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Sample records for wide-band gap semiconductor

  1. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  2. Review of wide band-gap semiconductors technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC and gallium nitride (GaN are typical representative of the wide band-gap semiconductor material, which is also known as third-generation semiconductor materials. Compared with the conventional semiconductor silicon (Si or gallium arsenide (GaAs, wide band-gap semiconductor has the wide band gap, high saturated drift velocity, high critical breakdown field and other advantages; it is a highly desirable semiconductor material applied under the case of high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency, anti-radiation environment. These advantages of wide band-gap devices make them a hot spot of semiconductor technology research in various countries. This article describes the research agenda of United States and European in this area, focusing on the recent developments of the wide band-gap technology in the US and Europe, summed up the facing challenge of the wide band-gap technology.

  3. The study of response of wide band gap semiconductor detectors using the Geant4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hussain Riaz; Mirza Sikander M; Mirza Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    The energy dependence on the intrinsic efficiency, absolute efficiency, full energy peak absolute efficiency and peak-to-total ratio have been studied for various wide band gap semiconductor detectors...

  4. On the Integration of Wide Band-gap Semiconductors in Single Phase Boost PFC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos

    /650 V range, and recent developments on the integration of GaN devices in SMPS are provided. The second part of the thesis provides an insight on semiconductor characterization and compares state-of-the-art Si technology to current available GaN switches. After this overview, a comparison between...... compared to Si semiconductors. Moreover, both semiconductor materials are particularly interesting for high temperature operation. These characteristics makes integration of SiC and GaN devices as the next logical step to further increase efficiency and power density in SMPS. This work is part of the Ph......D project “Single phase PFC converter using wide band-gap devices” and focuses on attainable advantages by introducing wide band-gap semiconductors, and more particularly GaN devices in power factor correction circuits (PFC). First, an overview of current state-of-the-art semiconductor technology in the 600...

  5. Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1995-01-01

    The studies on the crystal growth and characterization of II-VI wide band gap compound semiconductors, such as ZnTe, CdS, ZnSe and ZnS, have been conducted over the past three decades. The research was not quite as extensive as that on Si, III-V, or even narrow band gap II-VI semiconductors because of the high melting temperatures as well as the specialized applications associated with these wide band gap semiconductors. In the past several years, major advances in the thin film technology such as Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) have demonstrated the applications of these materials for the important devices such as light-emitting diode, laser and ultraviolet detectors and the tunability of energy band gap by employing ternary or even quaternary systems of these compounds. At the same time, the development in the crystal growth of bulk materials has not advanced far enough to provide low price, high quality substrates needed for the thin film growth technology.

  6. The study of response of wide band gap semiconductor detectors using the Geant4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy dependence on the intrinsic efficiency, absolute efficiency, full energy peak absolute efficiency and peak-to-total ratio have been studied for various wide band gap semiconductor detectors using the Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations. The detector thickness of 1-4 mm and the area in 16-100 mm2 range were considered in this work. In excellent agreement with earlier work (Rybka et al., [20], the Geant4 simulated values of detector efficiencies have been found to decrease with incident g-ray energy. Both for the detector thickness and the detector area, the increasing trends have been observed for total efficiency as well as for full-energy peak efficiency in 0.1 MeV-50 MeV range. For Cd1-xZnxTe, the detector response remained insensitive to changes in relative proportions of Zn. For various wide band gap detectors studied in this work, the detection efficiency of TlBr was found highest over the entire range of energy, followed by the HgI2, CdTe, and then by CZT.

  7. Fundamentals and practice of metal contacts to wide band gap semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.A.; Kaminska, E.; Mysliwiec, M.; Wzorek, M.; Piotrowska, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kuchuk, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Barcz, A.; Dynowska, E. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physic PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Di Forte-Poisson, M.A. [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Marcoussis (France); Giesen, C. [AIXTRON SE, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Presented are the theoretical and experimental fundamentals of the fabrication of ohmic contacts to n- and p-type wide band gap semiconductors such as SiC and GaN. In particular, the Ni-Si/n-SiC, Al-Ti/p-SiC, Ti-Al/n-GaN and Ni-Au/p-GaN systems are discussed with the focus on the thermally activated chemical reactions taking place at the metal-semiconductor interface, that lead to the appearance of ohmic behaviour in the contact. Examples of reactions at very intimate interfaces are shown, which are irresolvable using even such sophisticated characterisation methods as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and can only be explained using modelling. The issue of thermal stability of the contacts is discussed and the introduction of specifically designed diffusion barriers (eg. Ta-Si-N) into the contact metallisation stack is presented as a solution improving drastically the thermal stability of the contacts without degrading their electrical properties. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Photoinduced electron accumulation in colloidally dispersed wide band-gap semiconductor nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakato, Teruyuki; Yamada, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Mari; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    We investigated photoinduced electron accumulation in a colloidal system of layered hexaniobate that is known as a photocatalytically active wide band-gap semiconductor, and attempted to control the photoresponse by introducing additives into the colloid. The inorganic nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of the layered oxide. UV-irradiation of the colloids led to electron accumulation in the nanosheets to generate reduced niobate species. Propylammonium ions introduced as the exfoliating reagent and present as the counter ions of niobate nanosheets were indicated as the electron donor that stabilized the electron-accumulating state. Yield and half-life of the reduced niobate species greatly increased by adding an appropriate amount of photochemically inert clay nanosheets, while they increased only a little by the addition of molecular electron donors such as EDTA and triethanolamine. Moreover, the molecular species diminished the enhancement effect of the clay nanosheets. The results suggested that the photochemical event was not explained by direct interactions between the semiconductor nanosheets and the additives at molecular level but governed by indirect interactions between the colloid components regulated by the colloid structure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A generation/recombination model assisted with two trap centers in wide band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Kuwabara, Takuhito; Uda, Tsuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    A generation/recombination (GR) model assisted with two trap centers has been proposed for studying reverse current on pn junctions in wide band-gap semiconductors. A level (Et1) has been assumed to be located near the bottom of the conduction band and the other (Et2) to be near the top of the valence band. The GR model has been developed by assuming (1) a high-electric field; F, (2) a short distance; d, between trap centers, (3) reduction in an energy-difference; Δeff = |Et1 - Et2| - eFd, and (4) hopping or tunneling conductions between trap centers with the same energy-level (Δeff ≈ 0). The GR rate has been modeled by trap levels, capture cross-sections, trap densities, and transition rate between trap centers. The GR rate, about 1010 greater than that estimated from the single-level model, has been predicted on pn junctions in a material with band-gap of 3.1 eV. Device simulations using the proposed GR model have been demonstrated for SiC diodes with and without a guard ring. A reasonable range for reverse current at room temperature has been simulated and stable convergence has been obtained in a numerical scheme for analyzing diodes with an electrically floating region.

  10. Emission Channeling Studies on the Behaviour of Light Alkali Atoms in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Recknagel, E; Quintel, H

    2002-01-01

    % IS342 \\\\ \\\\ A major problem in the development of electronic devices based on diamond and wide-band-gap II-VI compound semiconductors, like ZnSe, is the extreme difficulty of either n- or p-type doping. The only reports of successful n-type doping of diamond involves ion implanted Li, which was found to be an intersititial donor. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that Na, P and N dopant atoms are also good candidates for n-type doping of diamond. No experimental evidence has been obtained up to now, mainly because of the complex and partly unresolved defect situation created during ion implantation, which is necessary to incorporate potential donor atoms into diamond. \\\\ \\\\In the case of ZnSe, considerable effort has been invested in trying to fabricate pn-junctions in order to make efficient, blue-light emitting diodes. However, it has proved to be very difficult to obtain p-type ZnSe, mainly because of electrical compensation related to background donor impurities. Li and Na are believed to be ampho...

  11. Bulk Growth of Wide Band Gap II-VI Compound Semiconductors by Physical Vapor Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of physical vapor transport of II-VI semiconducting compounds was studied both theoretically, using a one-dimensional diffusion model, as well as experimentally. It was found that the vapor phase stoichiometry is critical in determining the vapor transport rate. The experimental heat treatment methods to control the vapor composition over the starting materials were investigated and the effectiveness of the heat treatments was confirmed by partial pressure measurements using an optical absorption technique. The effect of residual (foreign) gas on the transport rate was also studies theoretically by the diffusion model and confirmed experimentally by the measurements of total pressure and compositions of the residual gas. An in-situ dynamic technique for the transport rate measurements and a further extension of the technique that simultaneously measured the partial pressures and transport rates were performed and, for the first time, the experimentally determined mass fluxes were compared with those calculated, without any adjustable parameters, from the diffusion model. Using the information obtained from the experimental transport rate measurements as guideline high quality bulk crystal of wide band gap II-VI semiconductor were grown from the source materials which undergone the same heat treatment methods. The grown crystals were then extensively characterized with emphasis on the analysis of the crystalline structural defects.

