WorldWideScience

Sample records for widespread virus movement

  1. Complete genome analysis of 33 ecologically and biologically diverse Rift Valley fever virus strains reveals widespread virus movement and low genetic diversity due to recent common ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Khristova, Marina L; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

    2007-03-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne RNA virus responsible for large explosive outbreaks of acute febrile disease in humans and livestock in Africa with significant mortality and economic impact. The successful high-throughput generation of the complete genome sequence was achieved for 33 diverse RVF virus strains collected from throughout Africa and Saudi Arabia from 1944 to 2000, including strains differing in pathogenicity in disease models. While several distinct virus genetic lineages were determined, which approximately correlate with geographic origin, multiple exceptions indicative of long-distance virus movement have been found. Virus strains isolated within an epidemic (e.g., Mauritania, 1987, or Egypt, 1977 to 1978) exhibit little diversity, while those in enzootic settings (e.g., 1970s Zimbabwe) can be highly diverse. In addition, the large Saudi Arabian RVF outbreak in 2000 appears to have involved virus introduction from East Africa, based on the close ancestral relationship of a 1998 East African virus. Virus genetic diversity was low (approximately 5%) and primarily involved accumulation of mutations at an average of 2.9 x 10(-4) substitutions/site/year, although some evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found. Bayesian analysis of current RVF virus genetic diversity places the most recent common ancestor of these viruses in the late 1800s, the colonial period in Africa, a time of dramatic changes in agricultural practices and introduction of nonindigenous livestock breeds. In addition to insights into the evolution and ecology of RVF virus, these genomic data also provide a foundation for the design of molecular detection assays and prototype vaccines useful in combating this important disease.

  2. Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, Jonathan; Ely, Jeremy C.; Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.

    2017-04-01

    Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater’s impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century in response to atmospheric warming. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of surface meltwater and its drainage is needed. Yet, despite extensive research in Greenland and observations of individual drainage systems in Antarctica, we have little understanding of Antarctic-wide surface hydrology or how it will evolve. Here we show widespread drainage of meltwater across the surface of the ice sheet through surface streams and ponds (hereafter ‘surface drainage’) as far south as 85° S and as high as 1,300 metres above sea level. Our findings are based on satellite imagery from 1973 onwards and aerial photography from 1947 onwards. Surface drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water up to 120 kilometres from grounded ice onto and across ice shelves, feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 kilometres long. Large-scale surface drainage could deliver water to areas of ice shelves vulnerable to collapse, as melt rates increase this century. While Antarctic surface melt ponds are relatively well documented on some ice shelves, we have discovered that ponds often form part of widespread, large-scale surface drainage systems. In a warming climate, enhanced surface drainage could accelerate future ice-mass loss from Antarctic, potentially via positive feedbacks between the extent of exposed rock, melting and thinning of the ice sheet.

  3. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, J M; Kik, M L; Slaterus, R; Foppen, Rpb; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, Mgp; van der Jeugd, H P; Reusken, Cbem

    2016-11-10

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  4. Genomes of Abundant and Widespread Viruses from the Deep Ocean

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    Carolina Megumi Mizuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea is a massive, largely oligotrophic ecosystem, stretched over nearly 65% of the planet’s surface. Deep-sea planktonic communities are almost completely dependent upon organic carbon sinking from the productive surface, forming a vital component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite their importance, viruses from the deep ocean remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the first complete genomes of deep-sea viruses assembled from metagenomic fosmid libraries. “Candidatus Pelagibacter” (SAR11 phage HTVC010P and Puniceispirillum phage HMO-2011 are considered the most abundant cultured marine viruses known to date. Remarkably, some of the viruses described here recruited as many reads from deep waters as these viruses do in the photic zone, and, considering the gigantic scale of the bathypelagic habitat, these genomes provide information about what could be some of the most abundant viruses in the world at large. Their role in the viral shunt in the global ocean could be very significant. Despite the challenges encountered in inferring the identity of their hosts, we identified one virus predicted to infect members of the globally distributed SAR11 cluster. We also identified a number of putative proviruses from diverse taxa, including deltaproteobacteria, bacteroidetes, SAR11, and gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, our findings also indicate that lysogeny is the preferred mode of existence for deep-sea viruses inhabiting an energy-limited environment, in sharp contrast to the predominantly lytic lifestyle of their photic-zone counterparts. Some of the viruses show a widespread distribution, supporting the tenet “everything is everywhere” for the deep-ocean virome.

  5. Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Kingslake, J.; Ely, J.; I. Das; Bell, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater’s impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century in response to atmospheric warming. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of s...

  6. Plant virus replication and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Replication and intercellular spread of viruses depend on host mechanisms supporting the formation transport and turnover of functional complexes between viral genomes virus encoded products and cellular factors. To enhance these processes viruses assemble and replicate in membrane associated complexes that may develop into "virus factories" or "viroplasms" in which viral components and host factors required for replication are concentrated. Many plant viruses replicate i...

  7. Plant virus replication and movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Replication and intercellular spread of viruses depend on host mechanisms supporting the formation, transport and turnover of functional complexes between viral genomes, virus-encoded products and cellular factors...

  8. Nomadic beekeeper movements create the potential for widespread disease in the honeybee industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R; Bresolin-Schott, N; East, I J

    2014-08-01

    To examine the nomadic movements of Australian beekeepers and determine their potential to assist the spread of pests and diseases. A questionnaire was mailed to all beekeepers in Australia who maintained >100 hives, requesting information on the location of their home base, locations used throughout the year and the crops that the bees fed on in each location. The information was analysed using network analysis software and a geographic information system. Nomadic Australian beekeepers formed a connected network linking 288 locations from central Queensland to western Victoria. A second, smaller network included 42 locations in south-eastern South Australia. Almond orchards in Robinvale and Boundary Bend and lucerne seed production in Keith were locations of major hive congregations driven by the opportunity to provide paid pollination services. In the 3 months after completion of almond pollination in August 2008, movement of hives occurred from Robinvale and Boundary Bend to 49 locations, ranging from south-east Queensland to south-west Victoria. The movements identified in this study highlight the potential for rapid spread of disease or pests throughout the beekeeping industry should an incursion occur. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D. T.; van der Wel, N. N.; Jansen, K. A.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, for which there has been no evidence of a

  10. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

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    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  11. Genetic analysis of the function of the plum pox virus CI RNA helicase in virus movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Cedrón, Marta; Osaba, Lourdes; López, Lissett; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-03-01

    The CI protein forms the cylindrical inclusions typical of potyviral infections and is involved in genome replication and virus movement. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of a series of point mutations at the N-terminal region of the CI protein of Plum pox virus (PPV) on the enzymatic activities and the self-interaction ability of the protein, and on virus replication and movement. DD3,4AA mutation, which had no apparent effects on ATPase and RNA helicase activities in vitro, and on virus replication in protoplasts, drastically impaired cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The effect of KK101,102AA mutation was host-specific. While no signals of virus infection were detected in Chenopodium foetidum inoculated with PPV KK101,102AA, the mutation caused a moderate effect on short distance movement in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii, which resulted in a more drastic disturbance of systemic spread. None of the mutations analyzed abolished PPV CI self-interaction in the yeast Two-Hybrid system, but they caused a notable reduction in the binding strength, which appears to positively correlate with their effect on virus movement, suggesting that CI-CI interactions required for RNA replication and virus movement could be rather different.

  12. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

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    Mitra Apratim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV. Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Results Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  13. Intracellular localization and movement phenotypes of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, M.; Jongejan, L.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Bol, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen mutations were introduced in the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and the mutant MP-GFP fusions were expressed transiently in tobacco protoplasts, tobacco suspension cells, and epidermal cells of tobacco leaves. In

  14. Insect-specific flaviviruses, a worldwide widespread group of viruses only detected in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Mattia; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Vázquez, Ana; Sánchez Seco, Mari Paz; Amaro, Fátima; Dottori, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Several flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans and animals (Dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow-fever virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus). In recent years, numerous novel and related flaviviruses without known pathogenic capacity have been isolated worldwide in the natural mosquito population. However, phylogenetic studies have shown that genomic sequences of these viruses diverge from other flaviviruses. Moreover, these viruses seem to be exclusive of insects (they do not seem to grow on vertebrate cell lines), and were already defined as mosquito-only flaviviruses or insect-specific flaviviruses. At least eleven of these viruses were isolated worldwide, and sequences ascribable to other eleven putative viruses were detected in several mosquito species. A large part of the cycle of these viruses is not well known, and their persistence in the environment is poorly understood. These viruses are detected in a wide variety of distinct mosquito species and also in sandflies and chironomids worldwide; a single virus, or the genetic material ascribable to a virus, was detected in several mosquito species in different countries, often in different continents. Furthermore, some of these viruses are carried by invasive mosquitoes, and do not seem to have a depressive action on their fitness. The global distribution and the continuous detection of new viruses in this group point out the likely underestimation of their number, and raise interesting issues about their possible interactions with the pathogenic flaviviruses, and their influence on the bionomics of arthropod hosts. Some enigmatic features, as their integration in the mosquito genome, the recognition of their genetic material in DNA forms in field-collected mosquitoes, or the detection of the same virus in both mosquitoes and sandflies, indicate that the cycle of these viruses has unknown characteristics that could be of use to reach a deeper understanding of the cycle

  15. Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis.

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    Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2014-10-07

    Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of exoribonuclease4/thylene-insensitive5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed.

  16. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90 for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3% equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8% for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2% for WNV, two (0.3% for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1% for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  17. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  18. Widespread Horizontal Gene Transfer from Circular Single-stranded DNA Viruses to Eukaryotic Genomes

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    Xie Jiatao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to vertical transmission, organisms can also acquire genes from other distantly related species or from their extra-chromosomal elements (plasmids and viruses via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. It has been suggested that phages represent substantial forces in prokaryotic evolution. In eukaryotes, retroviruses, which can integrate into host genome as an obligate step in their replication strategy, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. Unlike retroviruses, few members of other virus families are known to transfer genes to host genomes. Results Here we performed a systematic search for sequences related to circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that the replication initiation protein (Rep-related sequences of geminiviruses, nanoviruses and circoviruses have been frequently transferred to a broad range of eukaryotic species, including plants, fungi, animals and protists. Some of the transferred viral genes were conserved and expressed, suggesting that these genes have been coopted to assume cellular functions in the host genomes. We also identified geminivirus-like and parvovirus-like transposable elements in genomes of fungi and lower animals, respectively, and thereby provide direct evidence that eukaryotic transposons could derive from ssDNA viruses. Conclusions Our discovery extends the host range of circular ssDNA viruses and sheds light on the origin and evolution of these viruses. It also suggests that ssDNA viruses act as an unforeseen source of genetic innovation in their hosts.

  19. Transient widespread cortical and splenial lesions in acute encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with primary Epstein–Barr virus infection

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    Shuo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is very common and usually occurs in childhood or early adulthood. Encephalitis/encephalopathy is an uncommon but serious neurological complication of EBV. A case of EBV-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy with involvement of reversible widespread cortical and splenial lesions is presented herein. An 8-year-old Chinese girl who presented with fever and headache, followed by seizures and drowsiness, was admitted to the hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensities on diffusion-weighted imaging in widespread cortical and splenial lesions. The clinical and laboratory examination results together with the unusual radiology findings suggested acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to primary EBV infection. After methylprednisolone pulse therapy together with ganciclovir, the patient made a full recovery without any brain lesions. The hallmark clinical–radiological features of this patient included severe encephalitis/encephalopathy at onset, the prompt and complete recovery, and rapidly reversible widespread involvement of the cortex and splenium. Patients with EBV encephalitis/encephalopathy who have multiple lesions, even with the widespread involvement of cortex and splenium of the corpus callosum, may have a favorable outcome with complete disappearance of all brain lesions.

  20. Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses.

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    Gryseels, Sophie; Rieger, Toni; Oestereich, Lisa; Cuypers, Bart; Borremans, Benny; Makundi, Rhodes; Leirs, Herwig; Günther, Stephan; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-02-01

    Despite its near pan-African range, the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, carries the human pathogen Lassa virus only in West Africa, while the seemingly non-pathogenic arenaviruses Mopeia, Morogoro, and Luna have been detected in this semi-commensal rodent in Mozambique/Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zambia, respectively. Here, we describe a novel arenavirus in M. natalensis from Gairo district of central Tanzania, for which we propose the name "Gairo virus". Surprisingly, the virus is not closely related with Morogoro virus that infects M. natalensis only 90km south of Gairo, but clusters phylogenetically with Mobala-like viruses that infect non-M. natalensis host species in Central African Republic and Ethiopia. Despite the evolutionary distance, Gairo virus shares basic ecological features with the other M. natalensis-borne viruses Lassa and Morogoro. Our data show that M. natalensis, carrying distantly related viruses even in the same geographical area, is a potent reservoir host for a variety of arenaviruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Marek's Disease Virus Infection Induces Widespread Differential Chromatin Marks in Inbred Chicken Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigene...

  2. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Continuous vaccination against MD may have contributed to a progressive increase in the virulence of MDV, and therefore, the understanding of genetic resistance to MD is considered crucial to the long-term control of ...

  3. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Kyriaki; Hughes, Joseph; Wash, Rachael; Kellam, Paul; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stéphan; Palmarini, Massimo; Biek, Roman; Mertens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  4. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

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    Kyriaki Nomikou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV, a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  5. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Kyriaki; Hughes, Joseph; Wash, Rachael; Kellam, Paul; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stéphan; Palmarini, Massimo; Biek, Roman; Mertens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment ‘reassortment’ represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses. PMID:26252219

  6. Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of West Nile and avian influenza virus

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    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Perry, William M.; Smith, Lacy M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian infl uenza virus (AIV) is infl uenced by site fi delity and movements of bird hosts. We examined the movement ecology of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) as potential hosts for West Nile virus (WNV) and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) as potential hosts for AIVs. Research was based on radio-telemetry studies conducted in the Central Valley of California, USA. While crows were restricted to a small area of only a few square kilometers, the distribution of the geese encompassed the northern Central Valley. The crows used 1.5 to 3.5 different roosting areas monthly from February through October, revealing lower roost fi delity than the geese that used 1.1 to 1.5 roosting areas each month from November through March. The crows moved a mean distance of 0.11 to 0.49 km/month between their roosting sites and 2.5 to 3.9 km/month between roosting and feeding sites. In contrast, the geese moved 4.2 to 19.3 km/month between roosting areas, and their feeding range varied from 13.2 to 19.0 km/month. Our comparison of the ecological characteristics of bird movements suggests that the limited local movements of crows coupled with frequent turnover of roosts may result in persistence of focal areas for WNV infection. In contrast, widespread areas used by geese will provide regular opportunities for intermixing of AIVs over a much greater geographic area.

  7. Widespread geographical disparities in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Narjes, Hihi; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Soltani, Mahdia; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Berkane, Saadi; Debzi, Nabil

    2017-06-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, with a population of 40 million inhabitants living in disparate environments from the Sahara to the large cities of the Mediterranean coast. The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants has been partially described, but variations in the seroprevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) throughout the Algerian territories are still poorly described. We analyzed demographic features of new cases of chronic infection collected in 41 administrative regions (covering 92% of the population) in 2013. The mean age of the 1876 HBsAg(+) patients was 36.8 ± 14.2 years, with a slight excess of males (54%). The seroprevalence of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) was 9.3%, and the mean virus load was 3.2 ± 1.8 log IU/ml. A subset of 15.2% of patients was already cirrhotic at disease discovery. An important heterogeneity was observed throughout the country, with nine regions displaying a significant excess of cases. These regions formed four distinct foci located in distant parts of the country: Adrar-Bechar (southwest), El-Oued-Tebessa (east), M'Sila-Sétif (north central) and Oran-Aïn Temouchent (northwest). An excess of cases was found as well in the national capital Algiers. Patients from southern regions with an excess of cases (Bechar, Adrar, El Oued) were significantly younger (32.0 ± 10.7 years), as were patients from the regions of Bejaia and Bouira (32.1 ± 10.6). The southwestern regions were also marked by a significant imbalance of the sex ratio (58 vs 39% of female cases, P = 4.5 E-5). The highest HBeAg seroprevalence was observed in Setif (26.4 vs. 7.6%, OR = 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-6.5, P = 1.1 × 10-11) in accordance with the higher virus loads observed in the patients (3.9 ± 2.3 vs. 3.1 ± 1.6, P = 0.0002). In conclusion, we observed heterogeneity in HBsAg seroprevalence, demographic traits, and disease evolution in Algeria. Further studies are now warranted to shed light on these differences

  8. Rapid, widespread transduction of the murine myocardium using self-complementary Adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Lourdes M; Conlon, Thomas J; Porvasnik, Stacy L; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Lewin, Alfred S

    2007-12-10

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has shown great promise as a gene transfer vector. However, the incubation time needed to attain significant levels of gene expression is often too long for some clinical applications. Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) enters the cell as double stranded DNA, eliminating the step of second-strand synthesis, proven to be the rate-limiting step for gene expression of single-stranded AAV (ssAAV). The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of these two types of AAV vectors in the murine myocardium. Four day old CD-1 mice were injected with either of the two AAV constructs, both expressing GFP and packaged into the AAV1 capsid. The animals were held for 4, 6, 11 or 21 days, after which they were euthanized and their hearts were excised. Serial sections of the myocardial tissue were used for real-time PCR quantification of AAV genome copies and for confocal microscopy. Although we observed similar numbers of AAV genomes at each of the different time points present in both the scAAV and the ssAAV infected hearts, microscopic analysis showed expression of GFP as early as 4 days in animals injected with the scAAV, while little or no expression was observed with the ssAAV constructs until day 11. AAV transduction of murine myocardium is therefore significantly enhanced using scAAV constructs.

  9. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

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    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  10. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

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    Masanori Kaido

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  11. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

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    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  13. Citrus tristeza virus: survival at the edge of the movement continuum.

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    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Folimonov, Alexey S; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-01

    Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a "pure" culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature.

  14. Citrus Tristeza Virus: Survival at the Edge of the Movement Continuum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Folimonov, Alexey S.; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic invasion of plants by viruses is thought to involve two processes: cell-to-cell movement between adjacent cells and long-distance movement that allows the virus to rapidly move through sieve elements and unload at the growing parts of the plant. There is a continuum of proportions of these processes that determines the degrees of systemic infection of different plants by different viruses. We examined the systemic distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in citrus species with a range of susceptibilities. By using a “pure” culture of CTV from a cDNA clone and green fluorescent protein-labeled virus we show that both cell-to-cell and long-distance movement are unusually limited, and the degree of limitation varies depending on the citrus host. In the more-susceptible hosts CTV infected only a small portion of phloem-associated cells, and moreover, the number of infection sites in less-susceptible citrus species was substantially decreased further, indicating that long-distance movement was reduced in those hosts. Analysis of infection foci in the two most differential citrus species, Citrus macrophylla and sour orange, revealed that in the more-susceptible host the infection foci were composed of a cluster of multiple cells, while in the less-susceptible host infection foci were usually single cells, suggesting that essentially no cell-to-cell movement occurred in the latter host. Thus, CTV in sour orange represents a pattern of systemic infection in which the virus appears to function with only the long-distance movement mechanism, yet is able to survive in nature. PMID:18434397

  15. Virus movements on the plasma membrane support infection and transmission between cells.

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    Christoph J Burckhardt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available How viruses are transmitted across the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory, digestive, or excretory tracts, and how they spread from cell to cell and cause systemic infections, is incompletely understood. Recent advances from single virus tracking experiments have revealed conserved patterns of virus movements on the plasma membrane, including diffusive motions, drifting motions depending on retrograde flow of actin filaments or actin tail formation by polymerization, and confinement to submicrometer areas. Here, we discuss how viruses take advantage of cellular mechanisms that normally drive the movements of proteins and lipids on the cell surface. A concept emerges where short periods of fast diffusive motions allow viruses to rapidly move over several micrometers. Coupling to actin flow supports directional transport of virus particles during entry and cell-cell transmission, and local confinement coincides with either nonproductive stalling or infectious endocytic uptake. These conserved features of virus-host interactions upstream of infectious entry offer new perspectives for anti-viral interference.

  16. The movement protein and coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus accumulate in structurally modified plasmodesmata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, N. N.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    In systemically infected tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) are detected in plasmodesmata in a layer of three to four cells at the progressing front of infection. Besides the presence of these viral proteins, the plasmodesmata are

  17. Movement Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Associates with Apoplastic Ascorbate Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Hallan, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral movement proteins facilitate virion movement mainly through interaction with a number of factors from the host. We report the association of a cell wall localized ascorbate oxidase (CsAO4) from Cucumis sativus with the movement protein (MP) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). This was identified first in a yeast two-hybrid screen and validated by in vivo pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. The BiFC assay showed localization of the bimolecular complexes of these proteins around the cell wall periphery as punctate spots. The expression of CsAO4 was induced during the initial infection period (up to 72 h) in CMV infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. To functionally validate its role in viral spread, we analyzed the virus accumulation in CsAO4 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and transiently silenced N. benthamiana plants (through a Tobacco rattle virus vector). Overexpression had no evident effect on virus accumulation in upper non-inoculated leaves of transgenic lines in comparison to WT plants at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). However, knockdown resulted in reduced CMV accumulation in systemic (non-inoculated) leaves of NbΔAO-pTRV2 silenced plants as compared to TRV inoculated control plants at 5 dpi (up to 1.3 fold difference). In addition, functional validation supported the importance of AO in plant development. These findings suggest that AO and viral MP interaction helps in early viral movement; however, it had no major effect on viral accumulation after 7 dpi. This study suggests that initial induction of expression of AO on virus infection and its association with viral MP helps both towards targeting of the MP to the apoplast and disrupting formation of functional AO dimers for spread of virus to nearby cells, reducing the redox defense of the plant during initial stages of infection. PMID:27668429

  18. Specific Movement of Cell Membranes Fused with HVJ (Sendai Virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshio; Kim, Jeman; Maeda, Yumiko; Koseki, Ignez

    1974-01-01

    When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells fused with UV-inactivated HVJ (Sendai virus) were cultured, the viral envelope antigens, which had been integrated at random into the cell membranes, accumulated at one site on the fused cell. The site showed a specific structure, namely, a projection of the cytoplasm from the spherical fused cell surface with clusters of many long microvillilike protrusions from it. When the fused cells were conjugated with antibody against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and cultured, the antigen-antibody complex also accumulated on the projection. Associated with the development of the projection and accumulation of viral antigens, vacuoles developed at the base of the projection in the cytoplasm of the fused cells in culture. The development of the projection and vacuoles and the accumulation of viral antigens were all inhibited by glucose, mannose, galactose, sodium azide, and cycloheximide, and these inhibitions were reversible. All these structures were observed in multinucleated cells, but few in mononucleated cells after reaction with HVJ (Sendai virus). We consider that these three phenomena correlate with each other and may result from changes in cell-membrane systems caused by fusion of cells. Images PMID:4365583

  19. Modelling bluetongue virus transmission between farms using animal and vector movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanne; Bowers, Roger G.; Baylis, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a notifiable disease of ruminants which, in 2007, occurred for the first time in England. We present the first model for bluetongue that explicitly incorporates farm to farm movements of the two main hosts, as well as vector dispersal. The model also includes a seasonal vector to host ratio and dynamic restriction zones that evolve as infection is detected. Batch movements of sheep were included by modelling degree of mixing at markets. We investigate the transmission of bluetongue virus between farms in eastern England (the focus of the outbreak). Results indicate that most parameters affecting outbreak size relate to vectors and that the infection generally cannot be maintained without between-herd vector transmission. Movement restrictions are effective at reducing outbreak size, and a targeted approach would be as effective as a total movement ban. The model framework is flexible and can be adapted to other vector-borne diseases of livestock. PMID:22432051

  20. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Movement and transmission of banana bunchy top virus DNA component one in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, G J; Harding, R M; Dale, J L

    1995-09-01

    The systemic movement and replication of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component one were investigated. Strand-specific RNA probes and PCR were used to indicate the presence of the virus in various parts of infected banana plants during infection on the basis of dsDNA replicative intermediates of BBTV. The strand-specific probes were not only able to detect the presence of the virus but also gave an indication of where the virus replicated. The results using both the virion sense and complementary to virion sense specific probes were essentially the same indicating that BBTV initially replicated for a short period at the site of inoculation, and subsequently moved down the pseudostem to the basal meristematic region and ultimately into the roots and newly formed leaves. The virus was detected in the leaves formed prior to inoculation after 21 days using PCR but was not detected by the RNA probes. This indicated that the virus had the ability to move into these leaves but may not have replicated or accumulated to significant levels. The appearance of multimeric forms of BBTV suggested that the virus may have replicated via a rolling circle mechanism. Additionally, BBTV DNA component one did not appear to replicate in its aphid vector, Pentalonia nigronervosa.

  2. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  3. The nucleocapsid protein of an enveloped plant virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, facilitates long-distance movement of Tobacco mosaic virus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential role(s) of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the open reading frame for the N protein was expressed from a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector encoding only the TMV replicase proteins. In the absence of other TSWV-encoded proteins, the transiently expressed N protein facilitated long-distance movement of the TMV-based hybrids in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana [NB-MP(+)] expressing movement protein of TMV, thus providing the functional demonstration of the N protein in long-distance RNA movement. Removal of the N-terminal 39 amino acids (N-NΔ39), the C-terminal 26 amino acids (N-CΔ26) or both of them (N-NΔ39CΔ26) abolished the long-distance movement function, indicating the essential role of both N- and C-terminus. In contrast, alanine substitution of the phenylalanines at positions 242 and 246 (N242/262A), two crucial amino acids for homotypic interaction of the N protein, had little effect, suggesting that the N protein could function in long-distance movement in the form of monomers. In addition, both the wild type N and the alanine mutant N242/262A hardly induced local symptoms in NB-MP(+) plants and TMV-MP transgenic N. tabacum cv. Xanthi. The deletion mutants N-NΔ39, N-CΔ26 and N-NΔ39CΔ26, however, induced apparent symptoms of necrotic ringspots, necrosis or chlorotic spots in all inoculated leaves. On the basis of these findings, the potential role of N during the TSWV infection was discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the N protein of an enveloped plant virus functioned in long-distance movement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

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    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.

