; Blair, S M; Ganesan, A R


    The effect of the pulse width of a pulsed laser in the studies of speckle velocimetry and transient vibration analysis is discussed. Because of the motion of the object during an exposure, a sine function is obtained by using the pointwise filtering method. This function modulates the halo along with the Young's fringes. It is shown that for high object velocities the sinc function modifies the halo distribution; as a result, the error in calculating the fringe position increases. An aperture geometry for which the autocorrelation halo is made constant in certain regions is proposed in which the intensity variation in this region is the result of the modulating sinc function only. A closed-form solution for the shift in the position of the fringes in this region is obtained. Experimental results of the simulation are presented.

  4. Nonlinear temperature dependent failure analysis of finite width composite laminates (United States)

    Nagarkar, A. P.; Herakovich, C. T.


    A quasi-three dimensional, nonlinear elastic finite element stress analysis of finite width composite laminates including curing stresses is presented. Cross-ply, angle-ply, and two quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates are studied. Curing stresses are calculated using temperature dependent elastic properties that are input as percent retention curves, and stresses due to mechanical loading in the form of an axial strain are calculated using tangent modulii obtained by Ramberg-Osgood parameters. It is shown that curing stresses and stresses due to tensile loading are significant as edge effects in all types of laminate studies. The tensor polynomial failure criterion is used to predict the initiation of failure. The mode of failure is predicted by examining individual stress contributions to the tensor polynomial.

  5. The Width difference of $B_{d}$ mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Dighe, Amol S; Kim, C S; Yoshikawa, T; Dighe, Amol; Hurth, Tobias; Kim, Choong Sun; Yoshikawa, Tadashi


    We estimate $\\dg/\\Gamma_d$, including $1/m_b$ contributions and part of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections. We find that adding the latter corrections decreases the value of $\\dg/\\Gamma_d$ computed at the leading order by a factor of almost 2. We also show that under certain conditions an upper bound on the value of $\\dg/\\Gamma_d$ in the presence of new physics can be derived. With the high statistics and accurate time resolution of the upcoming LHC experiment, the measurement of $\\dg$ seems to be possible. This measurement would be important for an accurate measurement of $\\sin(2\\beta)$ at the LHC. In addition, we point out the possibility that the measurement of the width difference leads to a clear signal for new physics.

  6. Red cell distribution width and mortality in carotid atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Wonnerth, Anna; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Mayer, Florian J; Minar, Erich; Wojta, Johann; Schillinger, Martin; Koppensteiner, Renate; Hoke, Matthias


    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with morbidity and mortality in chronic cardiac disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RDW as a predictor of adverse outcome in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We prospectively studied 1065 of 1286 consecutive patients with neurological asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis as assessed by duplex Doppler sonography. The study end points were all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality respectively. During a median follow-up time of 6·2 years (interquartile range 5·9-6·6), corresponding to 5551 overall person-years, 275 patients (25·8%) died. Of them, 182 patients (66·2%) died due to cardiovascular causes. RDW was significantly associated with adverse outcome. In a continuous multivariate Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio for each per cent increase in RDW was 1·39 (95% CI 1·27-1·53; P < 0·001) for all-cause and 1·43 (95% CI 1·28-1·60; P < 0·001) for cardiovascular mortality respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a gradual relationship between increasing quartiles of RDW and death (log rank P < 0·001). Adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause death ranged from 0·89 to 1·94 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile (P < 0·001 for trend) and for cardiovascular death from 1·08 to 2·34 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile (P < 0·001 for trend) respectively. Red cell distribution width was significantly and independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Ab-initio study of the hyperfine parameters in P2{sub 1}/c, P42nmc and Fm3m zirconia phases doped with Ta{sub zr} and the vacancy-Ta{sub zr} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, R.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, y Nat. y Agr.-UNNE-Avenue Libertad 5600, Corrientes (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Caravaca, M.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria-UNNE, Avenue Las Heras 727, Resistencia (Argentina)


    In this work we develop selfconsistent calculations by means of the all-electron method NFP-LMTO. The electronic structure, quadrupolar frequencies and asymmetry parameters of ZrO{sub 2} polymorphs doped with Ta placed at substitutional site to Zr (Ta{sub Zr}), with and without vacancies are studied in the monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases. The calculated hyperfine parameters in neutral Ta{sub Zr} in the monoclinic phase are in agreement with hypine parameters measured with PAC and assigned to substitutional site in a wide range of temperatures. However, in the case of Ta{sub Zr} in the tetragonal P42nmc phase, the electric field gradient (EFG) is in large disagreement with the experimental assignment. Therefore we explored the incorporation of a near neighbor oxygen vacancy in several charged states. We found that the TaV{sup 0} and TaV{sup +1} pairs in the tetragonal symmetry with axis length ratio c/a=1.02 gives electric field gradients V{sub zz} and {eta} in agreement with low-temperature values of the experimentally assigned pure tetragonal, called t-form. Further, the pair Ta-V with a ratio c/a=1 gives EFG in close agreement with reported high-temperature values.

  8. Estimating tree crown widths for the primary Acadian species in Maine (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Aaron R. Weiskittel


    In this analysis, data for seven conifer and eight hardwood species were gathered from across the state of Maine for estimating tree crown widths. Maximum and largest crown width equations were developed using tree diameter at breast height as the primary predicting variable. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the maximum crown width and a constrained...

  9. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve (United States)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.


    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  10. The 17O hyperfine interaction in V17O(H217O)52+ and Mn(H217O)62+ determined by high field ENDOR aided by DFT calculations. (United States)

    Baute, Debbie; Goldfarb, Daniella


    The 17O hyperfine interaction of the water ligands and the V=O oxygen in the vanadyl aquo complex and of the water ligands in the Mn2+ aquo complex in a frozen solution were determined by W-band (95 GHz) electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). Orientation selective ENDOR spectra of the vanadyl complex exhibited two distinct signals assigned to the vanadyl oxygen and the water ligands. The assignment of the signals was done based on the orientation of the principal axis system of the hyperfine interaction and through comparison with the hyperfine interaction predicted by DFT calculations. The latter showed good agreement with the experimental values thus providing clear evidence that the vanadyl oxygen is exchangeable. The interaction of the vanadyl oxygen, especially its anisotropic part, was significantly larger than that of the water oxygens due to a relatively large negative spin density on the oxygen p orbitals. The 17O hyperfine interaction of the water ligand in the Mn2+ complex was found to be similar to that of the water ligand in the vanadyl complex and was in good agreement with earlier single-crystal data. Here, due to the large thermal polarization, it was also possible to determine the absolute sign of the hyperfine coupling by selecting different EPR transitions.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of line-edge and line-width roughness for EUV lithography (United States)

    Bonam, Ravi; Liu, Chi-Chun; Breton, Mary; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Muthinti, Raja; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai


    Pattern transfer fidelity is always a major challenge for any lithography process and needs continuous improvement. Lithographic processes in semiconductor industry are primarily driven by optical imaging on photosensitive polymeric material (resists). Quality of pattern transfer can be assessed by quantifying multiple parameters such as, feature size uniformity (CD), placement, roughness, sidewall angles etc. Roughness in features primarily corresponds to variation of line edge or line width and has gained considerable significance, particularly due to shrinking feature sizes and variations of features in the same order. This has caused downstream processes (Etch (RIE), Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) etc.) to reconsider respective tolerance levels. A very important aspect of this work is relevance of roughness metrology from pattern formation at resist to subsequent processes, particularly electrical validity. A major drawback of current LER/LWR metric (sigma) is its lack of relevance across multiple downstream processes which effects material selection at various unit processes. In this work we present a comprehensive assessment of Line Edge and Line Width Roughness at multiple lithographic transfer processes. To simulate effect of roughness a pattern was designed with periodic jogs on the edges of lines with varying amplitudes and frequencies. There are numerous methodologies proposed to analyze roughness and in this work we apply them to programmed roughness structures to assess each technique's sensitivity. This work also aims to identify a relevant methodology to quantify roughness with relevance across downstream processes.

  12. Decay widths of the spin-2 partners of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, Miguel, E-mail: [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, 46071, Valencia (Spain); Guo, Feng-Kun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing (China); Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, 53115, Bonn (Germany); Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos, E-mail:; Nieves, Juan, E-mail: [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, 46071, Valencia (Spain); Valderrama, Manuel Pavón, E-mail: [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, 91406, Orsay Cedex (France)


    We consider the X(3872) resonance as a J{sup PC}=1{sup ++}DD{sup -bar∗} hadronic molecule. According to heavy quark spin symmetry, there will exist a partner with quantum numbers 2{sup ++}, X{sub 2}, which would be a D{sup ∗}D{sup -bar∗} loosely bound state. The X{sub 2} is expected to decay dominantly into DD{sup -bar}, DD{sup -bar∗} and D{sup -bar}D{sup ∗} in d-wave. In this work, we calculate the decay widths of the X{sub 2} resonance into the above channels, as well as those of its bottom partner, X{sub b2}, the mass of which comes from assuming heavy flavor symmetry for the contact terms. We find partial widths of the X{sub 2} and X{sub b2} of the order of a few MeV. Finally, we also study the radiative X{sub 2}→DD{sup -bar∗}γ and X{sub b2}→B{sup -bar}B{sup ∗}γ decays. These decay modes are more sensitive to the long-distance structure of the resonances and to the DD{sup -bar∗} or BB{sup -bar∗} final state interaction.

  13. Electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag C2N-h2D nanoribbons: Edge and width effects (United States)

    Yu, H. L.; Jiang, X. F.; Cai, M. Q.; Feng, J. F.; Chen, X. S.; Yang, X. F.; Liu, Y. S.


    Based on first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the structural stability, electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag C2N nanoribbons (ZC2NNRs). Different from zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs), the ground states of ZC2NNRs present ferromagnetic metal, antiferromagnetic semiconductor and spin semiconductor dependently on the edge configuration and width of nanoribbons. Our results suggest the ZC2NNRs have great potential applications in spintronic, thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Power spectra and auto correlation analysis of hyperfine-induced long period oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harack, B.; Leary, A.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Payette, C.; Austing, D. G. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada and National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    We outline power spectra and auto correlation analysis performed on temporal oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots. The current is monitored for ∼2325 s blocks as the magnetic field is stepped through a high bias feature displaying hysteresis and switching: hallmarks of the hyperfine interaction. Quasi-periodic oscillations of ∼2 pA amplitude and of ∼100 s period are observed in the current inside the hysteretic feature. Compared to the baseline current outside the hysteretic feature the power spectral density is enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude and the auto correlation displays clear long lived oscillations about zero.

  15. Better algorithms for satisfiability problems for formulas of bounded rank-width

    CERN Document Server

    Ganian, Robert; Obdržálek, Jan


    We provide a parameterized polynomial algorithm for the propositional model counting problem #SAT, the runtime of which is single-exponential in the rank-width of a formula. Previously, analogous algorithms have been known -- e.g.~[Fischer, Makowsky, and Ravve] -- with a single-exponential dependency on the clique-width of a formula. Our algorithm thus presents an exponential runtime improvement (since clique-width reaches up to exponentially higher values than rank-width), and can be of practical interest for small values of rank-width. We also provide an algorithm for the MAX-SAT problem along the same lines.

  16. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus. (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John


    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  17. Impact of collimator leaf width and treatment technique on stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy plans for intra- and extracranial lesions. (United States)

    Wu, Q Jackie; Wang, Zhiheng; Kirkpatrick, John P; Chang, Zheng; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Lu, Mei; Huntzinger, Calvin; Yin, Fang-Fang


    This study evaluated the dosimetric impact of various treatment techniques as well as collimator leaf width (2.5 vs 5 mm) for three groups of tumors -- spine tumors, brain tumors abutting the brainstem, and liver tumors. These lesions often present challenges in maximizing dose to target volumes without exceeding critical organ tolerance. Specifically, this study evaluated the dosimetric benefits of various techniques and collimator leaf sizes as a function of lesion size and shape. Fifteen cases (5 for each site) were studied retrospectively. All lesions either abutted or were an integral part of critical structures (brainstem, liver or spinal cord). For brain and liver lesions, treatment plans using a 3D-conformal static technique (3D), dynamic conformal arcs (DARC) or intensity modulation (IMRT) were designed with a conventional linear accelerator with standard 5 mm leaf width multi-leaf collimator, and a linear accelerator dedicated for radiosurgery and hypofractionated therapy with a 2.5 mm leaf width collimator. For the concave spine lesions, intensity modulation was required to provide adequate conformality; hence, only IMRT plans were evaluated using either the standard or small leaf-width collimators.A total of 70 treatment plans were generated and each plan was individually optimized according to the technique employed. The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to separate the impact of treatment technique from the MLC system on plan outcome, and t-tests were performed to evaluate statistical differences in target coverage and organ sparing between plans. The lesions ranged in size from 2.6 to 12.5 cc, 17.5 to 153 cc, and 20.9 to 87.7 cc for the brain, liver, and spine groups, respectively. As a group, brain lesions were smaller than spine and liver lesions. While brain and liver lesions were primarily ellipsoidal, spine lesions were more complex in shape, as they were all concave. Therefore, the brain and the liver groups were compared for

  18. Impact of collimator leaf width and treatment technique on stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy plans for intra- and extracranial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the dosimetric impact of various treatment techniques as well as collimator leaf width (2.5 vs 5 mm for three groups of tumors – spine tumors, brain tumors abutting the brainstem, and liver tumors. These lesions often present challenges in maximizing dose to target volumes without exceeding critical organ tolerance. Specifically, this study evaluated the dosimetric benefits of various techniques and collimator leaf sizes as a function of lesion size and shape. Methods Fifteen cases (5 for each site were studied retrospectively. All lesions either abutted or were an integral part of critical structures (brainstem, liver or spinal cord. For brain and liver lesions, treatment plans using a 3D-conformal static technique (3D, dynamic conformal arcs (DARC or intensity modulation (IMRT were designed with a conventional linear accelerator with standard 5 mm leaf width multi-leaf collimator, and a linear accelerator dedicated for radiosurgery and hypofractionated therapy with a 2.5 mm leaf width collimator. For the concave spine lesions, intensity modulation was required to provide adequate conformality; hence, only IMRT plans were evaluated using either the standard or small leaf-width collimators. A total of 70 treatment plans were generated and each plan was individually optimized according to the technique employed. The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE was used to separate the impact of treatment technique from the MLC system on plan outcome, and t-tests were performed to evaluate statistical differences in target coverage and organ sparing between plans. Results The lesions ranged in size from 2.6 to 12.5 cc, 17.5 to 153 cc, and 20.9 to 87.7 cc for the brain, liver, and spine groups, respectively. As a group, brain lesions were smaller than spine and liver lesions. While brain and liver lesions were primarily ellipsoidal, spine lesions were more complex in shape, as they were all concave. Therefore, the

  19. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout. (United States)

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S


    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  20. Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)


    We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S{sub 21}) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S{sub 21} spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.