  12. Analytical approach for type-II semiconductor spherical core-shell quantum dots heterostructures with wide band gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Cheche, Tiberius O.; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2013-01-01

    A one-band model within the effective mass approximation is adopted to characterize the energy structure and oscillator strength of type-II semiconductor spherical core-shell quantum dots. The heteroepitaxial strain of the core-shell heterostructure is modeled by the elastic continuum approach. The model is applied to ZnTe/ZnSe core-shell, a wide band gap type-II heterostructure. The simulated absorption spectra are in fair agreement with available experimental results.

  13. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  14. New Material Transistor with Record-High Field-Effect Mobility among Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng Wei; Chin, Albert

    2016-08-03

    At an ultrathin 5 nm, we report a new high-mobility tin oxide (SnO2) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) exhibiting extremely high field-effect mobility values of 279 and 255 cm(2)/V-s at 145 and 205 °C, respectively. These values are the highest reported mobility values among all wide-band-gap semiconductors of GaN, SiC, and metal-oxide MOSFETs, and they also exceed those of silicon devices at the aforementioned elevated temperatures. For the first time among existing semiconductor transistors, a new device physical phenomenon of a higher mobility value was measured at 45-205 °C than at 25 °C, which is due to the lower optical phonon scattering by the large SnO2 phonon energy. Moreover, the high on-current/off-current of 4 × 10(6) and the positive threshold voltage of 0.14 V at 25 °C are significantly better than those of a graphene transistor. This wide-band-gap SnO2 MOSFET exhibits high mobility in a 25-205 °C temperature range, a wide operating voltage of 1.5-20 V, and the ability to form on an amorphous substrate, rendering it an ideal candidate for multifunctional low-power integrated circuit (IC), display, and brain-mimicking three-dimensional IC applications.

  15. Band-engineering of TiO2 as a wide-band gap semiconductor using organic chromophore dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Kartini, I.; Ramelan, A. H.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-07-01

    Bond-engineering as applied to semiconductor materials refers to the manipulation of the energy bands in order to control charge transfer processes in a device. When the device in question is a photoelectrochemical cell, the charges affected by drift become the focus of the study. The ideal band gap of semiconductors for enhancement of photocatalyst activity can be lowered to match with visible light absorption and the location of conduction Band (CB) should be raised to meet the reducing capacity. Otherwise, by the addition of the chromofor organic dyes, the wide-band gab can be influences by interacation resulting between TiO2 surface and the dyes. We have done the impruvisation wide-band gap of TiO2 by the addition of organic chromophore dye, and the addition of transition metal dopand. The TiO2 morphology influence the light absorption as well as the surface modification. The organic chromophore dye was syntesized by formation complexes compound of Co(PAR)(SiPA)(PAR)= 4-(2-piridylazoresorcinol), SiPA = Silyl propil amine). The result showed that the chromophore groups adsorbed onto TiO2 surface can increase the visible light absorption of wide-band gab semiconductor. Initial absorption of a chromophore will affect light penetration into the material surfaces. The use of photonic material as a solar cell shows this phenomenon clearly from the IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) measurement data. Organic chromophore dyes of Co(PAR)(SiPA) exhibited the long wavelength absorption character compared to the N719 dye (from Dyesol).

  16. C3H2 : A wide-band-gap semiconductor with strong optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Cuamba, Armindo S.; Geng, Lei; Hao, Lei; Qi, Yu-Min; Ting, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict a new type of partially hydrogenated graphene system, C3H2 , which turns out to be a semiconductor with a band gap of 3.56 eV. The bands are rather flat at the band edges and thus lead to a large density of states, which further results in strong optical absorption between the valence band and the conduction band. Particularly, it shows strong optical absorption at about 4.5 eV for the light polarized along the lines connecting the nearest unhydrogenated carbon atoms. Thus, the predicted C3H2 system may have potential applications for a polarizer as well as other high-efficiency optical devices in the near ultraviolet region.

  17. Wide Band Gap Semiconductor from a Hidden 2D Incommensurate Graphene Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew; Wang, Feng; Nevius, Meredith; Jinkins, Katherine; Celis, Arlensiú; Narayanan Nair, Maya; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio; Garreau, Yves; Vlad, Alina; Coati, Alessandro; Miceli, Paul F; Conrad, Edward H

    2017-01-11

    Producing a usable semiconducting form of graphene has plagued the development of graphene electronics for nearly two decades. Now that new preparation methods have become available, graphene's intrinsic properties can be measured and the search for semiconducting graphene has begun to produce results. This is the case of the first graphene "buffer" layer grown on SiC(0001) presented in this work. We show, contrary to assumptions of the last 40 years, that the buffer graphene layer is not commensurate with SiC. The new modulated structure we've found resolves a long-standing contradiction where ab initio calculations expect a metallic buffer, while experimentally it is found to be a semiconductor. Model calculations using the new incommensurate structure show that the semiconducting π-band character of the buffer comes from partially hybridized graphene incommensurate boundaries surrounding unperturbed graphene islands.

  18. Crystal-field investigations of rare-earth-doped wide band gap semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Muller, S; Wahl, U

    Crystal field investigations play a central role in the studies of rare earth doped semiconductors. Optical stark level spectroscopy and lattice location studies of radioactive rare earth isotopes implanted at ISOLDE have provided important insight into these systems during the last years. It has been shown that despite a major site preference of the probe atoms in the lattice, several defect configurations do exist. These sites are visible in the optical spectra but their origin and nature aren't deducible from these spectra alone. Hyperfine measurements on the other hand should reveal these defect configurations and yield the parameters necessary for a description of the optical properties at the atomic scale. In order to study the crystal field with this alternative approach, we propose a new concept for perturbed $\\gamma\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) experiments at ISOLDE based on digital signal processing in contrast to earlier analog setups. The general functionality of the spectrometer is explained ...

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films for application as a wide band gap semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Ahmad, Shabir; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher Majid, E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO) thin films were synthesized using thermal evaporation technique. Ultra pure metallic tin was deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporator under high vacuum. The thickness of the tin deposited films was kept at 100nm. Subsequently, the as-deposited tin films were annealed under oxygen environment for a period of 3hrs to obtain tin oxide films. To analyse the suitability of the synthesized tin oxide films as a wide band gap semiconductor, various properties were studied. Structural parameters were studied using XRD and SEM-EDX. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and the electrical parameters were calculated using the Hall-setup. XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of SnO phase. Uniform texture of the film can be seen through the SEM images. Presence of traces of unoxidised Sn has also been confirmed through the XRD spectra. The band gap calculated was around 3.6eV and the optical transparency around 50%. The higher value of band gap and lower value of optical transparency can be attributed to the presence of unoxidised Sn. The values of resistivity and mobility as measured by the Hall setup were 78Ωcm and 2.92cm{sup 2}/Vs respectively. The reasonable optical and electrical parameters make SnO a suitable candidate for optoelectronic and electronic device applications.

  20. Solar hydrogen generation with wide-band-gap semiconductors: GaP(100) photoelectrodes and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bernhard; Fertig, Dominic; Ziegler, Jürgen; Klett, Joachim; Hoch, Sascha; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2012-08-27

    GaP, with its large band gap of 2.26 eV (indirect) and 2.78 eV (direct), is a very promising candidate for direct photoelectrochemical water splitting. Herein, p-GaP(100) is investigated as a photocathode for hydrogen generation. The samples are characterized after each preparation step regarding how their photoelectrochemical behavior is influenced by surface composition and structure using a combination of electrochemical and surface-science preparation and characterization techniques. The formation of an Ohmic back contact employing an annealed gold layer and the removal of the native oxides using various etchants are studied. It turns out that the latter has a pronounced effect on the surface composition and structure and therefore also on the electronic properties of the interface. The formation of a thin Ga(2)O(3) buffer layer on the p-GaP(100) surface does not lead to a clear improvement in the photoelectrochemical efficiency, neither do Pt nanocatalyst particles deposited on top of the buffer layer. This behavior can be understood by the electronic structure of these layers, which is not well suited for an efficient charge transfer from the absorber to the electrolyte. First experiments show that the efficiency can be considerably improved by employing a thin GaN layer as a buffer layer on top of the p-GaP(100) surface. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Improved predictions of the physical properties of Zn- and Cd-based wide band-gap semiconductors: A validation of the ACBN0 functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Priya; Fornari, Marco; Curtarolo, Stefano; Agapito, Luis A.; Liyanage, Laalitha S. I.; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno

    2015-06-01

    We study the physical properties of ZnX (X = O, S, Se, Te) and CdX (X = O, S, Se, Te) in the zinc-blende, rock-salt, and wurtzite structures using the recently developed fully ab initio pseudohybrid Hubbard density functional ACBN0. We find that both the electronic and vibrational properties of these wide band-gap semiconductors are systematically improved over the PBE values and reproduce closely the experimental measurements. Similar accuracy is found for the structural parameters, especially the bulk modulus. ACBN0 results compare well with hybrid functional calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.