  5. Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  6. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  7. Identification of a movement protein of the tenuivirus rice stripe virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruyi; Wu, Jianxiang; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Xueping

    2008-12-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type member of the genus Tenuivirus. RSV has four single-stranded RNAs and causes severe disease in rice fields in different parts of China. To date, no reports have described how RSV spreads within host plants or the viral and/or host factor(s) required for tenuivirus movement. We investigated functions of six RSV-encoded proteins using trans-complementation experiments and biolistic bombardment. We demonstrate that NSvc4, encoded by RSV RNA4, supports the intercellular trafficking of a movement-deficient Potato virus X in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We also determined that upon biolistic bombardment or agroinfiltration, NSvc4:enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion proteins localize predominantly near or within the walls of onion and tobacco epidermal cells. In addition, the NSvc4:eGFP fusion protein can move from initially bombarded cells to neighboring cells in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Immunocytochemistry using tissue sections from RSV-infected rice leaves and an RSV NSvc4-specific antibody showed that the NSvc4 protein accumulated in walls of RSV-infected leaf cells. Gel retardation assays revealed that the NSvc4 protein interacts with single-stranded RNA in vitro, a common feature of many reported plant viral movement proteins (MPs). RSV NSvc4 failed to interact with the RSV nucleocapsid protein using yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, our data indicate that RSV NSvc4 is likely an MP of the virus. This is the first report describing a tenuivirus MP.

  8. Inspirations on Virus Replication and Cell-to-Cell Movement from Studies Examining the Cytopathology Induced by Lettuce infectious yellows virus in Plant Cells

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    Wenjie Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV is the type member of the genus Crinivirus in the family Closteroviridae. Like many other positive-strand RNA viruses, LIYV infections induce a number of cytopathic changes in plant cells, of which the two most characteristic are: Beet yellows virus-type inclusion bodies composed of vesicles derived from cytoplasmic membranes; and conical plasmalemma deposits (PLDs located at the plasmalemma over plasmodesmata pit fields. The former are not only found in various closterovirus infections, but similar structures are known as ‘viral factories’ or viroplasms in cells infected with diverse types of animal and plant viruses. These are generally sites of virus replication, virion assembly and in some cases are involved in cell-to-cell transport. By contrast, PLDs induced by the LIYV-encoded P26 non-virion protein are not involved in replication but are speculated to have roles in virus intercellular movement. These deposits often harbor LIYV virions arranged to be perpendicular to the plasma membrane over plasmodesmata, and our recent studies show that P26 is required for LIYV systemic plant infection. The functional mechanism of how LIYV P26 facilitates intercellular movement remains unclear, however, research on other plant viruses provides some insights on the possible ways of viral intercellular movement through targeting and modifying plasmodesmata via interactions between plant cellular components and viral-encoded factors. In summary, beginning with LIYV, we review the studies that have uncovered the biological determinants giving rise to these cytopathological effects and their importance in viral replication, virion assembly and intercellular movement during the plant infection by closteroviruses, and compare these findings with those for other positive-strand RNA viruses.

  9. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

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    Mushegian, Arcady R., E-mail: mushegian2@gmail.com [Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Elena, Santiago F., E-mail: sfelena@ibmcp.upv.es [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, CSIC-UPV, 46022 València (Spain); The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  10. Sialic acid receptor detection in the human respiratory tract: evidence for widespread distribution of potential binding sites for human and avian influenza viruses

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    Guan Yi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus binds to cell receptors via sialic acid (SA linked glycoproteins. They recognize SA on host cells through their haemagglutinins (H. The distribution of SA on cell surfaces is one determinant of host tropism and understanding its expression on human cells and tissues is important for understanding influenza pathogenesis. The objective of this study therefore was to optimize the detection of α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked SA by lectin histochemistry by investigating the binding of Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA for SAα2,6Gal and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA for SAα2,3Gal in the respiratory tract of normal adults and children. Methods We used fluorescent and biotinylated SNA and MAA from different suppliers on archived and prospectively collected biopsy and autopsy specimens from the nasopharynx, trachea, bronchus and lungs of fetuses, infants and adults. We compared different methods of unmasking for tissue sections to determine if these would affect lectin binding. Using serial sections we then compared the lectin binding of MAA from different suppliers. Results We found that unmasking using microwave treatment in citrate buffer produced increased lectin binding to the ciliated and glandular epithelium of the respiratory tract. In addition we found that there were differences in tissue distribution of the α2,3 linked SA when 2 different isoforms of MAA (MAA1 and MAA2 lectin were used. MAA1 had widespread binding throughout the upper and lower respiratory tract and showed more binding to the respiratory epithelium of children than in adults. By comparison, MAA2 binding was mainly restricted to the alveolar epithelial cells of the lung with weak binding to goblet cells. SNA binding was detected in bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells and binding of this lectin was stronger to the paediatric epithelium compared to adult epithelium. Furthermore, the MAA lectins from 2 suppliers (Roche and EY Labs tended

  11. Complementation between two tospoviruses facilitates the systemic movement of a plant virus silencing suppressor in an otherwise restrictive host.

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    Sudeep Bag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New viruses pathogenic to plants continue to emerge due to mutation, recombination, or reassortment among genomic segments among individual viruses. Tospoviruses cause significant economic damage to a wide range of crops in many parts of the world. The genetic or molecular basis of the continued emergence of new tospoviruses and new hosts is not well understood though it is generally accepted that reassortment and/or genetic complementation among the three genomic segments of individual viruses could be contributing to this variability since plants infected with more than one tospovirus are not uncommon in nature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two distinct and economically important tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, were investigated for inter-virus interactions at the molecular level in dually-infected plants. Datura (Datura stramonium is a permissive host for TSWV, while it restricts the movement of IYSV to inoculated leaves. In plants infected with both viruses, however, TSWV facilitated the selective movement of the viral gene silencing suppressor (NSs gene of IYSV to the younger, uninoculated leaves. The small RNA expression profiles of IYSV and TSWV in single- and dually-infected datura plants showed that systemic leaves of dually-infected plants had reduced levels of TSWV N gene-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. No TSWV NSs-specific siRNAs were detected either in the inoculated or systemic leaves of dually-infected datura plants indicating a more efficient suppression of host silencing machinery in the presence of NSs from both viruses as compared to the presence of only TSWV NSs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identifies a new role for the viral gene silencing suppressor in potentially modulating the biology and host range of viruses and underscores the importance of virally-coded suppressors of gene silencing in virus infection of plants. This is the first

  12. Complementation between Two Tospoviruses Facilitates the Systemic Movement of a Plant Virus Silencing Suppressor in an Otherwise Restrictive Host

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    Eid, Sahar; Pappu, Hanu R.

    2012-01-01

    Background New viruses pathogenic to plants continue to emerge due to mutation, recombination, or reassortment among genomic segments among individual viruses. Tospoviruses cause significant economic damage to a wide range of crops in many parts of the world. The genetic or molecular basis of the continued emergence of new tospoviruses and new hosts is not well understood though it is generally accepted that reassortment and/or genetic complementation among the three genomic segments of individual viruses could be contributing to this variability since plants infected with more than one tospovirus are not uncommon in nature. Methodology/Principal Findings Two distinct and economically important tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), were investigated for inter-virus interactions at the molecular level in dually-infected plants. Datura (Datura stramonium) is a permissive host for TSWV, while it restricts the movement of IYSV to inoculated leaves. In plants infected with both viruses, however, TSWV facilitated the selective movement of the viral gene silencing suppressor (NSs) gene of IYSV to the younger, uninoculated leaves. The small RNA expression profiles of IYSV and TSWV in single- and dually-infected datura plants showed that systemic leaves of dually-infected plants had reduced levels of TSWV N gene-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). No TSWV NSs-specific siRNAs were detected either in the inoculated or systemic leaves of dually-infected datura plants indicating a more efficient suppression of host silencing machinery in the presence of NSs from both viruses as compared to the presence of only TSWV NSs. Conclusion/Significance Our study identifies a new role for the viral gene silencing suppressor in potentially modulating the biology and host range of viruses and underscores the importance of virally-coded suppressors of gene silencing in virus infection of plants. This is the first experimental evidence of

  13. Complementation between two tospoviruses facilitates the systemic movement of a plant virus silencing suppressor in an otherwise restrictive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Sudeep; Mitter, Neena; Eid, Sahar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2012-01-01

    New viruses pathogenic to plants continue to emerge due to mutation, recombination, or reassortment among genomic segments among individual viruses. Tospoviruses cause significant economic damage to a wide range of crops in many parts of the world. The genetic or molecular basis of the continued emergence of new tospoviruses and new hosts is not well understood though it is generally accepted that reassortment and/or genetic complementation among the three genomic segments of individual viruses could be contributing to this variability since plants infected with more than one tospovirus are not uncommon in nature. Two distinct and economically important tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), were investigated for inter-virus interactions at the molecular level in dually-infected plants. Datura (Datura stramonium) is a permissive host for TSWV, while it restricts the movement of IYSV to inoculated leaves. In plants infected with both viruses, however, TSWV facilitated the selective movement of the viral gene silencing suppressor (NSs) gene of IYSV to the younger, uninoculated leaves. The small RNA expression profiles of IYSV and TSWV in single- and dually-infected datura plants showed that systemic leaves of dually-infected plants had reduced levels of TSWV N gene-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). No TSWV NSs-specific siRNAs were detected either in the inoculated or systemic leaves of dually-infected datura plants indicating a more efficient suppression of host silencing machinery in the presence of NSs from both viruses as compared to the presence of only TSWV NSs. Our study identifies a new role for the viral gene silencing suppressor in potentially modulating the biology and host range of viruses and underscores the importance of virally-coded suppressors of gene silencing in virus infection of plants. This is the first experimental evidence of functional complementation between two distinct tospoviruses in the

  14. Weak negative associations between avian influenza virus infection and movement behaviour in a key host species, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); E. Kleyheeg (Erik); M.B. Soons (Merel B.); B.A. Nolet (Bart); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); M. Klaassen (Marcel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAnimal movements may contribute to the spread of pathogens. In the case of avian influenza virus, [migratory] birds have been suggested to play a role in the spread of some highly pathogenic strains (e.g. H5N1, H5N8), as well as their low pathogenic precursors which circulate naturally

  15. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  16. Adeno-associated virus vectors serotyped with AAV8 capsid are more efficient than AAV-1 or -2 serotypes for widespread gene delivery to the neonatal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, M L D; Comer, L A; Hyman, B T; Sena-Esteves, M

    2006-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have gained a preeminent position in the field of gene delivery to the normal brain through their ability to achieve extensive transduction of neurons and to mediate long-term gene expression with no apparent toxicity. In adult animals direct infusion of AAV vectors into the brain parenchyma results in highly efficient transduction of target structures. However AAV-mediated global delivery to the adult brain has been an elusive goal. In contrast, widespread global gene delivery has been obtained by i.c.v. injection of AAV1 or AAV2 in neonates. Among the novel AAV serotypes cloned and engineered for production of recombinant vectors, AAV8 has shown a tremendous potential for in vivo gene delivery with nearly complete transduction of many tissues in rodents after intravascular infusion. Here we compare the efficiency of an AAV8 serotyped vector with that of AAV1 and AAV2 serotyped vectors for the extent of gene delivery to the brain after neonatal injection into the lateral ventricles. The vectors all encoded green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of a hybrid CMV enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter with AAV2 inverted terminal repeats, but differed from each other with respect to the capsid type. A total of 6.8 x 10(10) genome copies were injected into the lateral ventricles of postnatal day 0 mice. Mice were killed at postnatal day 30 and brains analyzed for distribution of GFP-positive cells. AAV8 proved to be more efficient than AAV1 or AAV2 vectors for gene delivery to all of the structures analyzed, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum. Moreover the intensity of gene expression, assessed using a microarray reader, was considerably higher for AAV8 in all structures analyzed. In conclusion, the enhanced transduction achieved by AAV8 compared with AAV1 and AAV2 indicates that AAV8 is the superior serotype for gene delivery to the CNS.

  17. Remorin, a Solanaceae Protein Resident in Membrane Rafts and Plasmodesmata, Impairs Potato virus X Movement[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Bayer, Emmanuelle; Lafarge, David; Cluzet, Stéphanie; German Retana, Sylvie; Boubekeur, Tamy; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Lherminier, Jeannine; Noirot, Elodie; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice; Laroche-Traineau, Jeanny; Moreau, Patrick; Ott, Thomas; Maule, Andrew J.; Reymond, Philippe; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Farmer, Edward E.; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Remorins (REMs) are proteins of unknown function specific to vascular plants. We have used imaging and biochemical approaches and in situ labeling to demonstrate that REM clusters at plasmodesmata and in ∼70-nm membrane domains, similar to lipid rafts, in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. From a manipulation of REM levels in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that Potato virus X (PVX) movement is inversely related to REM accumulation. We show that REM can interact physically with the movement protein TRIPLE GENE BLOCK PROTEIN1 from PVX. Based on the localization of REM and its impact on virus macromolecular trafficking, we discuss the potential for lipid rafts to act as functional components in plasmodesmata and the plasma membrane. PMID:19470590

  18. Short distance movement of genomic negative strands in a host and nonhost for Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV

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    Hernández-Vela Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain an initial and preliminary understanding of host and nonhost resistance in the initial step of potyvirus replication, both positive and negative Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV strands where traced in inoculated and systemic leaves in host and nonhost resistant maize and sugarcane for one Mexican potyviral isolate (SCMV-VER1. Intermediary replication forms, such as the negative viral strand, seem to only move a short distance as surveyed by RT-PCR analysis and ELISA in different leaves. Virus purification was also done in leaves and stems. Results Susceptible maize plants allowed for viral SCMV replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement, as indicated by the presence of the coat protein along the plant. In the host resistant maize plants for the SCMV-VER1 isolate, the virus was able to establish the disease though the initial steps of virus replication, as detected by the presence of negative strands, in the basal area of the inoculated leaves at six and twelve days post inoculation. The nonhost sugarcane for SCMV-VER1 and the host sugarcane for SCMV-CAM6 also allowed the initial steps of viral replication for the VER1 isolate in the local inoculated leaf. SCMV-VER1 virions could be extracted from stems of susceptible maize with higher titers than leaves. Conclusion Nonhost and host resistance allow the initial steps of potyvirus SCMV replication, as shown by the negative strands' presence. Furthermore, both hosts allow the negative viral strands' local movement, but not their systemic spread through the stem. The presence of larger amounts of extractable virions from the stem (as compared to the leaves in susceptible maize lines suggests their long distance movement as assembled particles. This will be the first report suggesting the long distance movement of a monocot potyvirus as a virion.

  19. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Three genes of Citrus tristeza virus are dispensable for infection and movement throughout some varieties of citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Robertson, Cecile J; Garnsey, Stephen M; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O

    2008-07-05

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, possesses a 19.3-kb positive-stranded RNA genome that is organized into twelve open reading frames (ORFs). The CTV genome contains two sets of conserved genes, which are characteristic of this virus group, the replication gene block (ORF 1a and 1b) and the quintuple gene block (p6, HSP70 h, p61, CPm, and CP). With the exception of the p6 gene, they are required for replication and virion assembly. CTV contains five additional genes, p33, p18, p13, p20 and p23, in the 3' half of the genome, some of which (p33, p18 and p13) are not conserved among other members of this virus group, and have been proposed to have evolved for specific interactions with the citrus host. In the present study, the requirements for systemic infection of citrus trees of p33, p6, p18, p13 and p20 were examined. Viral mutants with a deletion in the p6 or the p20 ORF failed to infect citrus plants systemically, suggesting their possible roles in virus translocation/systemic infection. However, we found that deletions within the p33, p18 or p13 ORF individually resulted in no significant loss of ability of the virus to infect, multiply, and spread throughout citrus trees. Furthermore, deletions in the p33, p18 and p13 genes in all possible combinations including deletions in all three genes allowed the virus to systemically invade citrus trees. Green fluorescent protein-tagged CTV variants with deletions in the p33 ORF or the p33, p18 and p13 ORFs demonstrated that the movement and distribution of these deletion mutants were similar to that of the wild-type virus.

  1. Cellular chaperones and folding enzymes are vital contributors to membrane bound replication and movement complexes during plant RNA virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanmarie eVerchot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular chaperones and folding enzymes play central roles in the formation of positive strand and negative strand RNA virus infection. This article examines the key cellular chaperones and discusses evidence that these factors are diverted from their cellular functions to play alternative roles in virus infection. For most chaperones discussed, their primary role in the cell is to ensure protein quality control. They are system components that drive substrate protein folding, complex assembly or disaggregation. Their activities often depend upon co-chaperones and ATP hydrolysis. During plant virus infection, Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins play central roles in the formation of membrane bound replication complexes for certain members of the tombusvirus, tobamovirus, potyvirus, dianthovirus, potexvirus, and carmovirus genus. There are several co-chaperones, including Yjd1, RME-8 and Hsp40 that associate with the bromovirus replication complex, pomovirus TGB2, and tospovirus Nsm movement proteins. There are also examples of plant viruses that rely on chaperone systems in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to support cell-to-cell movement. TMV relies on calreticulin to promote virus intercellular transport. Calreticulin also resides in the plasmodesmata and plays a role in calcium sequestration as well as glycoprotein folding. The pomovirus TGB2 interacts with RME-8 in the endosome. The potexvirus TGB3 protein stimulates expression of ER resident chaperones via the bZIP60 transcription factor. Upregulating factors involved in protein folding may be essential to handling the load of viral proteins translated along the ER. In addition TGB3 stimulates SKP1 which is a co-factor in proteasomal degradation of cellular proteins. Such chaperones and co-factors are potential targets for antiviral defense.

  2. The conundrum of a unique protein encoded by citrus tristeza virus that is dispensable for infection of most hosts yet shows characteristics of a viral movement protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Aurélie; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2015-11-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), one of the most economically important viruses, produces a unique protein, p33, which is encoded only in the genomes of isolates of CTV. Recently, we demonstrated that membrane association of the p33 protein confers virus ability to extend its host range. In this work we show that p33 shares characteristics of viral movement proteins. Upon expression in a host cell, the protein localizes to plasmodesmata and displays the ability to form extracellular tubules. Furthermore, p33 appears to traffic via the cellular secretory pathway and the actin network to plasmodesmata locations and is likely being recycled through the endocytic pathway. Finally, our study reveals that p33 colocalizes with a putative movement protein of CTV, the p6 protein. These results suggest a potential role of p33 as a noncanonical viral movement protein, which mediates virus translocation in the specific hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular testing of adult Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) for several RNA viruses demonstrates widespread distribution of piscine orthoreovirus in Alaska and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen; Thompson, Rachel L.; Evered, Joy; Kerwin, John; Meyers, Ted R.; Stewart, Bruce; Winton, James

    2018-01-01

    This research was initiated in conjunction with a systematic, multiagency surveillance effort in the United States (U.S.) in response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) RNA in British Columbia, Canada. In the systematic surveillance study reported in a companion paper, tissues from various salmonids taken from Washington and Alaska were surveyed for ISAV RNA using the U.S.-approved diagnostic method, and samples were released for use in this present study only after testing negative. Here, we tested a subset of these samples for ISAV RNA with three additional published molecular assays, as well as for RNA from salmonid alphavirus (SAV), piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV). All samples (n = 2,252; 121 stock cohorts) tested negative for RNA from ISAV, PMCV, and SAV. In contrast, there were 25 stock cohorts from Washington and Alaska that had one or more individuals test positive for PRV RNA; prevalence within stocks varied and ranged from 2% to 73%. The overall prevalence of PRV RNA-positive individuals across the study was 3.4% (77 of 2,252 fish tested). Findings of PRV RNA were most common in coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) and Chinook (O. tshawytscha Walbaum) salmon.

  4. Remote sensing to detect the movement of wheat curl mites through the spatial spread of virus symptoms, and identification of thrips as predators of wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Abby R.

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits three viruses to winter wheat: wheat streak mosaic virus, High Plains virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. This virus complex causes yellowing of the foliage and stunting of plants. WCMs disperse by wind, and an increased understanding of mite movement and subsequent virus spread is necessary in determining the risk of serious virus infections in winter wheat. These risk parameters will help growers make better decisions regarding WCM management. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capabilities of remote sensing to identify virus infected plants and to establish the potential of using remote sensing to track virus spread and consequently, mite movement. Although the WCM is small and very hard to track, the viruses it vectors produce symptoms that can be detected with remote sensing. Field plots of simulated volunteer wheat were established between 2006 and 2009, infested with WCMs, and spread mites and virus into adjacent winter wheat. The virus gradients created by WCM movement allowed for the measurement of mite movement potential with both proximal and aerial remote sensing instruments. The ability to detect WCM-vectored viruses with remote sensing was investigated by comparing vegetation indices calculated from proximal remote sensing data to ground truth data obtained in the field. Of the ten vegetation indices tested, the red edge position (REP) index had the best relationship with ground truth data. The spatial spread of virus from WCM source plots was modeled with cokriging. Virus symptoms predicted by cokriging occurred in an oval pattern displaced to the southeast. Data from the spatial spread in small plots of this study were used to estimate the potential sphere of influence for volunteer wheat fields. The impact of thrips on WCM populations was investigated by a series of greenhouse, field, and observational studies. WCM populations in winter wheat increased more slowly when

  5. Role of Rice stripe virus NSvc4 in cell-to-cell movement and symptom development in Nicotiana benthamiana

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    Yi eXu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous work has demonstrated that the NSvc4 protein of Rice stripe virus (RSV functions as a cell-to-cell movement protein. However, the mechanisms whereby RSV traffics through plasmodesmata (PD are unknown. Here we provide evidence that the NSvc4 moves on the actin filament and endoplasmic reticulum (ER network, but not microtubules, to reach cell wall PD. Disruption of cytoskeleton using different inhibitors altered NSvc4 localization to PD, thus impeding RSV infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analyses and deletion mutagenesis experiment revealed that the N-terminal 125 amino acids (AAs of the NSvc4 determine PD targeting and that a transmembrane domain spanning AAs 106 to 125 is critical for PD localization. We also found that the NSvc4 protein can localize to chloroplasts in infected cells. Analyses using deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal 73 AAs are essential for chloroplast localization. Furthermore, expression of NSvc4 from a Potato virus X (PVX vector resulted in more severe disease symptoms than PVX alone in systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves. Expression of NSvc4 in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf-9 cells did not elicit tubule formation, but instead resulted in punctate foci at the plasma membrane. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the movement mechanisms whereby RSV infects host plants.

  6. Population Movement and Virus Spreading: HEV Spreading in a Pilgrimage City, Mashhad in Northeast Iran; an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Miri, Rahele; Hedayatimoghadam, Mohamadreza; Shamsian, Aliakbar; Bidkhori, Hamidreza; Fathimoghadam, Fahad; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdorrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health concern and responsible for large outbreaks of acute hepatitis in poor sanitary and living conditions. Objectives To investigate the impact of population movements on virus spreading, a large-scale population-based survey was performed in a pilgrimage- tourism area, the great Mashhad, capital city of Khorasan province. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1582 randomly selected individuals from general population of Mashhad, north east of Iran, between May to September 2009. Serum samples were tested for total anti-HEV antibody using a specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit. Results The prevalence of HEV infection was 14.2% (225/1582) with a maximum of 25.5 % (14/55) in densely populated areas. The highest prevalence was observed in visitant areas (≥ 20%) near the holly shrine with crowded hotels and inns. The differences between these areas and other districts were statistically significant (P prevalence of HEV is related to populated district, which can reach to the highest rate in hotels and inns close to visitants. Traditional sanitation and water supplying systems are the second important factor for the virus transmission. Therefore, it can be concluded that such areas need efficient surveillance systems to prevent the spreading of infectious diseases. PMID:24171006

  7. Usefulness of commercially available GPS data-loggers for tracking human movement and exposure to dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochel Tadeusz J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the effects of human movement on dengue virus spread remains limited in part due to the lack of precise tools to monitor the time-dependent location of individuals. We determined the utility of a new, commercially available, GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of human movements in Iquitos, Peru. We conducted a series of evaluations focused on GPS device attributes key to reliable use and accuracy. GPS observations from two participants were later compared with semi-structured interview data to assess the usefulness of GPS technology to track individual mobility patterns. Results Positional point and line accuracy were 4.4 and 10.3 m, respectively. GPS wearing mode increased spatial point error by 6.9 m. Units were worn on a neck-strap by a carpenter and a moto-taxi driver for 14-16 days. The application of a clustering algorithm (I-cluster to the raw GPS positional data allowed the identification of locations visited by each participant together with the frequency and duration of each visit. The carpenter moved less and spent more time in more fixed locations than the moto-taxi driver, who visited more locations for a shorter period of time. GPS and participants' interviews concordantly identified 6 common locations, whereas GPS alone identified 4 locations and participants alone identified 10 locations. Most (80% of the locations identified by participants alone were places reported as visited for less than 30 minutes. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel, commercially available GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of humans and shows the potential of these units to quantify mobility patterns in relationship with dengue virus transmission risk in a tropical urban environment. Cost, battery life, size, programmability and ease of wear are unprecedented from previously tested units, proving the usefulness of GPS-dataloggers for linking movement of individuals and

  8. Usefulness of commercially available GPS data-loggers for tracking human movement and exposure to dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Stoddard, Steven T; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Morrison, Amy C; Elder, John P; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Scott, Thomas W; Kitron, Uriel

    2009-11-30

    Our understanding of the effects of human movement on dengue virus spread remains limited in part due to the lack of precise tools to monitor the time-dependent location of individuals. We determined the utility of a new, commercially available, GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of human movements in Iquitos, Peru. We conducted a series of evaluations focused on GPS device attributes key to reliable use and accuracy. GPS observations from two participants were later compared with semi-structured interview data to assess the usefulness of GPS technology to track individual mobility patterns. Positional point and line accuracy were 4.4 and 10.3 m, respectively. GPS wearing mode increased spatial point error by 6.9 m. Units were worn on a neck-strap by a carpenter and a moto-taxi driver for 14-16 days. The application of a clustering algorithm (I-cluster) to the raw GPS positional data allowed the identification of locations visited by each participant together with the frequency and duration of each visit. The carpenter moved less and spent more time in more fixed locations than the moto-taxi driver, who visited more locations for a shorter period of time. GPS and participants' interviews concordantly identified 6 common locations, whereas GPS alone identified 4 locations and participants alone identified 10 locations. Most (80%) of the locations identified by participants alone were places reported as visited for less than 30 minutes. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel, commercially available GPS data-logger for long-term tracking of humans and shows the potential of these units to quantify mobility patterns in relationship with dengue virus transmission risk in a tropical urban environment. Cost, battery life, size, programmability and ease of wear are unprecedented from previously tested units, proving the usefulness of GPS-dataloggers for linking movement of individuals and transmission risk of dengue virus and other infectious agents

  9. Reconstructing geographical movements and host species transitions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-10-22

    Of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus SAT serotypes mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa, SAT 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. This study updates the picture of SAT 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the VP1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace the origin of all outbreaks occurring north of the Sahara since 1990 and identify patterns of spread among countries of endemicity. Transitions between different host species are also enumerated. Outbreaks in North Africa appear to have origins in countries immediately south of the Sahara, whereas those in the Middle East are more often from East Africa. The results of the analysis of spread within sub-Saharan Africa are consistent with it being driven by relatively short-distance movements of animals across national borders, and the analysis of host species transitions supports the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as an important natural reservoir. Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a livestock pathogen of major economic importance, with seven distinct serotypes occurring globally. The SAT 2 serotype, endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, has caused a number of outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East during the last decades, including three separate incidents in 2012. A comprehensive analysis of all available RNA sequences for SAT 2 has not been published for some years. In this work, we performed this analysis using all previously published sequences and 49 newly determined examples. We also used phylogenetic methods to infer the source country for all outbreaks occurring outside sub-Saharan Africa since 1990 and to reconstruct the spread of viral lineages between countries where it is endemic and movements between different host species.