  1. Study of the hyperfine magnetic field acting on Ce probes substituting for the rare earth and the magnetic ordering in intermetallic compounds RAg (R=rare earth) by first principles calculations; Estudo do campo hiperfino magnetico na sonda de Ce colocada nos compostos intermetalicos do tipo RAg (R=terra rara) e do ordenamento magnetico desses compostos usando calculos de primeiros principios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luciano Fabricio Dias


    In this work the magnetic hyperfine field acting on Ce atoms substituting the rare-earths in R Ag compounds (R = Gd e Nd) was studied by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. The employed method was the Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbitals (APW+lo), embodied in the WIEN2k program, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and with the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. The super-cell approach was utilized in order to simulate for the Ce atoms acting as impurities in the R Ag matrix. In order to improve for correlation effects within the 4f shells, a Hubbard term was added to the DFT Hamiltonian, within a procedure called GGA+U. It was found that the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) generated by the Ce 4f electron is the main component of the total MHF and that the Ce 4f ground state level is probably a combination of the m{sub l} = -2 and m{sub l} = -1 sub-levels. In addition, the ground-state magnetic structure was determined for Ho Ag and Nd Ag by observing the behavior of the total energy as a function of the lattice volume for several possible magnetic ordering in these compounds, namely, ferromagnetic, and the (0,0,{pi}), ({pi},{pi},0) and (({pi},{pi},{pi}) types of anti-ferromagnetic ordering of rare-earth atoms. It was found that the ground-state magnetic structure is anti-ferromagnetic of type ({pi},{pi},0) for both, the Ho Ag and Nd Ag compounds. The energy difference of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering is very small in the case of the Nd Ag compound. (author)

  2. Red blood cell distribution width: A simple parameter in preeclampsia. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Yılmaz, Elif; Küçüközkan, Tuncay


    Preeclampsia is a serious disease and a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is used as an inflammation marker in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Although the relationship between RDW and hypertension has been well documented, the association between preeclampsia and RDW is not clear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between RDW and preeclampsia and its severity. One hundred eighteen pregnant women with preeclampsia and one hundred twenty uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and RDW levels were analyzed. The RDW values were significantly higher in preeclampsia group compared with the control group (15.23±1.96 vs 14.48±1.70, pblood cell count, can be used as a significant diagnostic and prognostic marker in patient with preeclampsia like the other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A microfluidic diluter based on pulse width flow modulation. (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo


    We demonstrate that pulse width flow modulation (PWFM) can be used to design fast, accurate, and precise multistage dilution modules for microfluidic devices. The PWFM stage unit presented here yields 10-fold dilution, but several PWFM stages can be connected in series to yield higher-order dilutions. We have combined two stages in a device thus capable of diluting up to 100-fold, and we have experimentally determined a set of rules that can be conveniently utilized to design multistage diluters. Microfabrication with resist-based molds yielded geometrical channel height variances of 7% (22.9(16) microm) with corresponding hydraulic resistance variances of approximately 20%. Pulsing frequencies, channel lengths, and flow pressures can be chosen within a wide range to establish the desired diluter properties. Finally, we illustrate the benefits of on-chip dilution in an example application where we investigate the effect of the Ca(2+) concentration on a phospholipid bilayer spreading from a membrane reservoir onto a SiO(2) surface. This is one of many possible applications where flexible concentration control is desirable.

  4. Programming microbes using pulse width modulation of optical signals. (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; Basu, Amar S; Bayer, Travis S


    Cells transmit and receive information via signalling pathways. A number of studies have revealed that information is encoded in the temporal dynamics of these pathways and has highlighted how pathway architecture can influence the propagation of signals in time and space. The functional properties of pathway architecture can also be exploited by synthetic biologists to enable precise control of cellular physiology. Here, we characterised the response of a bacterial light-responsive, two-component system to oscillating signals of varying frequencies. We found that the system acted as a low-pass filter, able to respond to low-frequency oscillations and unable to respond to high-frequency oscillations. We then demonstrate that the low-pass filtering behavior can be exploited to enable precise control of gene expression using a strategy termed pulse width modulation (PWM). PWM is a common strategy used in electronics for information encoding that converts a series of digital input signals to an analog response. We further show how the PWM strategy extends the utility of bacterial optogenetic control, allowing the fine-tuning of expression levels, programming of temporal dynamics, and control of microbial physiology via manipulation of a metabolic enzyme. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs (United States)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.


    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  6. Heterodimeric capping protein is required for stereocilia length and width regulation. (United States)

    Avenarius, Matthew R; Krey, Jocelyn F; Dumont, Rachel A; Morgan, Clive P; Benson, Connor B; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Cunningham, Christopher L; Scheffer, Deborah I; Corey, David P; Müller, Ulrich; Jones, Sherri M; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G


    Control of the dimensions of actin-rich processes like filopodia, lamellipodia, microvilli, and stereocilia requires the coordinated activity of many proteins. Each of these actin structures relies on heterodimeric capping protein (CAPZ), which blocks actin polymerization at barbed ends. Because dimension control of the inner ear's stereocilia is particularly precise, we studied the CAPZB subunit in hair cells. CAPZB, present at ∼100 copies per stereocilium, concentrated at stereocilia tips as hair cell development progressed, similar to the CAPZB-interacting protein TWF2. We deleted Capzb specifically in hair cells using Atoh1-Cre, which eliminated auditory and vestibular function. Capzb-null stereocilia initially developed normally but later shortened and disappeared; surprisingly, stereocilia width decreased concomitantly with length. CAPZB2 expressed by in utero electroporation prevented normal elongation of vestibular stereocilia and irregularly widened them. Together, these results suggest that capping protein participates in stereocilia widening by preventing newly elongating actin filaments from depolymerizing. © 2017 Avenarius et al.

  7. Jitter model and signal processing techniques for pulse width modulation optical recording (United States)

    Liu, Max M.-K.


    A jitter model and signal processing techniques are discussed for data recovery in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) optical recording. In PWM, information is stored through modulating sizes of sequential marks alternating in magnetic polarization or in material structure. Jitter, defined as the deviation from the original mark size in the time domain, will result in error detection if it is excessively large. A new approach is taken in data recovery by first using a high speed counter clock to convert time marks to amplitude marks, and signal processing techniques are used to minimize jitter according to the jitter model. The signal processing techniques include motor speed and intersymbol interference equalization, differential and additive detection, and differential and additive modulation.

  8. Investigation of Mean Platelet Volume, Platelet Distribution Width and Erythrocyte Distribution Width in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım KIRATLI


    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is an important public health issue all over the world, and it has a high morbidity and mortality rates caused by chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy is the primary procedure for evaluating the fibrosis grade. Recently, non-invasive methods are used to predict liver histology. Complete blood count (CBC is one of the most needed and used laboratory tests in clinics. CBC parameters have been used in various studies to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of mortality. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relationship of HBV infection with mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW and red cell distribution width (RDW. Materials and Methods: Two hundred fifty-nine hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive patients, who attended the Infectious Diseases outpatient Clinic at Van Military Hospital between October 2013 and December 2014, were included in the study group. A total of 245 food handlers with similar socio-demographic characteristics with the study group, who applied at the same period, formed the control group. HBsAg-positive patients were studied in two groups as chronic active hepatitis and inactive carriers according to their follow-up. CBC results of the patients and the healthy controls were screened from the hospital information system and they were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The average platelet count in HBsAg-positive patients and controls was 262.59±62.13x103/mm3 and 245.28±60.78x103/mm3, respectively and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.002. There was also statistically significant difference in RDW values between the two groups. The average RDW was 12.14±1.05 in HBV group, while it was 12.49±1.28 in control group (p=0.001. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in PDW and MPV between the groups. Conclusion: It is thought that simple, inexpensive and routinely used platelet and

  9. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in RMO{sub 3} (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonari, A. W., E-mail:; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Junqueira, A. C.; Leite, D. M. T.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)


    The local magnetic interaction at the transition metal sites in RMO{sub 3} (R = La, Nd; M = Cr, Fe) compounds has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique using {sup 181}Hf{yields}{sup 181}Ta probe nuclei. The present measurements cover a temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K. Above the respective Neel temperature, each compound shows a unique quadrupolar frequency that decreases linearly with temperature. These interactions were assigned to the radioactive probe substituting Cr or Fe sites. Below T{sub N}, a combined electric plus magnetic hyperfine interaction was observed. The magnetic interaction revealed that the super transferred hyperfine fields on {sup 181}Ta at the Cr sites in (La,Nd)CrO{sub 3} extrapolated to 0 K, are much smaller than the corresponding values at Fe sites in (La,Nd)FeO{sub 3}. This difference was attributed to different distribution of d electrons in Cr{sup 3+} (3d{sup 3}) and Fe{sup 3+} (3d{sup 5}) ions in each compound. As the fields for Nd compounds are smaller than those for La compounds, the role of rare-earth ions in the magnetism of these oxides is also discussed.

  10. Hyperfine field at Mn in the intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 measured by PAC using 111Cd nuclear probe (United States)

    Domienikan, C.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Carbonari, A. W.


    Magnetic hyperfine field at Mn site has been measured in the orthorhombic intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 with PAC spectroscopy using radioactive 111In- 111Cd nuclear probe. Samples of LaMnSi2 were prepared by melting pure metallic components in stoichiometric proportion in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. The samples were sealed in a quartz tube under helium atmosphere, annealed at 1000 °C for 60 h and quenched in water. Samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. 111In was introduced in the samples by thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for 60 h. PAC measurements were carried out with a six BaF2 detector spectrometer at several temperatures between 50 K and 410 K. Results show well defined quadrupole and magnetic interactions at all temperatures. The magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) measured at 50 K is 7.1(1) T. The temperature dependence of Bhf follows the normal Brillouin-like behavior expected for a simple ferromagnetic ordering. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (Tc) was determined to be 401(1) K.

  11. Stark widths and shifts for spectral lines of Sn IV (United States)

    de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.


    In this paper, we present theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated corresponding to 66 spectral lines of Sn IV. We use the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN computer code. For the intermediate coupling calculations, the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels was used. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 1.1-5.0 (104 K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 34 configurations of Sn IV: 4d10ns(n = 5-10), 4d10nd(n = 5-8), 4d95s2, 4d95p2, 4d95s5d, 4d85s5p2 and 4d105g for even parity and 4d10np(n = 5-8), 4d10nf (n = 4-6), 4d95snp(n = 5-8), 4d85s25p and 4d95snf (n = 4-10) for odd parity. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of radiative lifetimes of 14 levels of Sn IV. There is good agreement between our calculations and the experimental radiative lifetimes obtained from the bibliography. The spectral lines of Sn IV are observed in UV spectra of HD 149499 B obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. Also our values of Stark broadening parameters have been compared with the data available in the bibliography.

  12. Perception of Length to Width Relations of City Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T. Nefs


    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on how people perceive the aspect ratio of city squares. Earlier research has focused on distance perception but not so much on the perceived aspect ratio of the surrounding space. Furthermore, those studies have focused on “open” spaces rather than urban areas enclosed by walls, houses and filled with people, cars, etc. In two experiments, we therefore measured, using a direct and an indirect method, the perceived aspect ratio of five city squares in the historic city center of Delft, the Netherlands. We also evaluated whether the perceived aspect ratio of city squares was affected by the position of the observer on the square. In the first experiment, participants were asked to set the aspect ratio of a small rectangle such that it matched the perceived aspect ratio of the city square. In the second experiment, participants were asked to estimate the length and width of the city square separately. In the first experiment, we found that the perceived aspect ratio was in general lower than the physical aspect ratio. However, in the second experiment, we found that the calculated ratios were close to veridical except for the most elongated city square. We conclude therefore that the outcome depends on how the measurements are performed. Furthermore, although indirect measurements are nearly veridical, the perceived aspect ratio is an underestimation of the physical aspect ratio when measured in a direct way. Moreover, the perceived aspect ratio also depends on the location of the observer. These results may be beneficial to the design of large open urban environments, and in particular to rectangular city squares.

  13. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning. (United States)

    Andrieu, Patrice; Billot, Pierre-Édouard; Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani


    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors.

  14. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Andrieu

    Full Text Available For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc., the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM, a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor. Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable to 9 (very strong. Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors.

  15. Width dependent collisionless electron dynamics in the static fields of the shock ramp, 2, Phase space portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gedalin


    Full Text Available We study numerically in detail the behaviour of electrons in the strongly inhomogeneous static magnetic and electric fields, which are typical for thin quasiperpendicular collisionless shocks. We pay particular attention to the dependence of the final electron velocities on their initial velocities, for different shock widths. Electrons are completely magnetized when the shock is wide, but become demagnetized, and the energies that they acquire rapidly increase with the steepening of the field structure. One of the clear manifestations of the electron demagnetization is the loss of even approximate one-to-one correspondence of the downstream perpendicular velocity to the upstream perpendicular velocity. Electron reflection occurs despite the large cross-shock potential which accelerates electrons along the magnetic field (the regime of complete magnetization or across the shock (strong demagnetization. The reflected ion fraction is sensitive to the potential, magnetic field jump, and ramp width.