  2. A 380 V High Efficiency and High Power Density Switched-Capacitor Power Converter using Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2018-01-01

    to compose the proposed power stage. Their switching and loss characteristics are analyzed with transient waveforms and thermal images. Different isolated driving circuits are compared and a compact isolated halfbridge driving circuit is proposed. The full-load efficiencies of 98.3% and 97.6% are achieved......State-of-the-art switched-capacitor DC-DC power converters mainly focus on low voltage and/or high power applications. However, at high voltage and low power levels, new designs are anticipated to emerge and a power converter that has both high efficiency and high power density is highly desirable....... This paper presents such a high voltage low power switched-capacitor DC-DC converter with an input voltage upto 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and an output power experimentally validated up to 21.3 W. The wideband gap semiconductor devices of GaN switches and SiC diodes are combined...

  3. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Tian, Wei; Liu, Zi-Kui; Doolittle, W Alan; Bernhagen, Margitta; Reiche, Peter; Uecker, Reinhard; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Schlom, Darrell G

    2009-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (011) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) 6H-SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry in accordance with thermodynamic calculations. Four-circle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds (0.002 degrees). Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized using intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 / (100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have 2 in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 || [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180 degrees in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with high bandgap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  4. Characterization of Structural Defects in Wide Band-Gap Compound Materials for Semiconductor and Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goue, Ouloide Yannick

    Single crystals of binary and ternary compounds are touted to replace silicon for specialized applications in the semiconductor industry. However, the relative high density of structural defects in those crystals has hampered the performance of devices built on them. In order to enhance the performance of those devices, structurally perfect single crystals must be grown. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the interplay between crystal growth process and crystal quality as well as structural defect types and transport property. To this end, the thesis is divided into two parts. The first part provides a general review of the theory of crystal growth (chapter I), an introduction to the materials being investigated (chapter II and III) and the characterization techniques being used (chapter IV). • In chapter I, a brief description of the theory of crystal growth is provided with an eye towards the driving force behind crystal nucleation and growth along with the kinetic factors affecting crystal growth. The case of crystal growth of silicon carbide (SiC) by physical vapor transport (PVT) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is discussed. The Bridgman, travelling heater method (THM) and physical transport growth of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is also treated. In chapters II and III, we introduce the compound materials being investigated in this study. While a description of their crystal structure and properties is provided, the issues associated with their growth are discussed. In chapter IV, a description of the characterization techniques used in these studies is presented. These techniques are synchrotron X-ray topography (SXRT), transmission electron microscopy, transmission infrared microscopy (TIM), micro-Raman spectroscopy (muRS) and light microscopy. Extensive treatment of SXRT technique is also provided. In the second part, the experimental results obtained in the course of these studies are presented and discussed. These results are divided into

  5. Surface modification of m-BiVO{sub 4} with wide band-gap semiconductor BiOCl to largely improve the visible light induced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jing, E-mail: caojing@mail.ipc.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Chunchun; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} (m-BiVO{sub 4}) was modified with wide band-gap semiconductor BiOCl to construct novel BiOCl/m-BiVO{sub 4} heterojunctions. The as-synthesized samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of BiOCl/m-BiVO{sub 4} were evaluated by measuring the degradation of methyl orange, rhodamine B and acid orange II under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results showed that BiOCl/m-BiVO{sub 4} had excellent photocatalytic performance compared with pure m-BiVO{sub 4}, BiOCl, P25 and N-TiO{sub 2}, especially 30% BiOCl/m-BiVO{sub 4} exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The heterojunctions between BiOCl and m-BiVO{sub 4} highly separated the photocarriers and yielded enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiOCl/m-BiVO{sub 4}.

  6. Electronic materials with a wide band gap: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Klimm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of semiconductor electronics is reviewed briefly, beginning with the development of germanium devices (band gap Eg = 0.66 eV after World War II. A tendency towards alternative materials with wider band gaps quickly became apparent, starting with silicon (Eg = 1.12 eV. This improved the signal-to-noise ratio for classical electronic applications. Both semiconductors have a tetrahedral coordination, and by isoelectronic alternative replacement of Ge or Si with carbon or various anions and cations, other semiconductors with wider Eg were obtained. These are transparent to visible light and belong to the group of wide band gap semiconductors. Nowadays, some nitrides, especially GaN and AlN, are the most important materials for optical emission in the ultraviolet and blue regions. Oxide crystals, such as ZnO and β-Ga2O3, offer similarly good electronic properties but still suffer from significant difficulties in obtaining stable and technologically adequate p-type conductivity.

  7. Electronic materials with a wide band gap: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimm, Detlef

    2014-09-01

    The development of semiconductor electronics is reviewed briefly, beginning with the development of germanium devices (band gap E g = 0.66 eV) after World War II. A tendency towards alternative materials with wider band gaps quickly became apparent, starting with silicon (E g = 1.12 eV). This improved the signal-to-noise ratio for classical electronic applications. Both semiconductors have a tetrahedral coordination, and by isoelectronic alternative replacement of Ge or Si with carbon or various anions and cations, other semiconductors with wider E g were obtained. These are transparent to visible light and belong to the group of wide band gap semiconductors. Nowadays, some nitrides, especially GaN and AlN, are the most important materials for optical emission in the ultraviolet and blue regions. Oxide crystals, such as ZnO and β-Ga2O3, offer similarly good electronic properties but still suffer from significant difficulties in obtaining stable and technologically adequate p-type conductivity.

  8. Pressure-induced phase transition and band-gap collapse in the wide-band-gap semiconductor InTa O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, D.; Popescu, C.; Garg, A. B.; Botella, P.; Martinez-García, D.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Cuenca-Gotor, V.; Sans, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    A pressure-induced phase transition, associated with an increase of the coordination number of In and Ta, is detected beyond 13 GPa in InTa O4 by combining synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements in a diamond-anvil cell with ab initio calculations. High-pressure optical-absorption measurements were also carried out. The high-pressure phase has a monoclinic structure that shares the same space group with the low-pressure phase (P 2 /c ). The structure of the high-pressure phase can be considered as a slight distortion of an orthorhombic structure described by space group Pcna. The phase transition occurs together with a unit-cell volume collapse and an electronic band-gap collapse observed by experiments and calculations. Additionally, a band crossing is found to occur in the low-pressure phase near 7 GPa. The pressure dependence of all the Raman-active modes is reported for both phases as well as the pressure dependence of unit-cell parameters and the equations of state. Calculations also provide information on infrared-active phonons and bond distances. These findings provide insights into the effects of pressure on the physical properties of InTa O4 .

  9. Thermoelectric properties of the 3C, 2H, 4H, and 6H polytypes of the wide-band-gap semiconductors SiC, GaN, and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the 3C, 2H, 4H, and 6H polytypes of the wide-band-gap(n-type semiconductors SiC, GaN, and ZnO based on first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. Our results show that the thermoelectric performance increases from 3C to 6H, 4H, and 2H structures with an increase of hexagonality for SiC. However, for GaN and ZnO, their power factors show a very weak dependence on the polytype. Detailed analysis of the thermoelectric properties with respect to temperature and carrier concentration of 4H-SiC, 2H-GaN, and 2H-ZnO shows that the figure of merit of these three compounds increases with temperature, indicating the promising potential applications of these thermoelectric materials at high temperature. The significant difference of the polytype-dependent thermoelectric properties among SiC, GaN, and ZnO might be related to the competition between covalency and ionicity in these semiconductors. Our calculations may provide a new way to enhance the thermoelectric properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors through atomic structure design, especially hexagonality design for SiC.

  10. Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} – Wide band gap semiconductor: First principles modelling of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, M., E-mail: m.piasecki@ajd.czest.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kityk, I.V. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel infrared optoelectronic material Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} was studied using the density functional theory (DFT)-based techniques. Its structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties were all calculated in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) and the local density approximation (LDA) with the Ceperley-Alder–Perdew-Zunger (CA–PZ) functionals. The studied material is a direct band gap semiconductor with the calculated band gaps of 2.043 eV (GGA) and 1.627 eV (LDA). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index was fitted to the Sellmeier equation in the spectral range from 400 to 2000 nm. Good agreement between the GGA-calculated values of refractive index and experimental data was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first consistent theoretical description of the title compound, which includes calculations and analysis of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Infrared optoelectronic material Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} was studied using ab initio methods. • Structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties were calculated. • Independent components of the elastic constants tensor were calculated. • Good agreement with available experimental results was achieved.