  10. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.

  11. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  12. Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2014-08-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord, characterized by spastic paraparesis, back pain, and sphincter disorders. Involvement of multiple organs and encephalopathy are uncommon in HAM/TSP. Nonspecific small white matter lesions of unknown etiology, mainly in the periventricular and subcortical regions, have been found on brain magnetic resonance imaging of HAM/TSP patients. Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was inflammatory (blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, intrathecal synthesis of total and HTLV-1 IgG). The proviral load was higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The neurological picture was complicated by multi-organ inflammatory disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, uveitis, anemia, and chronic renal failure). This case highlights the potential multisystem inflammatory nature of HTLV-1 infection, with a wide spectrum of manifestations. In cases of HAM/TSP with multi-organ inflammatory disease, encephalic involvement should be investigated, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Also bitemporal lesions can be the consequence of intense and diffuse inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  14. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis

    2014-05-12

    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Movement patterns of exhibition swine and associations of influenza A virus infection with swine management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Nola; Stull, Jason W; Moeller, Steven J; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Bowman, Andrew S

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine. PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped. In 2014, snout wipe samples were collected from swine on arrival at 9 selected fairs in Indiana (n = 5) and Ohio (4) and tested for the presence of IAV. Also at fair arrival, swine exhibitors completed a survey regarding swine management practices. RESULTS Contrary to the total swine population, the exhibition swine population was heavily concentrated in Indiana and Ohio. Many swine exhibitors reported attending multiple exhibitions within a season (median number, 2; range, 0 to 50), with exhibited swine often returned to their farm of origin. Rearing of commercial and exhibition swine on the same premises was reported by 13.3% (56/422) of exhibitors. Hosting an on-farm open house or sale was associated with an increased odds of IAV detection in snout wipe samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exhibition swine population was highly variable and differed from the commercial swine population in terms of pig density across geographic locations, population integrity, and on-farm management practices. Exhibition swine may be important in IAV transmission, and identified biosecurity deficiencies may have important public and animal health consequences.

  16. Widespread dispersion of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 and adeno-associated virus serotype 6 vectors in the rat central nervous system and in human glioblastoma multiforme xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszthy, Peter C; Svendsen, Agnete; Wilson, James M; Kotin, Robert M; Lønning, Per Eystein; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Hoover, Frank

    2005-03-01

    The transduction patterns of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) and serotype 6 (AAV6) vectors were assessed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, in human GBM biopsy spheroids, and in tumor xenografts growing in nude rat brains. All the cell lines tested (A172, D37, GaMg, HF66, and U373Mg) were found to be permissive to both AAV1 and AAV6 vectors, and thus displayed a transduction pattern similar to AAV2 vectors. For every cell line tested, the transduction efficiency displayed by AAV2 vectors was better than by isogenic and isopromoter AAV1 vectors. Transduction efficiency was dependent on the viral particle number used, suggesting that the receptors for these vectors are widely distributed in GBM tissues. Interestingly, AAV1, AAV2, and AAV6 vectors were able to infect and transduce the same cells when added simultaneously to monolayer cultures. Infection of human GBM biopsy spheroids with AAV1 and AAV6 vectors resulted in transgene expression both at the surface layers and in the core of the spheroids. Following injection of AAV1 and AAV6 vectors into human GBM biopsy xenografts growing in nude rat brains, reporter gene expression was seen both in the periphery as well as in the central regions of the tumors. When injected into the normal rat brain, both AAV1 and AAV6 vectors were found to transduce several central nervous system (CNS) regions. The presented results suggest a potential therapeutic role for AAV1 and AAV6 vectors in gene therapy for GBM and also for other CNS malignancies.

  17. Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S.E.; Batts, W.N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G.N.; Shewmaker, W.D.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

  18. The minimal sequence essential for replication and movement of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite DNA by a helper virus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Omid; Behjatnia, S A Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Betasatellites are single-stranded circular DNAs associated with a number of monopartite begomoviruses. Betasatellites rely on the helper begomoviruses for replication and movement in plant tissues and plant-to-plant transmission by vectors. Their genomes are approximately half the size of the helper viruses and consist of three main regions including the βC1 gene, an adenine-rich (A-rich) region, and the satellite conserved region (SCR). In this study, we investigated the minimal sequences required for Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) replication and movement. Mutational analysis of CLCuMB DNA genome indicated that βC1 gene and A-rich region were not required for trans-replication and movement of CLCuMB in host plants by a helper virus. Deletion of βC1 gene and a fragment (135 nt in length) upstream of this gene impaired CLCuMB replication. However, CLCuMB mutant with deletion of βC1 gene and a further 163 nucleotides replicated at a lower level as compared to the wild-type betasatellite. This suggests that there are essential elements in the fragment upstream of βC1 gene, which are required for the replication of CLCuMB rather than the size limitation of CLCuMB DNA.

  19. Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2014-01-01

    .... Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions...

  20. Widespread bullous fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Rushad D; Dosi, Rupal V; Shah, Purav C; Joshi, Harshal S

    2014-02-07

    A 53-year-old man developed a widespread erythematous eruption which rapidly evolved into fluid-filled bulla mostly involving the distal areas of all four limbs and erosions on the oral as well as anogenital mucosa. Based on clinical presentation, chronology of drug exposure, past events and histopathology as diagnosis of widespread bullous fixed drug eruption was made over Steven Johnson-toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome. Steroids were deferred and the lesions healed with minimal pigmentation within a week. Differentiating between the two entities has been historically difficult, and yet can have significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  1. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, H.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Moon, J.S.; Moon, J.K.; Yu, Y.M.; Cho, I.S.; Bae, H.; Boer, de S.M.; Ju, H.; Hammond, J.; Jackson, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB) proteins were coexpressed in cells

  2. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  3. Cost assessment of the movement restriction policy in France during the 2006 bluetongue virus episode (BTV-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at evaluating the costs of the movement restriction policy (MRP) during the 2006 BTV-8 epidemic in France for the producers of 6-9 month old Charolais beef weaned calves (BWC), an important sector that was severely affected by the restrictions imposed. This study estimates the change in the number of BWC sold that was due to the movement restrictions, and evaluates the economic effect of the MRP. The change in BWC sold by producers located inside the restriction zone (RZ) was analyzed for 2006 by using a multivariate matching approach to control for any internal validity threat. The economic evaluation of the MRP was based on several scenarios that describe farms' capacity constraints, feeding prices, and the animal's selling price. Results show that the average farmer experienced a 21% decrease in animals sold due to the MRP. The economic evaluation of the MRP shows a potential gain during the movement standstill period in the case of no capacity constraint faced by the farm and food self-sufficiency. This gain remains limited and close to zero in case of a low selling price and when animals are held until they no longer fit the BWC market so that they cannot be sold as an intermediate product. Capacity constraints represent a tremendous challenge to farmers facing movement restrictions and the fattening profit becomes negative under such conditions. The timing and length of the movement standstill period significantly affect the profitability of the strategy employed by the farmer: for a 5.5 month-long standstill period with 3.5 months of cold weather, farmers with capacity constraints have stronger incentives to leave their animals outside during the whole period and face higher mortality and morbidity rates than paying for a boarding facility for the cold months. This is not necessarily true for a shorter standstill period. Strategies are also sensitive to the feed costs and to the food self-sufficiency of the farm. Altogether, the present work

  4. The TGB1 movement protein of Potato virus X reorganizes actin and endomembranes into the X-body, a viral replication factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, Jens; Linnik, Olga; Wright, Kathryn M; Bell, Karen; Roberts, Alison G; Lacomme, Christophe; Santa Cruz, Simon; Oparka, Karl J

    2012-03-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) requires three virally encoded proteins, the triple gene block (TGB), for movement between cells. TGB1 is a multifunctional protein that suppresses host gene silencing and moves from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, while TGB2 and TGB3 are membrane-spanning proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived granular vesicles. Here, we show that TGB1 organizes the PVX "X-body," a virally induced inclusion structure, by remodeling host actin and endomembranes (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi). Within the X-body, TGB1 forms helically arranged aggregates surrounded by a reservoir of the recruited host endomembranes. The TGB2/3 proteins reside in granular vesicles within this reservoir, in the same region as nonencapsidated viral RNA, while encapsidated virions accumulate at the outer (cytoplasmic) face of the X-body, which comprises a highly organized virus "factory." TGB1 is both necessary and sufficient to remodel host actin and endomembranes and to recruit TGB2/3 to the X-body, thus emerging as the central orchestrator of the X-body. Our results indicate that the actin/endomembrane-reorganizing properties of TGB1 function to compartmentalize the viral gene products of PVX infection.

  5. Zika-Bearing Mosquitoes More Widespread in U.S. Than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166766.html Zika-Bearing Mosquitoes More Widespread in U.S. Than Expected ... health officials is that mosquitoes that can spread Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are in more counties ...

  6. Mutagenic analysis of potato virus X movement protein (TGBp1) and the coat protein (CP): in vitro TGBp1-CP binding and viral RNA translation activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayakina, Olga; Arkhipenko, Marina; Kozlovsky, Stanislav; Nikitin, Nikolai; Smirnov, Alexander; Susi, Petri; Rodionova, Nina; Karpova, Olga; Atabekov, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that encapsidated Potato virus X (PVX) RNA was non-translatable in vitro, but could be converted into a translatable form by binding of the PVX movement protein TGBp1 to one end of the virion or by coat protein (CP) phosphorylation. Here, a mutagenic analysis of PVX CP and TGBp1 was used to identify the regions involved in TGBp1-CP binding and translational activation of PVX RNA by TGBp1. It was found that the C-terminal (C-ter) 10/18 amino acids region was not essential for virus-like particle (VP) assembly from CP and RNA. However, the VPs assembled from the CP lacking C-ter 10/18 amino acids were incapable of TGBp1 binding and being translationally activated. It was suggested that the 10-amino-acid C-ter regions of protein subunits located at one end of a polar helical PVX particle contain a domain accessible to TGBp1 binding and PVX remodelling. The non-translatable particles assembled from the C-ter mutant CP could be converted into a translatable form by CP phosphorylation. The TGBp1-CP binding activity was preserved unless a conservative motif IV was removed from TGBp1. By contrast, TGBp1-dependent activation of PVX RNA translation was abolished by deletions of various NTPase/helicase conservative motifs and their combinations. The motif IV might be essential for TGBp1-CP binding, but insufficient for PVX RNA translation activation. The evidence to discriminate between these two events, i.e. TGBp1 binding to the CP-helix and TGBp1-dependent RNA translation activation, is discussed.

  7. Functional characterization of coat protein and V2 involved in cell to cell movement of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Dabawali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C G Poornima Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available The functional attributes of coat protein (CP and V2 of the monopartite begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus- Dabawali were analyzed in vitro and in vivo by their overexpression in E. coli, insect cells and transient expression in the plant system. Purified recombinant V2 and CP proteins were shown to interact with each other using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. Confocal microscopy of Sf21 cells expressing V2 and CP proteins revealed that V2 localized to the cell periphery and CP to the nucleus. Deletion of the N terminal nuclear localization signal of CP restricted its distribution to the cytoplasm. GFP-V2 and YFP-CP transiently expressed in N. benthamiana plants by agroinfiltration substantiated the localization of V2 to the cell periphery and CP predominantly to the nucleus. Interestingly, upon coinfiltration, CP was found both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm along with V2. These results suggest that the interaction of V2 and CP may have important implications in the cell to cell movement.

  8. FLIRT-ing with Zika: A Web Application to Predict the Movement of Infected Travelers Validated Against the Current Zika Virus Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Andrew; Allen, Toph; Whiting, Karissa; Breit, Nathan; Arnold, Brock

    2016-06-10

    ,000 passengers, and the state-aggregated model suggested 11.33 (95% CI 10.80 - 11.90) imported Zika cases per 100,000 passengers. The results from 01 February 2016 to 01 April 2016 and 11 January 2016 to 11 March 2016 time periods support that modeling air travel and passenger movement can be a powerful tool in predicting where infectious diseases will spread next. As FLIRT was shown to significantly predict distribution of Zika Virus cases in the past, there should be heightened biosurveillance and educational campaigns to medical service providers and the general public in these states, especially in the large metropolitan areas.

  9. Mobilising a global response to hepatitis: Lessons learned from the HIV movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaffe, Jessica; Wilson, David

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment. This also included effective policies and programmes behind and supporting the movement. Such could be done for hepatitis, specifically using lessons from the HIV response. Here, we will discuss the current and potentially severe future burden of hepatitis globally, the challenges in addressing this epidemic, and how principles applied from the global HIV response can facilitate a successful and similar hepatitis movement.

  10. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  12. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  13. A new, widespread emaravirus discovered in blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Di Bello, Patrick L; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2017-05-02

    A new virus was identified in blackberry plants exhibiting leaf mottling, chlorotic ringspots and curved midribs, symptoms associated with blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). The genome of the new virus, provisionally named blackberry leaf mottle-associated virus (BLMaV), was characterized and phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to recognized members of the genus Emaravirus. BLMaV was transmitted by a yet to be described eriophyid mite species, further reinforcing its placement in the genus. Detection protocols were developed and used to determine the presence of the virus in plants collected from several areas in the U.S.A. The incidence of BLMaV was greater than 40% in BYVD-affected material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant viruses in aqueous environment - survival, water mediated transmission and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja

    2012-10-15

    The presence of plant viruses outside their plant host or insect vectors has not been studied intensively. This is due, in part, to the lack of effective detection methods that would enable their detection in difficult matrixes and in low titres, and support the search for unknown viruses. Recently, new and sensitive methods for detecting viruses have resulted in a deeper insight into plant virus movement through, and transmission between, plants. In this review, we have focused on plant viruses found in environmental waters and their detection. Infectious plant pathogenic viruses from at least 7 different genera have been found in aqueous environment. The majority of the plant pathogenic viruses so far recovered from environmental waters are very stable, they can infect plants via the roots without the aid of a vector and often have a wide host range. The release of such viruses from plants can lead to their dissemination in streams, lakes, and rivers, thereby ensuring the long-distance spread of viruses that otherwise, under natural conditions, would remain restricted to limited areas. The possible sources and survival of plant viruses in waters are therefore discussed. Due to the widespread use of hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation in horticulture, the review is focused on the possibility and importance of spreading viral infection by water, together with measures for preventing the spread of viruses. The development of new methods for detecting multiple plant viruses at the same time, like microarrays or new generation sequencing, will facilitate the monitoring of environmental waters and waters used for irrigation and in hydroponic systems. It is reasonable to expect that the list of plant viruses found in waters will thereby be expanded considerably. This will emphasize the need for further studies to determine the biological significance of water-mediated transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Widespread Granuloma Annulare in Photo Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare is relatively common idiopathic disease of dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can be observed of all races and ages, but it effects woman more often (2:1. Widespread granuloma annulare, diffuse but symmetrically located occurs as papular or annular pustules composed of more than ten and often hundreds of lesions. Because of the rare occurrence of common granuloma annulare cases with photosensitivity distribution, we present a case of a 49 year-old woman who had generalized granuloma annulare on the neck, dorsal aspects of the hands and extensor surfaces of the arms showing photosensitive distribution and that responded well to topical and intralesional steroid treatment.

  16. Computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  17. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  18. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  19. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  20. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  1. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species......, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian...... subclade showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance. In contrast, no genetic structure was found in the East China populations of P. pica. We suggest that the different patterns in the two species are at least partly explained by ecological differences between them, especially in habitat...

  2. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  3. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  4. Neurobiology of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluka, Kathleen A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-12-03

    Fibromyalgia is the current term for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain for which no alternative cause can be identified. The underlying mechanisms, in both human and animal studies, for the continued pain in individuals with fibromyalgia will be explored in this review. There is a substantial amount of support for alterations of central nervous system nociceptive processing in people with fibromyalgia, and that psychological factors such as stress can enhance the pain experience. Emerging evidence has begun exploring other potential mechanisms including a peripheral nervous system component to the generation of pain and the role of systemic inflammation. We will explore the data and neurobiology related to the role of the CNS in nociceptive processing, followed by a short review of studies examining potential peripheral nervous system changes and cytokine involvement. We will not only explore the data from human subjects with fibromyalgia but will relate this to findings from animal models of fibromyalgia. We conclude that fibromyalgia and related disorders are heterogenous conditions with a complicated pathobiology with patients falling along a continuum with one end a purely peripherally driven painful condition and the other end of the continuum is when pain is purely centrally driven. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, E; Gamauf, A; Kryukov, A

    2007-12-01

    Intraspecific genetic diversity and phylogeography of Corvus corone was investigated using the mitochondrial (mt) control region as a molecular marker. A split into two distinct mt lineages was observed. One represents individuals from a wide geographic range spanning from England to the Russian Far East (Kamchatka), while the other one was found in the Primorye and Khabarovsk regions (southern parts of Russian Far East) as well as Japan. For comparison, we investigated several widespread Palearctic corvid taxa with respect to their phylogeographic patterns. A deep split into two lineages was revealed in five cases: Besides C. corone, within Corvus frugilegus, Pica pica, and between the species pairs Corvus monedula-Corvus dauuricus and Cyanopica cyanus-Cyanopica cooki. Although these taxa display a variety of distribution patterns, from disjunct, para/allopatric to continuous, the genetic pattern and level of divergence between clades is very similar. This implies that the differentiation started in about the same time range. In contrast, no differentiation into highly divergent lineages was detected in Corvus corax, Perisoreus infaustus, and Nucifraga caryocatactes. We try to explain the two phylogeographic patterns in corvid birds with ecological factors accompanying the changing climatic conditions during the Pleistocene. The deep genetic splits within several widely distributed Palearctic corvids are discussed with respect to taxonomic questions.

  6. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Fraser

    Full Text Available Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans, fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM, intestine of lobster (138 μM gills of the surf clam (100 μM had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  7. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  8. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  9. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  10. Widespread surface meltwater drainage in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Ely, J.; Das, I.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Surface meltwater is thought to cause ice-shelf disintegration, which accelerates the contribution of ice sheets to sea-level rise. Antarctic surface melting is predicted to increase and trigger further ice-shelf disintegration during this century. These climate-change impacts could be modulated by an active hydrological network analogous to the one in operation in Greenland. Despite some observations of Antarctic surface and sub-surface hydrological systems, large-scale active surface drainage in Antarctica has rarely been studied. We use satellite imagery and aerial photography to reveal widespread active hydrology on the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet as far south as 85o and as high as 1800 m a.s.l., often near mountain peaks that protrude through the ice (nunataks) and relatively low-albedo `blue-ice areas'. Despite predominantly sub-zero regional air temperatures, as simulated by a regional climate model, Antarctic active drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water through surface streams and feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 km long. Drainage networks (the largest are over 100 km in length) form on flat ice shelves, steep outlet glaciers and ice-sheet flanks across the West and East Antarctica Ice Sheets. Motivated by the proximity of many drainage systems to low-albedo rock and blue-ice areas, we hypothesize a positive feedback between exposed-rock extent, BIA formation, melting and ice-sheet thinning. This feedback relies on drainage moving water long distances from areas near exposed rock, across the grounding line onto and across ice shelves - a process we observe, but had previously thought to be unlikely in Antarctica. This work highlights previously-overlooked processes, not captured by current regional-scale models, which may accelerate the retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  11. Widespread EEG Changes Precede Focal Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal), and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline). Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma) and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples). At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development), but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures. PMID:24260523

  12. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  13. Pathogenicity of Alternanthera mosaic virus is affected by determinants in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and by reduced efficacy of silencing suppression in a movement-competent TGB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Vaira, Anna Maria; Reinsel, Michael D; Bae, Hanhong; Bailey, Bryan A; Domier, Leslie L; Hammond, John

    2010-01-01

    Four biologically active cDNA clones were derived from the Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; genus Potexvirus) isolate, AltMV-SP, which differ in symptoms in infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Two clones induced necrosis and plant death; a mixture of all four clones induced milder symptoms than AltMV-SP. Replication of all clones was enhanced by a minimum of fourfold at 15 degrees C. A mixture of clones 4-7 (severe) and 3-1 (mild) was indistinguishable from AltMV-SP, but the ratio of 4-7 to 3-1 differed at 25 and 15 degrees C. RNA copy numbers of mixed infections were always below those of 4-7 alone. Determinants of symptom severity were identified in both Pol and TGB1; the mildest (4-1) and most severe (3-7) clones differed at three residues in the 'core' Pol domain [R(1110)P, K(1121)R, R(1255)K] and one [S(1535)P] in the C-terminal Pol domain of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and one in TGB1 [P(88)L]. Pol [P(1110),R(1121),K(1255)]+TGB1(L(88))] always induced systemic necrosis at 15 degrees C. Gene exchanges of Pol and TGB1 each affected replication and symptom expression, with TGB1(P(88)) significantly reducing silencing suppression. The difference in silencing suppression between TGB1(P(88)) and TGB1(L(88)) was confirmed by an agroinfiltration assay. Further, co-expression of TGB1(P(88)) and TGB1(L(88)) resulted in interference in the suppression of silencing by TGB1(L(88)). Yeast two-hybrid analysis confirmed that TGB1(P(88)) and TGB1(L(88)) interact. These results identify a TGB1 residue that significantly affects replication and silencing suppression, but maintains full movement functions.

  14. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms underlying Cowpea mosaic virus systemic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Silva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic virus infection of plants involves; intracellularreplication, cell-to-cell movement within the inoculated leaf, and subsequently, long-distance spread to other plant parts via the vasculature (vascular movement).Cell-to-cell movement

  16. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  17. A Tuberculosis Pericarditis Case Admitted with Proteinuria and Widespread Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Cihangiroğlu, Mustafa; ARTAŞ, Hakan; Abdullah ÖZTÜRK; Demirçin, Mustafa; Çelik, İlhami; Bayındır, Yaşar

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculous pericarditis was diagnosed in a patient who was hospitalized for investigation of etiology of proteinuria, widespread edema, pericardial fluid and ascites. Fever and arythmia developed during clinical course, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from sputum, and pericardial fluid. Tuberculous pericarditis is a rare but life thereatening health problem. Because of initial clinical signs were proteinuria and widespread edema, this case was presented. In endemi...

  18. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  19. Cost-effectiveness of widespread screening for Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J; Welte, Robert; Morré, Servaas A

    2002-01-01

    Screening for sexually transmitted diseases is included in routine health care for several infectious agents in many western European countries. Current considerations on extensions of these programs include widespread screening strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, C. trachomatis

  20. Personality disparity in chronic regional and widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chung; Chen, Po-Fei; Lung, For-Wey

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, therefore, better understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mental illness is needed. This study aimed to investigate the pathway relationships among parental attachment, personality characteristics, alexithymic trait and mental health in patients with chronic widespread pain, those with chronic regional pain, and controls. Two hundred and thirty participants were recruited. The parental Bonding Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Short-Form 36 were filled out. The pathway relationships revealed that patients of mothers who were more protective were more neurotic, had more difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), worse mental health, and a higher association with chronic widespread pain. No differences were found between patients with chronic regional pain and the controls. The predisposing factors for chronic widespread pain, when compared with chronic regional pain, may be more closely related to psychiatric disorders. The pathways to chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain differ, with neuroticism and the alexithymic DIF trait being the main factors defining chronic widespread pain. Therefore, besides therapies targeting pain symptoms, psychiatric consultation, medication and psychotherapy are also recommended for those with chronic widespread pain to alleviate their mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National movement in Diber after Young Turks Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatjon Kica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As all Albanians, people in Diber welcomed the new regime of the Young Turks. After Young Turks Revolution, the movement about the national Education, in the same way as the National Movement, achieved the highest level of development during Renaissance. However the success achieved from legal development of National Education in Albania, the widespread of Albanian language in different ways and the widespread of Albanian language school nets, which became home for the strengthening of National feelings, disturbed Young Turks a lot, which used every tool against them, from the exertion of religion feelings and intrigues, to the violence.

  2. Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, David; Forterre, Patrick; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2006-01-01

    DNA viruses of the Archaea have highly diverse and often exceptionally complex morphotypes. Many have been isolated from geothermally heated hot environments, raising intriguing questions about their origins, and contradicting the widespread notion of limited biodiversity in extreme environments....... Here, we provide a unifying view on archaeal viruses, and present them as a particular assemblage that is fundamentally different in morphotype and genome from the DNA viruses of the other two domains of life, the Bacteria and Eukarya....

  3. Zika virus genome biology and molecular pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anyou; Thurmond, Stephanie; Islas, Leonel; Hui, Kingyung; Hai, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenes...

  4. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  5. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  6. Tensegrity applied to modelling the motion of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simona-Mariana, Cretu; Gabriela-Catalina, Brinzan

    2011-02-01

    A considerable number of viruses' structures have been discovered and more are expected to be identified. Different viruses' symmetries can be observed at the nanoscale level. The mechanical models of some viruses realised by scientists are described in this paper, none of which has taken into consideration the internal deformation of subsystems. The authors' models for some viruses' elements are introduced, with rigid and flexible links, which reproduce the movements of viruses including internal deformations of the subunits.

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  9. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  10. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  11. Linking Literacy and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  12. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  13. Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dejnirattisai, W; Supasa, P; Wongwiwat, W.; Rouvinski, A.; Barba-Spaeth, G.; Duangchinda, T; Sakuntabhai, A; Cao-Lormeau, VM; Malasit, P; REY, FA; Mongkolsapaya, J; Screaton, GR

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 and was thought to lead to relatively mild disease. The recent explosive outbreak of ZIKV in South America has led to widespread concern, with reports of neurological sequelae ranging from Guillain Barr? syndrome to microcephaly. ZIKV infection has occurred in areas previously exposed to dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV. Here we investigated the serological cross-reaction between the two viruses. Plasma immune to DENV showed su...