  16. Fin width dependence on gate controllability of InGaAs channel FinFETs with regrown source/drain (United States)

    Kise, Nobukazu; Kinoshita, Haruki; Yukimachi, Atsushi; Kanazawa, Toru; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki


    In this paper, we report on the structure and characteristics of an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) channel fin field effect transistor (FinFET) with a regrown source/drain. The fabrication process we propose is suitable for forming a channel with a high aspect ratio. In simulations, the subthreshold characteristics and drain current (Id) were improved by reducing the fin width. Following the simulations, fabricated devices showed improved gate controllability after the fin width was reduced. A short-channel device (Lch = 50 nm, Hfin = 50 nm, and Wfin = 20 nm) showed an Id of 367 μA/μm and a minimum subthreshold swing (SSmin) of 211 mV/dec at Vd = 0.5 V. The maximum-to-minimum Id ratio was 105.

  17. Dependence of equilibrium stacking fault width on thickness of Cu thin films: A molecular dynamics study (United States)

    Rohith, P.; Sainath, G.; Choudhary, B. K.


    In face centered cubic systems, due to decrease in energy all perfect dislocations dissociates into two Shockley partials separated by stacking fault width. The stacking fault width, which influences the deformation behavior depends on many factors such as composition, stacking fault energy, temperature, surface energy and applied stress. Additionally in thin films, thickness also influences the stacking fault width of dissociated dislocations. In this paper, we investigate the effect of thin film thickness on stacking fault width in Cu using molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that with increase in film thickness from 1.25 nm to 11 nm, the stacking fault width increases from 1.6 nm to 3.12 nm. A bi-linear behavior has been observed. Above 11 nm thickness, the width of stacking fault has attained a saturation at higher thickness. This thickness dependent dissociation has been explained using the concept of image dislocations and associated image forces.

  18. Single-stage surgical procedure for increasing depth of vestibule and the width of attached gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif Khan


    Full Text Available Shallow vestibule along with the inadequate width of attached gingiva is a common cause of the gingival recession. Multiple techniques have been developed, separately, to increase the depth of vestibule and the width of attached gingival but this case report present a single stage surgical procedure for increasing both depth of vestibule and the width of attached gingiva by vestibular deepening procedure.

  19. Mechanical and metabolic determinants of the preferred step width in human walking.


    Donelan, J. M.; Kram, R.; Kuo, A. D.


    We studied the selection of preferred step width in human walking by measuring mechanical and metabolic costs as a function of experimentally manipulated step width (0.00-0.45L, as a fraction of leg length L). We estimated mechanical costs from individual limb external mechanical work and metabolic costs using open circuit respirometry. The mechanical and metabolic costs both increased substantially (54 and 45%, respectively) for widths greater than the preferred value (0.15-0.45L) and with s...

  20. Comparison of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements from standing CT and fixed flexion radiography. (United States)

    Segal, Neil A; Frick, Eric; Duryea, Jeffrey; Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C; Felson, David T; Anderson, Donald D


    The objective of this project was to determine the relationship between medial tibiofemoral joint space width measured on fixed-flexion radiographs and the three-dimensional joint space width distribution on low-dose, standing CT (SCT) imaging. At the 84-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, 20 participants were recruited. A commercial SCT scanner for the foot and ankle was modified to image knees while standing. Medial tibiofemoral joint space width was assessed on radiographs at fixed locations from 15% to 30% of compartment width using validated software and on SCT by mapping the distances between three-dimensional subchondral bone surfaces. Individual joint space width values from radiographs were compared with three-dimensional joint space width values from corresponding sagittal plane locations using paired t-tests and correlation coefficients. For the four medial-most tibiofemoral locations, radiographic joint space width values exceeded the minimal joint space width on SCT by a mean of 2.0 mm and were approximately equal to the 61st percentile value of the joint space width distribution at each respective sagittal-plane location. Correlation coefficients at these locations were 0.91-0.97 and the offsets between joint space width values from radiographs and SCT measurements were consistent. There were greater offsets and variability in the offsets between modalities closer to the tibial spine. Joint space width measurements on fixed-flexion radiographs are highly correlated with three-dimensional joint space width from SCT. In addition to avoiding bony overlap obscuring the joint, a limitation of radiographs, the current study supports a role for SCT in the evaluation of tibiofemoral OA. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1388-1395, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM


    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  2. Wavelength-tunable and pulse-width variable Fourier domain mode-locking lasers. (United States)

    Lee, Eung Je; Kim, Yong Pyung


    In this study, wavelength-tunable and pulse-width variable Fourier domain mode-locking lasers were developed with a repetition rate of 60.9 kHz. A spectral laser tuning range of over 100 nm was achieved by tuning the offset voltage to a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF). The pulse width variation was achieved with amplitude modulation of the driving voltage to the FFP-TF. The pulse width ranged from 6.2 μs to 55 ns. The linewidth of the laser changed, from 0.109 to 0.083 nm, according to the pulse width variation.

  3. Calculation of autoionization positions and widths with applications to Penning ionization reactions. [Miller golden rule formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacson, A.D.


    Using an approximate evaluation of Miller's golden rule formula to calculate autoionization widths which allows for the consideration only of L/sup 2/ functions, the positions and lifetimes of the lowest /sup 1/,/sup 3/P autoionizing states of He have been obtained to reasonable accuracy. This method has been extended to molecular problems, and the ab initio configuration interaction potential energy and width surfaces for the He(2/sup 3/S) + H/sub 2/ system have been obtained. Quantum mechanical close-coupling calculations of ionization cross sections using the complex V* - (i/2) GAMMA-potential have yielded rate constants in good agreement with the experimental results of Lindinger, et al. The potential energy surface of the He(2/sup 1/S) + H/sub 2/ system has also been obtained and exhibits not only a high degree of anisotropy, but also contains a relative maximum for a perpendicular (C/sub 2//sub v/) approach which appears to arise from s-p hybridization of the outer He orbital. However, similar ab initio calculations on the He(2/sup 1/S) + Ar system do not show such anomalous structure. In addition, the complex poles of the S-matrix (Siegert eigenvalues) were calculated for several autoionizing states of He and H/sup -/, with encouraging results even for quite modest basis sets. This method was extended to molecular problems, and results obtained for the He(2/sup 3/S) + H and He(2/sup 1/S) + H systems. 75 references.

  4. Massively parallel implementations of coupled-cluster methods for electron spin resonance spectra. I. Isotropic hyperfine coupling tensors in large radicals (United States)

    Verma, Prakash; Perera, Ajith; Morales, Jorge A.


    Coupled cluster (CC) methods provide highly accurate predictions of molecular properties, but their high computational cost has precluded their routine application to large systems. Fortunately, recent computational developments in the ACES III program by the Bartlett group [the OED/ERD atomic integral package, the super instruction processor, and the super instruction architecture language] permit overcoming that limitation by providing a framework for massively parallel CC implementations. In that scheme, we are further extending those parallel CC efforts to systematically predict the three main electron spin resonance (ESR) tensors (A-, g-, and D-tensors) to be reported in a series of papers. In this paper inaugurating that series, we report our new ACES III parallel capabilities that calculate isotropic hyperfine coupling constants in 38 neutral, cationic, and anionic radicals that include the 11B, 17O, 9Be, 19F, 1H, 13C, 35Cl, 33S,14N, 31P, and 67Zn nuclei. Present parallel calculations are conducted at the Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order many-body perturbation theory [MBPT(2)], CC singles and doubles (CCSD), and CCSD with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] levels using Roos augmented double- and triple-zeta atomic natural orbitals basis sets. HF results consistently overestimate isotropic hyperfine coupling constants. However, inclusion of electron correlation effects in the simplest way via MBPT(2) provides significant improvements in the predictions, but not without occasional failures. In contrast, CCSD results are consistently in very good agreement with experimental results. Inclusion of perturbative triples to CCSD via CCSD(T) leads to small improvements in the predictions, which might not compensate for the extra computational effort at a non-iterative N7-scaling in CCSD(T). The importance of these accurate computations of isotropic hyperfine coupling constants to elucidate experimental ESR spectra, to interpret spin-density distributions, and to

  5. Breaking the limits of line width and aspect ratio for inkjet printed conductive lines by controlling post-deposition ink contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.; Abbel, R.J.; Michels, J.J.; Groen, P.


    Electrically conductive structures comprising both narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are indispensable components of many electronic devices. Producing them reliably on an industrial scale by inkjet printing of metal-based inks is a serious challenge. Firstly, due to spreading of the ink on

  6. Intercanine width as a tool in two dimensional reconstruction of face: An aid in forensic dentistry. (United States)

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere; Gupta, Ashish; Vasan, Vinitra; Jambunath, Usha


    Dental evidence is a valuable tool in identifying individuals, especially when disasters befall. Reference points in faciomaxillary region such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width can significantly contribute toward reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) facial profiles. This study was researched upon to determine the relationship between the maxillary intercanine width and the different reference points of the face. The aim of the following study is to ascertain whether maxillary intercanine width can be used to detect interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic distance and to evaluate the role of maxillary intercanine width in the 2D reconstruction of the face. The study was carried out by consent and involved 90 subjects-45 males and 45 females who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Subjects were divided into three age groups, i.e. 18-24, 25-28, 29-35. Four parameters were measured- intercanine width, interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance and interalar distance. All the measurements were carried out with a digital Vernier caliper. The bizygomatic width was measured from posterior-anterior view. Two empiricists were assigned for the task. Each test was carried out twice to validate the soundness of the findings and to reduce bias. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation was established. Regression analysis was performed to predict the study variables by intercanine width. Intercanine width showed a significant relationship with different points. The width varied with age and gender. Inter canine width can be used as a valuable parameter in the reconstruction of face in two dimensional as it shows significant relationship with faciomaxillary reference point such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width.

  7. Structural phase transformations of as-synthesized Cu-nanoferrites by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, M.A., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Meaz, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Hashhash, A.; Attalah, S. [Reactor Physics Department, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Fakhry, F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt)


    Samples of the as-synthesized CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoferrites by co-precipitation route were annealed at different temperatures T. X-ray diffraction, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry were used for characterizing the samples. The sample structure phase was transformed from cubic-to-tetragonal-to-cubic as T increases. This transformation was attributed to the tetragonal distortion of Jahn–Teller effect of Cu{sup 2+} ions (d{sup 9}). The crystallite size R, lattice parameters, density, porosity P, strain and stiffness constant showed dependence on annealing temperature T. Seven absorption bands were observed in the IR spectra. The two characteristic bands of spinel ferrites, ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2}, force constants and Debye temperature showed a decrease against T. The absorption bands ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} proved dependence on bond length; d{sub AO} and d{sub BO}, and saturation magnetization Ms, respectively. Hyperfine magnetic fields, line widths, area ratio of B- to A-sites, isomer shifts and quadrupole shifts (splitting) were deduced and discussed as functions of T, where the cation distribution were estimated. XRD patterns, Infrared spectra and RT temperature hysteresis loops proved the transformation process. Saturation magnetization showed dependence on T, P and R. - Highlights: • Amounts of as-synthesized Cu-nanoferrites were annealed at various temperatures T. • Structural phase was transformed from cubic-to-tetragonal-to-cubic with T by JTE. • IR band positions showed dependence on bond lengths and saturation magnetization Ms. • The deduced parameters showed dependence on T and affected by JTE. • Ms proved dependence on porosity and crystallite size.

  8. The width of the lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is determined by a multilayered organization of its components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Rosario, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Kouznetsova, Anna, E-mail: [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Echeverría-Martínez, Olga M., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan, E-mail: [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous structure that holds the homologous chromosomes in close proximity while they exchange genetic material in a process known as meiotic recombination. This meiotic recombination leads to genetic variability in sexually reproducing organisms. The ultrastructure of the SC is studied by electron microscopy and it is observed as a tripartite structure. Two lateral elements (LE) separated by a central region (CR) confer its classical tripartite organization. The LEs are the anchoring platform for the replicated homologous chromosomes to properly exchange genetic material with one another. An accurate assembly of the LE is indispensable for the proper completion of meiosis. Ultrastructural studies suggested that the LE is organized as a multilayered unit. However, no validation of this model has been previously provided. In this ultrastructural study, by using mice with different genetic backgrounds that affect the LE width, we provide further evidence that support a multilayered organization of the LE. Additionally, we provide data suggesting additional roles of the different cohesin complex components in the structure of the LEs of the SC. - Highlights: • The lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is a multilayered structure. • The width of the lateral element in synaptonemal complex-null mice is different. • Two cohesin complex cores plus one axial element form a wild-type lateral element. • The layers of the lateral element can be analyzed in different null mice models.

  9. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor


    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  10. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed S., E-mail:; Soliman, Shemi S.M.


    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  11. Design of a Compact UWB Antenna with Triple Notched Bands Using Nonuniform Width Slots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xu; Xu, Feng; Tan, Xu


    .... Instead of conventional uniform width slots, two pairs of quarter-wavelength length nonuniform width slots are embedded into the radiating patch and the ground plane to achieve triple notched bands at 3.5, 5.5, and 8.1 GHz...

  12. Width variations and mid-channel bar inception in meanders: River Bollin (UK) (United States)

    Luchi, R.; Hooke, J. M.; Zolezzi, G.; Bertoldi, W.


    The extent and pattern of width variations along a meandering channel and its association with variation in bed topography and development of mid-channel bars have been examined through field survey evidence for a reach of the River Bollin in NW England. The wet width has been quantified along the reach by applying a hydraulic model to surveyed cross sections under a range of discharges between low flow and defined bankfull conditions. This approach allows an objective, modelling-based method to compute channel width. The high spatial resolution of the topographical survey allows capture of significant variations in the cross-sectional morphology at the meander wavelength scale. Results disclose some features of longitudinal and stage-dependent width variability in meanders. Width variation is shown to be highly correlated with curvature: at bankfull conditions width peaks in bend apex sections exceed those at inflection sections and can be up to twice greater. The width-curvature behavior is correlated with the pattern of bed and banks morphology, which is different in bend apices and in meander inflections. The survey shows that the bedform morphology can be characterized by a mid-channel bar pattern that is initiated at the inflection section and that the bedform dynamics can be closely associated with channel width variations.

  13. The effect of interaural-time-difference fluctuations on apparent source width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; May, Tobias; Oskarsdottir, Gudrun


    For the perception of spaciousness, the temporal fluctuations of the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) provide important binaural cues. One major characteristic of spatial perception is apparent source width (ASW), which describes the perceived width of a ...