  11. Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D; Kent, Thomas F; Phillips, Patrick J; Mills, Michael J; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C

    2012-02-08

    Almost all electronic devices utilize a pn junction formed by random doping of donor and acceptor impurity atoms. We developed a fundamentally new type of pn junction not formed by impurity-doping, but rather by grading the composition of a semiconductor nanowire resulting in alternating p and n conducting regions due to polarization charge. By linearly grading AlGaN nanowires from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al, we show the formation of a polarization-induced pn junction even in the absence of any impurity doping. Since electrons and holes are injected from AlN barriers into quantum disk active regions, graded nanowires allow deep ultraviolet LEDs across the AlGaN band-gap range with electroluminescence observed from 3.4 to 5 eV. Polarization-induced p-type conductivity in nanowires is shown to be possible even without supplemental acceptor doping, demonstrating the advantage of polarization engineering in nanowires compared with planar films and providing a strategy for improving conductivity in wide-band-gap semiconductors. As polarization charge is uniform within each unit cell, polarization-induced conductivity without impurity doping provides a solution to the problem of conductivity uniformity in nanowires and nanoelectronics and opens a new field of polarization engineering in nanostructures that may be applied to other polar semiconductors. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Transparent wide band gap crystals follow indirect allowed transition and bipolaron hopping mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we carried out structural, optical and dielectric studies on micro-crystals of Oxypeucedanin (C16H14O5, isolated from the roots of plant Prangos pabularia (Mir et al. (2014 [3,4]. The obtained trend in frequency exponent (s with frequency (ω indicates that the universal dynamic response is followed by this compound. From optical absorption spectroscopy, the optical band gap (Eg was estimated around 3.76 eV and system is showing indirect allowed transition. Using Eg in certain relation of s, a close value of s (as much close obtained by fitting ac conductivity was obtained. This method was further used for other similar systems and again same trend was obtained. So a general conclusion was made that the high transmitting wide band insulators or semiconductors may follow bipolaron hopping transport mechanism.

  13. 3-D phononic crystals with ultra-wide band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Guest, James K.; Srivastava, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    In this paper gradient based topology optimization (TO) is used to discover 3-D phononic structures that exhibit ultra-wide normalized all-angle all-mode band gaps. The challenging computational task of repeated 3-D phononic band-structure evaluations is accomplished by a combination of a fast mixed variational eigenvalue solver and distributed Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computations. The TO algorithm utilizes the material distribution-based approach and a gradient-based optimizer. The design sensitivity for the mixed variational eigenvalue problem is derived using the adjoint method and is implemented through highly efficient vectorization techniques. We present optimized results for two-material simple cubic (SC), body centered cubic (BCC), and face centered cubic (FCC) crystal structures and show that in each of these cases different initial designs converge to single inclusion network topologies within their corresponding primitive cells. The optimized results show that large phononic stop bands for bulk wave propagation can be achieved at lower than close packed spherical configurations leading to lighter unit cells. For tungsten carbide - epoxy crystals we identify all angle all mode normalized stop bands exceeding 100%, which is larger than what is possible with only spherical inclusions. PMID:28233812

  14. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-04-29

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  15. LC Filter Design for Wide Band Gap Device Based Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simple design procedure for LC filters used in wide band gap device based adjustable speed drives. Wide band gap devices offer fast turn-on and turn-off times, thus producing high dV/dt into the motor terminals. The high dV/dt can be harmful for the motor windings and bearings...... and must therefore be reduced. This may be accomplished by a sine LC filter with DC link feedback, which reduces both the differential mode and common mode dV/dt. Wide band gap devices are capable of switching at frequencies much higher than traditional Si based devices. This makes it possible to design...... the LC filter with a higher cut off frequency and without damping resistors. The selection of inductance and capacitance is chosen based on capacitor voltage ripple and current ripple. The filter adds a base load to the inverter, which increases the inverter losses. It is shown how the modulation index...

  16. Epitaxial growth of wide-band-gap ZnGa2O4 films by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Takayoshi; Niwa, Mifuyu; Mukai, Akira; Nagami, Tomohito; Suyama, Toshihisa; Ohtomo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    ZnGa2O4 films were grown on (100) MgAl2O4 substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition. A growth window for obtaining single spinel phase was revealed by systematic variations of precursor Zn/Ga ratio and growth temperature, where the cation stoichiometry was maintained through sublimation of excess Zn species before crystalized into ZnO. The epitaxial relationship to the substrate was identified to be cube on cube with no rotation domain. The optical properties of the fully relaxed film were characterized by using cathodoluminescence (CL) and absorption spectroscopies. A large Stokes shift was found between the CL peak energy (3.4 eV) and fundamental absorption edge (4.6 eV), reflecting typical property of Ga-based wide-band-gap oxide semiconductors.

  17. Interactions between graphene oxide and wide band gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, M.; Podborska, A.; Szaciłowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The graphene oxide (GO) and GO@TiO2 nanocomposite have been synthesised by using modified Hummers method and ultrasonics respectively. The materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the interaction between GO and TiO2 affects the average interlayer spacing in carbonaceous material. The formation of bonds between various oxygen-containing functional groups and surface of titanium dioxide was investigated. One of them formed between the quinone structures (occur in graphene oxide) and titanium atoms exhibited 1.5 bond order. Furthermore the charge-transfer processes in GO@TiO2 composite were observed.

  18. The Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors: A Brief Survey | Ottaviani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les semi-conducteurs à grande bande d'énergie interdite sont des matériaux très prometteurs dans les domaines de l'électronique de puissance, de la détection de radiations haute énergie et de l'optoélectronique. Leurs propriétés physiques permettent d'obtenir de meilleures performances que le silicium pour certaines ...

  19. Characterization of wide band gap semiconductors and multiferroic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bo

    Structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum nitride (AlN), and lutetium ferrite (LuFe2O4) have been investigated. Temperature dependent Hall Effect measurements were performed between 80 and 800 K for phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) doped ZnO thin films grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. These samples exhibited n-type conductivity throughout the temperature range with carrier concentration of 3.85 x 1016 cm-3 and 3.65 x 10 17 cm-3 at room temperature for P-doped and As-doped ZnO films, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of free electron concentration of those doped samples showed double thermal activation processes with a small activation energy of about 0.04 eV due to shallow donors and a large activation energy of about 0.8 eV due to deep donors. The deep donor level could be related to oxygen vacancy. For undoped ZnO layer, growth condition was optimized to use as low background electron buffer layer. Hall Effect measurements showed that the resistivity and background electron concentration of the films decreases as the substrate temperature increases. The film deposited at 900 oC has more than two orders less background electron concentration than that deposited at 300 °C. Based on photoluminescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis, the ZnO grown under this condition is formed to be a greatly reduced density of stacking faults. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to investigate dislocations in aluminum nitride (AlN) epilayers grown on sapphire substrate using three-step growth method by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). AlN epilayers grown by this method have smooth surfaces, narrow width of X-ray rocking curves, and strong band edge photoluminescence (PL) emissions with low impurity emissions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that most of the threading dislocations are annihilated within 300 nm. Stacking faults are greatly reduced in the epilayers grown by this method resulting in very low screw type threading dislocation density. Dominant threading dislocations in the AlN epilayers are edge type originated from misfit dislocations (MD). The electro-optical and temperature-dependent electrical-transport properties of LuFe2O4 (LFO) thin films have been investigated. The LFO thin films at 78 K showed the electro-optical effects of size up to 5% near the Fe2+ d to d on-site electronic transition. In the three-dimensional charge-ordered state of LFO, we observed hysteresis in dc voltage-current measurements and nonlinear voltage-current relationship in transient response of voltage under current pulses. The electro-optical and electrical properties of LFO thin films are interpreted in terms of the field-induced changes of the charge-ordered state mediated by the spin-charge-lattice coupling effect. We also discuss possible mechanisms of the complex electrical properties and electro-optical effects in conjunction with the Maxwell-Wagner effects.

  20. Recent emission channeling studies in wide band gap semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Rita, E; Alves, E; Carvalho-Soares, João; De Vries, Bart; Matias, V; Vantomme, A

    2005-01-01

    We present results of recent emission channeling experiments on the lattice location of implanted Fe and rare earths in wurtzite GaN and ZnO. In both cases the majority of implanted atoms are found on substitutional cation sites. The root mean square displacements from the ideal substitutional Ga and Zn sites are given and the stability of the Fe and rare earth lattice location against thermal annealing is discussed.