  14. Comparative assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality mine-water in undisturbed and rehabilitated mine-lands in the upper Olifants using the ACRU2000 ... on rehabilitated soils, a distinction was made between a rehabilitated irrigated area before and after the re-establishment of the equilibrium water table.

  15. Widespread plasmid resistance genes among Proteus species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widespread plasmid resistance genes among Proteus species in diabetic wounds of patients in the Ahmadu Bello university teaching hospital (ABUTH) Zaria. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Plasmids have been known to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotics resistance genes in a microbial population.

  16. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  17. Chronic widespread pain : clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and

  18. Comparative assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... catchment-scale assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality mine-water in undisturbed (un-mined) and reha- bilitated soils in ... tion on undisturbed soils, due to lower runoff and higher ingress to groundwater in rehabilitated areas. ... studies need to be extended beyond field scale, and impacts of.

  19. A model for a widespread implementation of inquiry-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, K.; Doorman, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Innovative teaching practices such as inquirybased learning (IBL) have long been topics of discussion amongst mathematics and science educators. However, it is not easy to change day-to-day teaching on a large scale. The relevant question of how to promote a widespread uptake of IBL in day-to-day

  20. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  1. Biodegradable DNA Nanoparticles that Provide Widespread Gene Delivery in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Song, Eric; Zhang, Clark; Berry, Sneha; Park, Hee Won; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Jong Sung; Lee, Seulki; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    2016-02-03

    Successful gene therapy of neurological disorders is predicated on achieving widespread and uniform transgene expression throughout the affected disease area in the brain. However, conventional gene vectors preferentially travel through low-resistance perivascular spaces and/or are confined to the administration site even with the aid of a pressure-driven flow provided by convection-enhanced delivery. Biodegradable DNA nanoparticles offer a safe gene delivery platform devoid of adverse effects associated with virus-based or synthetic nonbiodegradable systems. Using a state-of-the-art biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester), colloidally stable sub-100 nm DNA nanoparticles are engineered with a nonadhesive polyethylene glycol corona that are able to avoid the adhesive and steric hindrances imposed by the extracellular matrix. Following convection enhanced delivery, these brain-penetrating nanoparticles are able to homogeneously distribute throughout the rodent striatum and mediate widespread and high-level transgene expression. These nanoparticles provide a biodegradable DNA nanoparticle platform enabling uniform transgene expression patterns in vivo and hold promise for the treatment of neurological diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  3. Constructing Reality: Print Media's Framing of the Women's Movement, 1966 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Olson, Beth

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship of journalism history, social movements, and feminism by analyzing framing techniques found in coverage of the women's movement. Finds widespread delegitimation of feminists, including reporting aspects of the women's appearance, using quotation marks around such words as "liberation," and emphasizing…

  4. Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2014-06-01

    Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  6. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: Origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Puechmaille, Sebastein J.; Parise, Katy L.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Hoyt, Joseph R.; Sun, Keping; Jargalsaikhan, Ariunbold; Dalannast, Munkhnast; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Linder, Daniel L.; Kilpatrick, Marm; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul S.; Blehert, David; Foster, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans. Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia.

  7. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  9. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  10. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  11. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  12. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  13. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  14. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  15. Tobacco smoking produces widespread dominant brain wave alpha frequency increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong; Thompson, Michael; Zhang, Huilei; Shikata, Hiroki; Fukai, Hiromi; Sakaki, Takeshi; Ohya, Ippei

    2009-12-01

    The major pharmacological ingredient in tobacco smoke is nicotine, a mild stimulant known to alter brain electrical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if tobacco smoking in humans produces localized or widespread neocortical dominant alpha electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency increases consistent with nicotine stimulation of the brainstem activating system in animals. Twenty-two male volunteer non-deprived tobacco smokers were studied. They were asked not to smoke for at least 1h before the experiment in mid-morning as part of their usual smoking schedule. In the laboratory, they sham smoked and then smoked their favorite tobacco cigarette. Two experimental sessions (#1 and #2) were conducted, separated by a one to two month interval. In both sessions, there were minor statistically significant increases in the dominant alpha frequencies after sham smoking. In both sessions, after the subjects smoked a favorite tobacco cigarette there was a significant generalized increase in dominant alpha EEG frequencies in most scalp recording sites. This study demonstrates that tobacco smoking produces widespread bilateral neocortical increases in dominant alpha EEG frequencies consistent with the stimulant effects of nicotine on the brainstem reticular activating system.

  16. Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Ralph E.; Li, Shuai

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory analyses of lunar samples provide a direct means to identify indigenous volatiles and have been used to argue for the presence of Earth-like water content in the lunar interior. Some volatile elements, however, have been interpreted as evidence for a bulk lunar mantle that is dry. Here we demonstrate that, for a number of lunar pyroclastic deposits, near-infrared reflectance spectra acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter exhibit absorptions consistent with enhanced OH- and/or H2O-bearing materials. These enhancements suggest a widespread occurrence of water in pyroclastic materials sourced from the deep lunar interior, and thus an indigenous origin. Water abundances of up to 150 ppm are estimated for large pyroclastic deposits, with localized values of about 300 to 400 ppm at potential vent areas. Enhanced water content associated with lunar pyroclastic deposits and the large areal extent, widespread distribution and variable chemistry of these deposits on the lunar surface are consistent with significant water in the bulk lunar mantle. We therefore suggest that water-bearing volcanic glasses from Apollo landing sites are not anomalous, and volatile loss during pyroclastic eruptions may represent a significant pathway for the transport of water to the lunar surface.

  17. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cordaux

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca. We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod. Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  18. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

  19. Potential environmental functions of widespread, abundant, uncultured marine archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Schreiber, L.; Petersen, D. G.; Schramm, A.; Jorgensen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of marine subsurface microorganisms are uncultivated, and therefore have unknown metabolisms. Much of the prokaryotes present in the marine subsurface are archaea, and, in turn, much of the archaea fall into the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. These organisms are widely distributed globally and are phylogenetically diverse, comprising 17 distinct subgroups, defined by 16S rRNA genes (Kubo et al. 2012). The subgroups do not seem to have any well-defined environmental distribution (i.e., they are all present in different types of marine and terrestrial environments). However, the abundance of sequences from a certain environment type differs among subgroups, and may provide clues to their role in these environments. We sequenced the genome of a single cell of MCG extracted directly from marine sediments. Although coverage was low (~30%), the data quality was high. Conserved genes show that MCG is deeply branching within the newly named "Thaumarchaeota", and contains a complete pathway for the degradation or extracellular proteins. A further search through metagenomic data shows that this process may be widespread in marine sediments. We hypothesize that MCG archaea may be important in anaerobic protein decomposition in marine sediments. Reference Kubo et al., 2012. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are abundant, diverse, and widespread in marine sediments. ISME Journal, in press, doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.37.

  20. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  1. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kellner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase. Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp., which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  2. Geographically contrasting biodiversity reductions in a widespread New Zealand seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kennedy, Martyn; Anderson, Christian N K; Prost, Stefan; Till, Charlotte E; Smith, Ian W G; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; Hamel, Jill; Lalas, Chris; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Unravelling prehistoric anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity represents a key challenge for biologists and archaeologists. New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two distinct phylogeographic lineages, currently restricted to the country's south and southeast. However, fossil and archaeological remains suggest a far more widespread distribution at the time of Polynesian settlement ca. 1280 AD, encompassing much of coastal South Island. We used modern and ancient DNA, radiocarbon dating, and Bayesian modelling, to assess the impacts of human arrival on this taxon. Our analyses show that the southeast South Island (Otago) lineage was formerly widespread across coastal South Island, but experienced dramatic population extinctions, range retraction and lineage loss soon after human arrival. By comparison, the southernmost (Foveaux Strait) lineage has experienced a relatively stable demographic and biogeographic history since human arrival, retaining much of its mitochondrial diversity. Archaeological data suggest that these contrasting demographic histories (retraction vs. stability) reflect differential human impacts in mainland South Island vs. Foveaux Strait, highlighting the importance of testing for temporal and spatial variation in human-driven faunal declines. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A member of a new plant gene family encoding a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain-containing protein is involved in restriction of long distance movement of plant viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Patrick; Sofer, Luc; Schurdi-Levraud, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Restriction of long distance movement of several potyviruses in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by at least three dominant restricted TEV movement (RTM) genes, named RTM1, RTM2 and RTM3 and acts as a non-conventional resistance. RTM1 encodes a protein belonging to the jacalin family and RTM2 encodes a protein which has similarities to small heat shock proteins. The recent cloning of RTM3 which encodes a protein belonging to an unknown protein family of 29 members that has a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain in its N-terminal region and a coiled-coil (CC) domain at its C-terminal end is an important breakthrough for a better understanding of this resistance process. Not only the third gene involved in this resistance has been identified and has allowed revealing a new gene family in plant but the discovery that the RTM3 protein interacts directly with RTM1 strongly suggests that the RTM proteins form a multimeric complex. However, these data also highlight striking similarities of the RTM resistance with the well known R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:20930558

  4. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  6. Movements and feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fernandez Poncela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text reviews the theory of recognition and focuses on the study of the role of emotions in collective action and social movements. It shows how emotion becomes feeling and creates a need to be met, leading to action. Anger, for example, as emotion, moves on to the feeling of indignation, and it is expressed in many forms, including the pursuit of justice and recognition. This point lands and deepens the study with the experience of the student movement in Mexico #YoSoy132 in 2012. The research is based on interviews with members of the movement. The presence and importance of feelings in collective action and social movements through the proposed case study is finally shown.

  7. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  8. Coordinated Regulation and Widespread Cellular Expression of Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISG) ISG-49, ISG-54, and ISG-56 in the Central Nervous System after Infection with Distinct Viruses▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wacher, Christie; Müller, Marcus; Hofer, Markus J; Getts, Daniel R.; Zabaras, Regina; Ousman, Shalina S.; Terenzi, Fulvia; Sen, Ganes C.; King, Nicholas J. C.; Campbell, Iain L

    2006-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) ISG-49, ISG-54, and ISG-56 are highly responsive to viral infection, yet the regulation and function of these genes in vivo are unknown. We examined the simultaneous regulation of these ISGs in the brains of mice during infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or West Nile virus (WNV). Expression of the ISG-49 and ISG-56 genes increased significantly during LCMV infection, being widespread and localized predominantly to commo...

  9. Developing a Scenario for widespread use: Best practices, lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is probably the most widely known and used earthquake scenario created to date. Much of the credit for its widespread dissemination and application lies with scenario development criteria that focused on the needs and involvement of end users and with a suite of products that tailored communication of the results to varied end users, who ranged from emergency managers to the general public, from corporations to grassroots organizations. Products were most effective when they were highly visual, when they emphasized the findings of social scientists, and when they communicated the experience of living through the earthquake. This paper summarizes the development criteria and the products that made the ShakeOut Scenario so widely known and used, and it provides some suggestions for future improvements. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Widespread Aggregation and Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Associated with Supersaturated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajwal Ciryam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of protein solubility is a fundamental aspect of cellular homeostasis because protein aggregation is associated with a wide variety of human diseases. Numerous proteins unrelated in sequence and structure, however, can misfold and aggregate, and widespread aggregation can occur in living systems under stress or aging. A crucial question in this context is why only certain proteins appear to aggregate readily in vivo, whereas others do not. We identify here the proteins most vulnerable to aggregation as those whose cellular concentrations are high relative to their solubilities. We find that these supersaturated proteins represent a metastable subproteome involved in pathological aggregation during stress and aging and are overrepresented in biochemical processes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, such cellular processes become dysfunctional when the ability to keep intrinsically supersaturated proteins soluble is compromised. Thus, the simultaneous analysis of abundance and solubility can rationalize the diverse cellular pathologies linked to neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

  11. Neurodegenerative diseases and widespread aggregation are associated with supersaturated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciryam, Prajwal; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Morimoto, Richard I.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Summary The maintenance of protein solubility is a fundamental aspect of protein homeostasis, as aggregation is associated with cytotoxicity and a variety of human diseases. Numerous proteins unrelated in sequence and structure, however, can misfold and aggregate, and widespread aggregation can occur in living systems under stress or ageing. A crucial question in this context is why only certain proteins aggregate in vivo while others do not. We identify here the proteins most vulnerable to aggregation as those whose cellular concentrations are high relative to their solubilities. These supersaturated proteins represent a metastable sub-proteome involved in pathological aggregation during stress and ageing, and are overrepresented in biochemical processes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, such cellular processes become dysfunctional when the ability to keep intrinsically supersaturated proteins soluble is compromised. Thus, the simultaneous analysis of abundance and solubility can rationalize the diverse cellular pathologies linked to neurodegenerative diseases and aging. PMID:24183671

  12. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  13. Spiraldynamik - intelligent movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wippert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Spiraldynamik ® is an anatomically based movement and therapy concept. It was founded by the physiotherapist Yolanda Deswarte, and Dr. med. Christian Larsen. During the time that he was professionally active as a pediatrician, Christian Larsen repeatedly wondered: “is the universal principle of organization, the spiral, also embodied in man?” Observing the babies and toddlers that he worked with inspired him to research further into movement sequences. International interdisciplinary research...

  14. Genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of chronic widespread pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr JI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jasmine I Kerr,1 Andrea Burri,1–3 1Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, 3Waitemata Pain Service, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: The etiology underlying chronic widespread pain (CWP remains largely unknown. An integrative biopsychosocial model seems to yield the most promising explanations for the pathogenesis of the condition, with genetic factors also contributing to disease development and maintenance. Here, we conducted a search of studies investigating the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of CWP through electronic databases including Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Combinations of keywords including CWP, chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, genetics, epigenetics, gene, twins, single-nucleotide polymorphism, genotype, and alleles were used. In the end, a total of 15 publications were considered relevant to be included in this review: eight were twin studies on CWP, six were molecular genetic studies on CWP, and one was an epigenetic study on CWP. The findings suggest genetic and unique environmental factors to contribute to CWP. Various candidates such as serotonin-related pathway genes were found to be associated with CWP and somatoform symptoms. However, studies show some limitations and need replication. The presented results for CWP could serve as a template for genetic studies on other chronic pain conditions. Ultimately, a more in-depth understanding of disease mechanisms will help with the development of more effective treatment, inform nosology, and reduce the stigma still lingering on this diagnosis. Keywords: chronic widespread pain, CWP, epigenetics, genetics, twin studies, environment, aetiology 

  15. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  16. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  17. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  18. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...

  19. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  20. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Habitat fragmentation impacts mobility in a common and widespread woodland butterfly: do sexes respond differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergerot Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory predicts a nonlinear response of dispersal evolution to habitat fragmentation. First, dispersal will be favoured in line with both decreasing area of habitat patches and increasing inter-patch distances. Next, once these inter-patch distances exceed a critical threshold, dispersal will be counter-selected, unless essential resources no longer co-occur in compact patches but are differently scattered; colonization of empty habitat patches or rescue of declining populations are then increasingly overruled by dispersal costs like mortality risks and loss of time and energy. However, to date, most empirical studies mainly document an increase of dispersal associated with habitat fragmentation. We analyzed dispersal kernels for males and females of the common, widespread woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria in highly fragmented landscape, and for males in landscapes that differed in their degree of habitat fragmentation. Results The male and female probabilities of moving were considerably lower in the highly fragmented landscapes compared to the male probability of moving in fragmented agricultural and deciduous oak woodland landscapes. We also investigated whether, and to what extent, daily dispersal distance in the highly fragmented landscape was influenced by a set of landscape variables for both males and females, including distance to the nearest woodland, area of the nearest woodland, patch area and abundance of individuals in the patch. We found that daily movement distance decreased with increasing distance to the nearest woodland in both males and females. Daily distances flown by males were related to the area of the woodland capture site, whereas no such effect was observed for females. Conclusion Overall, mobility was strongly reduced in the highly fragmented landscape, and varied considerably among landscapes with different spatial resource distributions. We interpret the results relative to different cost

  2. Habitat fragmentation impacts mobility in a common and widespread woodland butterfly: do sexes respond differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerot, Benjamin; Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Baguette, Michel

    2012-04-27

    Theory predicts a nonlinear response of dispersal evolution to habitat fragmentation. First, dispersal will be favoured in line with both decreasing area of habitat patches and increasing inter-patch distances. Next, once these inter-patch distances exceed a critical threshold, dispersal will be counter-selected, unless essential resources no longer co-occur in compact patches but are differently scattered; colonization of empty habitat patches or rescue of declining populations are then increasingly overruled by dispersal costs like mortality risks and loss of time and energy. However, to date, most empirical studies mainly document an increase of dispersal associated with habitat fragmentation. We analyzed dispersal kernels for males and females of the common, widespread woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria in highly fragmented landscape, and for males in landscapes that differed in their degree of habitat fragmentation. The male and female probabilities of moving were considerably lower in the highly fragmented landscapes compared to the male probability of moving in fragmented agricultural and deciduous oak woodland landscapes. We also investigated whether, and to what extent, daily dispersal distance in the highly fragmented landscape was influenced by a set of landscape variables for both males and females, including distance to the nearest woodland, area of the nearest woodland, patch area and abundance of individuals in the patch. We found that daily movement distance decreased with increasing distance to the nearest woodland in both males and females. Daily distances flown by males were related to the area of the woodland capture site, whereas no such effect was observed for females. Overall, mobility was strongly reduced in the highly fragmented landscape, and varied considerably among landscapes with different spatial resource distributions. We interpret the results relative to different cost-benefit ratios of movements in fragmented landscapes.

  3. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hak, Hagit [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Department of Biological Chemistry, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Loyter, Abraham [Department of Biological Chemistry, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Lapidot, Moshe [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Gafni, Yedidya, E-mail: ygafni@volcani.agri.gov.il [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  4. Water- and foodborne viruses: current developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the major advances made in preventive health care and food technology, water and foodborne transmission of human enteric viruses is a well-recognised widespread public health problem.1-3. Factors such as changing lifestyles and demographics, faster and more frequent travel, decreasing water supplies and ...

  5. Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ressing, Maaike E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/174440545; van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Hooykaas, Marjolein J G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341771015; Piersma, Sytse J; Wiertz, EJHJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114297711

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to

  6. The role of ICT in Arab spring movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 25 years, social movements have actively sought out and used new information and communication technologies (ICT, such as the Internet and mobile phones, to give voice to their concerns. The growth of access and use of ICT in the Middle East and North Africa provided resources for protesters and governments to influence political and social events. The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile phones to facilitate organization and action raises the research question of how ICT affects protest movements.

  7. Widespread disruption of host transcription termination in HSV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Andrzej J.; Erhard, Florian; L'Hernault, Anne; Bonfert, Thomas; Schilhabel, Markus; Crump, Colin; Rosenstiel, Philip; Efstathiou, Stacey; Zimmer, Ralf; Friedel, Caroline C.; Dölken, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen and a paradigm for virus-induced host shut-off. Here we show that global changes in transcription and RNA processing and their impact on translation can be analysed in a single experimental setting by applying 4sU-tagging of newly transcribed RNA and ribosome profiling to lytic HSV-1 infection. Unexpectedly, we find that HSV-1 triggers the disruption of transcription termination of cellular, but not viral, genes. This results in extensive transcription for tens of thousands of nucleotides beyond poly(A) sites and into downstream genes, leading to novel intergenic splicing between exons of neighbouring cellular genes. As a consequence, hundreds of cellular genes seem to be transcriptionally induced but are not translated. In contrast to previous reports, we show that HSV-1 does not inhibit co-transcriptional splicing. Our approach thus substantially advances our understanding of HSV-1 biology and establishes HSV-1 as a model system for studying transcription termination. PMID:25989971

  8. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; Esat ADIGÜZEL

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  9. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A

    2014-06-02

    Background: Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings. The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion: Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms

  10. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  11. Gender specificity of the slow wave sleep lost in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Gilles J; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Colombo, Roberto; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Marchand, Serge; Lanfranchi, Paola A

    2011-02-01

    The majority of patients suffering from musculoskeletal chronic widespread pain (CWP) are females, and they tend to report poor sleep. We tested the hypothesis that the poor sleep of female patients reporting CWP is gender specific for changes in (1) electroencephalograph (EEG) features and (2) heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-four normal sleepers were compared to 24 patients with CWP who complained of poor sleep. Patients were referred from general practice and were matched for age (41-47 years) and gender (25 W, 23 M). Sleep variables and spectral EEG activity analyses were performed during 1 night of sleep recording. Time-domain cardiac RR interval and spectral autoregressive analyses were also performed from the same data set. Compared to normal females, female patients with CWP had significantly shorter sleep duration (-68 min), lower sleep efficiency (-9.9%), twice the awakenings and a trend for more periodic limb movements per hour of sleep. Daytime napping was reported by 78% of CWPs. Compared to all controls, females with CWP had significantly less power in the EEG delta band in the first and second non-REM sleep cycle. Although RR interval analysis revealed that CWP patients had a faster heart rate, neither the sympathetic nor sympathovagal analysis reached statistical significance for gender or pain status comparisons. Female CWP patients have shorter sleep duration with many awakenings and lower sleep EEG delta activity without gender difference in HRV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A DNA virus of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Unckless

    Full Text Available Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV. PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (∼80-90% loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan.

  13. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  14. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  15. Taxonomy, biogeography and importance of Heterobasidion viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Eeva J; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-07-02

    The genus Heterobasidion consists of several species of necrotrophic and saprotrophic fungi, and includes some of the most detrimental organisms in boreal conifer forests. These fungi host a widespread and diverse mycovirus community composed of more than 16 species of Partitiviridae, a species of Narnaviridae and one taxonomically unassigned virus related to the Curvularia thermal tolerance virus. These viruses are able to cross species borders, co-infect single host strains and cause phenotypic changes in their hosts. The abundance of viruses increases over time in Heterobasidion infection centers, and they are targeted by fungal RNA interference. Long-term field studies are essential for obtaining a comprehensive view of virus effects in the nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a novel marker vaccine platform for protection against Bluetongue Virus (BTV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kochinger, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important member of the genus Orbivirus and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are known. The virus is transmitted by blood-feeding Culicoides midges and causes disease (bluetongue [BT]) in ruminants. In 2006/2007, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) caused widespread outbreaks of BT amongst livestock in Europe, which were eventually controlled employing a ...

  17. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.; Brundrett, Maeghan; Estrada, Nubia; Böhlke, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) and chlorate (ClO3-) are ubiquitous on Earth and ClO4- has also been found on Mars. These species can play important roles in geochemical processes such as oxidation of organic matter and as biological electron acceptors, and are also indicators of important photochemical reactions involving oxyanions; on Mars they could be relevant for human habitability both in terms of in situ resource utilization and potential human health effects. For the first time, we extracted, detected and quantified ClO4- and ClO3- in extraterrestrial, non-planetary samples: regolith and rock samples from the Moon, and two chondrite meteorites (Murchison and Fayetteville). Lunar samples were collected by astronauts during the Apollo program, and meteorite samples were recovered immediately after their fall. This fact, together with the heterogeneous distribution of ClO4- and ClO3- within some of the samples, and their relative abundance with respect to other soluble species (e.g., NO3-) are consistent with an extraterrestrial origin of the oxychlorine species. Our results, combined with the previously reported widespread occurrence on Earth and Mars, indicate that ClO4- and ClO3- could be present throughout the Solar System.

  18. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  19. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates.

  20. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D; Miller, Eric; Liu, Lin; Hayes, Daniel J; Larsen, Christopher F

    2015-10-29

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  1. Recent Arctic tundra fire initiates widespread thermokarst development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Arp, Christopher D.; Miller, Eric K.; Liu, Lingli; Hayes, Daniel J.; Larsen, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Fire-induced permafrost degradation is well documented in boreal forests, but the role of fires in initiating thermokarst development in Arctic tundra is less well understood. Here we show that Arctic tundra fires may induce widespread thaw subsidence of permafrost terrain in the first seven years following the disturbance. Quantitative analysis of airborne LiDAR data acquired two and seven years post-fire, detected permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, compared to less than 1% in similar undisturbed, ice-rich tundra terrain units. The variability in thermokarst development appears to be influenced by the interaction of tundra fire burn severity and near-surface, ground-ice content. Subsidence was greatest in severely burned, ice-rich upland terrain (yedoma), accounting for ~50% of the detected subsidence, despite representing only 30% of the fire disturbed study area. Microtopography increased by 340% in this terrain unit as a result of ice wedge degradation. Increases in the frequency, magnitude, and severity of tundra fires will contribute to future thermokarst development and associated landscape change in Arctic tundra regions.

  2. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M. H.; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C.; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M.; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C.; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R.; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin. PMID:29261694

  3. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F; Sears, Derek W. G.; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.; Brundrett, Meaghan; Estrada, Nubia; Böhlke, John Karl

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO− 4 ) and chlorate (ClO− 3 ) are ubiquitous on Earth and ClO− 4 has also been found on Mars. These species can play important roles in geochemical processes such as oxidation of organic matter and as biological electron acceptors, and are also indicators of important photochemical reactions involving oxyanions; on Mars they could be relevant for human habitability both in terms of in situ resource utilization and potential human health effects. For the first time, we extracted, detected and quantified ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 in extraterrestrial, non-planetary samples: regolith and rock samples from the Moon, and two chondrite meteorites (Murchison and Fayetteville). Lunar samples were collected by astronauts during the Apollo program, and meteorite samples were recovered immediately after their fall. This fact, together with the heterogeneous distribution of ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 within some of the samples, and their relative abundance with respect to other soluble species (e.g., NO− 3 ) are consistent with an extraterrestrial origin of the oxychlorine species. Our results, combined with the previously reported widespread occurrence on Earth and Mars, indicate that ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 could be present throughout the Solar System.

  4. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  5. Structure, morphogenesis and function of tubular structures induced by cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D.T.J.

    1999-01-01

    During systemic plant infection, viruses move from the initially infected cells through plasmodesmata to neighbouring cells. Different mechanisms have been proposed for this cell-to-cell movement. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) employs one of the major movement mechanisms, i.e. tubule-guided

  6. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  7. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia in guinea pigs following inoculation with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused widespread disease of poultry in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and sporadic human infections. The guinea pig model has been used to study human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, but knowledge is lacking on H5N1 HPAI virus inf...

  8. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  9. Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frígols, Belén; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Donderis, Jorge; Elena, Santiago F; Buckling, Angus; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2015-10-01

    Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts.

  10. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eSalomon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory and motor signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously the participants’ body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e. on the back, on the leg, resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg or incongruent stroking (i.e. stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back. We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-localization were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant’s body.