  14. Suppression of high-frequency perturbations in pulse-width modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method suppresses high-frequency perturbations in a pulse-width modulated signal. The pulse-width modulation may superpose a carrier signal onto an input signal having a predetermined modulation frequency. The carrier signals may be phase-shifted. The resulting modulated signals may...

  15. Optimal pulse-width modulation for sinusoidal fringe generation with projector defocusing: comment. (United States)

    Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A


    We comment on a recent Letter [Opt. Lett. 35, 4121 (2010)], in which the authors discuss an optimal pulse-width modulation (OPWM) method for sinusoidal fringe generation. We consider that the comparison of the squared binary method (SBM) and the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) method has considerable deficiencies.

  16. A New Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse- Width and Amplitude Modulation (SHEPWAM) for Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa


    Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considering...

  17. Suppression of high-frequency perturbations in pulse-width modulation


    Knott, Arnold


    A method suppresses high-frequency perturbations in a pulse-width modulated signal. The pulse-width modulation may superpose a carrier signal onto an input signal having a predetermined modulation frequency. The carrier signals may be phase-shifted. The resulting modulated signals may then be filtered and combined.

  18. Determination of level widths in 15N using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szücs T.


    Full Text Available Level widths in 15N have been measured with the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF technique. Solid nitrogen compounds, bremsstrahlung, and HPGe detectors have been used as target, beam, and detectors, respectively. The preliminarily level widths are in agreement with the literature values, but more precise.

  19. Case study: Equivalent widths of the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico (United States)

    Claudia Leon; Pierre Y. Julien; Drew C. Baird


    Successive reaches of the Rio Grande have maintained equivalent channel widths of 50 and 250 m, respectively, over long periods of time. It is hypothesized that alluvial channels adjust bed slope to match the long-term changes in channel width. Analytical relationships show that wider river reaches develop steeper slopes. A modeling approach using daily water and...

  20. Mechanical and metabolic determinants of the preferred step width in human walking. (United States)

    Donelan, J M; Kram, R; Kuo, A D


    We studied the selection of preferred step width in human walking by measuring mechanical and metabolic costs as a function of experimentally manipulated step width (0.00-0.45L, as a fraction of leg length L). We estimated mechanical costs from individual limb external mechanical work and metabolic costs using open circuit respirometry. The mechanical and metabolic costs both increased substantially (54 and 45%, respectively) for widths greater than the preferred value (0.15-0.45L) and with step width squared (R(2) = 0.91 and 0.83, respectively). As predicted by a three-dimensional model of walking mechanics, the increases in these costs appear to be a result of the mechanical work required for redirecting the centre of mass velocity during the transition between single stance phases (step-to-step transition costs). The metabolic cost for steps narrower than preferred (0.10-0.00L) increased by 8%, which was probably as a result of the added cost of moving the swing leg laterally in order to avoid the stance leg (lateral limb swing cost). Trade-offs between the step-to-step transition and lateral limb swing costs resulted in a minimum metabolic cost at a step width of 0.12L, which is not significantly different from foot width (0.11L) or the preferred step width (0.13L). Humans appear to prefer a step width that minimizes metabolic cost.

  1. Role of minor groove width and hydration pattern on amsacrine interaction with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Jangir

    Full Text Available Amsacrine is an anilinoacridine derivative anticancer drug, used to treat a wide variety of malignancies. In cells, amsacrine poisons topoisomerase 2 by stabilizing DNA-drug-enzyme ternary complex. Presence of amsacrine increases the steady-state concentration of these ternary complexes which in turn hampers DNA replication and results in subsequent cell death. Due to reversible binding and rapid slip-out of amsacrine from DNA duplex, structural data is not available on amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, we designed five oligonucleotide duplexes, differing in their minor groove widths and hydration pattern, and examined their binding with amsacrine using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Complexes of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA were also evaluated for a comparison. Our results demonstrate for the first time that amsacrine is not a simple intercalator; rather mixed type of DNA binding (intercalation and minor groove takes place between amsacrine and DNA. Further, this binding is highly sensitive towards the geometries and hydration patterns of different minor grooves present in the DNA. This study shows that ligand binding to DNA could be very sensitive to DNA base composition and DNA groove structures. Results demonstrated here could have implication for understanding cytotoxic mechanism of aminoacridine based anticancer drugs and provide directions to modify these drugs for better efficacy and few side-effects.

  2. Development of a joint space width measurement method based on radiographic hand images. (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Hong, Seung-Jae; Park, Ki-Ho; Urtnasan, Tur; Park, Hun-Kuk


    This study presents a novel algorithm to measure joint space widths (JSWs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using radiographic hand images. Radiographic images were first preprocessed, and then phalangeal regions corresponding to the bone structures of each finger were extracted using step-wedge functions. Phalangeal branch paths were also extracted. Each of the five extracted phalangeal branch paths matched the bone structures of each finger exactly and ran through the center of each finger. The algorithm automatically detected 14 joints, which were identified as sharp changes in gray scale intensity along phalangeal branch paths through the profile plot. The regions of interest corresponding to the 14 joints were subsequently extracted. A total of 35 radiographic images from three groups were tested. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated by measuring joint location percentage errors and mean JSWs for three joints in the phalanges. The algorithm correctly detected 94.69% of total joints and had a low detection rate in RA patients with severe deformities or ankylosis. The mean JSW in the control group was significantly greater than that in the RA group (p<0.05). In contrast, the standard deviation of JSW in the control group was lower than that in the RA groups (p<0.005). Control and seropositive RA groups showed significant symmetry in JSW values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. P31-NMR study of hyperfine interactions and magnetic fluctuations in the neptunium-based filled skutterudite NpFe4P12 (United States)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Sakai, H.; Chudo, H.; Matsuda, T. D.; Haga, Y.; Yasuoka, H.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Ōnuki, Y.


    P31-NMR measurements have been performed on a single crystal of the neptunium-based filled skutterudite NpFe4P12 . The compound undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition at TC=23K . From the field-orientation dependence of the P31-NMR line splitting, the angular dependence of the hyperfine interactions between Np5f spin and P31 nuclear moments has been investigated. We have observed anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions at the P sites, which lead to an estimate of the local spin density in the P3p orbitals. It is shown that a fraction of the Np5f spin moments is transferred mostly into the P3p orbitals extending toward the inside of a P cage. The weak hybridization between Np5f and P3p orbitals suggests a localized character for Np5f electrons in NpFe4P12 . We have also measured the field and temperature dependences of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) in several magnetic fields between 18.5 and 78.0 kOe. The 1/T1 data reveal that the low-energy spin fluctuations of Np5f spin moments are strongly suppressed by applied fields over a relatively wide temperature range up to 4TC . In this compound, a large and negative magnetoresistance has been known to occur in the same temperature range. The present NMR results demonstrate that the negative magnetoresistance comes from a reduction in the magnetic scattering from Np5f spin moments by an applied field.

  4. Spectral width of SuperDARN echoes: measurement, use and physical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ponomarenko


    Full Text Available The Doppler velocity and spectral width are two important parameters derived from coherent scatter radar systems. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN is capable of monitoring most of the high latitude region where different boundaries of the magnetosphere map to the ionosphere. In the past, the spectral width, calculated from SuperDARN data, has been used to identify the ionosphere footprints of various magnetosphere boundaries. In this paper we examine the way the spectral width is presently estimated from the radar data and describe several recommendations for improving the algorithm. Using the improved algorithm, we show that typical spectral width values reported in the literature are most probably overestimated. The physical interpretation of the cause of various magnitudes of the spectral width is explored in terms of the diffusion and dynamics of ionospheric plasma irregularities.

  5. Reliability of permanent mandibular first molars and incisors widths as predictor for the width of permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mittar


    Full Text Available Aim: Preventive measures are necessary to prevent a potential irregularity from progressing into a more severe malocclusion. The determination of the tooth size-arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: For the study, 200 subjects in the age group of 16-25 years were selected from various colleges of M. M. University. The mesiodistal width of permanent mandibular incisors, first molars, canines and premolars of both arches were measured on the subject cast using an electronic digital caliper. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between mesiodistal tooth widths of males and females. Linear regression equation was determined to predict the sum of mandibular and maxillary permanent canines and premolars using mandibular first molars plus the four mandibular incisors as predictors. Results: There was no significant difference between the actual and predicted width of sum of permanent canines and premolars using regression equations. The predicted widths of both arches using Tanaka and Johnston equations showed significant differences. Determined regression equations for males were accurate in male samples and determined regression equation for females were accurate in female samples for both arches.

  6. Numerical Research on Hydraulically Generated Vibration and Noise of a Centrifugal Pump Volute with Impeller Outlet Width Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houlin Liu


    Full Text Available The impeller outlet width of centrifugal pumps is of significant importance for numbers of effects. In the paper, these effects including the performance, pressure pulsations, hydraulically generated vibration, and noise level are investigated. For the purpose, two approaches were used to predict the vibration and sound radiation of the volute under fluid excitation force. One approach is the combined CFD/FEM analysis for structure vibration, and then the structure response obtained from the FEM analysis is treated as the boundary condition for BEM analysis for sound radiation. The other is the combined CFD/FEM/BEM coupling method. Before the numerical methods were used, the simulation results were validated by the vibration acceleration of the monitoring points on the volute. The vibration and noise were analyzed and compared at three flow conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the influences of the sound pressure of centrifugal pumps on the structure appear insignificant. The relative outlet width b2* at nq(SI = 26.7 in this paper should be less than 0.06, based on an overall consideration of the pump characteristics, pressure pulsations, vibration and noise level.

  7. FE Model Updating on an In-Service Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge with Extra-Width Using Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Xia


    Full Text Available Nowadays, many more bridges with extra-width have been needed for vehicle throughput. In order to obtain a precise finite element (FE model of those complex bridge structures, the practical hybrid updating method by integration of Gaussian mutation particle swarm optimization (GMPSO, Kriging meta-model and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS was proposed. By demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid method through the model updating of a damaged simply supported beam, the proposed method was applied to the model updating of a self-anchored suspension bridge with extra-width which showed great necessity considering the results of ambient vibration test. The results of bridge model updating showed that both of the mode frequencies and shapes had relatively high agreement between the updated model and experimental structure. The successful model updating of this bridge fills in the blanks of model updating of a complex self-anchored suspension bridge. Moreover, the updating process enables other model updating issues for complex bridge structures

  8. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield


    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  9. A statistical comparison of SuperDARN spectral width boundaries and DMSP particle precipitation boundaries in the morning sector ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham


    Full Text Available Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB is crucial for making accurate ionospheric measurements of many magnetospheric processes (e.g. magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of Spectral Width Boundaries (SWBs, identified in the morning sector ionosphere using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN, with Particle Precipitation Boundaries (PPBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft, in order to determine whether the SWB represents a good proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB. The latitudes of SWBs and PPBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997-2001 of data measured in the 00:00-12:00 Magnetic Local Time (MLT range. A latitudinal difference was measured between each PPB and the nearest SWB within a ±10min Universal Time (UT window and within a ±1h MLT window. The results show that the SWB represents a good proxy for the OCB close to midnight (~00:00-02:00 MLT and noon (~08:00-12:00 MLT, but is located some distance (~2°-4° equatorward of the OCB across much of the morning sector ionosphere (~02:00-08:00 MLT. On the basis of this and other studies we deduce that the SWB is correlated with the poleward boundary of auroral emissions in the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield ``Long" (LBHL UV emission range and hence, that spectral width is inversely correlated with the energy flux of precipitating electrons. We further conclude that the combination of two factors may explain the spatial distribution of spectral width values in the polar ionospheres. The small-scale structure of the convection electric field leads to an enhancement in spectral width in regions close to the OCB, whereas increases in ionospheric conductivity (relating to the level of incident electron energy flux lead to a reduction in spectral width in regions just equatorward of the OCB.

  10. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji


    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  11. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos


    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  12. Elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. (United States)

    Vural Yilmaz, Zehra; Gencosmanoglu Turkmen, Gulenay; Daglar, Korkut; Yılmaz, Elif; Kara, Ozgur; Uygur, Dilek


    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most common pregnancy specific liver disease and related with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Red blood cell distribution width, an anisocytosis marker in a complete blood count, has been used as an inflammation marker in various diseases. However the association of red blood cell distribution width with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between red blood cell distribution width and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Ninety pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and ninety healthy pregnant women were included in the study. Their clinical and laboratory characteristics including red blood cell distribution width, liver function tests, fasting and postprandial bile acid concentrations were analyzed. Serum red blood cell distribution width cell levels were significantly higher in pregnants with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy than healthy pregnants. We also demonstrated that red blood cell distribution Width levels were higher in severe disease than mild disease and was significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial bile acid concentration in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group. Our study showed that red blood cell distribution width, an easy and inexpensive marker; were associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

  13. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller


    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  14. Smith-Purcell radiation from a charge moving above a grating of finite length and width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit S. Kesar


    Full Text Available Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR, emitted when a charge passes above a periodic grating, is important for applications such as terahertz production and nondestructive bunch-length diagnostics. The grating width is shown to become an important parameter for accurately predicting the radiation, and especially in the highly relativistic regime where the charge wakefield considerably stretches in the transverse direction. The SPR radiation is rigorously calculated by the electric-field integral equation (EFIE method for a grating of finite width and length. The integral equation is arranged as a multilevel block-Toeplitz matrix by using symmetry under translation with respect to the grating period and width directions. Following Barrowes et al. [Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 28 (2001MOTLEO0895-247710.1002/mop.1348] enhanced computational efficiency can be achieved by matrix to vector projection of the essential matrix elements. A numerical example is calculated for a relativistic (γ=36, 1-mm long, bunch traveling 0.6-mm above a ten-period grating with a period of 2.0 mm and width of 10 mm. The SPR resonance relationship and its broadening due to the finite number of grooves are consistent with the closed-form formulations. The surface current was shown to be concentrated along the center of the grating and decreasing towards its edges. The surface current, power spectrum, and radiated energy were compared to the EFIE formulation in which an infinitely wide grating was assumed. The above parameters resulted in considerable difference of up to a factor of 2.5 between the finite width and the infinitely wide grating assumption, which means that for accurate calculations the grating width should be taken into consideration. A general rule for the required grating width to achieve an accurate SPR radiation result relative to the infinite width result, and the expected accuracy by the infinite width assumption for most radiation angles, is provided.