  1. Characterization of p-type wide band gap transparent oxide for heterojunction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang-Hyun

    Transparent p-type CuCr1-xMgxO2 wide band gap oxide semiconductor thin films were deposited over quartz substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using metalloorganic precursors. A mechanism of synthesis of CuCrO2 films involving precursor decomposition, oxidation, and reaction between constituent oxides in the spray deposition process is presented. Crystalline single phase CuCrO2 delafossite structure was dominant in ≥700ºC argon ambient annealed films but the as-deposited films contained spinel CuCr2O4 mixed phases as shown by XRD and XPS studies. Spin-orbital energy ˜9.8eV in Cr 2p electron spectra consistent with Cr3+ valence state and Cr 2p3/2 resolved peaks show mixed valence state on Cr4+ /Cr6+ confirming CuCr1-xMgxO 2 compound phase in the films. Effect of substrate temperature, film thickness, and acceptor Mg2+ doping on crystallographic structure, optical, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric coefficient was investigated. The invariance of the alpha- and increase of the c-lattice parameter with Mg concentration suggests that Mg2+ ions are introduced at the Cr3+ site. Highly transparent ≥80% CuCr 0.93Mg0.07O2 films with direct and indirect optical band gaps 3.08 and 2.58eV for 155 nm and 3.14 and 2.79eV for 305nm thin films, respectively were obtained. Photoluminescence emission bands at 532 and 484nm interpreted to arise from 3d94s1 and 3d 10 Cu+ intra-band transitions. Electrical conductivity of CuCr0.93Mg0.07O 2 films ranged from 0.6-1.0 Scm-1 and exhibits activation energies ˜0.11eV in 300-420K and ˜0.23eV in ≥ 420K region ascribed to activated conduction and grain boundary trap assisted conduction, respectively. Restricted by the Mg solubility, the substituted Mg dopants limited to x≤0.05 are only able to contribute to the optimum hole carrier in the range ˜2-4x1019cm-3 and thus no substantial increase of electrical conductivity could be realized with increased Mg concentration. A major fraction of Mg atoms do not act as

  2. Electronic structure study of wide band gap magnetic semiconductor (La{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} nanocrystals in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, G. D.; Chou, H.; Yang, K. S.; Jhong, D. J.; Chan, W. L. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Joshi, Amish G. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Shiv; Ghosh, A. K. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Chatterjee, Sandip, E-mail: schatterji.app@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-04-25

    X-ray circular magnetic dichroism (XMCD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) techniques were used to study the electronic structure of nanocrystalline (La{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} near Fermi-level. XMCD results indicate that Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} spins are aligned parallel to each other at 20 K. The low M-H hysteresis curve measured at 5 K confirms ferromagnetic ordering in the (La{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} system. The low temperature valence band XPS indicates that coupling between Mn3d and O2p is enhanced and the electronic states near Fermi-level have been suppressed below T{sub C}. The valence band UPS also confirms the suppression of electronic states near Fermi-level below Curie temperature. UPS near Fermi-edge shows that the electronic states are almost absent below 0.5 eV (at 300 K) and 1 eV (at 115 K). This absence clearly demonstrates the existence of a wide band-gap in the system since, for hole-doped semiconductors, the Fermi-level resides just above the valence band maximum.

  3. Wide-band gap devices in PV systems - opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Cristian; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The recent developments in wide band-gap devices based GaN and SiC is showing a high impact on the PV-inverter technology, which is strongly influenced by efficiency, power density and cost. Besides the high efficiency of PV inverters, also the mechanical size, the compactness and simple structure...... have an important role in the cost reduction. To increase the efficiency of PV systems, most of solutions for PV inverters have moved to three-level (3L) structures reaching typical efficiencies of 98% due to low switching losses of 600V Si IGBT or MOSFET and reduced core losses in the filter......) three-phase PV-inverter topologies in terms of efficiency, thermal loading distribution and costs. Moreover the above mentioned PV-inverters are built and tested in laboratory in order to validate the obtained results....

  4. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by a wide band gap p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jingwen; Wang, Zhengmei; Chen, Mindong; Teng, Fei

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we prepared a new wide band gap semiconductor, p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH, which exhibits efficient activity for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation under mild conditions and UV light irradiation. The apparent rate constant for PFOA degradation by InOOH is 27.6 times higher than that for P25 titania. Results show that ionized PFOA (C7F15COO-) can be adsorbed much more efficiently on the surface of InOOH than P25. Then, the adsorbed C7F15COO- can be decomposed directly by photo-generated holes to form C7F15COOrad radicals. This process is the key step for the photocalytic degradation of PFOA. Major degradation intermediates, fluoride ions and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter chain lengths were detected during PFOA degradation. A possible pathway for photocatalytic degradation of PFOA is proposed based on the experimental results. Therefore, this studies indicates a potential new material and method for the efficient treatment of PFCA pollutants under mild conditions.

  5. Final Report: Rational Design of Wide Band Gap Buffer Layers for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to enable rational design of wide band gap buffer layer materials for CIGS thin-film PV by building understanding of the correlation of atomic-scale defects in the buffer layer and at the buffer/absorber interface with device electrical properties. Optimized wide band gap buffers are needed to reduce efficiency loss from parasitic absorption in the buffer. The approach uses first-principles materials simulations coupled with nanoscale analytical electron microscopy as well as device electrical characterization. Materials and devices are produced by an industrial partner in a manufacturing line to maximize relevance, with the goal of enabling R&D of new buffer layer compositions or deposition processes to push device efficiencies above 21%. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the reference material for analysis, as the prototypical high-performing buffer material.

  6. Synergetic effects of I- ions and BiOI on visible-light-activity enhancement of wide-band-gap (BiO)2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Cao, Jing; Lin, Haili; Guo, Xiaomin; Zhang, Meiyu; Chen, Shifu

    2017-08-01

    The wide-band-gap semiconductor (BiO)2CO3 was modified by interior doping with I- ions and surface loading with BiOI to prepare a highly efficient visible-light active photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange and phenol. The interior I- ions elevate the valence band position of (BiO)2CO3 and induce visible-light photocatalytic activity, while the in-situ-formed BiOI/I-(BiO)2CO3 heterojunction significantly improves the separation of photoinduced charge carriers. By the action of the reactive species h+ and rad O2-, methyl orange and phenol were degraded over the novel BiOI/I-(BiO)2CO3 composite at rates that were 18- and 4-times, respectively, those of unmodified (BiO)2CO3. Thus, the findings presented here may be widely applied in the development of wide-band-gap semiconductor photocatalytic systems for the highly efficient removal of contaminants from wastewater.

  7. Nanoscale wide-band semiconductors for photocatalytic remediation of aquatic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Daware, Akshay Vishnu; Gupta, Priya; Krishnani, Kishore Kumar; Baruah, Sunandan; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2017-10-07

    Water pollution is a serious challenge to the public health. Among different forms of aquatic pollutants, chemical and biological agents create paramount threat to water quality when the safety standards are surpassed. There are many conventional remediatory strategies that are practiced such as resin-based exchanger and activated charcoal/carbon andreverse osmosis. Newer technologies using plants, microorganisms, genetic engineering, and enzyme-based approaches are also proposed for aquatic pollution management. However, the conventional technologies have shown impending inadequacies. On the other hand, new bio-based techniques have failed to exhibit reproducibility, wide specificity, and fidelity in field conditions. Hence, to solve these shortcomings, nanotechnology ushered a ray of hope by applying nanoscale zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and tungsten oxide (WO3) particles for the remediation of water pollution. These nanophotocatalysts are active, cost-effective, quicker in action, and can be implemented at a larger scale. These nanoparticles are climate-independent, assist in complete mineralization of pollutants, and can act non-specifically against chemically and biologically based aquatic pollutants. Photocatalysis for environmental remediation depends on the availability of solar light. The mechanism of photocatalysis involves the formation of electron-hole pairs upon light irradiations at intensities higher than their band gap energies. In the present review, different methods of synthesis of nanoscale ZnO, TiO2, and WO3 as well as their structural characterizations have been discussed. Photodegradation of organic pollutants through mentioned nanoparticles has been reviewed with recent advancements. Enhancing the efficacy of photocatalysis through doping of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles with non-metals, metals, and metal ions has also been documented in this report.

  8. A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Lianjie; Zhong, Anxing; Liu, Xuncheng; Pan, Feilong; Cai, Wanzhu; Inganäs, Olle; Liu, Yi; Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

    2017-10-18

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9.09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (Jsc) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good PCE of 8.19% was still achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  9. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Peters, Craig H.

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949 mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV's goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to (1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and (2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS

  10. Excitonic characteristics in direct wide-band-gap CuScO2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, H.; Makino, T.; Fukumura, T.; Ohtomo, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2009-11-01

    Thin films of a delafossite compound CuScO2 were grown on spinel MgAl2O4 (111) substrates, yielding in highly crystalline and (0001)-oriented epitaxial structures. Absorption spectra at 20 K revealed a sharp exciton resonance at 3.97 eV, which persisted up to 300 K. Its direct transition band gap at 20 K and exciton binding energies were determined to be about 4.35 and 380 meV, both of which are considerably larger than those of ZnO. In view of its capability of naturally layered structure and p-type doping, this compound will be interesting for exciton physics as well as implementation of heterostructured devices.