  11. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Roy; Lim, Melanie; Pfeiffer, Christian; Gassert, Roger; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership) and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously to the participants' body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e., on the back, on the leg), resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg) or incongruent stroking (i.e., stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back). We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-location were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion (FBI) alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant's body.

  12. Widespread Occurrence of Bd in French Guiana, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Elodie A.; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area’s high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  13. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  14. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1 determine its geographical distribution, (2 test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera to define sentinel species for future work, (3 track changes in prevalence through time and (4 determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012. At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4% as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 % and Hylidae (1.5%. In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  15. Widespread positive selection in the photosynthetic Rubisco enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitry A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rubisco enzyme catalyzes the first step in net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and photorespiratory carbon oxidation and is responsible for almost all carbon fixation on Earth. The large subunit of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene, which is widely used for reconstruction of plant phylogenies due to its conservative nature. Plant systematicists have mainly used rbcL paying little attention to its function, and the question whether it evolves under Darwinian selection has received little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how common is positive selection in Rubisco among the phototrophs and where in the Rubisco structure does positive selection occur. Results We searched for positive selection in rbcL sequences from over 3000 species representing all lineages of green plants and some lineages of other phototrophs, such as brown and red algae, diatoms, euglenids and cyanobacteria. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis found the presence of positive selection in rbcL of most analyzed land plants, but not in algae and cyanobacteria. The mapping of the positively selected residues on the Rubisco tertiary structure revealed that they are located in regions important for dimer-dimer, intradimer, large subunit-small subunit and Rubisco-Rubisco activase interactions, and that some of the positively selected residues are close to the active site. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite its conservative nature, Rubisco evolves under positive selection in most lineages of land plants, and after billions of years of evolution Darwinian selection still fine-tunes its performance. Widespread positive selection in rbcL has to be taken into account when this gene is used for phylogenetic reconstructions.

  16. Chronic widespread pain in the spectrum of rheumatological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2007-06-01

    Chronic pain is very common in all European countries, with musculoskeletal problems predominating. About 1% of the adult population develops a syndrome of chronic muscle pain, fibromyalgia (FMS), characterized by multiple tender points, back or neck pain, and a number of associated problems from other organs, including a high frequency of fatigue. Evidence points to central sensitization as an important neurophysiological aberration in the development of FMS. Importantly, these neurological changes may result from inadequately treated chronic focal pain problems such as osteoarthritis or myofascial pain. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this syndrome and to diagnose the patients to avoid a steady increase in diagnostic tests. On the other hand, patients with chronic widespread pain have an increased risk of developing malignancies, and new or changed symptoms should be diagnosed even in FMS. In rheumatology practice it is especially important to be aware of the existence of FMS in association with immune inflammatory diseases, most commonly lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnoses are other causes of chronic pain, e.g. thyroid disease. The costs of this syndrome are substantial due to loss of working capability and direct expenses of medication and health-system usage. Fibromyalgia patients need recognition of their pain syndrome if they are to comply with treatment. Lack of empathy and understanding by healthcare professionals often leads to patient frustration and inappropriate illness behavior, often associated with some exaggeration of symptoms in an effort to gain some legitimacy for their problem. FMS is multifaceted, and treatment consists of both medical interventions, with emphasis on agents acting on the central nervous system, and physical exercises.

  17. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  18. Widespread production of nonmicrobial greenhouse gases in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lerdau, Manuel; He, Yongli

    2017-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are the three most important greenhouse gases (GHGs), and all show large uncertainties in their atmospheric budgets. Soils of natural and managed ecosystems play an extremely important role in modulating their atmospheric abundance. Mechanisms underlying the exchange of these GHGs at the soil-atmosphere interface are often assumed to be exclusively microbe-mediated (M-GHGs). We argue that it is a widespread phenomenon for soil systems to produce GHGs through nonmicrobial pathways (NM-GHGs) based on a review of the available evidence accumulated over the past half century. We find that five categories of mechanistic process, including photodegradation, thermal degradation, reactive oxidative species (ROS) oxidation, extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET), and inorganic chemical reactions, can be identified as accounting for their production. These pathways are intricately coupled among themselves and with M-GHGs production and are subject to strong influences from regional and global change agents including, among others, climate warming, solar radiation, and alterations of atmospheric components. Preliminary estimates have suggested that NM-GHGs could play key roles in contributing to budgets of GHGs in the arid regions, whereas their global importance would be enhanced with accelerated global environmental changes. Therefore, more research should be undertaken, with a differentiation between NM-GHGs and M-GHGs, to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to investigate the impacts of various global change agents, and to quantify their contributions to regional and global GHGs budgets. These efforts will contribute to a more complete understanding of global carbon and nitrogen cycling and a reduction in the uncertainty of carbon-climate feedbacks in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  20. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  1. Rhythm Training through Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveire, Janine H.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that string playing, rhythm, pitch, and tone quality are all dependent on the movement and coordination of the player. Presents a rhythmic focus lesson plan for students who need improvement in rhythm skills. Includes a lesson plan diagram and suggested teacher resources. (CFR)

  2. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  3. The Mastery of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  4. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  5. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  6. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  7. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  8. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  9. Potent Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for the Therapy of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2007-01-01

    .... We proposed to develop a novel virotherapy for prostate cancer during the funding period. Our working hypothesis was that a fusogenic oncolytic virus would induce a widespread syncytia formation...

  10. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: : QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afzal, Adeel; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana; Bajwa, Sadia Z.; Latif, Usman; Feroz, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are

  11. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  12. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Meza, Rita I.; Nuñez, Sandra M.; Parham, Leda; Flores, Norma A.; Valladares, Diana; Pineda, Luisa M.; Flores, Dixiana; Motiño, Roxana; Umanzor, Víctor; Carbajal, Candy; Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana, Ivette; Palou, Elsa Y.; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Methods 365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI) individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm. Results PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4–15.2%). NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2%) was higher than NRTI (2.2%) and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/μL. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%). The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%), T215 revertants (0.5%), and K103NS (5.5%). The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ≥48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343). M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01), but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals. Conclusions The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations. PMID:26558396

  13. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, W. O.; Garnsey, S. M.; Tatineni, S.; Folimonova, S. Y.; Harper, S. J.; Gowda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus

  14. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, W O; Garnsey, S M; Tatineni, S; Folimonova, S Y; Harper, S J; Gowda, S

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting (SP) symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows (SY) symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus

  15. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-04-04

    A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. From the pair-wise alignments between human genome and 53 vertebrate genomes, 1,467 human genome regions (2.6 M bases) from all chromosomes were found to be more conserved with non-mammals than with most mammals. These human genome regions involve 642 known genes, which are enriched with ion binding. Compared to known horizontal gene transfer regions in the human genome, there were few overlapping regions, which indicated horizontal gene transfer is more common than we expected in the human genome. Horizontal gene transfer impacts hundreds of human genes and this study provided insight into potential mechanisms of HGT in the human genome.

  16. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  17. Virus Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  18. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution. In the planning of a movement, the brain has the opportunity to delay the incorporation of accuracy requirements of the motor plan in order to reduce the reaction time by up to 100 ms (average: 32 ms). Such shortening of reaction time is observed here when the first phase of the movement consists of a transport phase. This forces us to reconsider the hypothesis that motor plans are fully defined before movement onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Climate-driven diversification in two widespread Galerida larks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crochet Pierre-André

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major impact of Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the current genetic structure of many species is widely recognised but their importance in driving speciation remains a matter of controversies. In addition, since most studies focused on Europe and North America, the influence of many other biogeographic barriers such as the Sahara remains poorly understood. In this paper, climate-driven diversification was investigated by using a comparative phylogeographic approach in combination with phenotypic data in two avian species groups distributed on both sides of the deserts belt of Africa and Asia. In particular, we tested whether: 1 vicariance diversification events are concomitant with past climatic events; and 2 current ecological factors (using climate and competition as proxies contribute to phenotypic divergence between allopatric populations. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data indicated that the crested and Thekla lark species groups diverged in the early Pliocene and that subsequent speciation events were congruent with major late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic events. In particular, steep increase in aridity in Africa near 2.8 and 1.7 million years ago were coincident with two north-south vicariance speciation events mediated by the Sahara. Subsequent glacial cycles of the last million years seem to have shaped patterns of genetic variation within the two widespread species (G. cristata and G. theklae. The Sahara appears to have allowed dispersal from the tropical areas during climatic optima but to have isolated populations north and south of it during more arid phases. Phenotypic variation did not correlate with the history of populations, but was strongly influenced by current ecological conditions. In particular, our results suggested that (i desert-adapted plumage evolved at least three times and (ii variation in body size was mainly driven by interspecific competition, but the response

  20. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  1. The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhy, Hervé; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Dunham, Eleca J; Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Jiaxin; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Holmes, Edward C

    2008-11-01

    Rabies is a progressively fatal and incurable viral encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus infection. Almost all of the 55 000 annual rabies deaths in humans result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). Despite the importance of rabies for human health, little is known about the spread of RABV in dog populations, and patterns of biodiversity have only been studied in limited geographical space. To address these questions on a global scale, we sequenced 62 new isolates and performed an extensive comparative analysis of RABV gene sequence data, representing 192 isolates sampled from 55 countries. From this, we identified six clades of RABV in non-flying mammals, each of which has a distinct geographical distribution, most likely reflecting major physical barriers to gene flow. Indeed, a detailed analysis of phylogeographic structure revealed only limited viral movement among geographical localities. Using Bayesian coalescent methods we also reveal that the sampled lineages of canid RABV derive from a common ancestor that originated within the past 1500 years. Additionally, we found no evidence for either positive selection or widespread population bottlenecks during the global expansion of canid RABV. Overall, our study reveals that the stochastic processes of genetic drift and population subdivision are the most important factors shaping the global phylogeography of canid RABV.

  2. Suite of simple metrics reveals common movement syndromes across vertebrate taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahms, Briana; Seidel, Dana P; Dougherty, Eric; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Wilson, Alan M; Weldon McNutt, J; Costa, Daniel P; Blake, Stephen; Brashares, Justin S; Getz, Wayne M

    2017-01-01

    Because empirical studies of animal movement are most-often site- and species-specific, we lack understanding of the level of consistency in movement patterns across diverse taxa, as well as a framework for quantitatively classifying movement patterns. We aim to address this gap by determining the extent to which statistical signatures of animal movement patterns recur across ecological systems. We assessed a suite of movement metrics derived from GPS trajectories of thirteen marine and terrestrial vertebrate species spanning three taxonomic classes, orders of magnitude in body size, and modes of movement (swimming, flying, walking). Using these metrics, we performed a principal components analysis and cluster analysis to determine if individuals organized into statistically distinct clusters. Finally, to identify and interpret commonalities within clusters, we compared them to computer-simulated idealized movement syndromes representing suites of correlated movement traits observed across taxa (migration, nomadism, territoriality, and central place foraging). Two principal components explained 70% of the variance among the movement metrics we evaluated across the thirteen species, and were used for the cluster analysis. The resulting analysis revealed four statistically distinct clusters. All simulated individuals of each idealized movement syndrome organized into separate clusters, suggesting that the four clusters are explained by common movement syndrome. Our results offer early indication of widespread recurrent patterns in movement ecology that have consistent statistical signatures, regardless of taxon, body size, mode of movement, or environment. We further show that a simple set of metrics can be used to classify broad-scale movement patterns in disparate vertebrate taxa. Our comparative approach provides a general framework for quantifying and classifying animal movements, and facilitates new inquiries into relationships between movement syndromes and

  3. Mindfulness-Based Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexander R; Klepin, Heidi D; Porges, Stephen W; Rejeski, W Jack

    2016-12-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for cancer survivors, including for those undergoing active cancer treatments. However, to date most evidence has emerged from interventions that have promoted moderate to vigorous physical activity. In this conceptual review, we argue that attention should be given to the entire continuum of physical activity from reducing sedentary behavior to increasing higher levels of physical activity when possible. In addition, considerable evidence in the cancer literature supports the value of mindfulness-based interventions as a means of helping patients and survivors cope with the variety of threats that accompany this disease. Based on the success of these two areas of research, we argue for conceptualizing and promoting physical activity as Mindfulness-Based Movement, using Polyvagal Theory as a theoretical framework to understand the role and value of Mindfulness-Based Movement as a potential intervention for cancer care and control.

  4. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  6. A novel lineage of myoviruses infecting cyanobacteria is widespread in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabehi, Gazalah; Shaulov, Lihi; Silver, David H; Yanai, Itai; Harel, Amnon; Lindell, Debbie

    2012-02-07

    Viruses infecting bacteria (phages) are thought to greatly impact microbial population dynamics as well as the genome diversity and evolution of their hosts. Here we report on the discovery of a novel lineage of tailed dsDNA phages belonging to the family Myoviridae and describe its first representative, S-TIM5, that infects the ubiquitous marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus. The genome of this phage encodes an entirely unique set of structural proteins not found in any currently known phage, indicating that it uses lineage-specific genes for virion morphogenesis and represents a previously unknown lineage of myoviruses. Furthermore, among its distinctive collection of replication and DNA metabolism genes, it carries a mitochondrial-like DNA polymerase gene, providing strong evidence for the bacteriophage origin of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. S-TIM5 also encodes an array of bacterial-like metabolism genes commonly found in phages infecting cyanobacteria including photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and phosphorus acquisition genes. This suggests a common gene pool and gene swapping of cyanophage-specific genes among different phage lineages despite distinct sets of structural and replication genes. All cytosines following purine nucleotides are methylated in the S-TIM5 genome, constituting a unique methylation pattern that likely protects the genome from nuclease degradation. This phage is abundant in the Red Sea and S-TIM5 gene homologs are widespread in the oceans. This unusual phage type is thus likely to be an important player in the oceans, impacting the population dynamics and evolution of their primary producing cyanobacterial hosts.

  7. UAVs and Patient Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    space.”62 UAVs were initially utilized for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance , and targeting missions.63 However, UAVs are now being designed...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UAVs and PATIENT MOVEMENT by Brian R Blanchard, Major, USAF Doctor...time to care for wounded Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines lies in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs ) for patient transport. An

  8. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  9. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  10. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  11. Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Shipton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are neurological conditions affecting speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Possible target sites for DBS include the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, and the subthalamic nucleus. High-frequency DBS leads to a kind of functional deafferentation of the stimulated structure and to the modulation of cortical activity. This has a profound effect on the efficiency of movement. Indications for the use of DBS include the need to improve function, reduce medication dependency, and avoid ablative neurosurgery. Appropriate patient selection is critical for success. The implantation technique is briefly described. Programming stimulation parameters are performed via telemetry. The adverse effects of DBS are discussed. The future should see the development of “closed-loop” systems. Its use has promoted interdisciplinary team work and provided an improved understanding of the complex neurocircuitry associated with these disorders. DBS is a highly effective, safe, and reversible surgical treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease, tremor, and dystonia. It is a useful therapeutic option in carefully selected patients that significantly improves motor symptoms, functional status, and quality of life.

  12. Widespread gene flow between oceans in a pelagic seabird species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth Jones, Katherine A; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Raisin, Claire; Dawson, Deborah A; Hipperson, Helen; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Groombridge, Jim J; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sweet, Paul; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Norris, Ken

    2017-10-01

    Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, particularly in seabirds. The only well-studied example of a mixed-species, hybridizing population of petrels exists on Round Island, in the Indian Ocean. Previous research assumed that Round Island represents a point of secondary contact between Atlantic (Pterodroma arminjoniana) and Pacific species (Pterodroma neglecta and Pterodroma heraldica). This study uses microsatellite genotyping and tracking data to address the possibility of between-species hybridization occurring outside the Indian Ocean. Dispersal and gene flow spanning three oceans were demonstrated between the species in this complex. Analysis of migration rates estimated using bayesass revealed unidirectional movement of petrels from the Atlantic and Pacific into the Indian Ocean. Conversely, structure analysis revealed gene flow between species of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, with potential three-way hybrids occurring outside the Indian Ocean. Additionally, geolocation tracking of Round Island petrels revealed two individuals travelling to the Atlantic and Pacific. These results suggest that interspecific hybrids in Pterodroma petrels are more common than was previously assumed. This study is the first of its kind to investigate gene flow between populations of closely related Procellariiform species on a global scale, demonstrating the need for consideration of widespread migration and hybridization in the conservation of threatened seabirds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Spinal Cord Stimulation Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement Past Issues / Summer ... a lifelong sentence of permanent paralysis." Read More "Spinal Cord Stimulation" Articles Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement / Progress in ...

  14. KARAKTERISASICYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV PADA TANAMAN ANGGREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization ofCymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV on Orchid Plant Orchids are affected by more virus disease problems than most crops, reducing their commercial values considerably. Orchid viruses are widespread in cultivated orchids, withCymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV being the most prevalent. CymMV high incidence in cultivated orchids has been attributed to the stability and ease of transmission of this virus through cultural practices. CymMV induces floral and foliar necrosis. The virus also reduce plant vigor and lower flower quality, which affect their economic value. The objective of the research is to characterize the virus causing mosaic or chlorotic and necrotic on orchids in West Java. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR assays using oligonucleotide primers specific to CymMV were also successfully amplified the regions of the coat protein (CP gene of the virus. Analysis by using sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that the virus have a major structural protein with an estimated molecular weight of 28 kDa. Aligments of partial nucleotide sequences of the CP gene displayed 86 to 92% homology to CymMV isolates from other countries.

  15. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  16. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Antiglobalization movements are transnational social movements that challenge what they perceive as a monolithic global laissez-faire economic regime. From the 1990s, these movements have accused global political and economic networks of delivering too much power to dominant elites at the expense...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  17. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  18. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  19. High Precision Neural Decoding of Complex Movement Trajectories using Recursive Bayesian Estimation with Dynamic Movement Primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; Smith, Ryan J; Rouse, Adam G; Schieber, Marc H; Thakor, Nitish V; Wester, Brock A

    2016-07-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance. Here we present a novel sensor fusion paradigm for BMIs that capitalizes on information able to be extracted from the environment to greatly improve the performance of control. This was accomplished by using dynamic movement primitives to model the 3D endpoint trajectories of manipulating various objects. We then used a switching unscented Kalman filter to continuously arbitrate between the 3D endpoint kinematics predicted by the dynamic movement primitives and control derived from neural signals. We experimentally validated our system by decoding 3D endpoint trajectories executed by a non-human primate manipulating four different objects at various locations. Performance using our system showed a dramatic improvement over using neural signals alone, with median distance between actual and decoded trajectories decreasing from 31.1 cm to 9.9 cm, and mean correlation increasing from 0.80 to 0.98. Our results indicate that our sensor fusion framework can dramatically increase the fidelity of neural prosthetic trajectory decoding.

  20. Lassa-vesicular stomatitis chimeric virus safely destroys brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N; Cepko, Connie; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2015-07-01

    High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We tested a series of

  1. An empirical study of e-participation activities in social movement organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudulich, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has had a significant impact on European society. This study analyses the impact of ICT enabled political participation by Social Movement Organisations (SMOs). A sample of European protest networks and pressure groups'

  2. Metagenomics reshapes the concepts of RNA virus evolution by revealing extensive horizontal virus transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, Valerian V; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-11-08

    Virus metagenomics is a young research filed but it has already transformed our understanding of virus diversity and evolution, and illuminated at a new level the connections between virus evolution and the evolution and ecology of the hosts. In this review article, we examine the new picture of the evolution of RNA viruses, the dominant component of the eukaryotic virome, that is emerging from metagenomic data analysis. The major expansion of many groups of RNA viruses through metagenomics allowed the construction of substantially improved phylogenetic trees for the conserved virus genes, primarily, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). In particular, a new superfamily of widespread, small positive-strand RNA viruses was delineated that unites tombus-like and noda-like viruses. Comparison of the genome architectures of RNA viruses discovered by metagenomics and by traditional methods reveals an extent of gene module shuffling among diverse virus genomes that far exceeds the previous appreciation of this evolutionary phenomenon. Most dramatically, inclusion of the metagenomic data in phylogenetic analyses of the RdRp resulted in the identification of numerous, strongly supported groups that encompass RNA viruses from diverse hosts including different groups of protists, animals and plants. Notwithstanding potential caveats, in particular, incomplete and uneven sampling of eukaryotic taxa, these highly unexpected findings reveal horizontal virus transfer (HVT) between diverse hosts as the central aspect of RNA virus evolution. The vast and diverse virome of invertebrates, particularly nematodes and arthropods, appears to be the reservoir, from which the viromes of plants and vertebrates evolved via multiple HVT events. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogeographic Investigations of the Widespread, Arid-Adapted Antlion Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Joseph S.; Williams, Kevin A.; Gunnell, Clayton F.; Pitts, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies investigating patterns of diversification in widespread desert-adapted vertebrates have associated major periods of genetic differentiation to late Neogene mountain-building events; yet few projects have addressed these patterns in widespread invertebrates. We examine phylogeographic patterns in the widespread antlion species Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) using a region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). We then use a mole...

  4. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  5. Diagnosing disconjugate eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Alessandro; Liao, Ke; Matta, Manuela; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Saccades are fast eye movements that conjugately shift the point of fixation between distant features of interest in the visual environment. Several disorders, affecting sites from brainstem to extraocular muscle, may cause horizontal saccades to become disconjugate. Prior techniques for detection of saccadic disconjugacy, especially in internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), have compared only one point in abducting vs adducting saccades, such as peak velocity. Methods: We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye’s velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls. Results: We found three different patterns of disconjugacy throughout the course of horizontal saccades: early abnormal velocity disconjugacy during the first 10% of the displacement in patients with INO, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, and advanced extraocular muscle disease; late disconjugacy in patients with disease affecting the neuromuscular junction; and variable middle-course disconjugacy in patients with pontine lesions. When normal subjects made disconjugate saccades between two targets aligned on one eye, the initial part of the movement remained conjugate. Conclusions: Along with conventional measures of saccades, such as peak velocity, phase planes provide a useful tool to determine the site, extent, and pathogenesis of disconjugacy. We hypothesize that the pale global extraocular muscle fibers, which drive the high-acceleration component of saccades, receive a neural command that ensures initial ocular conjugacy. GLOSSARY Abd. = abducens; CN = cranial nerve; CPEO = chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia; EM = eye movement; H = horizontal; INO = internuclear

  6. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  7. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce....... The current focus on the head and lack of attention to the body unifies society to focus on cognitive learning. This has implications for the values created by this system. Learning Lab Denmark aims to examine new ways of reintroducing the body into learning....

  8. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...

  9. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...... research from the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) which has recently focused upon the investigation of materially active systems ranging from textile logics at architectural scale to bending active structures in both natural and synthetic fibre-based composites...... at the intersection between architecture (considered as both practice and spatial construct) and digital technologies....

  10. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    the penal code of Mali. Anti-slavery activists not only address their claims to their national governments but also intend to initiate change at local level. In that respect the democratic decentralization reforms were significant because they allowed educated anti-slavery activists to appeal their brethren...... to unite, mobilize and struggle. Members of anti-slavery movements with slave origins accessed power positions through peaceful electoral processes in Benin, mali, Niger and Mauritania. People of slave origins gained ground in local politics of a number of municipalities. In localities where anti...

  11. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  13. Widespread subcutaneous emphysema and barotrauma resulting from high pressure gas injection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Barnaby; Brown, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Widespread subcutaneous emphysema is an unusual emergency presentation. We present a case of accidental high pressure insufflation, the pathophysiology and subsequent medical management in the acute setting...

  14. Embodied health movements: new approaches to social movements in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil; Zavestoski, Stephen; McCormick, Sabrina; Mayer, Brian; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Gasior Altman, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Social movements organised around health-related issues have been studied for almost as long as they have existed, yet social movement theory has not yet been applied to these movements. Health social movements (HSMs) are centrally organised around health, and address: (a) access to or provision of health care services; (b) health inequality and inequity based on race, ethnicity, gender, class and/or sexuality; and/or (c) disease, illness experience, disability and contested illness. HSMs can be subdivided into three categories: health access movements seek equitable access to health care and improved provision of health care services; constituency-based health movements address health inequality and health inequity based on race, ethnicity, gender, class and/or sexuality differences; and embodied health movements (EHMs) address disease, disability or illness experience by challenging science on etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. These groups address disproportionate outcomes and oversight by the scientific community and/or weak science. This article focuses on embodied health movements, primarily in the US. These are unique in three ways: 1) they introduce the biological body to social movements, especially with regard to the embodied experience of people with the disease; 2) they typically include challenges to existing medical/scientific knowledge and practice; and 3) they often involve activists collaborating with scientists and health professionals in pursuing treatment, prevention, research and expanded funding. This article employs various elements of social movement theory to offer an approach to understanding embodied health movements, and provides a capsule example of one such movement, the environmental breast cancer movement.

  15. Varicella-zoster virus infections – antiviral therapy and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus is an important human pathogen that causes varicella after primary infection and zoster after recurrence. Following primary infection, the virus remains latently for life in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia. Varicella and zoster are worldwide widespread diseases and may be associated with significant complications. This manuscript presents a short overview about the fundamental knowledge including the most important clinical signs, the capabilities for antiviral treatment and the spectrum of methods for laboratory diagnosis.

  16. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influenza A virus continue to cause widespread morbidity and mortality. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and public health systems. Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. To this end, polyclonal ...

  17. Nucleotide composition of the Zika virus RNA genome and its codon usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, Formijn; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses have genomes with a distinct nucleotide composition and codon usage. We present the global characteristics of the RNA genome of Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging pathogen within the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV was first isolated in 1947 in Uganda, caused a widespread epidemic in South and

  18. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    Influenza A virus continue to cause widespread morbidity and mortality. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and public health systems. Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. To this end, polyclonal ...

  19. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  20. CONTROLS ON CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  1. Supranuclear eye movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, João; Eggenberger, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This work reviews supranuclear ocular motor disorders, highlighting new data published during the past year. Perceptional adaptative mechanisms may explain recent research concerning the discrepancy between objective measurement of saccade abnormalities and their putative functional visual impairment. Eye movement classes seem to be selectively disrupted by different neurodegenerative disorders. Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease patients may improve pursuit deficits, highlighting the role of basal ganglia in the control of smooth pursuit. Subcortical optokinetic pathways seem to play an important role in maintaining the monocular nasotemporal optokinetic asymmetry seen in patients with infantile esotropia. Vergence-vestibular interaction has been further delineated in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular failure. Pharmacological treatment of central vestibular disorders with 4-aminopyridine has been extended to patients with ataxia-telangiectasia in whom it seems to reduce slow-phase velocity of nystagmus. Recent data derived from anatomic and functional imaging studies are providing new insights into supranuclear ocular motor circuitry. Novel pharmacological and surgical therapies may have future implications in visual and vestibular rehabilitation of patients with supranuclear eye movement disorders.