  15. Barrier discharges driven by sub-microsecond pulses at atmospheric pressure: Breakdown manipulation by pulse width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoder, Tomas; Hoeft, Hans; Kettlitz, Manfred; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    Barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen-oxygen mixture powered by high voltage pulses of widths between 10 {mu}s and 200 ns were investigated. The development of the microdischarges on rising and falling slopes was recorded by streak and intensified CCD cameras simultaneously. The breakdown on the falling slope strongly depends on the pulse width. As a result of pulse width variation the starting point of ignition changes and positive and negative streamers occur simultaneously in the falling slope. The observed effect is caused by the electric field rearrangement in the gap due to the different positive ion densities related to their gap crossing times.

  16. Attentional focus and grip width influences on bench press resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D.


    This study evaluated the influence of different attentional foci for varied grip widths in the bench press. Eighteen resistance-trained men were familiarized with the procedure and performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test during Session 1. In Session 2, they used three different standardized...... grip widths (100%, 150%, and 200% of biacromial width distance) in random order at 50% of 1RM while also engaged in three different attention focus conditions (external focus on the bench press, internal focus on pectoralis major muscles, and internal focus on triceps brachii muscles). Surface...

  17. The determination of shock ramp width using the noncoplanar magnetic field component


    Newbury, J. A.; Russell, C. T.; Gedalin, M.


    We determine a simple expression for the ramp width of a collisionless fast shock, based upon the relationship between the noncoplanar and main magnetic field components. By comparing this predicted width with that measured during an observation of a shock, the shock velocity can be determined from a single spacecraft. For a range of low-Mach, low-beta bow shock observations made by the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft, ramp widths determined from two-spacecraft comparison and from this noncoplanar c...

  18. Visible and characteristic new physics effects on the total and partial Z widths (United States)

    Renard, F. M.; Verzegnassi, C.


    We show that a class of models predicting a new vector boson Z‧ of extended gauge E 6 origin has the rather characteristic property of being able to produce visible and negative shifts, with respect to the MSM predictions, both in the total width and in the leptonic width of the Z. This feature is not shared by other models of extended gauge symmetry. We also show that a certain combination of hadronic and leptonic widths is “blind” with respect to the considered Z-Z‧ mixing could, therefore, be used to reveal in an unbiased way different signals of new physics.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of contributions to electron paramagnetic resonance line widths in ferric hemoglobin single crystals. (United States)

    Brill, A S; Hampton, D A


    The contributions to the dipolar broadening of ferric magnetic resonances, from crystals of hemoglobin for which the atomic coordinates are known, have been calculated. The total second moment of the g = 2 resonance so determined is about 50 (MHz)2 or 5.0 G (peak-to-trough), figures consistent with the range of values found from analysis of experimental data. Two-thirds of this second moment comes from the two protons of the H2O molecule coordinated to the iron. Treatment with D2O is predicted to reduce the total second moment at g = 2 to about 25 (MHz)2, whereas the experimental measurements on single crystals show no decrease. If the structure of the tetramer is assumed to be the same when in solution as in the crystal, the total second moment is readily redetermined for hemoglobin in solution; the value so obtained is found to be significantly smaller than that from analysis of the g = 2 resonance measured in frozen solution. These two unexpected observations can be explained in terms of distributions in spin Hamiltonian parameters, the spread depending upon the nature of the sample--crystal or solution, ordinary or heavy water-treated. This distribution in H2O and D2O solutions appears to be about the same, since the measured differences in component line width agree with the calculated difference in dipolar contributions.

  20. Delayed Proton Emission in the A=70 Region, a Strobe for Level Density and Particle Width

    CERN Multimedia


    The delayed particle emission, which is a characteristic signature of the most exotic nuclei decay, provides a wide variety of spectroscopic information among which level density, and gives in some cases access to selected microscopic structures. In regard to these two aspects the $\\beta^+$-EC delayed proton emission in the A=70 neutron deficient mass region is of special interest to be investigated. Indeed, in this area located close to the proton drip line and along the N=Z line, the delayed proton emission constitutes an access to level density in the Q$_{EC}$-S$_p$ window of the emitting nucleus. Moreover, the unbound states populated by the EC process are expected to exhibit lifetimes in the vicinity of the K electronic shell filling time ($\\tau\\!\\sim\\!2\\times10^{-16}$s) and so the particle widths can be reached via proton X-ray coincidence measurements (PXCT). From theoretical approaches strongly deformed low-spin proton unbound levels which may be populated in the T$_Z$ = 1/2 precursors decay are predi...

  1. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths (United States)

    Leung, Andrew S.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Malz, A. I.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Drory, Niv; Feldmeier, John J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J.; Schneider, Donald P.


    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width (EW {W}{Lyα }) greater than 20 Å. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and EW distributions for the galaxy populations, and returns the probability that an object in question is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify ˜106 emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [{{O}} {{II}}] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers 86% of LAEs missed by the traditional {W}{Lyα } > 20 Å cutoff over 2 types of binary classification error by adjusting the stringency of the probability requirement for classifying an observed object as an LAE. In our simulations of HETDEX, this method reduces the uncertainty in cosmological distance measurements by 14% with respect to the EW cut, equivalent to recovering 29% more cosmological information. Rather than using binary object labels, this method enables the use of classification probabilities in large-scale structure analyses. It can be applied to narrowband emission-line surveys as well as upcoming large spectroscopic surveys including Euclid and WFIRST.

  2. Observations of the auroral width spectrum at kilometre-scale size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies


    Full Text Available This study examines auroral colour camera data from the Canadian Dense Array Imaging SYstem (DAISY. The Dense Array consists of three imagers with different narrow (compared to all-sky view field-of-view optics. The main scientific motivation arises from an earlier study by Knudsen et al. (2001 who used All-Sky Imager (ASI combined with even earlier TV camera observations (Maggs and Davis, 1968 to suggest that there is a gap in the distribution of auroral arc widths at around 1 km. With DAISY observations we are able to show that the gap is an instrument artifact and due to limited spatial resolution and coverage of commonly used instrumentation, namely ASIs and TV cameras. If the auroral scale size spectrum is indeed continuous, the mechanisms forming these structures should be able to produce all of the different scale sizes. So far, such a single process has not been proposed in the literature and very few models are designed to interact with each other even though the range of their favourable conditions do overlap. All scale-sizes should be considered in the future studies of auroral forms and electron acceleration regions, both in observational and theoretical approaches.

  3. Prototyping of automotive components with variable width and depth (United States)

    Abeyrathna, B.; Rolfe, B.; Harrasser, J.; Sedlmaier, A.; Ge, Rui; Pan, L.; Weiss, M.


    Roll forming enables the manufacturing of longitudinal components from materials that combine high strength with limited formability and is increasingly used in the automotive industry for the manufacture of structural and crash components. An extension of conventional roll forming is the Flexible Roll Forming (FRF) process where the rolls are no longer fixed in space but are free to move which enables the forming of components with variable cross section over the length of the part. Even though FRF components have high weight saving potential the technology has found only limited application in the automotive industry. A new flexible forming facility has recently been developed that enables proof of concept studies and the production of FRF prototypes before a full FRF line is built; this may lead to a wider uptake of the FRF technology in the automotive industry. In this process, the pre-cut blank is placed between two clamps and the whole set up moves back and forth; a forming roll that is mounted on a servo-controlled platform with six degrees of freedom forms the pre-cut blank to the desired shape. In this study an initial forming concept for the flexible roll forming of an automotive component with variable height is developed using COPRA® FEA RF. This is followed by performing experimental prototyping studies on the new concept forming facility. Using the optical strain measurement system Autogrid Compact, material deformation, part shape and wrinkling severity are analysed for some forming passes and compared with the numerical results. The results show that the numerical model gives a good representation of material behaviour and that with increasing forming severity wrinkling issues need to be overcome in the process.

  4. Effects of trail width on the densities of four species of breeding birds in chaparral (United States)

    Aaron L. Holmes; Geoffrey R. Geupel


    We investigated densities of four common species, Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), Spotted Towhee (Piplio erythrophthalmus), Bewick’s Wren (Thryomanes bewickii), and Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata) in relation to trail width in chaparral habitats of Mt. Tamalpais, Marin...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 6 giants atomic data and equivalent widths (Mucciarelli+, 2017) (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Monaco, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Saviane, I.


    Atomic data (wavelength, oscillator strength, excitation potential and measured equivalent width) for all the measured spectral lines in six giant stars of the stellar cluster Gaia1 are provided. (2 data files).

  6. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report for the UC1823A Pulse Width Modulator (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Forney, James


    The purpose of this study is to examine the total ionizing dose susceptibility for the UC1823A pulse width modulator manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. The part is suspected to be vulnerable to enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS).

  7. Photoluminescence study of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying barrier widths

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, M Y; Shin, E J; Lee, J I; Yu, S K; Oh, E S; Park, Y J; Park, H S; Kim, T I


    We report the results of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL studies on InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) samples with different barrier widths. The barrier-width dependence of the PL emission energy and intensity are discussed. The PL as a function of excitation density can be well explained in terms of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE). The temporal behavior of the PL was also studied. As the barrier width increases, the decay times tau sub 1 and tau sub 2 , decrease from 1.02 ns and 6.99 ns to 0.32 ns and 1.09 ns, respectively. The PL efficiency and the decay lifetime depend on the barrier width.

  8. Effect of Expansion of Fertilization Width on Nitrogen Recovery Rate in Tea Plants (United States)

    Nonaka, Kunihiko; Hirono, Yuhei; Watanabe, Iriki

    In cultivation of tea plants, large amounts of nitrogen, compared to amounts used for other crops, have been used for fertilization, resulting in degradation of the soil environment between hedges and an increase in concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in surrounding water systems. To reduce the environmental load, new methods of fertilizer application are needed. This report deals with the effect of expansion of fertilization width on nitrogen recovery rate in tea plants. In the test field, 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate had been applied over custom fertilization by between-hedges fertilization (fertilization width of 15cm) and wide fertilization (fertilization width of 40cm), nitrogen recovery rates were compared. Expansion of fertilization width resulted in an approximately 30% increase in nitrogen recovery rate compared to that in the case of fertilization between hedges. Increases in nitrogen recovery rates were observed with fallapplied fertilization, spring-applied fertilization, pop-up fertilizer application, and summerapplied fertilization.

  9. The relationship of arch length to alterations in dental arch width. (United States)

    Hnat, W P; Braun, S; Chinhara, A; Legan, H L


    An accurate method is presented for forecasting alterations in arch length related to various width increases in each dental arch. It is based on combined beta and hyperbolic cosine functions which express the expanded dental arches with correlation coefficients of r = 0.98, between measured data and representations of the dental arch. When the midpalatal suture is expanded, canine width and molar width alterations are not equal because the line of action of the expanding force is anterior to the center of resistance of the dentomaxillary complex. Therefore, canine to molar width ratio alterations of 1:1, 1.25:1, and 1.5:1 are examined, and simple linear functions are presented for purposes of predicting changes in arch length.

  10. The effect of poloidal antenna width on lower-hybrid wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, R.A. (University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)); Fuchs, V. (Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S1 (Canada))


    In simulations of lower hybrid heating and current drive in tokamaks, an important part of the calculation is the determination of the ray paths from the antenna to the central region of the plasma. The role of the parallel wavenumber spectrum and the need to launch a set of rays which cover it adequately is well known. However, the antenna also has a finite poloidal extent and a corresponding poloidal wavenumber spectrum, which will contribute to the spreading of wave energy within the tokamak and affect the absorption and current profiles. We describe a technique for estimating the spatial width of the beam produced by a finite width antenna, taking account of both the poloidal spread in launch position and the spectral width. The method uses standard ray tracing methods and estimates the beam width from data on three rays.

  11. Ab initio calculation of ICD widths in photoexcited HeNe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, G.; Klaiman, S.; Chiang, Y.-C.; Gokhberg, K., E-mail: [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Trinter, F.; Jahnke, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)


    Excitation of HeNe by synchrotron light just below the frequency of the 1s → 3p transition of isolated He has been recently shown to be followed by resonant interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD). The vibrationally resolved widths of the ICD states were extracted with high precision from the photoion spectra. In this paper, we report the results of ab initio calculations of these widths. We show that interaction between electronic states at about the equilibrium distance of HeNe makes dark states of He accessible for the photoexcitation and subsequent electronic decay. Moreover, the values of the calculated widths are shown to be strongly sensitive to the presence of the non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic states participating in the decay. Therefore, only by considering the complete manifold of interacting decaying electronic states a good agreement between the measured and computed ICD widths can be achieved.

  12. Criteria for implementing full-width/depth shoulders to accommodate hard shoulder running. (United States)


    "WisDOT is considering constructing full-width/depth shoulders along certain freeway segments to carry traffic : during future freeway resurfacing or construction projects. The goal of this measure is to minimize lane closures and : congestion. WisDO...