  11. Polarization-induced electrical conductivity in ultra-wide band gap AlGaN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Unintentionally doped (UID) AlGaN epilayers graded over Al compositions of 80%-90% and 80%-100% were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and were electrically characterized using contactless sheet resistance (Rsh) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Strong electrical conductivity in the UID graded AlGaN epilayers resulted from polarization-induced doping and was verified by the low resistivity of 0.04 Ω cm for the AlGaN epilayer graded over 80%-100% Al mole fraction. A free electron concentration (n) of 4.8 × 1017 cm-3 was measured by C-V for Al compositions of 80%-100%. Average electron mobility ( μ ¯ ) was calculated from Rsh and n data for three ranges of Al composition grading, and it was found that UID AlGaN graded from 88%-96% had μ ¯ = 509 cm2/V s. The combination of very large band gap energy, high μ ¯ , and high n for UID graded AlGaN epilayers make them attractive as a building block for high voltage power electronic devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors.

  12. The role of deep acceptor centers in the oxidation of acceptor-doped wide-band-gap perovskites ABO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, L. P.; Tsidilkovski, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The impact of deep acceptor centers on defect thermodynamics and oxidation of wide-band-gap acceptor-doped perovskites without mixed-valence cations is studied. These deep centers are formed by the acceptor-bound small hole polarons whose stabilization energy can be high enough (significantly higher than the hole-acceptor Coulomb interaction energy). It is shown that the oxidation enthalpy ΔHox of oxide is determined by the energy εA of acceptor-bound states along with the formation energy EV of oxygen vacancies. The oxidation reaction is demonstrated to be either endothermic or exothermic, and the regions of εA and EV values corresponding to the positive or negative ΔHox are determined. The contribution of acceptor-bound holes to the defect thermodynamics strongly depends on the acceptor states depth εA: it becomes negligible at εA less than a certain value (at which the acceptor levels are still deep). With increasing εA, the concentration of acceptor-bound small hole polarons can reach the values comparable to the dopant content. The results are illustrated with the acceptor-doped BaZrO3 as an example. It is shown that the experimental data on the bulk hole conductivity of barium zirconate can be described both in the band transport model and in the model of hopping small polarons localized on oxygen ions away from the acceptor centers. Depending on the εA magnitude, the oxidation reaction can be either endothermic or exothermic for both mobility mechanisms.

  13. Electrochromic devices based on wide band-gap nanocrystalline semiconductors functionalized with mononuclear charge transfer compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ruthenium and iron mononuclear complexes were prepared and their spectroeletrochemical behavior characterized oil Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrodes (OTTLE) and on Fluorine Doped SnO2 (FTO) conductive glasses coated with Sb-doped nanocrystalline SnO2. These systems display...... a reversible electrochemical response and offer potential application in electrochromic devices. On SnO2 films distinct spectral changes are observed in a narrow potential range (-0.5/0.9 V vs SCE) with switching times of the order of 0.8 s. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Wide band gap semiconductor nanowires for optical devices 1 low-dimensionality related effects and growth

    CERN Document Server

    Consonni , Vincent

    2014-01-01

    GaN and ZnO nanowires can by grown using a wide variety of methods from physical vapor deposition to wet chemistry for optical devices. This book starts by presenting the similarities and differences between GaN and ZnO materials, as well as the assets and current limitations of nanowires for their use in optical devices, including feasibility and perspectives. It then focuses on the nucleation and growth mechanismsof ZnO and GaN nanowires, grown by various chemical and physical methods. Finally, it describes the formation of nanowire heterostructures applied to optical devices.

  15. Coherent Optical Control of Electronic Excitations in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    5.33 eV, suitable for studying GaN with generated electron-hole pairs up to 1020 cm−3. ...............................12 Fig. 4 Calculated time...studying GaN with generated electron-hole pairs up to 1020 cm−3. 2.4 Results and Discussion for the Gallium Nitride (GaN) Case In this section we...14. Chen P, Piermarocchi C, Sham LJ, Gammon D, Steel DG. Phys Rev A. 2004;69:075320. 15. Economou SE, Reinecke TL. Phys Rev Lett. 2007;99:217401

  16. Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors. 1991 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Landstrass and K.V. Ravi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 975 (1989). 7 S. Albin and L. Watkins, Appl.Phys. Lett 56, 1454 (1990). 8 T.B.Kustka, R.O. Dillon and T...periodicity are observable on side of the fundamental sports . The satellite sports of four orders along (001] axis were observed, showing that rather...superlattice period determined from the spacing between satellite and fundamental sports is about 29.6A. (a) (b) Fig.l. IMEElI) patterns of (a) ZnSe-ZnS SLS (b

  17. Wide band gap materials and devices for NO{sub x}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Majdeddin

    2008-01-22

    In this thesis, field effect gas sensors (Schottky diodes, MOS capacitors, and MOSFET transistors) based on wide band gap semiconductors like silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN), as well as resistive gas sensors based on indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}), have been developed for the detection of reducing gases (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}) and oxidising gases (NO{sub x}, O{sub 2}). The development of the sensors has been performed at the Institute for Micro- and Nanoelectronic, Technical University Ilmenau in cooperation with (GE) General Electric Global Research (USA) and Umwelt-Sensor- Technik GmbH (Geschwenda). Chapter 1: serves as an introduction into the scientific fields related to this work. The theoretical fundamentals of solid-state gas sensors are provided and the relevant properties of wide band gap materials (SiC and GaN) are summarized. In chapter 2: The performance of Pt/GaN Schottky diodes with different thickness of the catalytic metal were investigated as hydrogen gas detectors. The area as well as the thickness of the Pt were varied between 250 {proportional_to} 250 {mu}m{sup 2} and 1000 {proportional_to} 1000 {mu}m{sup 2}, 8 and 40 nm, respectively. The response to hydrogen gas was investigated in dependence on the active area, the Pt thickness and the operating temperature for 1 vol.% hydrogen in synthetic air. We observed a significant increase of the sensitivity and a decrease of the response and recovery times by increasing the temperature of operation to about 350{sup o}C and by decreasing the Pt thickness down to 8 nm. Electron microscopy of the microstructure showed that the thinner platinum had a higher grain boundary density. The increase in sensitivity with decreasing Pt thickness points to the dissociation of molecular hydrogen on the surface, the diffusion of atomic hydrogen along the platinum grain boundaries and the adsorption of hydrogen at the Pt/GaN interface as a possible mechanism of sensing hydrogen by Schottky diodes. The

  18. Wide Band-Gap 3,4-Difluorothiophene-Based Polymer with 7% Solar Cell Efficiency: an Alternative to P3HT

    KAUST Repository

    Wolf, Jannic Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    We report on a wide band-gap polymer donor composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene (BDT) and 3,4-difluorothiophene ([2F]T) units (Eopt ~2.1 eV), and show that the fluorinated analog PBDT[2F]T performs significantly better than its non-fluorinated counterpart PBDT[2H]T in BHJ solar cells with PC71BM. While control P3HT- and PBDT[2H]T-based devices yield PCEs of ca. 4% and 3% (Max.) respectively, PBDT[2F]T-based devices reach PCEs of ca. 7%, combining a large Voc of ca. 0.9 V and short-circuit current values (ca. 10.7 mA/cm2) comparable to those of the best P3HT-based control devices.

  19. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  20. Blue and red emission in wide band gap BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+},Tm{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Vega-Gonzalez, M. [Centro de Geociencias-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Cd. Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Under NIR excitation at 967 intense blue and red photoluminescence (PL) emissions are observed at room temperature in codoped Tm{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb,Tm) powders. Powders were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, and present a wide band gap that depends on the total rare earth content due to the degree of disorder induced in the BaZrO{sub 3} lattice by the substitution of the rare earth ions. Rietveld refinements of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of primary nanocrystallites with sizes between 50 and 70 nm depending on the Tm{sup 3+} content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) shows that these primary particles self-aggregated in larger secondary particles which present a regular morphology with sizes around 1 {mu}m. The intense blue and red PL emissions in BaZrO{sub 3} powders under 967 nm excitation are governed by energy transfer processes from Yb{sup 3+} ions to Tm{sup 3+} ions and crossrelaxation among Tm{sup 3+} ions.