  2. Extraterrestrial Viruses?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Hernández, Daniel José

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Life - Origin and Fundamentals of Living Things. Evaluation rubric to evaluate the debate and presentation about the point of view regarding the possibility of viruses from the outer space.

  3. Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especi...

  4. Virus world as an evolutionary network of viruses and capsidless selfish elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2014-06-01

    Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus "self" that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral "hallmark genes" encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Virus World as an Evolutionary Network of Viruses and Capsidless Selfish Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, Valerian V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus “self” that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral “hallmark genes” encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. PMID:24847023

  6. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  7. Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Olga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Köglberger, Hemma; Nowotny, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites was also recorded. The samples originated from all parts of Austria. The most prevalent virus was DWV, present in 91% of samples, followed by ABPV, SBV, and BQCV (68%, 49%, and 30%, respectively). CBPV was detected in 10% of colonies, while KBV was not present in any sample. In most samples, more than one virus was identified. The distribution pattern of ABPV, BQCV, CBPV, and SBV varied considerably in the different geographic regions investigated, while DWV was widespread in all Austrian federal states. In bees that showed dark coloring and disorientation, CBPV was always detected. Simultaneous infections of DWV and ABPV were most frequently observed in colonies suffering from weakness, depopulation, and sudden collapse. Bees obtained from apparently healthy colonies within the same apiaries showed a similar distribution pattern of viruses; however, the relative virus load was 10 to 126 times lower than in bees from diseased colonies. A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. PMID:16597939

  8. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Data from: Unequal contribution of widespread and narrow-ranged species to botanical diversity patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proosdij, van A.S.J.; Raes, N.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and

  10. Unequal contribution of widespread and narrow-ranged species to botanical diversity patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proosdij, van A.S.J.; Raes, N.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and

  11. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  12. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle disease virus ( ...

  13. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  14. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  15. IC-51, an injectable vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taff

    2009-02-01

    The mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the major etiological agent of viral encephalitis in children living in South-East Asia, causing comas, seizures and Parkinson's disease-like movement disorders. Travelers and military personnel visiting the region are also highly susceptible to the disease. As the population in South-East Asia increases, more land is irrigated to produce rice paddies (the ideal breeding habitat for mosquitoes), and pig breeding (a zoonotic host for mosquitoes) becomes more widespread. Given the exponential growth in tourism to the region and the globalization of business and commerce, an enhanced requirement for mass vaccination exists. In the West, the current licensed vaccine against JE, JE-VAX, has been highly effective; however, the use of mouse brain-derived virus has been linked to cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Intercell AG, under license from VaccGen International LLC, is developing IC-51, a formalin-inactivated vaccine derived from cell culture-based attenuated virus that has been adapted to grow in Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells). In extensive clinical trials performed to date, IC-51 was safe, with mild to moderate adverse events reported. In terms of immunogenicity, IC-51 was highly effective, demonstrating rapid seroconversion rates and long-term maintenance of geometric mean titers that exceeded the protective titer. The results suggests that IC-51 is fully compliant with the stringent regulatory requirements set by the WHO, has an acceptable safety profile and is non-inferior to JE-VAX.

  16. Vector-Virus Interactions and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae) is the cause of the most widespread arthropod-borne viral disease in the world and the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease ever observed. Mosquito-borne outbreaks are influenced by intrinsic (e.g., vector and viral genetics, vector and host competence, vector life-history traits) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature, rainfall, human land use) factors that affect virus activity and mosquito biology in complex ways. The concept of vectorial capacity integrates these factors to address interactions of the virus with the arthropod host, leading to a clearer understanding of their complex interrelationships, how they affect transmission of vector-borne disease, and how they impact human health. Vertebrate factors including host competence, population dynamics, and immune status also affect transmission dynamics. The complexity of these interactions are further exacerbated by the fact that not only can divergent hosts differentially alter the virus, but the virus also can affect both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in ways that significantly alter patterns of virus transmission. This chapter concentrates on selected components of the virus-vector-vertebrate interrelationship, focusing specifically on how interactions between vector, virus, and environment shape the patterns and intensity of WNV transmission. PMID:24351794

  17. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and ...

  18. [Neurosurgical treatment of Parkinson disease and other movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, J K

    1997-10-04

    The surgical treatment of movement disorders has attracted widespread attention in the past few years. Better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, and also the refinement of neurosurgical, neuroradiological and neurophysiological methods and techniques have contributed to the redefinition of surgical treatment. With appropriate selection criteria, symptomatic and functional benefit can be achieved in the majority of patients. Functional neurosurgical procedures nowadays are performed most frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease or cervical dystonia. Functional neurosurgery today has the choice of a variety of different surgical options. The most appropriate operative technique is chosen with regard of the clinical presentation of the individual patient. The different operative procedures and the postoperative results are briefly described.

  19. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    -teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... but also according to the subject. The following teaching roles are identified: Organizer, participator, performer, observer, caregiver, classroom leader, mood creator and culture creator. Integrating movement activities in the everyday life in school not only seems to be a challenge it also seems...

  20. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  1. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  2. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones.

  3. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Viruses Avian influenza, bovine herpes, bovine viral diarrhea virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus I, influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles, papilloma, rabies, respiratory syncitial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian virus 40. Bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Moraxella bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...

  6. Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Robertson, Cecile J; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonov, Alexey S; Hilf, Mark E; Garnsey, Stephen M; Dawson, William O

    2010-02-01

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruses, homologous interference initially was used as a test of virus relatedness to define whether two virus isolates were "strains" of the same virus or represented different viruses, and subsequently purposeful infection with a mild isolate was implemented as a protective measure against isolates of the virus causing severe disease. In this study we examined superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus. Thirteen naturally occurring isolates of CTV representing five different virus strains and a set of isolates originated from virus constructs engineered based on an infectious cDNA clone of T36 isolate of CTV, including hybrids containing sequences from different isolates, were examined for their ability to prevent superinfection by another isolate of the virus. We show that superinfection exclusion occurred only between isolates of the same strain and not between isolates of different strains. When isolates of the same strain were used for sequential plant inoculation, the primary infection provided complete exclusion of the challenge isolate, whereas isolates from heterologous strains appeared to have no effect on replication, movement or systemic infection by the challenge virus. Surprisingly, substitution of extended cognate sequences from isolates of the T68 or T30 strains into T36 did not confer the ability of resulting hybrid viruses to exclude superinfection by those donor strains. Overall, these results do not appear to be explained by mechanisms proposed previously for other viruses. Moreover, these observations bring an understanding of some previously unexplained fundamental features of CTV biology and, most

  7. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest ...

  8. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Abstract. This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest. Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest ...

  9. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unequal Contribution of Widespread and Narrow-Ranged Species to Botanical Diversity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Proosdij, André S J; Raes, Niels; Wieringa, Jan J; Sosef, Marc S M

    2016-01-01

    In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and weighted endemism in Gabon, tropical Africa. Specifically, we assess the effect of using different definitions of widespread and narrow-ranged and of the information content of the subsets. Finally, we test if narrow-ranged species are overrepresented in species-rich areas. Based on distribution models of Gabonese plant species, we defined sequential subsets from narrow-ranged-to-widespread, widespread-to-narrow-ranged, and 100 randomly arranged species sequences using the range sizes of species in tropical Africa and within Gabon. Along these sequences, correlations between subsets and the total species richness and total weighted endemism patterns were computed. Random species subsets best represent the total species richness pattern, whereas subsets of narrow-ranged species best represent the total weighted endemism pattern. For species ordered according to their range sizes in tropical Africa, subsets of narrow-ranged species represented the total species richness pattern better than widespread species subsets did. However, the opposite was true when range sizes were truncated by the Gabonese national country borders. Correcting for the information content of the subset results in a skew of the sequential correlations, its direction depending on the range-size frequency distribution. Finally, we find a strong, positive, non-linear relation between weighted endemism and total species richness. Observed differences in the contribution of narrow-ranged, widespread and randomly selected species to species richness and weighted endemism patterns can be explained by the range-size frequency distribution and the use of different definitions of widespread or narrow-ranged. We

  11. Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdle, W R

    1976-01-01

    Marburg virus disease, which produced 20 per cent mortality when it first occured during 1967 in Germany and Yugoslavia, recently appeared again in South Africa. The source of the first outbreak was monkeys shipped from Africa; the origin of the second episode is unclear. Because distribution of the virus in nature is unknown, its threat to man cannot be readily determined. Differential laboratory diagnoses of hemorrhagic fevers should be encouraged in order to learn more about the epidemiology of these diseases and to better assess the risks which their etiologic agents may pose for attending medical personnel.

  12. Movement disorders in spinocerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, J. van; Giunti, P.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) can present with a large variety of noncerebellar symptoms, including movement disorders. In fact, movement disorders are frequent in many of the various SCA subtypes, and they can be the presenting, dominant, or even isolated disease feature. When

  13. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  14. Trajectory Indexing Using Movement Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space....

  15. 3-D eye movement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchowski, Andrew; Medlin, Eric; Cournia, Nathan; Murphy, Hunter; Gramopadhye, Anand; Nair, Santosh; Vorah, Jeenal; Melloy, Brian

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3-D) eye movement analysis algorithm for binocular eye tracking within virtual reality (VR). The user's gaze direction, head position, and orientation are tracked in order to allow recording of the user's fixations within the environment. Although the linear signal analysis approach is itself not new, its application to eye movement analysis in three dimensions advances traditional two-dimensional approaches, since it takes into account the six degrees of freedom of head movements and is resolution independent. Results indicate that the 3-D eye movement analysis algorithm can successfully be used for analysis of visual process measures in VR. Process measures not only can corroborate performance measures, but also can lead to discoveries of the reasons for performance improvements. In particular, analysis of users' eye movements in VR can potentially lead to further insights into the underlying cognitive processes of VR subjects.

  16. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV movement protein (MP gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV replication protein (Rep gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58 immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32 immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃ did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection.

  18. Widespread mortality of adult seabirds in Alaska, August-September 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A widespread die-off of adult seabirds, affecting primarily the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris),...

  19. The Discovery, Distribution, and Evolution of Viruses Associated with Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Claire L; Waldron, Fergal M; Robertson, Shaun; Crowson, Daisy; Ferrari, Giada; Quintana, Juan F; Brouqui, Jean-Michel; Bayne, Elizabeth H; Longdon, Ben; Buck, Amy H; Lazzaro, Brian P; Akorli, Jewelna; Haddrill, Penelope R; Obbard, Darren J

    2015-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable invertebrate model for viral infection and antiviral immunity, and is a focus for studies of insect-virus coevolution. Here we use a metagenomic approach to identify more than 20 previously undetected RNA viruses and a DNA virus associated with wild D. melanogaster. These viruses not only include distant relatives of known insect pathogens but also novel groups of insect-infecting viruses. By sequencing virus-derived small RNAs, we show that the viruses represent active infections of Drosophila. We find that the RNA viruses differ in the number and properties of their small RNAs, and we detect both siRNAs and a novel miRNA from the DNA virus. Analysis of small RNAs also allows us to identify putative viral sequences that lack detectable sequence similarity to known viruses. By surveying >2,000 individually collected wild adult Drosophila we show that more than 30% of D. melanogaster carry a detectable virus, and more than 6% carry multiple viruses. However, despite a high prevalence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont--which is known to be protective against virus infections in Drosophila--we were unable to detect any relationship between the presence of Wolbachia and the presence of any virus. Using publicly available RNA-seq datasets, we show that the community of viruses in Drosophila laboratories is very different from that seen in the wild, but that some of the newly discovered viruses are nevertheless widespread in laboratory lines and are ubiquitous in cell culture. By sequencing viruses from individual wild-collected flies we show that some viruses are shared between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our results provide an essential evolutionary and ecological context for host-virus interaction in Drosophila, and the newly reported viral sequences will help develop D. melanogaster further as a model for molecular and evolutionary virus research.

  20. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, J; Tomenson, B; Chew-Graham, C A; Macfarlane, G J; Jackson, J; Littlewood, A; Creed, F H

    2015-12-01

    Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N=93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N=125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  2. Mass Movement Inventories for Climate Research in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J.; Harrison, S.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate influences landscape evolution through physical processes which affect the form of a landscape through myriad small- to large-scale mechanisms. These can manifest through mass movements and rockfalls which present an important geomorphological hazard in Alpine regions; threatening life, infrastructure and property. Modelling has shown that the response of mass movements to temperature and precipitation triggers vary over a number of timescales. Heavy rainfall events on shorter timescales (ranging from minutes to days) can exceed critical ground- and pore-water levels resulting in mass movement initiation (Iverson, 2000), whereas longer precipitation trends act as precursors to larger events. Extreme temperatures, such as the summer of 2003 which was characterised by 'exceptional rockfall' (Gruber et al., 2004, p. 1) and extreme permafrost thaw in the European Alps, illustrate how short-term extreme increases in temperature can cause widespread destabilisation (Chemanda et al., 2005). Freeze-thaw action on seasonal timescales can greatly exaggerate mechanical weathering (Abele, 1997; Chigira, 2002), whilst increases in temperature (resulting from sub-annual to longer term changes) reduce both cohesive and tensile strength within slopes (Chemanda et al., 2005) leading to rock degradation. Differences in topography and geology in the region mean that the impacts of climate change are likely to vary in space and time and analysis of these is therefore required to understand the spatial patterns of mass movements through time. Here we present the development of a new regional mass movement inventory (RI) for the French and Swiss Alps. Our aim is to provide a substantial spatial picture of rockfalls and landsliding in the region through time. We discuss methods by which to improve existing inventories including the use of scaling relationships (Larsen et al., 2010) to calculate area based on a given volume for similar types of mass movement. We show that based on

  3. Comparison of treatments to inactivate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) in frozen baitfish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Goodwin, Andrew E; Marecaux, Emily; Goyal, Sagar M

    ...) through movement restrictions of live fish; however, they largely ignore the potential for the virus to be spread through commercial distribution and use of frozen baitfish from VHSV-IVb-positive regions...

  4. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  5. Pioneers of eye movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  6. Pioneers of Eye Movement Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  7. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  8. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  9. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI...

  10. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  11. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  12. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  13. [Stereotactic radiosurgery for movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobstyl, Michał; Ząbek, Mirosław

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, functional neurosurgery is an established treatment for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. The effectiveness and safety of neuromodulation procedures (deep brain stimulation) replaced in the last years ablative irreversible stereotactic lesions for movement disorders. Stereotactic radiosurgery with gamma knife is a non-invasive form of treatment for movement disorders. The main limitation of stereotactic radiosurgery is the impossibility of electrophysiological confirmation of the target structure. Nevertheless, patients with advanced age and significant medical conditions that preclude classic open stereotactic procedures or patients who must receive anticoagulation therapy may gain great functional benefit using gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

  14. Widespread Central Nervous System Gene Transfer and Silencing After Systemic Delivery of Novel AAV-AS Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sourav R; Harris, Anne F; Cabral, Damien J; Keeler, Allison M; Sapp, Ellen; Ferreira, Jennifer S; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Johnson, Jacob A; Johnson, Aime K; Su, Qin; Stoica, Lorelei; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil; Martin, Douglas R; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Effective gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is vital for development of novel gene therapies for neurological diseases. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have emerged as an effective platform for in vivo gene transfer, but overall neuronal transduction efficiency of vectors derived from naturally occurring AAV capsids after systemic administration is relatively low. Here, we investigated the possibility of improving CNS transduction of existing AAV capsids by genetically fusing peptides to the N-terminus of VP2 capsid protein. A novel vector AAV-AS, generated by the insertion of a poly-alanine peptide, is capable of extensive gene transfer throughout the CNS after systemic administration in adult mice. AAV-AS is 6- and 15-fold more efficient than AAV9 in spinal cord and cerebrum, respectively. The neuronal transduction profile varies across brain regions but is particularly high in the striatum where AAV-AS transduces 36% of striatal neurons. Widespread neuronal gene transfer was also documented in cat brain and spinal cord. A single intravenous injection of an AAV-AS vector encoding an artificial microRNA targeting huntingtin (Htt) resulted in 33-50% knockdown of Htt across multiple CNS structures in adult mice. This novel AAV-AS vector is a promising platform to develop new gene therapies for neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Stoddard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human movement is a key behavioral factor in many vector-borne disease systems because it influences exposure to vectors and thus the transmission of pathogens. Human movement transcends spatial and temporal scales with different influences on disease dynamics. Here we develop a conceptual model to evaluate the importance of variation in exposure due to individual human movements for pathogen transmission, focusing on mosquito-borne dengue virus.We develop a model showing that the relevance of human movement at a particular scale depends on vector behavior. Focusing on the day-biting Aedes aegypti, we illustrate how vector biting behavior combined with fine-scale movements of individual humans engaged in their regular daily routine can influence transmission. Using a simple example, we estimate a transmission rate (R(0 of 1.3 when exposure is assumed to occur only in the home versus 3.75 when exposure at multiple locations--e.g., market, friend's--due to movement is considered. Movement also influences for which sites and individuals risk is greatest. For the example considered, intriguingly, our model predicts little correspondence between vector abundance in a site and estimated R(0 for that site when movement is considered. This illustrates the importance of human movement for understanding and predicting the dynamics of a disease like dengue. To encourage investigation of human movement and disease, we review methods currently available to study human movement and, based on our experience studying dengue in Peru, discuss several important questions to address when designing a study.Human movement is a critical, understudied behavioral component underlying the transmission dynamics of many vector-borne pathogens. Understanding movement will facilitate identification of key individuals and sites in the transmission of pathogens such as dengue, which then may provide targets for surveillance, intervention, and improved disease prevention.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus infects B and non-B lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Vincent; Scherpbier, Henriëtte; Beld, Marcel; Piriou, Erwan; van Breda, Alex; Lange, Joep; van Leth, Frank; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Alders, Sophie; Wertheim-van Dillen, Pauline; van Baarle, Debbie; Kuijpers, Taco

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread, persistent herpesvirus that can transform B cells and that is associated with malignant lymphomas. EBV dynamics and specific immunity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children are unknown. We found that, in 74% of EBV-seropositive,

  17. Mengenal Hanta Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Tri

    2009-01-01

    Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

  18. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    , when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses....... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses....

  19. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-09-16

    Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  20. Desiccation survival time for eggs of a widespread and invasive Australian mosquito species, Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, K J; Webb, C; Williams, C R

    2016-06-01

    The Australian native mosquito Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse) is closely associated with natural and artificial water holding receptacles. Eggs are laid in habitats where they are exposed to drying conditions as water levels fluctuate. Withstanding desiccation enables survival in challenging environments and increases the potential for establishment in non-native habitats. Until now, the desiccation resistance of Ae. notoscriptus eggs has been unknown despite the historical invasive success of this important dog heartworm and arbovirus vector. Viability and mean survival times of eggs from two Ae. notoscriptus populations (metropolitan areas of Sydney, NSW and Adelaide, SA) were evaluated, with eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days. Our results revealed that Ae. notoscriptus eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods, under a variety of conditions, with approximately 9-13% egg viability recorded after one year. This prolonged egg survival reflects the widespread distribution of this mosquito in Australia and its history of incursions and subsequent establishment in non-native habitats. Differences in mean egg volume were recorded in addition to significantly different egg length to width ratios for the two populations, which may reflect adaptation to biotope of origin and an associated likelihood of drought and drying conditions. The results of this study suggest that the desiccation resistant eggs of Ae. notoscriptus make this species highly adaptable, increasing the risk of movement to non-endemic regions of the world. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. The Regulation of Autophagy by Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a dreadful pathogen of animals and humans, causing widespread infection and severe morbidity and mortality. It is essential to characterize the influenza A virus-host interaction and develop efficient counter measures against the viral infection. Autophagy is known as a catabolic process for the recycling of the cytoplasmic macromolecules. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy is a critical mechanism underlying the interaction between influenza A virus and its host. Autophagy can be induced by the infection with influenza A virus, which is considered as a necessary process for the viral proliferation, including the accumulation of viral elements during the replication of influenza A virus. On the other hand, influenza A virus can inhibit the autophagic formation via interaction with the autophagy-related genes (Atg and signaling pathways. In addition, autophagy is involved in the influenza virus-regulated cell deaths, leading to significant changes in host apoptosis. Interestingly, the high pathogenic strains of influenza A virus, such as H5N1, stimulate autophagic cell death and appear to interplay with the autophagy in distinct ways as compared with low pathogenic strains. This review discusses the regulation of autophagy, an influenza A virus driven process.

  2. Movement disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaoui, Roula; Sue, Carolyn M

    2018-01-06

    Mitochondrial disease presents with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may appear at any age and cause multisystem dysfunction. A broad spectrum of movement disorders can manifest in mitochondrial diseases including ataxia, Parkinsonism, myoclonus, dystonia, choreoathetosis, spasticity, tremor, tic disorders and restless legs syndrome. There is marked heterogeneity of movement disorder phenotypes, even in patients with the same genetic mutation. Moreover, the advent of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, is likely to identify novel causative genes, expand the phenotype of known disease genes and improve the genetic diagnosis in these patients. Identification of the underlying genetic basis of the movement disorder is also a crucial step to allow for targeted therapies to be implemented as well as provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of the disease process. The aim of this review is to discuss the spectrum of movement disorders associated with mitochondrial disease.

  3. Social movements: A poststructuralist reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to rethink social movements from a poststructuralist position, going beyond Synthesis Theory. For the last twenty years the synthesis of the theories of Resource Mobilization, Political Opportunity and Cognitive Framing has been taken to be the last word in the sociology of social movements. Nevertheless, far from being any sort of advance, Synthesis Theory has merely perpetuated previous theories, without, in my opinion,managing to reconceptualize the constitution of power, or the force and embodiment of movement. The lack of theoretical attention to the definition of movement is a curious absence which needs to be redressed . My aim is approach it not from the notion of "subject" or any other type of "institution", but rather in terms of the contingencies of everyday life.   

  4. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Karthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. The Movements of Near Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.; Witt, D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a computer program that uses radial and transverse star movements to make approximations of the closest approach in light years. In addition using the present actual visual magnitude the greatest magnitude attained is calculated. (Author/GS)

  6. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  7. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  8. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  9. Laban Movement Analysis in Dance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Toby

    1984-01-01

    Laban Movement Analysis is a system that helps dancers recognize and define the variety of elements that make up the movement event. This is not a method of teaching a movement style, but provides a means for creative expression. (DF)

  10. Viral and cellular factors involved in phloem transport of plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence eHipper

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phloem transport of plant viruses is an essential step in the setting-up of a complete infection of a host plant. After an initial replication step in the first cells, viruses spread from cell-to-cell through mesophyll cells, until they reach the vasculature where they rapidly move to distant sites in order to establish the infection of the whole plant. This last step is referred to as systemic transport, or long-distance movement, and involves virus crossings through several cellular barriers: bundle sheath, vascular parenchyma and companion cells for virus loading into sieve elements. Viruses are then passively transported within the source-to-sink flow of photoassimilates and are unloaded from sieve elements into sink tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms governing virus long-distance movement are far from being understood. While most viruses seem to move systemically as virus particles, some viruses are transported in sieve elements as viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP. The nature of the cellular and viral factors constituting these RNPs is still poorly known. The topic of this review will mainly focus on the host and viral factors that facilitate or restrict virus long-distance movement.

  11. Ebola, the killer virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Haider; Orooj, Fizza; Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has mostly affected economically deprived countries as limited resources adversely affect a country's infrastructure and administration. Probing into the factors that led to the widespread outbreak, setting forth plans to counter EVD cases in developing countries, and devising definitive measures to limit the spread of the disease are essential steps that must be immediately taken. In this review we summarize the pathogenesis of EVD and the factors that led to its spread. We also highlight interventions employed by certain countries that have successfully limited the epidemic, and add a few preventive measures after studying the current data. According to the available data, barriers to prevent and control the disease in affected countries include irresolute and disorganized health systems, substandard sanitary conditions, poor personal hygiene practices, and false beliefs and stigma related to EVD. The public health sector along with the respective chief authorities in developing countries must devise strategies, keeping the available resources in mind, to deal with the outbreak before it occurs. As a first step, communities should be educated on EVD's symptoms, history, mode of transmission, and methods of protection, including the importance of personal hygiene practices, via seminars, newspapers, and other social media. A popular opinion leader (POL) giving this information would further help to remove the misconception about the nature of the disease and indirectly improve the quality of life of affected patients and their families.

  12. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  14. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  15. Eventful places in the 2011 movements

    OpenAIRE

    Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the Occupy movement, the Egyptian revolutionaries and other of the 2011 social movements, this paper investigates the relationship between social movement and place. Drawing on first-hand accounts from these movements, I argue that the relationship between movement and place is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective ...

  16. Unequal Contribution of Widespread and Narrow-Ranged Species to Botanical Diversity Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S J van Proosdij

    Full Text Available In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and weighted endemism in Gabon, tropical Africa. Specifically, we assess the effect of using different definitions of widespread and narrow-ranged and of the information content of the subsets. Finally, we test if narrow-ranged species are overrepresented in species-rich areas. Based on distribution models of Gabonese plant species, we defined sequential subsets from narrow-ranged-to-widespread, widespread-to-narrow-ranged, and 100 randomly arranged species sequences using the range sizes of species in tropical Africa and within Gabon. Along these sequences, correlations between subsets and the total species richness and total weighted endemism patterns were computed. Random species subsets best represent the total species richness pattern, whereas subsets of narrow-ranged species best represent the total weighted endemism pattern. For species ordered according to their range sizes in tropical Africa, subsets of narrow-ranged species represented the total species richness pattern better than widespread species subsets did. However, the opposite was true when range sizes were truncated by the Gabonese national country borders. Correcting for the information content of the subset results in a skew of the sequential correlations, its direction depending on the range-size frequency distribution. Finally, we find a strong, positive, non-linear relation between weighted endemism and total species richness. Observed differences in the contribution of narrow-ranged, widespread and randomly selected species to species richness and weighted endemism patterns can be explained by the range-size frequency distribution and the use of different definitions of widespread

  17. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  2. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryadi, Suharyono

    1996-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  5. Pain Catastrophizing is Not Associated With Spinal Nociceptive Processing in People With Chronic Widespread Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David A; Parker, Rosalind S; Lewis, Gwyn N; Kluger, Michal T; McNair, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Pain catastrophizing has been associated with higher pain intensity, increased risk of developing chronic pain and poorer outcomes after treatment. Despite this, the mechanisms by which pain catastrophizing influences pain remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that pain catastrophizing may impair descending inhibition of spinal level nociception. The aims of this study were to compare spinal nociceptive processing in people with chronic widespread pain and pain-free controls and examine potential relationships between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception. Twenty-six patients with chronic widespread pain and 22 pain-free individuals participated in this study. Spinal nociception was measured using the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold and NFR inhibition, measured as the change in NFR area during exposure to a second, painful conditioning stimulus (cold water immersion). Pain catastrophizing was assessed using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and a situational pain catastrophizing scale. Compared with pain-free controls, patients with chronic widespread pain had higher pain catastrophizing scores and lower NFR thresholds. Although NFR area was reduced by a painful conditioning stimulus in controls, this was not apparent in individuals with chronic widespread pain. No significant correlations were observed between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception. Despite increased excitability and decreased inhibition of spinal nociception in patients with chronic widespread pain, we could find no evidence of a significant relationship between pain catastrophizing and measures of spinal nociceptive processing.