  13. Measurment of the masses and widths of [ital L]=1 charmed mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabetti, P.L.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Cumalat, J.P.; Dallapiccola, C.; Ginkel, J.F.; Greene, S.V.; Johns, W.E.; Nehring, M.S.; Butler, J.N.; Cihangir, S.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.; Gourlay, S.A.; Harding, D.J.; Kasper, P.; Kreymer, A.; Lebrun, P.; Shukla, S.; Vittone, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Culbertson, R.; Gardner, R.W.; Greene, R.; Wiss, J.; Alimonti, G.; Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cinquini, L.; Di Corato, M.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Perasso, L.; Sala, A.; Sala, S.; Torretta, D.; Buchholz, D.; Claes, D.; Gobbi, B.; O' Reilly, B.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lin, T.F.; Puseljic, D.L.; Ruchti, R.C.; Shephard, W.D.; Swiatek, J.A.; Wu, Z.Y.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Castoldi, C.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Lopez, A.; Grim, G.P.; Paolone, V.S.; Yager, P.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Sheldon, P.D.; Davenport, F.; Filaseta, J.F.; Blacket; (E687 Collaboration)


    We report the measurement of masses and widths of the following [ital L]=1 charm mesons by the E687 Collaboration at Fermilab: a [ital D][sub 2][sup *0] state of mass (width) 2453[plus minus]3[plus minus]2 (25[plus minus]10[plus minus]5) MeV/[ital c][sup 2] decaying to [ital D][sup +][pi][sup [minus

  14. Use of the Acoustic Shadow Width to Determine Kidney Stone Size with Ultrasound. (United States)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Harper, Jonathan D; Cunitz, Bryan W; Lee, Franklin C; Hsi, Ryan; Liu, Ziyue; Bailey, Michael R; Sorensen, Mathew D


    Ultrasound is known to overestimate kidney stone size. We explored measuring the acoustic shadow behind kidney stones combined with different ultrasound imaging modalities to improve stone sizing accuracy. A total of 45 calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were imaged in vitro at 3 different depths with the 3 different ultrasound imaging modalities of conventional ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging. The width of the stone and the width of the acoustic shadow were measured by 4 operators blinded to the true size of the stone. Average error between the measured and true stone width was 1.4 ± 0.8 mm, 1.7 ± 0.9 mm, 0.9 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Average error between the shadow width and true stone width was 0.2 ± 0.7 mm, 0.4 ± 0.7 mm and 0.0 ± 0.8 mm for ray line, spatial compound and harmonic imaging, respectively. Sizing error based on the stone width worsened with greater depth (p <0.001) while the sizing error based on the shadow width was independent of depth. Shadow width was a more accurate measure of true stone size than a direct measurement of the stone in the ultrasound image (p <0.0001). The ultrasound imaging modality also impacted the measurement accuracy. All methods performed similarly for shadow size while harmonic imaging was the most accurate stone size modality. Overall 78% of the shadow sizes were accurate to within 1 mm, which is similar to the resolution obtained with clinical computerized tomography. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Anode Pulse-Width on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Coatings


    Zhen-Wei Li; Shi-Chun Di


    Microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were prepared on 2024-T4 aluminum alloys using a pulsed bipolar power supply at different anode pulse-widths. After the MAO coatings were formed, the micropores and microcracks on the surface of the MAO coatings were filled with Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dispersion for preparing MAO self-lubricating composite coatings containing FEP. The effect of the anode pulse-width on the microstructure and wear resistance of the microarc oxidation coatings was...

  16. Ag contact properties according to the front grid width and firing temperature for silicon solar cells. (United States)

    Kim, Seongtak; Park, Sungeun; Kim, Young Do; Bae, Soohyun; Boo, Hyunpil; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Kyung Dong; Tark, Sung Ju; Kim, Donghwan


    The effect of peak firing temperature and grid width on the contact properties between Ag metal and silicon (n+ emitter) was investigated for screen-printed silicon solar cells. We confirmed the factors that control the specific contact resistance as follows: (1) the Ag coverage fraction on the silicon surface, d(2) the thickness of the glass layer and (3) the etching depth on the n+ emitter region. The lowest specific contact resistance (8.27 mΩ x cm2) was obtained at the optimum firing temperature (720 degrees C). We also found that the grid width affected the contact quality of Ag paste because the contact width related to the absorbed heat of samples in RTP system. For this reason, when the grid width was further reduced, meaning more heat absorption, more Ag crystallites grew and the glass layer thickened. Light I-V results of a 6-inch silicon solar cell with minimum busbar width were similar to the PC1D simulation results. The efficiency was improved by 0.2% with the reduction of the busbar width.

  17. [Effects of urban river width on the temperature and humidity of nearby green belts in summer]. (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Zhu, Chun-Yang; Li, Shu-Hua


    As an important part of urban ecosystem, urban river plays a vital role in improving urban ecological environment. By the methods of small scale quantitative measurement, this paper analyzed the effects of seven urban rivers with different widths along the Third to Fifth Ring in Beijing on the air temperature and relative humidity of nearby green belts. The results showed that urban river width was the main factor affecting the temperature and humidity of nearby green belts. When the river had a width of 8 m, it had no effects in decreasing temperature but definite effects in increasing humidity; when the river width was 14-33 m, obvious effects were observed in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity; when the river had a width larger than 40 m, the effects in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity were significant and tended to be stable. There existed significant differences in the temperature and humidity between the green belts near the seven rivers and the corresponding controls. The critical width of urban river for the obvious effects in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity was 44 m. The regression equation of the temperature (x) and humidity (y) for the seven green belts nearby the urban rivers in summer was y = 173.191-3.247x, with the relative humidity increased by 1.0% when the air temperature decreased by about 0.3 degrees C.

  18. Occlusal Classification in Relation to Original Cleft Width in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. (United States)

    Huang, Andrew H; Patel, Kamlesh B; Maschhoff, Clayton W; Huebener, Donald V; Skolnick, Gary B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S


    To determine a correlation between the width of the cleft palate measured at the time of lip adhesion, definitive lip repair, and palatoplasty and the subsequent occlusal classification of patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, observational study. Referral, urban, children's hospital Participants : Dental models and records of 270 patients were analyzed. None. Angle occlusion classification. The mean age at which occlusal classification was determined was 11 ± 0.3 years. Of the children studies, 84 were diagnosed with Class I or II occlusion, 67 were diagnosed with Class III occlusion, and 119 were lost to follow up or transferred care. Mean cleft widths were significantly larger in subjects with Class III occlusion for all measures at time of lip adhesion and definitive lip repair (P < .02). At time of palatoplasty, cleft widths were significantly greater at the alveolus (P = .025) but not at the midportion of the hard palate (P = .35) or posterior hard palate (P = .10). Cleft widths from the lip through to the posterior hard palate are generally greater in children who are diagnosed with Class III occlusion later in life. Notably, the alveolar cleft width is significantly greater at each time point for patients who went on to develop Class III occlusion. There were no significant differences in cleft widths between patients diagnosed later with Class I and Class II occlusions.

  19. Mass constraint for a planet in a protoplanetary disk from the gap width (United States)

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D.; Muto, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake


    A giant planet creates a gap in a protoplanetary disk, which might explain the observed gaps in protoplanetary disks. The width and depth of the gaps depend on the planet mass and disk properties. We have performed two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for various planet masses, disk aspect ratios, and viscosities, to obtain an empirical formula for the gap width. The gap width is proportional to the square root of the planet mass, -3/4 the power of the disk aspect ratio and -1/4 the power of the viscosity. This empirical formula enables us to estimate the mass of a planet embedded in the disk from the width of an observed gap. We have applied the empirical formula for the gap width to the disk around HL Tau, assuming that each gap observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations is produced by planets, and discussed the planet masses within the gaps. The estimate of planet masses from the gap widths is less affected by the observational resolution and dust filtration than that by the gap depth.

  20. Gap Width Study and Fixture Design in Laser Butt-Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    This paper discusses some practical consideration for design of a mechanical fixture, which enables to accurately measure the width of a gap between two stainless steel workpieces and to steadfastly clamp the workpieces for butt-welding with a high power CO2 laser.With such a fixture, a series...... of butt-welding experiment is successfully carried out in order to find the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.......5-2.0 m/min, the laser power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely...

  1. Influence of slot width on the performance of multi-stage overtopping wave energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Jungrungruengtaworn


    Full Text Available A two-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the influence of slot width of multi-stage stationary floating overtopping wave energy devices on overtopping flow rate and performance. The hydraulic efficiency based on captured crest energy of different device layouts is compared with that of single-stage device to determine the effect of the geometrical design. The results show optimal trends giving a huge increase in overtopping energy. Plots of efficiency versus the relative slot width show that, for multi-stage devices, the greatest hydraulic efficiency is achieved at an intermediate value of the variable within the parametric range considered, relative slot width of 0.15 and 0.2 depending on design layouts. Moreover, an application of adaptive slot width of multi-stage device is investigated. The numerical results show that the overall hydraulic efficiency of non-adaptive and adaptive slot devices are approximately on par. The effect of adaptive slot width on performance can be negligible. Keywords: Wave energy converter, Overtopping, Multi-stage, Slot width

  2. Intraoperative Assessment of Facial Nerve Trunk Width in Early Childhood With Cervicofacial Lymphatic Malformation. (United States)

    Kim, Ara; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Lim, So Young


    Facial nerve damage during head and neck surgery has long been an important issue. However, few publications on the gross anatomy of the facial nerve are available in the young population. The aim of this study was to provide in vivo measurements of the facial nerve trunk during lymphatic malformation (LM) resection and to determine the association between the trunk width and patient- and disease-related variables. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive pediatric patients (11 facial nerve trunks) who underwent cervicofacial LM resection. The facial nerve of the affected side was dissected, and its trunk width at bifurcation was measured using calipers under a microscope during the operation. Eleven patients younger than 6 years were enrolled. The median width of the facial nerve in patients younger than 1 year was 1.15 mm; it was 2.5 mm in those older than 1 year. Trunk width was significantly greater in patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year, whereas no statistical significance was found when comparing other age groups. Patient weight was positively correlated with trunk width, whereas LM grade and diameter showed no significant correlation. The significantly greater width of the facial nerve trunk in LM patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year suggests that the age of 1 may be a threshold for facial nerve hypertrophy and growth acceleration. This study provides informative in vivo data to help understand facial nerve characteristics in young patients.

  3. Human Mesiodistal Tooth Width Measurements and Comparison with Dental Cast in a Bangladeshi Population. (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahid, Fazal; Purmal, Kathiravan; Sikder, M A; Saifuddin, Mohammed


    This analysis was aimed to determine the mesiodistal tooth width of human teeth and to compare with the measurements on plaster model in a Bangladeshi population. The samples of 2,892 teeth of Bangladeshi subjects were collected for this purpose. This article presents mesiodistal tooth width measurements made on all types of teeth and compares with the mesiodistal tooth width measurements of dental cast collected from Bangladeshi subjects between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The mesiodistal dimension was recorded, involving the maximum mesiodistal dimension of each tooth when measurement was rendered parallel to the occlusal and labial surfaces. Descriptive and comparative statistics were applied. The mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of mesiodistal tooth width measurements were determined and have been with the mesiodistal tooth width measurements of dent al cast. Significant differences have been observed between mesiodistal tooth size of direct measurement on tooth (DMT) and measurement on plaster model (MPM) for the maxillary first molar (p < 0.001) and mandibular incisors to first premolar (p < 0.001). These data should prove to be helpful to the practitioner for performing successful orthodontic treatment in Bangladeshi population. Direct measurement of mesiodistal tooth width and individual variation of maxillary and mandibular permanent central incisor to first molar of the Bangladeshi individuals showed some distinguishable features, which will certainly help an orthodontist for diagnosis and treatment plan of an orthodontic case.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdič, P. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alexandrova, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC UniversitéParis 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Fazakerley, A. N., E-mail: [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London (United Kingdom)


    We perform the first statistical study of the effects of the interaction of suprathermal electrons with narrow-band whistler mode waves in the solar wind (SW). We show that this interaction does occur and that it is associated with enhanced widths of the so-called strahl component. The latter is directed along the interplanetary magnetic field away from the Sun. We do the study by comparing the strahl pitch angle widths in the SW at 1 AU in the absence of large scale discontinuities and transient structures, such as interplanetary shocks, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, stream interaction regions, etc. during times when the whistler mode waves were present and when they were absent. This is done by using the data from two Cluster instruments: Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations experiment (STAFF) data in the frequency range between ∼0.1 and ∼200 Hz were used for determining the wave properties and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) data sets at 12 central energies between ∼57 eV (equivalent to ∼10 typical electron thermal energies in the SW, E{sub T}) and ∼676 eV (∼113 E{sub T}) for pitch angle measurements. Statistical analysis shows that, during the intervals with the whistler waves, the strahl component on average exhibits pitch angle widths between 2° and 12° larger than during the intervals when these waves are not present. The largest difference is obtained for the electron central energy of ∼344 eV (∼57 ET).

  5. Influence of sea ice lead-width distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq


    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 70% of the upward heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55% larger when considering the lead-width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extends down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  6. Implication for using heme methyl hyperfine shifts as indicators of heme seating as related to stereoselectivity in the catabolism of heme by heme oxygenase: in-plane heme versus axial his rotation. (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N


    The triple mutant of the solubilized, 265-residue construct of human heme oxygenase, K18E/E29K/R183E-hHO, has been shown to redirect the exclusive alpha-regioselectivity of wild-type hHO to primarily beta,delta-selectivity in the cleavage of heme (Wang, J., Evans, J. P., Ogura, H., La Mar, G. N., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 61-73). The 1H NMR hyperfine shift pattern for the substrate and axial His CbetaH's and the substrate-protein contacts of the cyanide-inhibited protohemin and 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin complexes of the triple mutant have been analyzed in detail and compared to data for the WT complex. It is shown that protein contacts for the major solution isomers for both substrates in the mutant dictate approximately 90 degrees in-plane clockwise rotation relative to that in the WT. The conventional interpretation of the pattern of substrate methyl hyperfine shifts, however, indicates substrate rotations of only approximately 50 degrees . This paradox is resolved by demonstrating that the axial His25 imidazole ring also rotates counterclockwise with respect to the protein matrix in the mutant relative to that in the WT. The axial His25 CbetaH hyperfine shifts are shown to serve as independent probes of the imidazole plane orientation relative to the protein matrix. The analysis indicates that the pattern of heme methyl hyperfine shifts cannot be used alone to determine the in-plane orientation of the substrate as it relates to the stereospecificity of heme cleavage, without explicit consideration of the orientation of the axial His imidazole plane relative to the protein matrix.

  7. Correlations of leaf area with length and width measurements of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple (United States)

    Philip M. Wargo


    Correlations of leaf area with length, width, and length times width of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple were determined to see if length and/or width could be used as accurate estimators of leaf area. The correlation of length times width with leaf area was high (r > + .95) for all three species. The linear equation Y = a + bX, where X = length times...