  1. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  2. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Junhao

    2010-01-01

    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  3. Antifungal activity of wide band gap Thioglycolic acid capped ZnS:Mn semiconductor nanoparticles against some pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Isam M; Ali, Iftikhar M; Dheeb, Batol Imran; Abas, Qayes A; Asmeit Ramizy; Eisa, M H; Aljameel, A I

    2017-04-01

    The manganese doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical reaction of manganese chloride, zinc acetate and thioacitamide in aqueous solution. Thioglycolic acid is used as capping agent for controlling the nanoparticle size. The main advantage of the ZnS:Mn nanoparticles of diameter ~2.73nm is that the sample is prepared by using non-toxic precursors in a cost effective and eco-friendly way. The structural, morphological and chemical composition of the nanoparticles have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The nanosize of the prepared nanoparticles was elucidated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). FTIR result ensures that Thioglycolic acid is well bonded on the surface of ZnS:Mn NPs. The antifungal effects of Thioglycolic acid capped ZnS:Mn nanoparticles exhibited a potent antifungal activity against tested fungal strains, so deserving further investigation for clinical applications. The antifungal property of manganese doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles is attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species due to the interaction of nanoparticles with water. Additionally, the presence of Zn and S in the zone of inhibition area leads to perturbation of fungi cell membranes resulting in growth inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperfine Interactions in the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectra of Point Defects in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    between the 5s electron and the silver nucleus. Breit and Rabi [5] described this hyperfine interaction in the context of the Stern-Gerlach...experiment, and Rabi et al. [6] were the first to directly measure nuclear magnetic moments with this beam technique [7]. 1 quantum angular momentum or spin...is an interruption in the periodicity of a crystal lattice that is localized within a few lattice sites. A crystal lattice is composed of a Bravais

  5. Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Radiation Detectors: Science Fiction, Horror Story, or Headlines (460th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Ralph (BNL Nonproliferation and National Security Department)

    2010-08-18

    With radiation constantly occurring from natural sources all around us -- from food, building materials, and rays from the sun, to name a few -- detecting radiotracers for medical procedures and other radiation to keep people safe is not easy. In order to make better use of radiation to diagnose or treat certain health conditions, or to track radiological materials being transported, stored, and used, the quest is on to develop improved radiation detectors. James gives a brief introduction on radiation detection and explain how it is used in applications ranging from medical to homeland security. He then discusses how new materials and better ways to analyze them here at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and the future NSLS-II will lead to a new class of radiation detectors that will provide unprecedented advances in medical and industrial imaging, basic science, and the nonproliferation of nuclear materials.

  6. Determination of deep level capture cross sections in wide band-gap semiconductors by means of an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a general theory for the determination of the short circuit current generated by a sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electron beam in the presence of recombination centers with an arbitrary number of charge states. It is shown that a measurement of the coherent phase shift with respect to the incident beam as a function of the modulation frequency of the beam ascertains the magnitudes of electron and hole capture cross sections. The surface exposed to the electron beam must have a negligible surface recombination velocity for the measurements to be unambiguous.

  7. Graphene transforms wide band gap ZnS to a visible light photocatalyst. The new role of graphene as a macromolecular photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2012-11-27

    We report the assembly of nanosized ZnS particles on the 2D platform of a graphene oxide (GO) sheet by a facile two-step wet chemistry process, during which the reduced graphene oxide (RGO, also called GR) and the intimate interfacial contact between ZnS nanoparticles and the GR sheet are achieved simultaneously. The ZnS-GR nanocomposites exhibit visible light photoactivity toward aerobic selective oxidation of alcohols and epoxidation of alkenes under ambient conditions. In terms of structure-photoactivity correlation analysis, we for the first time propose a new photocatalytic mechanism where the role of GR in the ZnS-GR nanocomposites acts as an organic dye-like macromolecular "photosensitizer" for ZnS instead of an electron reservoir. This novel photocatalytic mechanism is distinctly different from all previous research on GR-semiconductor photocatalysts, for which GR is claimed to behave as an electron reservoir to capture/shuttle the electrons photogenerated from the semiconductor. This new concept of the reaction mechanism in graphene-semiconductor photocatalysts could provide a new train of thought on designing GR-based composite photocatalysts for targeting applications in solar energy conversion, promoting our in-depth thinking on the microscopic charge carrier transfer pathway connected to the interface between the GR and the semiconductor.

  8. Coexistence of Strong Second Harmonic Generation Response and Wide Band Gap in AZn4 Ga5 S12 (A=K, Rb, Cs) with 3D Diamond-like Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Yu-Jun; Yu, Ju-Song; Wu, Xin-Tao; Wu, Li-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR, 2-20 μm) second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with outstanding performances are of great importance in laser science and technology. However, the enormous challenge to design and synthesize an excellent MIR NLO material lies in achieving simultaneously a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response [dij >0.6 × AgGaS2 (AGS)] and wide band gap (Eg >3.5 eV). Herein three new MIR NLO materials, AZn4 Ga5 S12 (A=K, Rb, Cs) are reported, which crystallize in the KCd4 Ga5 S12 -type structure and adopt a 3D diamond-like framework (DLF) consisting of MS4 (M=Zn/Ga) tetrahedra; achieving the desired balance with strong powder SHG response (1.2-1.4 × AGS) and wide band gap (Eg ≈3.65 eV). Moreover, they also show large laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs, 36 × AGS), a wide range of optical transparency (0.4-25 μm) and ultrahigh thermal stability (up to 1400 K). Upon analyzing the structure-property relationship of AXII4 XIII5 Q12 family, these 3D DLF structures can be used as a highly versatile and tunable platform for designing excellent MIR NLO materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Atomically thin arsenene and antimonene: semimetal-semiconductor and indirect-direct band-gap transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Yan, Zhong; Li, Yafei; Chen, Zhongfang; Zeng, Haibo

    2015-03-02

    The typical two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus have garnered tremendous interest for their unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties. However, all 2D semiconductors reported thus far feature band gaps that are smaller than 2.0 eV, which has greatly restricted their applications, especially in optoelectronic devices with photoresponse in the blue and UV range. Novel 2D mono-elemental semiconductors, namely monolayered arsenene and antimonene, with wide band gaps and high stability were now developed based on first-principles calculations. Interestingly, although As and Sb are typically semimetals in the bulk, they are transformed into indirect semiconductors with band gaps of 2.49 and 2.28 eV when thinned to one atomic layer. Significantly, under small biaxial strain, these materials were transformed from indirect into direct band-gap semiconductors. Such dramatic changes in the electronic structure could pave the way for transistors with high on/off ratios, optoelectronic devices working under blue or UV light, and mechanical sensors based on new 2D crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of radiative recombination on the minority-carrier transport in direct band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1983-01-01

    When a semiconductor sample is irradiated by means of an external source, emitting photons or electrons, excess carriers are produced which distribute themselves throughout the sample. One of the parameters which determine the distribution of the carriers is the surface recombination velocity. The present investigation is concerned with the recombination lifetime tau. The predominant mechanism for recombination in wide band-gap semiconductors is described by the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) theory. The transport equations are derived for free carriers and the radiation field. The considered theory is applied to a semiinfinite, one-dimensional semiconductor slab irradiated by light of a given frequency. Some numerical considerations based on n-type GaAs are presented. Attention is given to a determination of the radiation transmitted through the surface of the sample.

  11. Determination of optical constant and dispersion parameters of Se75Sb10In15 thin film characterized by wide band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elrahman, M. I.; Abu-Sehly, A. A.; El-sonbaty, Sherouk Sh.; Hafiz, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    Chalcogenide Se75Sb10In15 thin films of different thickness (50-300 nm) are deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The thermogram of the chalcogenide bulk Se75Sb10In15 is obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization temperature T c, peak crystallization temperature T p and melting temperature T m, are identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination indicates the crystallinity of the as-deposited film decreases with increasing of thickness. Optical transmission and reflection spectra are recorded in the wavelength range of the incident photons from 250 to 2500 nm. It is found that the film thickness affects the absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and the width of the tails of localized states in the gap region. The absorption mechanism of the as-deposited films is a direct allowed transition. The optical band gap energy ( E g) decreases from 3.31 to 2.51 eV with increasing the film thickness from 50 to 300 nm. The behavior of E g is explained on the basis of the structure disorders in the thicker films. The effect of the film thickness on the single-oscillator and dispersion energies is studied by the dispersion analyses of the refractive index.

  12. Determination of optical constant and dispersion parameters of Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} thin film characterized by wide band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I.; Abu-Sehly, A.A.; El-sonbaty, Sherouk Sh.; Hafiz, M.M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    Chalcogenide Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} thin films of different thickness (50-300 nm) are deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The thermogram of the chalcogenide bulk Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} is obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization temperature T{sub c}, peak crystallization temperature T{sub p} and melting temperature T{sub m}, are identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination indicates the crystallinity of the as-deposited film decreases with increasing of thickness. Optical transmission and reflection spectra are recorded in the wavelength range of the incident photons from 250 to 2500 nm. It is found that the film thickness affects the absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and the width of the tails of localized states in the gap region. The absorption mechanism of the as-deposited films is a direct allowed transition. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) decreases from 3.31 to 2.51 eV with increasing the film thickness from 50 to 300 nm. The behavior of E{sub g} is explained on the basis of the structure disorders in the thicker films. The effect of the film thickness on the single-oscillator and dispersion energies is studied by the dispersion analyses of the refractive index. (orig.)