  6. Thinking critically about the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc; Ion, Robin

    2015-04-01

    A discussion of how Arendt's work can be productively re-contextualized to provide a critical analysis of the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care and what the implications of this are for the providers of nursing education. While the recent participation of nurses in healthcare failings, such as that detailed in the Francis report, has been universally condemned, there has been an absence of critical analyses in the literature that attempt to understand the occurrence of such widespread participation in poor nursing care. This is a significant omission in so far as such analyses will form an integral part of the strategy to limit the occurrence of such widespread participation of nurses in future healthcare failings. Discussion paper. Arendt's 'Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil' and 'Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture'. In addition, a literature search was conducted and articles published in English relating to the terms care, compassion, ethics, judgement and thinking between 2004-2014 were included. It is anticipated that this discussion will stimulate further critical debate about the role of Arendt's work for an understanding of the occurrence of poor nursing care, and encouraging additional detailed analyses of the widespread participation of nurses in healthcare failings more generally. This article provides a challenging analysis of the widespread participation of nurses in poor care and discusses the opportunities confronting the providers of nursing education in limiting future healthcare failings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  8. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  9. Complex responses to movement-based disease control: when livestock trading helps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Jamie C; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; McNeilly, Tom N; Matthews, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Livestock disease controls are often linked to movements between farms, for example, via quarantine and pre- or post-movement testing. Designing effective controls, therefore, benefits from accurate assessment of herd-to-herd transmission. Household models of human infections make use of R*, the number of groups infected by an initial infected group, which is a metapopulation level analogue of the basic reproduction number R0 that provides a better characterization of disease spread in a metapopulation. However, existing approaches to calculate R* do not account for individual movements between locations which means we lack suitable tools for livestock systems. We address this gap using next-generation matrix approaches to capture movements explicitly and introduce novel tools to calculate R* in any populations coupled by individual movements. We show that depletion of infectives in the source group, which hastens its recovery, is a phenomenon with important implications for design and efficacy of movement-based controls. Underpinning our results is the observation that R* peaks at intermediate livestock movement rates. Consequently, under movement-based controls, infection could be controlled at high movement rates but persist at intermediate rates. Thus, once control schemes are present in a livestock system, a reduction in movements can counterintuitively lead to increased disease prevalence. We illustrate our results using four important livestock diseases (bovine viral diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus, Johne's disease and Escherichia coli O157) that each persist across different movement rate ranges with the consequence that a change in livestock movements could help control one disease, but exacerbate another. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Daaboul

    Full Text Available Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm, while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm. Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.

  11. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  12. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  13. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Michael J; Borth, Wayne B; Sether, Diane M; Ferreira, Stephen; Gonsalves, Dennis; Hu, John S

    2010-02-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study, we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucleotide diversity was estimated to be 0.0565 + or - 0.0022 for the coat protein (CP) gene (n = 137) and 0.0822 + or - 0.0033 for the p23 gene (n = 30). The genome size and organization of CTV strains HA18-9 and HA16-5 were similar to other fully sequenced strains of CTV. The 3'-terminal halves of their genomes were nearly identical (98.5% nucleotide identity), whereas the 5'-terminal halves were more distantly related (72.3% nucleotide identity), suggesting a possible recombination event. Closer examination of strain HA16-5 indicated that it arose through recent recombination between the movement module of an HA18-9 genotype, and the replication module of an undescribed CTV genotype.

  14. Phylogeographic Investigations of the Widespread, Arid-Adapted Antlion Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies investigating patterns of diversification in widespread desert-adapted vertebrates have associated major periods of genetic differentiation to late Neogene mountain-building events; yet few projects have addressed these patterns in widespread invertebrates. We examine phylogeographic patterns in the widespread antlion species Brachynemurus sackeni Hagen (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae using a region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI. We then use a molecular clock to estimate divergence dates for the major lineages. Our analyses resulted in a phylogeny that shows two distinct lineages, both of which are likely distinct species. This reveals the first cryptic species-complex in Myrmeleontidae. The genetic split between lineages dates to about 3.8–4.7 million years ago and may be associated with Neogene mountain building. The phylogeographic pattern does not match patterns found in other taxa. Future analyses within this species-complex may uncover a unique evolutionary history in this group.

  15. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  16. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  17. Comparative detection of a large population of grapevine viruses by TaqMan® RT-qPCR and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruisson, Sébastien; Lebel, Sylvain; Walter, Bernard; Prevotat, Laurent; Seddas, Sam; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Grapevine (Vitis spp.) can be infected by numerous viruses that are often widespread and of great economic importance. Reliable detection methods are necessary for sanitary selection which is the only way to partly control grapevine virus diseases. Biological indexing and ELISA are currently the standard methods for screening propagation material, and PCR-methods are becoming increasingly popular. Due to the diversity of virus isolates, it is essential to verify that the tests allow the detection of the largest possible virus populations. We developed three quadruplex TaqMan® RT-qPCR assays for detecting nine different viruses that cause considerable damage in many vineyards world-wide. Each assay is designed to detect three viruses and the grapevine Actin as an internal control. A large population of grapevines from diverse cultivars and geographic location was tested for the presence of nine viruses: Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV-1, -2, -3), Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), Grapevine virus A (GVA), and Grapevine virus B (GVB). In general, identical results were obtained with multiplex TaqMan® RT-qPCR and ELISA although, in some cases, viruses could be detected by only one of the two techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A widespread allergic reaction to black tattoo ink caused by laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F

    2015-02-01

    This is the first reported case of a local and widespread reaction in a 39 year old woman, to black tattoo ink, induced by Q-switched laser treatment. A 39 year old woman was treated with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for removal of a decorative tattoo of her lower back. Subsequent to laser treatment, a severe, widespread allergic reaction developed within and surrounding the treated tattoo. Tattoo reactions subsequent to laser treatment should be considered in addition to reactions to topical antibiotics or wound dressings, following laser treatment of tattoos. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    , and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest......Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic...

  20. Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Le Rouge, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key "classic" barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA.

  1. Extracellular Matrix in Plants and Animals: Hooks and Locks for Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Stavolone, Livia; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal and plants cells plays important roles in viral diseases. While in animal cells extracellular matrix components can be exploited by viruses for recognition, attachment and entry, the plant cell wall acts as a physical barrier to viral entry and adds a higher level of difficulty to intercellular movement of viruses. Interestingly, both in plant and animal systems, ECM can be strongly remodeled during virus infection, and the understanding of remodeling ...

  2. Movement protein Pns6 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus has both ATPase and RNA binding activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell movement is essential for plant viruses to systemically infect host plants. Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP to facilitate such movement. Unlike the well-characterized MPs of DNA viruses and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, knowledge of the functional mechanisms of MPs encoded by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA viruses is very limited. In particular, many studied MPs of DNA and ssRNA viruses bind non-specifically ssRNAs, leading to models in which ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs move from cell to cell. Thus, it will be of special interest to determine whether MPs of dsRNA viruses interact with genomic dsRNAs or their derivative sRNAs. To this end, we studied the biochemical functions of MP Pns6 of Rice dwarf phytoreovirus (RDV, a member of Phytoreovirus that contains a 12-segmented dsRNA genome. We report here that Pns6 binds both dsRNAs and ssRNAs. Intriguingly, Pns6 exhibits non-sequence specificity for dsRNA but shows preference for ssRNA sequences derived from the conserved genomic 5'- and 3'-terminal consensus sequences of RDV. Furthermore, Pns6 exhibits magnesium-dependent ATPase activities. Mutagenesis identified the RNA binding and ATPase activity sites of Pns6 at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Our results uncovered the novel property of a viral MP in differentially recognizing dsRNA and ssRNA and establish a biochemical basis to enable further studies on the mechanisms of dsRNA viral MP functions.

  3. MORAL EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF STUDENTS’ OLYMPIAD MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of moral education of the technical higher school students, as well as the new pedagogical instruments and technologies of fostering the new technical elite. The author considers a widespread development of students’ Olympiad movement as an effective way of their involvement in creative community service. Unlike the secondary and high school Olympiad movement, its development at the higher school level is far from perfect. The author emphasizes the difference between the regular Olympiad cycles, aimed at developing students’ creative competences, and sporadic contests, devoid of cognitive motivation; hence he advocates the firm regulations on the Olympiad procedures and obligatory participation of higher schools in the above movement. The paper considers the Olympiad process and components as a new form of the higher school training, and briefly describes a specific organizational technique based on the competence and activity approaches. Additionally, the author points out a need for balancing the collective cognitive activity and competitiveness in educational process. The research findings can be used for educational process elaboration and students’ creativity training in the technical higher school.

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  5. Eye movements between saccades: Measuring ocular drift and tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Kyoung; Snodderly, D Max; Poletti, Martina

    2016-05-01

    Intersaccadic periods of fixation are characterized by incessant retinal motion due to small eye movements. While these movements are often disregarded as noise, the temporal modulations they introduce to retinal receptors are significant. However, analysis of these input modulations is challenging because the intersaccadic eye motion is close to the resolution limits of most eyetrackers, including widespread pupil-based video systems. Here, we analyzed in depth the limits of two high-precision eyetrackers, the Dual-Purkinje Image and the scleral search coil, and compared the intersaccadic eye movements of humans to those of a non-human primate. By means of a model eye we determined that the resolution of both techniques is sufficient to reliably measure intersaccadic ocular activity up to approximately 80Hz. Our results show that the characteristics of ocular drift are remarkably similar in the two species; a clear deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum occurs in the range between 50 and 100Hz, generally attributed to ocular tremor, leading to intersaccadic retinal speeds as high as 1.5deg/s. The amplitude of this deviation differs on the two axes of motion. In addition to our experimental observations, we suggest basic guidelines to evaluate the performance of eyetrackers and to optimize experimental conditions for the measurement of ocular drift and tremor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread.

  7. Disorders of vergence eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Alessandro; Chen, Athena L; Leigh, R John

    2011-02-01

    The aim is to re-interpret disorders of vergence in the light of recent studies that view disjunctive eye movements as but one component of three-dimensional gaze control. Most natural eye movements combine vergence with saccades, pursuit and vestibular eye movements. Electrophysiological studies in epileptic patients, as well as evidence from monkeys, indicate that frontal and parietal cortex govern vergence as a component of three-dimensional gaze. Clinicians apply Hering's law of equal innervation to interpret disjunctive movements as the superposition of conjugate and vergence commands. However, electrophysiological studies indicate that disjunctive saccades are achieved by programming each eye's movement independently. Patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) may have preserved vergence, which can be recruited to compensate for loss of conjugacy. Vergence may also enable gaze shifts in saccadic palsy. Some forms of nystagmus suppress or change with convergence; co-contraction of the horizontal rectus muscles does not appear to be the explanation. Rather, effects of near viewing on central vestibular mechanisms or differential activation of specific types of extra-ocular muscle fiber may be responsible. Interpretation of disorders of vergence is aided by applying a scheme in which their contributions to three-dimensional gaze control is considered.

  8. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  9. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective......, and that a given camera movement may activate one or more of the proposed functions at any given moment. Six main functions are proposed and defined: 1) Orientation: orienting the viewer spatially. 2) Pacing: contributing to the cinematic rhythm of the film. 3) Inflection: inflecting shots in a suggestive...... to illustrate how the functions may mesh in individual camera movements six concrete examples are analyzed. The analyses illustrate how the taxonomy presented can substantiate analysis and interpretation of film style. More generally, the dissertation - and particularly these in-depth analyses - illustrates how...

  11. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

  12. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  13. Eye Movements, Perceptual Span, and Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on eye movements during reading, on the perceptual span and control of eye movements during normal reading, and on the nature of eye movements in dyslexia. Rather than the cause of dyslexia, eye movements are said to reflect underlying cognitive or neurological problems. (CL)

  14. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  15. Selection of antigenically advanced variants of seasonal influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Taft, Andrew S.; Das, Subash C.; Hanson, Anthony P.; Song, Jiasheng; Imai, Masaki; Wilker, Peter R.; Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Russell, Colin A.; James, Sarah L.; Skepner, Eugene; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kelso, Anne; McCauley, John; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing random mutations in the globular head of the haemagglutinin protein (which includes the antigenic sites) by incubating them with human and/or ferret convalescent sera to human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Further, we selected antigenic escape variants from human viruses treated with convalescent sera and from mice that had been previously immunized against human influenza viruses. Our pilot studies with past influenza viruses identified escape mutants that were antigenically similar to variants that emerged in nature, establishing the feasibility of our approach. Our studies with contemporary human influenza viruses identified escape mutants before they caused an epidemic in 2014–2015. This approach may aid in the prediction of potential antigenic escape variants and the selection of future vaccine candidates before they become widespread in nature. PMID:27572841

  16. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    as striatal input and output areas, including large parts of the cortex. In both species, rAAV5 resulted in a more widespread transgene expression compared to rAAV1. In neonatal rats, rAAV5 also transduced several other areas such as the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, and septum. Phenotypic analysis of the GFP......Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic...... to study effects of genetic manipulation in this non-primate large animal species. Finally, we generated an atlas of the Göttingen minipig brain for guiding future studies in this large animal species....

  17. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  18. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, James R.

    2006-10-31

    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  19. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  20. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Other peasant peoples usually had traditional principles and mechanisms that corresponded to Israelite covenantal commandments and sabbatical cancellation of debts. Thus the (renewed) Israelite covenant that forms a central aspect of Jesus movements would have been easily adapted by village communities across the ...

  1. Replication of H9 influenza viruses in the human ex vivo respiratory tract, and the influence of neuraminidase on virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Chan, Louisa L Y; Mok, Chris K P; Lai, Jimmy; Tao, Kin P; Obadan, Adebimpe; Chan, Michael C W; Perez, Daniel R; Peiris, J S Malik; Nicholls, John M

    2017-07-24

    H9N2 viruses are the most widespread influenza viruses in poultry in Asia. We evaluated the infection and tropism of human and avian H9 influenza virus in the human respiratory tract using ex vivo respiratory organ culture. H9 viruses infected the upper and lower respiratory tract and the majority of H9 viruses had a decreased ability to release virus from the bronchus rather than the lung. This may be attributed to a weak neuraminidase (NA) cleavage of carbon-6-linked sialic acid (Sia) rather than carbon-3-linked Sia. The modified cleavage of N-acetlylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) by NA in H9 virus replication was observed by reverse genetics, and recombinant H9N2 viruses with amino acids (38KQ) deleted in the NA stalk, and changing the amino acid at position 431 from Proline-to-Lysine. Using recombinant H9 viruses previously evaluated in the ferret, we found that viruses which replicated well in the ferret did not replicate to the same extent in the human ex vivo cultures. The existing risk assessment models for H9N2 viruses in ferrets may not always have a strong correlation with the replication in the human upper respiratory tract. The inclusion of the human ex vivo cultures would further strengthen the future risk-assessment strategies.

  2. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements......: fixations, saccades and smooth pursuits and three types of GDOs: static, dynamic, or absent. This taxonomy is qualified through related research and is the first main contribution of this paper. The second part of the paper offers an experimental exploration of single stroke gaze gestures (SSGG). The main...

  3. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. METHODS: We performed a detailed neuropath...

  4. Local trauma in human patellar tendon leads to widespread changes in the tendon gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Lorentzen, Marc P; Kildevang Jensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of Insulin-like growth factor-I, connective tissue growth factor, scleraxis, decorin, fibromodulin, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, VEGFa, CD68, IL-6, MMP12 and MMP13. In conclusion, a moderate trauma to a healthy human tendon (e.g. biopsy sampling) results in a widespread up-regulation of tendon cell activity...

  5. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Previous positron emission tomography (PET) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrated that moderate to late stage patients display widespread cortical hypometabolism, whereas early stage PD patients exhibit little or no cortical changes. However...... patients than hitherto reported. The finding may have implications for our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of early-stage PD....

  6. Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in children and adolescents worldwide. The present study was undertaken to assess the vitamin D status in active children living in a sunny climate and to identify the main determinants of the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Methods: This ...

  7. Applying ecological concepts to the management of widespread grass invasions [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Jeanne C. Chambers; Rhonda Loh; J. Tim Tunison

    2009-01-01

    The management of plant invasions has typically focused on the removal of invading populations or control of existing widespread species to unspecified but lower levels. Invasive plant management typically has not involved active restoration of background vegetation to reduce the likelihood of invader reestablishment. Here, we argue that land managers could benefit...

  8. Reanalyzing Head et al. : Investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Head et al. (2015) provided a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking). This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p-value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the

  9. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic Widespread Pain: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G VanDenKerkhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between diet and lifestyle, and chronic widespread pain (CWP. If persons with CWP have dietary and lifestyle habits consistent with an increased risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, it may partially explain evidence in the literature suggesting an association between CWP and these diseases.

  10. Multiplex RT-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of nine grapevine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Viral diseases are a serious pathological problem for grapevines, and in recent years the need for increasingly specific and rapid diagnostic methods for the selection of propagation materials has grown. Arabis mosaic virus, Grapevine fanleaf virus, Grapevine virus A, Grapevine virus B, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Grapevine fleck virus, and Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses 1, 2, and 3 are nine of the most widespread viruses that naturally infect grapevines. A multiplex RT-PCR was developed for simultaneous detection of these nine grapevine viruses, in combination with a plant RNA internal control used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the reaction. One to ten fragments specific for the viruses and an internal control were simultaneously amplified from infected samples and identified by their specific molecular sizes in agarose gel. The protocol reported is an update of previously published protocols for RNA extraction and multiplex diagnosis of viruses. After several years of use and hundreds of samples tested, and following validation in several laboratories, this multiplex RT-PCR provides a reliable and rapid method for detecting grapevine viruses from a large number of samples.

  11. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  12. Critical information literacy as core skill for lifelong STEM learning in the 21st century: reflections on the desirability and feasibility for widespread science media education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksdieck, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Grace Reid and the late Stephen Norris argue in this issue the urgent need for widespread Science Media Education (SME) as an integral part of formal and informal science education. SME is to achieve two goals: First, allow learners to critically evaluate any media as a source for scientific information by understanding the socio-economic and socio-cultural context of how and why news and entertainment media are created, and secondly, utilize media as a legitimate and productive source for science education and science learning. While laudable, I will argue that SME as an integral part of STEM education is unrealistic, and offer instead that the broader concept of Information Literacy might be more easily achieved within the current strong movement to conceptualize STEM education via science and engineering practices and within the broad goals of strengthening learners' 21st century skills.

  13. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David; Ribera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  14. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae. Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1 a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2 demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus was proven to be a composite of unrecognised

  15. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es ... Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West Nile virus? And why is everyone talking about mosquitoes ? Even ...

  16. Pleistocene range shifts, refugia and the origin of widespread species in western Palaearctic water beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David; Bilton, David T; Foster, Garth N; Ribera, I

    2017-09-01

    Quaternary glacial cycles drove major shifts in both the extent and location of the geographical ranges of many organisms. During glacial maxima, large areas of central and northern Europe were inhospitable to temperate species, and these areas are generally assumed to have been recolonized during interglacials by range expansions from Mediterranean refugia. An alternative is that this recolonization was from non-Mediterranean refugia, in central Europe or western Asia, but data on the origin of widespread central and north European species remain fragmentary, especially for insects. We studied three widely distributed lineages of freshwater beetles (the Platambus maculatus complex, the Hydraena gracilis complex, and the genus Oreodytes), all restricted to running waters and including both narrowly distributed southern endemics and widespread European species, some with distributions spanning the Palearctic. Our main goal was to determine the role of the Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the diversification and current distribution of these lineages. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in populations drawn from across the ranges of these taxa, and used Bayesian probabilities and Maximum Likelihood to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships, age and geographical origin. Our results suggest that all extant species in these groups are of Pleistocene origin. In the H. gracilis complex, the widespread European H. gracilis has experienced a rapid, recent range expansion from northern Anatolia, to occupy almost the whole of Europe. However, in the other two groups widespread central and northern European taxa appear to originate from central Asia, rather than the Mediterranean. These widespread species of eastern origin typically have peripherally isolated forms in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas, which may be remnants of earlier expansion-diversification cycles or result from incipient isolation of populations during the most recent Holocene

  17. Nanobody-mediated resistance to Grapevine fanleaf virus in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Caroline; Djennane, Samia; Ackerer, Léa; Hleibieh, Kamal; Marmonier, Aurélie; Gersch, Sophie; Garcia, Shahinez; Vigne, Emmanuelle; Komar, Véronique; Perrin, Mireille; Gertz, Claude; Belval, Lorène; Berthold, François; Monsion, Baptiste; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Lemaire, Olivier; Lorber, Bernard; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Muyldermans, Serge; Demangeat, Gérard; Ritzenthaler, Christophe

    2017-08-10

    Since their discovery, single-domain antigen-binding fragments of camelid-derived heavy-chain-only antibodies, also known as nanobodies (Nbs), have proven to be of outstanding interest as therapeutics against human diseases and pathogens including viruses, but their use against phytopathogens remains limited. Many plant viruses including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a nematode-transmitted icosahedral virus and causal agent of fanleaf degenerative disease, have worldwide distribution and huge burden on crop yields representing billions of US dollars of losses annually, yet solutions to combat these viruses are often limited or inefficient. Here, we identified a Nb specific to GFLV that confers strong resistance to GFLV upon stable expression in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana and also in grapevine rootstock, the natural host of the virus. We showed that resistance was effective against a broad range of GFLV isolates independently of the inoculation method including upon nematode transmission but not against its close relative, Arabis mosaic virus. We also demonstrated that virus neutralization occurs at an early step of the virus life cycle, prior to cell-to-cell movement. Our findings will not only be instrumental to confer resistance to GFLV in grapevine, but more generally they pave the way for the generation of novel antiviral strategies in plants based on Nbs. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Viruses infecting maize

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Branka; Stanković, Ivana; Bulajić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 plant viruses has been known to cause diseases of maize, but economically the most important yield looses, which in certain years can be total, are caused by viruses from Potyvirus genera, known to be aphid-transmitted in a non-persistant maner. The most important viruses, pathogens of maize, sugar cane and sorghum are considered to be Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). In Serbia, the prese...

  19. Viruses in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, R

    2013-03-01

    Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed.

  20. Quantitative detection of Merkel cell virus in human tissues and possible mode of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyo, Myriam; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Brait, Mariana; Hoque, Mohmammad O; Chuang, Alice; Kim, Myoung S; Sharma, Rajni; Liégeois, Nanette J; Koch, Wayne M; Califano, Joseph A; Westra, William H; Sidransky, David

    2010-06-15

    Merkel Cell Virus (MCV) is a newly discovered polyomavirus, recently found in a rare skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). However, MCV has also been detected in some normal tissue samples. We tested and compared the relative quantity of the MCV in a set of diverse human tissue samples with the MCC samples. The levels of MCV in MCCs were over 60 times higher than the highest values in all other tissues. Low quantities of MCV were detected in diverse tissue samples independently of malignant or benign histologic status. Higher levels of the virus were found in the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive system, and saliva compared to the lung and genitourinary system samples. These results confirm that MCV is widespread in the human body and suggest a possible fecal-oral transmission route similar to the Hepatitis A virus. Despite widespread presence of the virus, it appears that only neuroendocrine skin cells are susceptible to transformation by MCV.

  1. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  2. Movement Opens Pathways to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppo, Marjorie; Davis, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a framework for movement activities upon which physical educators and early childhood teachers can build appropriate learning activities that reinforce the connection between the mind and body for children between the ages of two and seven. The authors discuss Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The authors hope that…

  3. Plasticity in eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Luo (Chongde)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe cerebellum plays an important role in the recalibration and adaptive adjustment of movements, as well as learning new motor skills and motor related associations. In this thesis, we investigated the mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor learning. To obtain a better understanding,

  4. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disability from movement disorders is often seen as par for the course in the ageing process. It is the price paid by those who are lucky enough to grow old. There are, however, also young patients who develop. Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia and have to discontinue their profession owing to a severely disabling ...

  5. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  7. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health..., from the list of quarantined areas and by adding portions of Niagara, Orleans, and Wayne Counties, NY, to the list of quarantined areas and restricted the interstate movement of regulated articles from...

  8. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas... Wayne Counties, NY, to the list of quarantined areas and restricting the interstate movement of regulated articles from these quarantined areas. We are also amending the regulations by removing the...