  8. Evaluation of Maxillary Interpremolar, Molar Width by DRNA Indices and Arch Dimension, Arch Form in Maratha Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Dungarwal


    Conclusion: Significant correlation was found between the sum of maxillary incisors and interpremolar width but not with the intermolar width while sum of mandibular incisors showed significant correlation with the interpremolar and intermolar arch width. There is no single arch form unique to any of the ethnic groups. A new formula is proposed to determine the premolar and molar index.

  9. Calculations with spectroscopic accuracy for energies, transition rates, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors in nitrogen-like Kr XXX (United States)

    Wang, K.; Li, S.; Jönsson, P.; Fu, N.; Dang, W.; Guo, X. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.


    Extensive self-consistent multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations and second-order many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are performed for the lowest 272 states belonging to the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l, and 2s2p33l (l=s, p, d) configurations of N-like Kr XXX. Complete and consistent data sets of level energies, wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, lifetimes, AJ, BJ hyperfine interaction constants, Landé gJ-factors, and electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic quadrupole (M2) transition rates among all these levels are given. The present MCDF and MBPT results are compared with each other and with other available experimental and theoretical results. The mean relative difference between our two sets of level energies is only about 0.003% for these 272 levels. The accuracy of the present calculations are high enough to facilitate identification of many observed spectral lines. These accurate data can be served as benchmark for other calculations and can be useful for fusion plasma research and astrophysical applications.

  10. Measurement of the spin temperature of optically cooled nuclei and GaAs hyperfine constants in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (United States)

    Chekhovich, E. A.; Ulhaq, A.; Zallo, E.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O. G.; Skolnick, M. S.


    Deep cooling of electron and nuclear spins is equivalent to achieving polarization degrees close to 100% and is a key requirement in solid-state quantum information technologies. While polarization of individual nuclear spins in diamond and SiC (ref. ) reaches 99% and beyond, it has been limited to 50-65% for the nuclei in quantum dots. Theoretical models have attributed this limit to formation of coherent `dark' nuclear spin states but experimental verification is lacking, especially due to the poor accuracy of polarization degree measurements. Here we measure the nuclear polarization in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots with high accuracy using a new approach enabled by manipulation of the nuclear spin states with radiofrequency pulses. Polarizations up to 80% are observed--the highest reported so far for optical cooling in quantum dots. This value is still not limited by nuclear coherence effects. Instead we find that optically cooled nuclei are well described within a classical spin temperature framework. Our findings unlock a route for further progress towards quantum dot electron spin qubits where deep cooling of the mesoscopic nuclear spin ensemble is used to achieve long qubit coherence. Moreover, GaAs hyperfine material constants are measured here experimentally for the first time.

  11. Transport-related triplet states and hyperfine couplings in organic tandem solar cells probed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy (United States)

    Kraffert, Felix; Bahro, Daniel; Meier, Christoph; Denne, Maximilian; Colsmann, Alexander; Behrends, Jan


    Tandem solar cells constitute the most successful organic photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencies comparable to thin-film silicon solar cells. Especially their high open-circuit voltage - only achievable by a well-adjusted layer stacking - leads to their high efficiencies. Nevertheless, the microscopic processes causing the lossless recombination of charge carriers within the recombination zone are not well understood yet. We show that advanced pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques such as electrically detected (ED)-Rabi nutation measurements and electrically detected hyperfine sublevel correlation (ED-HYSCORE) spectroscopy help to understand the role of triplet excitons in these microscopic processes. We investigate fully working miniaturised organic tandem solar cells and detect current-influencing doublet states in different layers as well as triplet excitons located on the fullerene-based acceptor. We apply ED-HYSCORE in order to study the nuclear spin environment of the relevant electron/hole spins and detect a significant amount of the low abundant 13C nuclei coupled to the observer spins.

  12. Transport-related triplet states and hyperfine couplings in organic tandem solar cells probed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kraffert, Felix; Bahro, Daniel; Meier, Christoph; Denne, Maximilian; Colsmann, Alexander; Behrends, Jan


    Tandem solar cells constitute the most successful organic photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencies comparable to thin-film silicon solar cells. Especially their high open-circuit voltage - only achievable by a well-adjusted layer stacking - leads to their high efficiencies. Nevertheless, the microscopic processes causing the lossless recombination of charge carriers within the recombination zone are not well understood yet. We show that advanced pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques such as electrically detected (ED)-Rabi nutation measurements and electrically detected hyperfine sublevel correlation (ED-HYSCORE) spectroscopy help to understand the role of triplet excitons in these microscopic processes. We investigate fully working miniaturised organic tandem solar cells and detect current-influencing doublet states in different layers as well as triplet excitons located on the fullerene-based acceptor. We apply ED-HYSCORE in order to study the nuclear spin environment of the relevant electron/hole spins and detect a significant amount of the low abundant 13 C nuclei coupled to the observer spins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the squared binary, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, and optimal pulse width modulation methods for three-dimensional shape measurement with projector defocusing. (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song


    This paper presents a comparative study on three sinusoidal fringe pattern generation techniques with projector defocusing: the squared binary defocusing method (SBM), the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) technique, and the optimal pulse width modulation (OPWM) technique. Because the phase error will directly affect the measurement accuracy, the comparisons are all performed in the phase domain. We found that the OPWM almost always performs the best, and SPWM outperforms SBM to a great extent, while these three methods generate similar results under certain conditions. We will briefly explain the principle of each technique, describe the optimization procedures for each technique, and finally compare their performances through simulations and experiments. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  14. Comparative study of dental arch width in plaster models, photocopies and digitized images

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    Maria Cristina Rosseto


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively assess dental arch width, in the canine and molar regions, by means of direct measurements from plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models. The sample consisted of 130 pairs of plaster models, photocopies and digitized images of the models of white patients (n = 65, both genders, with Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions, treated by standard Edgewise mechanics and extraction of the four first premolars. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths were measured by a calibrated examiner, prior to and after orthodontic treatment, using the three modes of reproduction of the dental arches. Dispersion of the data relative to pre- and posttreatment intra-arch linear measurements (mm was represented as box plots. The three measuring methods were compared by one-way ANOVA for repeated measurements (α = 0.05. Initial / final mean values varied as follows: 33.94 to 34.29 mm / 34.49 to 34.66 mm (maxillary intercanine width; 26.23 to 26.26 mm / 26.77 to 26.84 mm (mandibular intercanine width; 49.55 to 49.66 mm / 47.28 to 47.45 mm (maxillary intermolar width and 43.28 to 43.41 mm / 40.29 to 40.46 mm (mandibular intermolar width. There were no statistically significant differences between mean dental arch widths estimated by the three studied methods, prior to and after orthodontic treatment. It may be concluded that photocopies and digitized images of the plaster models provided reliable reproductions of the dental arches for obtaining transversal intra-arch measurements.

  15. Ageing effects on medio-lateral balance during walking with increased and decreased step width. (United States)

    Nagano, H; Begg, R; Sparrow, W A


    The current study used falls direction to categorize falls and explore age-related effects on the biomechanics of medio-lateral balance control. Minimum lateral margin (MLM) was defined as the critical swing phase event where the medio-lateral length between center of mass (CoM) and stance heel became minimum and accordingly, any lateral balance perturbation at MLM was considered to increase the risk of balance loss lateral to the stance foot. Lateral center of pressure (CoP) displacement from toe-off to MLM was also monitored to assess the risk of medio-lateral balance perturbation. Gait testing involving 30 young and 26 older male subjects was conducted under the three step width conditions: preferred and ± 50% wider and narrower. For an overall description of gait, spatio-temporal parameters were also obtained. Typical ageing effects on spatio-temporal parameters such as lower step velocity, shorter step length and prolonged double support time were found, emerging most clearly in narrower, followed by wider and least in preferred width walking. MLM and CoP lateral displacement were not differentiated between the two age groups, but older adults demonstrated significantly more variable MLM and CoP in their non-dominant limb when walking with non-preferred widths. Variability of step width reduced in increased and decreased step width conditions while MLM and CoP variability increased, suggesting less consistent medio-lateral CoM control despite consistent foot control in altered width conditions. In summary, older adults were found to have less consistent control of CoM with respect to the non-dominant stance foot when walking with narrower and wider widths possibly due to more variable medio-lateral CoP control.

  16. Feedback control of electrically stimulated muscle using simultaneous pulse width and stimulus period modulation. (United States)

    Chizeck, H J; Lan, N; Palmieri, L S; Crago, P E


    This paper considers the closed-loop control of electrically stimulated muscle using simultaneous pulse width and frequency modulation. Previous work has experimentally demonstrated good feedback regulation of muscle force using fixed parameter and an adaptive controller modulating pulse width. In this work, it is shown how the addition of pulse frequency modulation to pulse width modulation can improve controller performance. This combination controller has been developed for both single muscle activation and for costimulation of antagonists. This is accomplished using a single command input. In single muscle operation, the combination of pulse width and stimulus pulse frequency modulation results in better control of transient responses than with pulse width modulation alone; the total number of stimulus pulses is increased, however, when compared with pulse width-only modulation at the muscle fusion frequency. In the case of costimulation, the controller modulates the pulse stimulus periods of the antagonists in a reciprocal manner, to ensure stable and fast responses. That is, the frequency of stimulation of the antagonist is increased when that of the agonist is decreased. This results in better control performance with generally fewer stimulus pulses than those generated by costimulation using only pulse width modulation. This feedback controller was evaluated in animal experiments. Step responses with rapid rise times but without overshoot were obtained by the combined modulation. Good steady-state and transient performance were obtained over a wide range of static lengths and commands, under different loading conditions and in different animals. This controller is a promising potential component of neural prostheses to restore functional movement in paralyzed individuals.

  17. Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate

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    Schmelzle Rainer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts. Methods A total of 44 clefts were investigated using plaster casts, 30 unilateral and 7 bilateral clefts. All infants received a passive molding plate a few days after birth. The age at the time of closure of the lip was 2.1 month in average (range 1-6 months. Plaster casts were obtained at the following stages: shortly after birth, prior to lip closure, prior to soft palate closure. We determined the width of the alveolar cleft before lip closure and prior to soft palate closure measuring the alveolar cleft width from the most lateral point of the premaxilla/anterior segment to the most medial point of the smaller segment. Results After lip closure 15 clefts presented with a width of 0 mm, meaning that the mucosa of the segments was almost touching one another. 19 clefts showed a width of up to 2 mm and 10 clefts were still over 2 mm wide. This means a reduction of 0% in 5 clefts, of 1-50% in 6 clefts, of 51-99% in 19 clefts, and of 100% in 14 clefts. Conclusions Early lip closure reduces alveolar cleft width. In most cases our aim of a remaining cleft width of 2 mm or less can be achieved. These are promising conditions for primary alveolar bone grafting to restore the dental bony arch.

  18. Red cell distribution width as a novel predictor of postoperative respiratory adverse events after adenotonsillectomy. (United States)

    Kozanhan, Betul; Iyisoy, Mehmet S


    Respiratory adverse events are commonly observed after adenotonsillectomy in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Preoperative prediction of these events enhances quality of care and resource management in facilities while encouraging precautions against them. Red cell distribution width, a measure of erythrocyte size variability, has recently been linked to adverse outcomes in a variety of disorders. Red cell distribution width has also been found to be associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea in adults due to hypoxia-mediated inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether elevated red cell distribution width is associated with postoperative respiratory adverse events in children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing. A prospective, observational, assessor-blinded study was conducted with consecutive children undergoing elective adenotonsillectomy for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing. Under general anesthesia, adenoidectomy was performed by curettage, and tonsillectomy was carried out by dissection. The primary outcome was the occurrence of an adverse event during emergence or in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Among 287 patients, with mean ± sd age 7.49 ± 3.21, the frequency of respiratory complications during emergence was 62 (22.30%) and in PACU was 56 (20.14%). Mean ± sd red cell distribution width was 14.36 ± 1.06 in patients with complications and higher than that in those without complications 13.53 ± 0.59. Red cell distribution width had an adjusted odds ratio 7.28 (95% CI: 4.30-13.28) and area under the curve value 0.74 (95% CI: 0.67-0.81) to predict postoperative complications. A cutoff value for red cell distribution width was found to be 14.7. Our study showed that preoperative elevated red cell distribution width is associated with an increased risk of respiratory adverse events in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Balance performance and step width in noninstitutionalized, elderly, female fallers and nonfallers. (United States)

    Heitmann, D K; Gossman, M R; Shaddeau, S A; Jackson, J R


    The purposes of this study were to compare age, static balance performance, and step-width variables between elderly noninstitutionalized women with and without a history of falls and to determine the relationship between balance performance and step width. Each subject performed a maximum of three timed trials on the sharpened Romberg and one-legged stance tests with eyes open and with eyes closed. The first and best trial measurements were used for analysis. Each subject walked on paper walkways making ink prints for step-width measurements. The mean and the variability of each subject's step-width measurements were used for analysis. Data from 110 women, aged 60 to 89 years, were analyzed. The fallers (n = 26) had significantly lower values than the nonfallers (n = 84) on the best trial of the sharpened Romberg test in the eyes-open condition (t = 1.98, df = 108, p less than .05). No significant differences between fallers and nonfallers were revealed in age, the mean and variability of step width, the first trials of the balance tests, and the best trials on the other balance tests. For the total group, the mean measurements on the first trials were significantly lower than those on the best trials for each balance test. Small, but statistically significant (p less than .05), negative relationships existed between balance performance and the mean and variability of step width. The results of this study indicate that the methods of measuring balance and step width are clinically applicable, and the data of patients from a similar population sample may be compared with the data established in this study.

  20. Numerical study of the influence of the hinge gap width on the hinge flow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit


    Previous clinical and in-vitro studies have shown that the complex non-physiologic hemodynamics occurring in the hinge region of bileaflet mechanical heart valves promotes blood cell damage and thrombus formation. Modifying the hinge design could improve the flow and thus reduce the associated blood cell trauma. This study aims at investigating numerically the effect of the hinge gap width on the flow field. The governing equations are solved using a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary method coupled with a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume approach. The hinge dimensions are obtained from MicroComputed Tomography of a clinical valve. The leaflet motion and inlet velocity profile are imposed based on the Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations of the bulk flow of a valve placed under aortic physiologic conditions. 3D pulsatile flows through two hinge designs are presented along with their Lagrangian analysis. The hinge gap width is shown to have a strong influence on the flow, and thus on blood cell trauma.