  9. MENGENAL HANTA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

  10. Community water fluoridation reduced dental caries in Australian adults born before its widespread implementation at least as much as after its widespread adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Vinicius N; Kumar, Jayanth V

    2013-09-01

    Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults. Slade GD, Sanders AE, Do L, Roberts-Thomson K, Spencer AJ. J Dent Res 2013;92:376. Vinicius N. Tavares, DDS, MPH, Jayanth V. Kumar, DDS, MPH PURPOSE/QUESTION: This study investigated the long term caries-prevention benefits of community water fluoridation for individuals born before its widespread implementation Government: National Health and Medical Research Council grants Industry: Colgate-Palmolive, New York, USA provided gifts for study participants Other: Australian Dental Association and state and territory health departments and dental services Retrospective cohort study Level 2 STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer Geoffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. Metagenomics offers a potential means of establishing a more comprehensive view of viral evolution as vast amounts of new sequence data becomes available for comparative analysis. Results Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. The presence and circular configuration of the complete virus genome was confirmed by inverse PCR amplification from native DNA extracted from lake sediment. The virus genome appears to be the result of a RNA-DNA recombination event between two ostensibly unrelated virus groups. Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. This result indicates the existence of a widespread but previously undetected group of viruses. Conclusions This unique viral genome carries implications for theories of virus emergence and evolution, as no mechanism for interviral RNA-DNA recombination has yet been identified, and only scant evidence exists that genetic exchange occurs between such distinct virus lineages. Reviewers This article was reviewed by EK, MK (nominated by PF and AM. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  12. The relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity: A retrospective cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, Michael G., E-mail: Mike_hewitt@me.com; Miller, Wallace T., E-mail: Wallace.miller@uphs.upenn.edu; Reilly, Thomas J., E-mail: thomasjreilly@comcast.net; Simpson, Scott, E-mail: Simpson80@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The most common cause of widespread ground-glass opacities is hydrostatic pulmonary edema. • Associated findings such as air-trapping and centrilobular nodules are highly specific for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. • The clinical setting (outpatient versus inpatient) will alter the order of the differential diagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine the relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity (GGO) in an unselected, consecutive patient population and to identify any associated imaging findings that can narrow or reorganize the differential. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the center's IRB and is HIPPA compliant. Cases with widespread GGO in the radiology report were identified by searching the Radiology Information System. Medical records and CT scan examinations were reviewed for the causes of widespread GGO. Associations between a less dominant imaging finding and a particular diagnosis were analyzed with the chi square test. Our study group consisted of 234 examinations with 124 women and 110 men and a mean age of 53.7 years. Results: A cause was established in 204 (87.2%) cases. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was most common with 131 cases (56%). Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) were the next most common, most often hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n = 12, 5%) and connective tissue disease related ILD (n = 7, 3%). Infection accounted for 5% (12 cases). A few miscellaneous diseases accounted for 5 cases (2.1%). The combination of septal thickening and pleural effusions had a specificity of 0.91 for hydrostatic pulmonary edema (P < .001) while centrilobular nodules and air trapping had a specificity of 1.0 for HP. In 24 (10.2%) patients, increased opacification from expiration was incorrectly interpreted as representing widespread ground glass opacity. The relative frequency of disease dramatically changed according to the setting. In the inpatient setting, diffuse

  13. Antiretroviral drug-related liver mortality among HIV-positive persons in the absence of hepatitis B or C virus coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Liver diseases are the leading causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons since the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). Most of these deaths are due to hepatitis C (HCV) or B (HBV) virus coinfections. Little is known about other causes...

  14. Differential movement and movement bias models for marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebrake, Jessica; Riotte-Lambert, Louise; Osenberg, Craig W; Leenheer, Patrick De

    2012-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are promoted as a tool to protect overfished stocks and increase fishery yields. Previous models suggested that adult mobility modified effects of MPAs by reducing densities of fish inside reserves, but increasing yields (i.e., increasing densities outside of MPAs). Empirical studies contradicted this prediction: as mobility increased, the relative density of fishes inside MPAs (relative to outside) increased or stayed constant. We hypothesized that this disparity between theoretical and empirical results was the result of differential movement of fish inside versus outside the MPA. We, therefore, developed a model with unequal and discontinuous diffusion, and analyzed its steady state and stability. We determined the abundance in the fishing grounds, the yield, the total abundance and the log ratio at steady-state and examined their response to adult mobility (while keeping the relative inequity in the diffusion constant). Abundance in the fishing grounds and yield increased, while total abundance and log-ratio decreased, as mobility increased. These results were all qualitatively consistent with the previous models assuming uniform diffusivity. Thus, the mismatch between empirical and theoretical results must result from other processes or other forms of differential movement. Therefore, we modified our original model by assuming that species located on the boundary of the MPA will preferentially move towards the MPA. This localized movement bias model gives rise to steady state profiles that can differ radically from the profiles in the unbiased model, especially when the bias is large. Moreover, for sufficiently large bias values, the monotonicity of the four measures with increased mobility is reversed, when compared with our original model. Thus, the movement bias model reconciles empirical data and theoretical results.

  15. Fungal DNA virus infects a mycophagous insect and utilizes it as a transmission vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Bo; Chen, Tao; Fu, Yanping; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Manqun; Jin, Huanan; Wan, Hu; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoviruses are usually transmitted horizontally via hyphal anastomosis and vertically via sexual/asexual spores. Previously, we reported that a gemycircularvirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1), could infect its fungal host extracellularly. Here, we discovered that SsHADV-1 could infect a mycophagous insect, Lycoriella ingenua, and use it as a transmission vector. Virus acquired by larvae feeding on colonies of a virus-infected strain of S. sclerotiorum was replicated and retained in larvae, pupae, adults, and eggs. Virus could be transmitted to insect offspring when larvae were injected with virus particles and allowed to feed on a nonhost fungus. Virus replication in insect cells was further confirmed by inoculating Spodoptera frugiperda cells with virus particles and analyzing with RT-PCR, Northern blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry assays. Larvae could transmit virus once they acquired virus by feeding on virus-infected fungal colony. Offspring larvae hatched from viruliferous eggs were virus carriers and could also successfully transmit virus. Virus transmission between insect and fungus also occurred on rapeseed plants. Virus-infected isolates produced less repellent volatile substances to attract adults of L. ingenua. Furthermore, L. ingenua was easily observed on Sclerotinia lesions in rapeseed fields, and viruliferous adults were captured from fields either sprayed with a virus-infected fungal strain or nonsprayed. Our findings may facilitate the exploration of mycoviruses for control of fungal diseases and enhance our understanding of the ecology of SsHADV-1 and other newly emerging SsHADV-1–like viruses, which were recently found to be widespread in various niches including human HIV-infected blood, human and animal feces, insects, plants, and even sewage. PMID:27791095

  16. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  17. Movement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the relationship between California red-legged frogs and their habitat in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened...

  18. Towards a discursive analytics of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes as its point of departure the expanding scholarly interest in issues of mobility and movement. It argues that movement is not only a physical activity which is entangled in power and meaning but is fundamentally discursively constituted. Through discussions of theory and of three...... ‘movement' in the first place. Understanding movement in this way leads us to ask how various activities are given the status of ‘movement', as well as how they are given meaning and importance, by whom and with what consequences. This involves asking how the poles between which movement takes place...

  19. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. METHODS: We performed a detailed...... neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology......, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. RESULTS: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots...

  20. Thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in the embryos of reptiles and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yong-Kang; Hu, Rui; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that thermoregulatory behavior occurs not only in posthatching turtles but also in turtles prior to hatching. Does thermoregulatory behavior also occur in the embryos of other reptile and bird species? Our experiments show that such behavior is widespread but not universal in reptile and bird embryos. We recorded repositioning within the egg, in response to thermal gradients, in the embryos of three species of snakes (Xenochrophis piscator, Elaphe bimaculata, and Zaocys dhumnades), two turtles (Chelydra serpentina and Ocadia sinensis), one crocodile (Alligator sinensis), and four birds (Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus domesticus, Columba livia domestica, and Anas platyrhynchos domestica). However, we detected no significant thermoregulation by the embryos of two lizard species (Takydromus septentrionalis and Phrynocephalus frontalis). Overall, embryonic thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in reptile as well as bird species but may be unimportant in the small eggs laid by most lizards.

  1. A comparison of inbreeding Depression in Tropical and Widespread Drosophila Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Jesper Smærup; Hoffmann, Ary A; Sgró, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of widespread and specialized species is likely to cause a different genetic architecture of key ecological traits in the two species group. This may affect how these two groups respond to inbreeding. Here we investigate inbreeding effects in traits related to performance...... in 5 widespread and 5 tropical restricted species of Drosophila with aim of testing whether the two species groups suffered differently from inbreeding depression. The traits investigated wwere egg-to-adult viability, develpmental time and resistance to heat, vold and desiccation. Our results showed...... that levels of inbreeding depression were species and trait specific and did not differ between the species groups for stress resistance traits. However, for the life history traits developmental time and egg-to-adult viability, more inbreeding depression was observed in the tropical species. The results...

  2. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, N; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest that this unusual phenotype is caused by translation re-initiation downstream from the mutation site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  4. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  5. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  6. Preeclampsia Is Associated with Widespread Apoptosis of Placental Cytotrophoblasts within the Uterine Wall

    OpenAIRE

    DiFederico, Elaine; Genbacev, Olga; Fisher, Susan J.

    1999-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication diagnosed by signs of widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. In normal pregnancy, a subpopulation of placental cytotrophoblast stem cells executes an unusual differentiation program that leads to invasion of the uterus and its vasculature. This process attaches the conceptus to the uterine wall and starts the flow of maternal blood to the placenta. Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation, shallow invasion,...

  7. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson KG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952 of the target population (284,073 people, 18–74 years in a county (Östergötland in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637; the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90–94% and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8–7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor – together with age 50–64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen – for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status.

  8. Out of Africa : phylogeny and biogeography of the widespread genus Acanthodactylus (Reptilia : Lacertidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar, K.; Carranza, S.; Sindaco, R.; Moravec, J.; Trape, Jean-François; Meiri, S.

    2016-01-01

    Acanthodactylus lizards are among the most diverse and widespread diurnal reptiles in the arid regions spanning from North Africa across to western India. Acanthodactylus constitutes the most species-rich genus in the family Lacertidae, with over 40 recognized species inhabiting a wide variety of dry habitats. The genus has seldom undergone taxonomic revisions, and although there are a number of described species and species-groups, their boundaries, as well as their interspecific relationshi...

  9. Trigger points are associated with widespread pressure pain sensitivity in people with tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, María; Wang, Kelun; Castaldo, Matteo; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Ordás-Bandera, Carlos; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the association between trigger points (TrPs) and widespread pressure pain sensitivity in people with tension-type headache (TTH) and to determine if this association is different between frequent episodic (FETTH) or chronic (CTTH) headache. A cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty-seven individuals (29% male) with TTH participated. Clinical features of headache, i.e., intensity, duration, and frequency, were recorded in a headache diary. Active and latent TrPs were bilaterally explored in the temporalis, masseter, suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and splenius capitis muscles. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed over the trigeminal area (i.e., temporalis muscle), extra-trigeminal (i.e., C5/C6 zygapophyseal joint), and two distant pain-free points (i.e., second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle). Eighty (51%) patients were classified as FETTH, whereas 77 (49%) were classified as CTTH. No differences in the number of either active or latent TrPs (all p > 0.171) or widespread pressure pain sensitivity (all p > 0.351) were observed between FETTH and CTTH groups. The number of active and latent TrPs was significantly and negatively associated with PPTs: The higher the number of active or latent TrPs, the lower the widespread PPT, and the more generalized sensitization. This association was stronger within the FETTH group than the CTTH group. This study found that the number of TrPs in head and neck/shoulder muscles was associated with widespread pressure hypersensitivity independently of the frequency of headache. © International Headache Society 2016.

  10. How Widespread is Graphology in Personnel Selection Practice? A case study of a job market myth

    OpenAIRE

    Bangerter, Adrian; König, Cornelius J.; Blatti, Sandrine; Salvisberg, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Graphology is allegedly widely used in personnel selection in Europe. This is a myth: a widespread but false belief. We explored this myth in five studies. Study 1 established that job ads rarely require handwritten letters. Study 2 showed that handwritten letters serve multiple purposes but are seldom used for handwriting analysis. In Study 3, job market actors overestimated the frequency with which handwritten letters are subjected to graphological analysis. In Study 4, we showed experiment...

  11. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Lu?s; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from bo...

  12. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Burden; Fiona Sewell; Kathryn Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promis...

  13. Epidemic polyarthritis (Ross River) virus infection in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L; Gubler, D J; Bennett, P H

    1981-11-01

    An epidemic of Ross River virus infection occurred in the Cook Islands early in 1980 and affected the majority of the inhabitants of Rarotonga, the most populated island in the group. This represents the easternmost extension of the virus which, until 1979, was believed limited to Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The clinical manifestations of Ross River disease, predominantly polyarthritis, did not differ significantly from those observed previously in Australia. However, unlike the experience in Australia, where Ross River virus has never been isolated from a patient with polyarthritis, the agent was recovered from the serum of one-half of approximately 100 such patients with serologically proven infections. It is not known if this latter observation is the result of a change in the virus, the different virus isolation technique employed, or other factors. It was found that the incubation period of the disease could be as short as 3 days--much less than previously suspected. Ross River virus was isolated from six pools of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes collected in nature and it appeared that this species was the most probable vector on Rarotonga. In view of the widespread distribution of Ae. polynesiensis on islands, in the eastern Pacific it would not be surprising if Ross River virus occurs in other previously unaffected areas in the future.

  14. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  15. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain hypersensitivity as sign of central sensitization in patients with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Cuadrado, María L; López-de-Silanes, Carlos; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate bilateral widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia in deep tissues over symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with cluster headache (CH). Central sensitization is claimed to play a relevant role in CH. No study has previously searched for widespread pressure hyperalgesia in deep tissues over both symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with CH. Sixteen men (mean age: 43 ± 11 years) with CH in a remission phase and 16 matched controls were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally measured over the supra-orbital (V1), infra-orbital (V2), mental (V3), median (C5), radial (C6), and ulnar (C7) nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, mastoid process, and tibialis anterior muscle by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition. The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally in patients with CH as compared with healthy controls (all sites, P < .001). A greater degree of sensitization over the mastoid process (P < .001) and a lower degree of sensitization over the tibialis anterior muscle (P < .01) was found. Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity in patients with CH confirming the presence of central sensitization mechanisms in this headache condition. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  16. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children's cognitive development and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1) referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2) referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  17. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018 and cold (p = .003 stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients.

  18. [A case of hepatocellular carcinoma with respiratory failure caused by widespread tumor microemboli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Nakasya, Akio; Miyazaki, Masanori; Takao, Shinichiro; Higuchi, Nobito; Tanaka, Masatake; Tanaka, Yuki; Kato, Masaki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Aishima, Shinichi

    2011-10-01

    A 76-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was admitted to our hospital suffering from rapidly progressing dyspnea. Chest computed tomography on admission merely showed ground-glass patterns in both lung fields without thrombi in the pulmonary trunk. On the third day, pulmonary blood flow scintigraphy was performed because of progression of his dyspnea, and showed multiple defects indicating widespread thrombi in the peripheral pulmonary arteries. He died of respiratory failure on day 13. A needle necropsy revealed the presence of multiple foci of adenocarcinoma nests in the lungs, suggesting venous thrombi from the poorly differentiated HCC. Although HCC frequently metastasizes to the lung, patients with lung metastasis rarely result in respiratory failure. It is well known that some patients with adenocarcinoma including HCC can develop respiratory failure owing to pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM). In our case, however, pathological examination showed widespread tumor microemboli in the lung, but no stenosis or fibrocellular intimal proliferation in the small arteries and arterioles, which are essential findings of PTTM. Although we concluded that the respiratory failure in this case was mainly caused by widespread tumor microemboli, it remains unclear why such dissemination rapidly developed.

  19. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children’s cognitive development and behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1 referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2 referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  20. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. METHODS: We performed a detailed neuropath......OBJECTIVE: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. METHODS: We performed a detailed...... neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology......, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. RESULTS: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots...

  1. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  2. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Chapuis, Sophie [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Revers, Frédéric [INRA, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon (France); Ziegler-Graff, Véronique [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Brault, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brault@colmar.inra.fr [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France)

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  3. Movement preparation in Parkinson's disease: Time course and distribution of movement-related potentials in a movement precueing task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praamstra, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Cools, A.R.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Stegeman, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of the effects of advance information on movement preparation in Parkinson's disease using reaction time (RT) measures have yielded contradictory results. In order to obtain direct information regarding the time course of movement preparation, we combined RT measurements in a movement

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for movement disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frighetto, Leonardo; Bizzi, Jorge; Annes, Rafael D’Agostini; Silva, Rodrigo dos Santos; Oppitz, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Initially designed for the treatment of functional brain targets, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has achieved an important role in the management of a wide range of neurosurgical pathologies. The interest in the application of the technique for the treatment of pain, and psychiatric and movement disorders has returned in the beginning of the 1990s, stimulated by the advances in neuroimaging, computerized dosimetry, treatment planning software systems, and the outstanding results of radiosurgery in other brain diseases. Since SRS is a neuroimaging-guided procedure, without the possibility of neurophysiological confirmation of the target, deep brain stimulation (DBS) and radiofrequency procedures are considered the best treatment options for movement-related disorders. Therefore, SRS is an option for patients who are not suitable for an open neurosurgical procedure. SRS thalamotomy provided results in tremor control, comparable to radiofrequency and DBS. The occurrence of unpredictable larger lesions than expected with permanent neurological deficits is a limitation of the procedure. Improvements in SRS technique with dose reduction, use of a single isocenter, and smaller collimators were made to reduce the incidence of this serious complication. Pallidotomies performed with radiosurgery did not achieve the same good results. Even though the development of DBS has supplanted lesioning as the first alternative in movement disorder surgery; SRS might still be the only treatment option for selected patients. PMID:22826805

  5. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  6. Sequence analysis reveals mosaic genome of Aichi virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiaohong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aichi virus is a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus, which demonstrated to be related to diarrhea of Children. In the present study, phylogenetic and recombination analysis based on the Aichi virus complete genomes available in GenBank reveal a mosaic genome sequence [GenBank: FJ890523], of which the nt 261-852 region (the nt position was based on the aligned sequence file shows close relationship with AB010145/Japan with 97.9% sequence identity, while the other genomic regions show close relationship with AY747174/German with 90.1% sequence identity. Our results will provide valuable hints for future research on Aichi virus diversity. Aichi virus is a member of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family 12 and belongs to a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus. Its presence in fecal specimens of children suffering from diarrhea has been demonstrated in several Asian countries 3456, in Brazil and German 7, in France 8 and in Tunisia 9. Some reports showed the high level of seroprevalence in adults 710, suggesting the widespread exposure to Aichi virus during childhood. The genome of Aichi virus contains 8,280 nucleotides and a poly(A tail. The single large open reading frame (nt 713-8014 according to the strain AB010145 encodes a polyprotein of 2,432 amino acids that is cleaved into the typical picornavirus structural proteins VP0, VP3, VP1, and nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D 211. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 519-bp sequences at the 3C-3D (3CD junction, Aichi viruses can be divided into two genotypes A and B with approximately 90% sequence homology 12. Although only six complete genomes of Aichi virus were deposited in GenBank at present, mosaic genomes can be found in strains from different countries.

  7. Sequence analysis reveals mosaic genome of Aichi virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaohong; Zhang, Wen; Xue, Yanjun; Shao, Shihe

    2011-08-05

    Aichi virus is a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus, which demonstrated to be related to diarrhea of Children. In the present study, phylogenetic and recombination analysis based on the Aichi virus complete genomes available in GenBank reveal a mosaic genome sequence [GenBank: FJ890523], of which the nt 261-852 region (the nt position was based on the aligned sequence file) shows close relationship with AB010145/Japan with 97.9% sequence identity, while the other genomic regions show close relationship with AY747174/German with 90.1% sequence identity. Our results will provide valuable hints for future research on Aichi virus diversity.Aichi virus is a member of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family 12 and belongs to a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus. Its presence in fecal specimens of children suffering from diarrhea has been demonstrated in several Asian countries 3456, in Brazil and German 7, in France 8 and in Tunisia 9. Some reports showed the high level of seroprevalence in adults 710, suggesting the widespread exposure to Aichi virus during childhood.The genome of Aichi virus contains 8,280 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail. The single large open reading frame (nt 713-8014 according to the strain AB010145) encodes a polyprotein of 2,432 amino acids that is cleaved into the typical picornavirus structural proteins VP0, VP3, VP1, and nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D 211. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 519-bp sequences at the 3C-3D (3CD) junction, Aichi viruses can be divided into two genotypes A and B with approximately 90% sequence homology 12. Although only six complete genomes of Aichi virus were deposited in GenBank at present, mosaic genomes can be found in strains from different countries.

  8. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide eSasaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral Achilles’ heel gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  9. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaya, Takahide; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Saika, Hiroaki; Aoki, Hideyuki; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Onuki, Masatoshi; Toki, Seichi; Saito, Koji; Yatou, Osamu

    2014-01-13

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world's population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. Many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA interference (RNAi), also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral "Achilles' heel" gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  10. Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015: investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H.J. Hartgerink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Head et al. (2015 provided a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking. This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p-value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the distribution of reported p-values shows systematically more reported p-values for .01, .02, .03, .04, and .05 than p-values reported to three decimal places, due to apparent tendencies to round p-values to two decimal places. Head et al. (2015 correctly argue that an aggregate p-value distribution could show a bump below .05 when left-skew p-hacking occurs frequently. Moreover, the elimination of p = .045 and p = .05, as done in the original paper, is debatable. Given that eliminating p = .045 is a result of the need for symmetric bins and systematically more p-values are reported to two decimal places than to three decimal places, I did not exclude p = .045 and p = .05. I conducted Fisher’s method .04 < p < .05 and reanalyzed the data by adjusting the bin selection to .03875 < p ≤ .04 versus .04875 < p ≤ .05. Results of the reanalysis indicate that no evidence for left-skew p-hacking remains when we look at the entire range between .04 < p < .05 or when we inspect the second-decimal. Taking into account reporting tendencies when selecting the bins to compare is especially important because this dataset does not allow for the recalculation of the p-values. Moreover, inspecting the bins that include two-decimal reported p-values potentially increases sensitivity if strategic rounding down of p-values as a form of p-hacking is widespread. Given the far-reaching implications of supposed widespread p-hacking throughout the sciences Head et al. (2015, it is important that these findings are robust to data analysis choices if the conclusion is to be considered unequivocal. Although no evidence of widespread left-skew p

  11. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  12. Brain-machine interface for eye movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnulf B. A. Graf; Richard A. Andersen

    2014-01-01

    ...), a cortical node in the NHP saccade system. Eye movement plans were predicted in real time using Bayesian inference from small ensembles of UP neurons without the animal making an eye movement...

  13. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  14. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  15. Imaging and tracking HIV viruses in human cervical mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Nossal, Ralph; Boukari, Hacène

    2016-09-01

    We describe a systematic approach to image, track, and quantify the movements of HIV viruses embedded in human cervical mucus. The underlying motivation for this study is that, in HIV-infected adults, women account for more than half of all new cases and most of these women acquire the infection through heterosexual contact. The endocervix is believed to be a susceptible site for HIV entry. Cervical mucus, which coats the endocervix, should play a protective role against the viruses. Thus, we developed a methodology to apply time-resolved confocal microscopy to examine the motion of HIV viruses that were added to samples of untreated cervical mucus. From the images, we identified the viruses, tracked them over time, and calculated changes of the statistical mean-squared displacement (MSD) of each virus. Approximately half of tracked viruses appear constrained while the others show mobility with MSDs that are proportional to τα+ν2τ2, over time range τ, depicting a combination of anomalous diffusion (0viruses. Although a more extensive study is warranted, these results support the assumption of mucus being a barrier against the motion of these viruses.

  16. The Functional Movement Screen's Ability to Detect Changes in Movement Patterns After a Training Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minthorn, Lindsay M; Fayson, Shirleeah D; Stobierski, Lisa M; Welch, Cailee E; Anderson, Barton E

    2015-08-01

    Clinical Scenario: Appropriate movement patterns during sports and physical activities are important for both athletic performance and injury prevention. The assessment of movement dysfunction can assist clinicians in implementing appropriate rehabilitation programs after injury, as well as developing injury-prevention plans. No gold standard test exists for the evaluation of movement capacity; however, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been recommended as a tool to screen for movement-pattern limitations and side-to-side movement asymmetries. Limited research has suggested that movement limitations and asymmetries may be linked to increased risk for injury. While this line of research is continuing to evolve, the use of the FMS to measure movement capacity and the development of intervention programs to improve movement patterns has become popular. Recently, additional research examining changes in movement patterns after standardized intervention programs has emerged. Does an individualized training program improve movement patterns in adults who participate in high-intensity activities?

  17. The first phlebo-like virus infecting plants: a case study on the adaptation of negative-stranded RNA viruses to new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Beatriz; Minutolo, Maria; De Stradis, Angelo; Palmisano, Francesco; Alioto, Daniela; Di Serio, Francesco

    2017-07-28

    A novel negative-stranded (ns) RNA virus associated with a severe citrus disease reported more than 80 years ago has been identified. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this novel virus, tentatively named citrus concave gum-associated virus, is flexuous and non-enveloped. Notwithstanding, its two genomic RNAs share structural features with members of the genus Phlebovirus, which are enveloped arthropod-transmitted viruses infecting mammals, and with a group of still unclassified phlebo-like viruses mainly infecting arthropods. CCGaV genomic RNAs code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a nucleocapsid protein and a putative movement protein showing structural and phylogenetic relationships with phlebo-like viruses, phleboviruses and the unrelated ophioviruses, respectively, thus providing intriguing evidence of a modular genome evolution. Phylogenetic reconstructions identified an invertebrate-restricted virus as the most likely ancestor of this virus, revealing that its adaptation to plants was independent from and possibly predated that of the other nsRNA plant viruses. These data are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which trans-kingdom adaptation occurred several times during the history of nsRNA viruses and followed different evolutionary pathways, in which genomic RNA segments were gained or lost. The need to create a new genus for this bipartite nsRNA virus and the impact of the rapid and specific detection methods developed here on citrus sanitation and certification are also discussed. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Some factors affecting independence movements: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rupayan Gupta

    2007-01-01

    The article outlines a game-theoretic framework that can be used to analyze the nature and outcomes of independence movements in disputed or occupied regions. It is seen that the nature of an independence movement depends on a complex interplay among personal characteristics of movement leaders, personal characteristics of the occupier, the proclivity of the citizens to participate in the movement, and the cost structure of the occupier. To a large extent, the results described in this articl...

  19. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin P. Drees; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Sebastien J. Puechmaille; Katy L. Parise; Gudrun Wibbelt; Joseph R. Hoyt; Keping Sun; Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan; Munkhnast Dalannast; Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Talima Pearson; Paul S. Keim; David S. Blehert; Jeffrey T. Foster; Joseph. Heitman

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has...

  20. Widespread thalamic and cerebellar degeneration in a patient with a complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, K.; De Vos, Rai; Derksen, L.; Bauer, P.; Riess, O.; den Dunnen, W.; Deller, T.; Hageman, G.; Rueb, U.

    2009-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a heterogeneous group of familial movement disorders sharing progressive spastic paraplegia as a common disease sign. In the present study, we performed the first pathoanatomical investigation of the central nervous degeneration of a female patient with a

  1. Techniques for the Analysis of Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, D. W.; And Others

    This book presents the major analytical techniques that may be used in the appraisal of human movement. Chapter 1 is devoted to the photopgraphic analysis of movement with particular emphasis on cine filming. Cine film may be taken with little or no restriction on the performer's range of movement; information on the film is permanent and…

  2. Recovering Disembodied Spirits: Teaching Movement to Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Understanding physical movement is an integral part of learning to make music. This article presents the action research that the author has pursued while teaching movement to musicians. The narrative provides a theoretical underpinning for the teaching practices discussed. It provides examples of musicians' movement with analyses of the…

  3. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  4. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  5. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  6. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  7. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all pfootball were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  8. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  9. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  13. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  14. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  16. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  20. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...