  1. A QCD sum rule calculation of the X±(5568→Bs0π± decay width

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    J.M. Dias


    Full Text Available To understand the nature of the X(5568, recently observed in the mass spectrum of the Bs0π± system by the D0 Collaboration, we have investigated, in a previous work, a scalar tetraquark (diquak–antidiquark structure for it, within the two-point QCD sum rules method. We found that it is possible to obtain a stable value of the mass compatible with the D0 result, although a rigorous QCD sum rule constrained analysis led to a higher value of mass. As a continuation of our investigation, we calculate the width of the tetraquark state with same quark content as X(5568, to the channel Bs0π±, using the three-point QCD sum rule. We obtain a value of (20.4±8.7 MeV for the mass ∼ 5568 MeV, which is compatible with the experimental value of 21.9±6.4(sta−2.5+5.0(syst MeV/c2. We find that the decay width to Bs0π± does not alter much for a higher mass state.

  2. C5 palsy after cervical laminectomy and fusion: does width of laminectomy matter? (United States)

    Klement, Mitchell R; Kleeman, Lindsay T; Blizzard, Daniel J; Gallizzi, Michael A; Eure, Megan; Brown, Christopher R


    A common complication of cervical laminectomy and fusion with instrumentation (CLFI) is development of postoperative C5 nerve palsy. A proposed etiology is excess nerve tension from posterior drift of the spinal cord after decompression. We hypothesize that laminectomy width will be significantly increased in patients with C5 palsy and will correlate with palsy severity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate laminectomy width as a risk factor for C5 palsy and to assess correlation with palsy severity. This is a retrospective, single-institution clinical study. Patient population included all patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who underwent CLFI between 2007 and 2014 by a single surgeon. Patients who underwent CLFI for trauma, infection, or tumor or had previous or circumferential cervical surgery were excluded. All patients with a new C5 palsy received a postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. An additional computed tomography (CT) scan was ordered to assess hardware. All control patients received a CT scan at 6 months postoperatively to evaluate fusion. The association between width of laminectomy and development of postopeative C5 palsy was measured. Patient comorbidities including obesity, smoking history, and diabetes were recorded in addition to preopertaive and postoperative deltoid and biceps motor strength. Sagittal alignment was measured with C2-C7 Cobb angle preopertaive and postoperative radiographs. The width of laminectomy was measured in a blinded fashion on the postoperative CT scan by two observers. Seventeen patients with C5 nerve palsy and 12 controls were identified. There were no baseline differences in age, sex, diabetes, smoking history, number of surgical levels, or sagittal alignment. Body mass index was significantly higher in the control cohort. There was no significant increase in the C3-C7 laminectomy width in patients with postoperative C5 palsy. The width of laminectomy measurments were highly similar between the two

  3. Stochastic Mixed-Effects Parameters Bertalanffy Process, with Applications to Tree Crown Width Modeling

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    Petras Rupšys


    Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.

  4. Controlling ρ width effects for a precise value of α in B → ρρ (United States)

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.


    It has been pointed out that the currently most precise determination of the weak phase ϕ2 = α of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix achieved in B → ρρ decays is susceptible to a small correction at a level of (Γρ /mρ)2 due to an I = 1 amplitude caused by the ρ width. Using Breit-Wigner distributions for the two pairs of pions forming ρ mesons, we study the I = 1 contribution to B → ρρ decay rates as function of the width and location of the ρ band. We find that in the absence of a particular enhancement of the I = 1 amplitude reducing a single band to a width Γρ at SuperKEKB leads to results which are completely insensitive to the ρ width. If the I = 1 amplitude is dynamically enhanced relative to the I = 0 , 2 amplitude one could subject its contribution to a ;magnifying glass; measurement using two separated ρ bands of width Γρ. Subtraction of the I = 1 contribution from the measured decay rate would lead to a very precise determination of the I = 0 , 2 amplitude needed for performing the isospin analysis.

  5. Controlling ρ width effects for a precise value of α in B→ρρ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gronau


    Full Text Available It has been pointed out that the currently most precise determination of the weak phase ϕ2=α of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM matrix achieved in B→ρρ decays is susceptible to a small correction at a level of (Γρ/mρ2 due to an I=1 amplitude caused by the ρ width. Using Breit–Wigner distributions for the two pairs of pions forming ρ mesons, we study the I=1 contribution to B→ρρ decay rates as function of the width and location of the ρ band. We find that in the absence of a particular enhancement of the I=1 amplitude reducing a single band to a width Γρ at SuperKEKB leads to results which are completely insensitive to the ρ width. If the I=1 amplitude is dynamically enhanced relative to the I=0,2 amplitude one could subject its contribution to a “magnifying glass” measurement using two separated ρ bands of width Γρ. Subtraction of the I=1 contribution from the measured decay rate would lead to a very precise determination of the I=0,2 amplitude needed for performing the isospin analysis.

  6. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

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    G. Krapesch


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  7. Assessment of Upper and Lower Pharyngeal Airway Width in Skeletal Class I, II and III Malocclusions

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    Shalu Jain


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a close relationship between the dimensions of airway and the sagittal skeletal malocclusion which makes it reasonable to expect that width of airway is a reflection of determining patency of airway in different skeletal malocclusion groups. So, aim of this study was to assess the upper and lower pharyngeal airway width in skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion groups and also to evaluate sexual dimorphism in western Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 subjects in the age group of 18 to 25 years, from Western Uttar Pradesh adult population was selected on the basis of skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion. Digital lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position. Nine variables were selected which included four upper and five lower pharyngeal airway variables. Results: Upper and lower pharynx showed statistical significant difference among the skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion and also between males and females. Conclusion: Wider upper and lower pharyngeal airway width was seen in males than in females in both skeletal Class I as well as Class III malocclusion groups respectively. Skeletal Class III malocclusion subjects had the widest airway width as compared to skeletal Class I malocclusion group. Skeletal Class II malocclusion, airway width was found to be narrowest.

  8. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan


    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  9. Is there any relation between distal parameters of the femur and its height and width? (United States)

    Yazar, Fatih; Imre, Nurcan; Battal, Bilal; Bilgic, Serkan; Tayfun, Cem


    The purpose of this study was to reveal the association whether the distal morphometry of femur had a relation with femur height or width. Sixty-six adult (35 right and 31 left) dry femurs from Caucasians were used in this study. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was applied to obtain measurement values of the femur. Femur height (413.29 ± 28.40 mm) and width (29.86 ± 2.72 mm) were all checked one by one to determine the correlation with the parameters obtained. Both values exposed high rates of correlation with height (26 ± 2.34 mm) and width (20.85 ± 2.76 mm) of femur notch; also, measures of epicondylar, bicondylar and condylar diameters of femur were obtained. Measures were checked if there was a correlation with femur height and width. Differences displayed in distal morphometry of femur according to race and sex are due to other morphometric measures of femur rather than race and sex. We believe that displaying the high rates of correlation of distal morphometry of femur with femur height and width will be the factor which determines the selection and production of prosthesis among the long or short individuals of folks.

  10. Limits on the Higgs boson lifetime and width from its decay to four charged leptons

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    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sudhakar, Katta; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; 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Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel


    Constraints on the lifetime and width of the Higgs boson are obtained from $\\mathrm{H} \\to \\mathrm{ZZ} \\to 4\\ell$ events using data recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 with an integrated luminosity of 5.1 and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The measurement of the Higgs boson lifetime is derived from its flight distance in the CMS detector with an upper bound of $\\tau_{\\mathrm{H}} $ lower than $ 1.9 \\times 10^{-13}$ s at the 95% confidence level (CL), corresponding to a lower bound on the width of $\\Gamma_{\\mathrm{H}} $ larger than $ 3.5 \\times 10^{-9} $ MeV. The measurement of the width is obtained from an off-shell production technique, generalized to include anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson to two electroweak bosons. From this measurement, a joint constraint is set on the Higgs boson width and a parameter $f_{\\Lambda Q}$ that expresses an anomalous coupling contribution as an on-shell cross-section fraction. The limit on the Higgs boson width is ...

  11. Sexual dimorphism in permanent maxillary and mandibular canines and intermolar arch width: Endemic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Asif Syed


    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dimorphism of permanent mandibular and maxillary canine teeth as well as intercanine and intermolar distance plays a role in establishing sex identity. Materials and Methods: Four hundred volunteers comprising 200 males and 200 females, with age ranging from 18 to 50 years, were selected. The greatest mesiodistal width of the canine teeth and the distance between the tips of canines of both arches and intermolar arch width were measured using vernier caliper with 0.02 mm resolution. All data were tabulated and analysis done by "t" test. Results: The widths of the mandibular and maxillary right and left canine teeth were almost bilaterally symmetrical in females and males. The mean values for left and right mandibular and maxillary canine widths were less in females than in males and the differences were statistically significant. The mean values for mandibular and maxillary intercanine and intermolar distances were less in females than in males and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in maxillary and mandibular canines and intermolar arch width. It can be concluded that standard canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  12. Rectangular distribution whose width is not exactly known: isocurvilinear trapezoidal distribution (United States)

    Kacker, Raghu N.; Lawrence, James F.


    After the Gaussian distribution, the probability distribution most commonly used in evaluation of uncertainty in measurement is the rectangular distribution. If the half-width of a rectangular distribution is specified, the mid-point is uncertain, and the probability distribution of the mid-point may be represented by another (narrower) rectangular distribution then the resulting distribution is an isosceles trapezoidal distribution. However, in metrological applications, it is more common that the mid-point is specified but the half-width is uncertain. If the probability distribution of the half-width may be represented by another (narrower) rectangular distribution, then the resulting distribution looks like an isosceles trapezoid whose sloping sides are curved. We can refer to such a probability distribution as an isocurvilinear trapezoidal distribution. We describe the main characteristics of an isocurvilinear trapezoidal distribution which arises when the half-width is uncertain. When the uncertainty in specification of the half-width is not excessive, the isocurvilinear trapezoidal distribution can be approximated by an isosceles trapezoidal distribution.

  13. Relationship between red cell distribution width and early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Zhao, Jiangtao; Jian, Liguo; Ding, Tongbin; Liu, Shichao


    Previous studies found that red cell distribution width was related to adverse cardiovascular events. However, few studies reported the relationship between red cell distribution width and early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional design, 334 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled according to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion. Demographic and clinical examination data were collected. Depended on the urine albumin, study population were divided into case group (n = 118) and control group (n = 216). Compared with control group, the case group tend to be higher red cell distribution width level (13.6 ± 0.9 vs.12.5 ± 0.6, p gestational diabetes mellitus patients. The elevated red cell distribution width level might be a predictor of early-stage renal injury in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. As an easy and routine examination index, red cell distribution width may provide better clinical guidance when combined with other important indices.

  14. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto


    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Step Width Tolerable for Offset of the Aperture in a Millimeter-Wave Transducer between Post-Wall and Hollow Standard Waveguides (United States)

    Lee, Jungaun; Hirokawa, Jiro; Ando, Makoto

    A transducer with a wide step from a post-wall waveguide to a hollow waveguide width is proposed which is tolerant against the aperture offset. The modes in the step width of about 1.50 wavelengths are stable for the aperture offset and the fields are not so perturbed while in the conventional stepped structure with step width of about 1.00 wavelength, the higher evanescent mode of TE30 is excessively enhanced by the aperture offset. The operation of the transducer with the wider step is robust for the fabrication errors in the millimeter wave band. It is also suggested that the anti-symmetrical TE20 mode which is excited only by non-zero offset or the misalignment of the aperture exists in both structures and can not be the dominant factor for the improvement. The transducers are designed and fabricated at 61.25GHz using PTFE substrate with glass fiber of εr=2.17. The bandwidth for the reflection lower than -15dB is almost unchanged (6.30-6.60GHz) for the offset from -0.2mm to 0.2mm, while it is degraded in the conventional stepped structure, from 7.65GHz for no offset to 3.30-5.70GHz for the same range of the offset.

  16. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.


    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  17. Nuclear fission and the widths of the isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Radyionov, S V


    The dissipative collective motion in nuclei is investigated within the Fermi-liquid model. In the case of large-amplitude collective motion, the macroscopic equations for the nuclear shape parameter are derived from the pressure tensor, the velocity field, and the requisition of motion for the nuclear density. The approach is used both for the description of induced symmetric nuclear fission and isoscalar giant multipole resonances in nuclei. The widths of giant quadrupole resonances are calculated with the obtained value of the viscosity coefficient. The calculated widths are about two times smaller than the experimental values. Therefore, the width of a giant multipole resonance is formed not only by ordinary two-body viscosity but also by a nondissipative contribution that absents on the definition of the dissipative energy during the nuclear descent from the fission barrier.

  18. Optimal Channel Width Adaptation, Logical Topology Design, and Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li


    Full Text Available Radio frequency spectrum is a finite and scarce resource. How to efficiently use the spectrum resource is one of the fundamental issues for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks. However, past research efforts that attempt to exploit multiple channels always assume channels of fixed predetermined width, which prohibits the further effective use of the spectrum resource. In this paper, we address how to optimally adapt channel width to more efficiently utilize the spectrum in IEEE802.11-based multi-radio multi-channel mesh networks. We mathematically formulate the channel width adaptation, logical topology design, and routing as a joint mixed 0-1 integer linear optimization problem, and we also propose our heuristic assignment algorithm. Simulation results show that our method can significantly improve spectrum use efficiency and network performance.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanorod pairs with interconnection bars of different widths

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    We demonstrate that surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement could be tuned by adjusting the width of a connection bar at the bottom of a gold nanorod pair. Arrays of gold nanorod pairs with interconnection bars of different widths at the bottom of the interspace were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the SERS study. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as the probe molecule for the SERS. In addition to the large SERS enhancement observed in the nanostructured substrates, the SERS enhancement increases as the width of the connection bar increases. This result provides an important method for tuning SERS enhancement. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties on the nanostructures were performed with CST Microwave Studio, and the results correspond well with the experimental observations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.


    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.