  13. Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cells with an Efficiency of 10.2% and an Energy Loss of 0.59 eV Based on a Thieno[3,4-c]Pyrrole-4,6-dione-Containing Wide Band Gap Polymer Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Wibowo, Febrian Tri Adhi; Ryu, Du Yeol; Jung, In Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-09-27

    Although the combination of wide band gap polymer donors and narrow band gap small-molecule acceptors achieved state-of-the-art performance as bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers for organic solar cells, there have been only several of the wide band gap polymers that actually realized high-efficiency devices over >10%. Herein, we developed high-efficiency, low-energy-loss fullerene-free organic solar cells using a weakly crystalline wide band gap polymer donor, PBDTTPD-HT, and a nonfullerene small-molecule acceptor, ITIC. The excessive intermolecular stacking of ITIC is efficiently suppressed by the miscibility with PBDTTPD-HT, which led to a well-balanced nanomorphology in the PBDTTPD-HT/ITIC BHJ active films. The favorable optical, electronic, and energetic properties of PBDTTPD-HT with respect to ITIC achieved panchromatic photon-to-current conversion with a remarkably low energy loss (0.59 eV).

  14. Accurate band gaps of semiconductors and insulators with a semilocal exchange-correlation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter

    2009-06-05

    A modified version of the exchange potential proposed by Becke and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 221101 (2006)10.1063/1.2213970] is tested on solids for the calculation of band gaps. The agreement with experiment is very good for all types of solids we considered (e.g., wide band gap insulators, sp semiconductors, and strongly correlated 3d transition-metal oxides) and is of the same order as the agreement obtained with the hybrid functionals or the GW methods. This semilocal exchange potential, which recovers the local-density approximation (LDA) for a constant electron density, mimics very well the behavior of orbital-dependent potentials and leads to calculations which are barely more expensive than LDA calculations. Therefore, it can be applied to very large systems in an efficient way.

  15. Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, W.; Albrecht, S. M.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    information processing. Proposals in this direction based on proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunneling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting...... a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate...

  16. Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Szu-Hung; Shiu, Jin-Ruei; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yeh, Shi-Jay; Chen, Yu-Hung; Chen, Chin-Ti; Chow, Tahsin J; Wu, Chih-I

    2009-01-21

    A series of group III metal chelates have been synthesized and characterized for the versatile application of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These metal chelates are based on 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine derivates as chelating ligands, and they are the blue version analogues of well-known green fluorophore Alq(3) (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum). These chelating ligands and their metal chelates were easily prepared with an improved synthetic method, and they were facially purified by a sublimation process, which enables the materials to be readily available in bulk quantity and facilitates their usage in OLEDs. Unlike most currently known blue analogues of Alq(3) or other deep blue materials, metal chelates of 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine exhibit very deep blue fluorescence, wide band gap energy, high charge carrier mobility, and superior thermal stability. Using a vacuum-thermal-deposition process in the fabrication of OLEDs, we have successfully demonstrated that the application of these unusual hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates can be very versatile and effective. First, we have solved or alleviated the problem of exciplex formation that took place between the hole-transporting layer and hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates, of which OLED application has been prohibited to date. Second, these deep blue materials can play various roles in OLED application. They can be a highly efficient nondopant deep blue emitter: maximum external quantum efficiency eta(ext) of 4.2%; Commision Internationale de L'Eclairage x, y coordinates, CIE(x,y) = 0.15, 0.07. Compared with Alq(3), Bebq(2) (beryllium bis(benzoquinolin-10-olate)), or TPBI (2,2',2''-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole), they are a good electron-transporting material: low HOMO energy level of 6.4-6.5 eV and not so high LUMO energy level of 3.0-3.3 eV. They can be ambipolar and possess a high electron mobility of 10(-4) cm(2)/V s at an electric field of 6.4 x 10(5) V/cm. They are a

  17. Limitations to band gap tuning in nitride semiconductor alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2010-01-01

    Relations between the band gaps of nitride alloys and their lattice parameters are presented and limits to tuning of the fundamental gap in nitride semiconductors are set by combining a large number of experimental data with ab initio theoretical calculations. Large band gap bowings obtained...

  18. Band gaps induced by vacuum photons in closed semiconductor cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Kibis, O. V.; Arnardottir, K. B.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider theoretically a closed (zero-dimensional) semiconductor microcavity where confined vacuum photonic mode is coupled to electrons in valence band of the semiconductor. It is shown that vacuum-induced virtual electron transitions between valence and conduction bands result in renormalization of electron energy spectrum. As a consequence, vacuum-induced band gaps appear within the valence band. Calculated values of the band gaps are of sub-meV scale, that makes this QED effect to be m...

  19. Large tunable photonic band gaps in nanostructured doped semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Léon, Jérome; Taliercio, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A plasmonic nanostructure conceived with periodic layers of a doped semiconductor and passive semiconductor is shown to generate spontaneously surface plasmon polaritons thanks to its periodic nature. The nanostructure is demonstrated to behave as an effective material modeled by a simple dielectric function of ionic-crystal type, and possesses a fully tunable photonic band gap, with widths exceeding 50%, in the region extending from mid-infra-red to Tera-Hertz.

  20. Wide Band Gap Semiconductors Symposium Held in Boston, Massachusetts on 2-6 December 1991. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    circular blotches on the Si-face. No circular features were observed. The AES data provided considerable chemical information about the contactfilm both...before the gas reaches the substrate. The soda lime glass subsrates were cleaned with a low sodium detergent and then rinsed with deioized water. The

  1. Coupling of narrow and wide band-gap semiconductors on uniform films active in bacterial disinfection under low intensity visible light: Implications of the interfacial charge transfer (IFCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rtimi, S., E-mail: sami.rtimi@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Sanjines, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-IPMC-LNNME, Bat PH, Station 3, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pulgarin, C., E-mail: cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-GPAO, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Houas, A. [UR Catalyse/Matériaux pour l‘Environnement et les Procédés (URCMEP), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Lavanchy, J.-C. [Université de Lausanne, IMG, Centre d’Analyse Minérale, Bat Anthropole, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kiwi, J. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL-SB-ISIC-LPI, Bat Chimie, Station 6, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Design, preparation, testing and characterization of uniform sputtered films. • Interfacial charge transfer from the Ag{sub 2}O (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb). • The optical absorption of TaON and TaON/Ag was proportional to E. coli inactivation. • Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester enables repetitive E. coli inactivation. -- Abstract: This study reports the design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of uniform films deposited by sputtering Ag and Ta on non-heat resistant polyester to evaluate the Escherichia coli inactivation by TaON, TaN/Ag, Ag and TaON/Ag polyester. Co-sputtering for 120 s Ta and Ag in the presence of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} led to the faster E. coli inactivation by a TaON/Ag sample within ∼40 min under visible light irradiation. The deconvolution of TaON/Ag peaks obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed the assignment of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag-species. The shifts observed for the XPS peaks have been assigned to AgO to Ag{sub 2}O and Ag{sup 0}, and are a function of the applied sputtering times. The mechanism of interfacial charge transfer (IFCT) from the Ag{sub 2}O conduction band (cb) to the lower laying Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (cb) is discussed suggesting a reaction mechanism. The optical absorption of the TaON and TaON/Ag samples found by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) correlated well with the kinetics of E. coli inactivation. The TaON/Ag sample microstructure was characterized by contact angle (CA) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-cleaning of the TaON/Ag polyester after each disinfection cycle enabled repetitive E. coli inactivation.

  2. Modeling energy band gap of doped TiO2 semiconductor using homogeneously hybridized support vector regression with gravitational search algorithm hyper-parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Taoreed O.; Akande, Kabiru O.; Olatunji, Sunday O.; Aldhafferi, Nahier; Alqahtani, Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor is characterized with a wide band gap and attracts a significant attention for several applications that include solar cell carrier transportation and photo-catalysis. The tunable band gap of this semiconductor coupled with low cost, chemical stability and non-toxicity make it indispensable for these applications. Structural distortion always accompany TiO2 band gap tuning through doping and this present work utilizes the resulting structural lattice distortion to estimate band gap of doped TiO2 using support vector regression (SVR) coupled with novel gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for hyper-parameters optimization. In order to fully capture the non-linear relationship between lattice distortion and band gap, two SVR models were homogeneously hybridized and were subsequently optimized using GSA. GSA-HSVR (hybridized SVR) performs better than GSA-SVR model with performance improvement of 57.2% on the basis of root means square error reduction of the testing dataset. Effect of Co doping and Nitrogen-Iodine co-doping on band gap of TiO2 semiconductor was modeled and simulated. The obtained band gap estimates show excellent agreement with the values reported from the experiment. By implementing the models, band gap of doped TiO2 can be estimated with high level of precision and absorption ability of the semiconductor can be extended to visible region of the spectrum for improved properties and efficiency.

  3. Strain sensitivity of band gaps of Sn-containing semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Tuning of band gaps of semiconductors is a way to optimize materials for applications within photovoltaics or as photocatalysts. One way to achieve this is through applying strain to the materials. We investigate the effect of strain on a range of Sn-containing semiconductors using density...... functional theory and many-body perturbation theory calculations. We find that the band gaps of bulk Sn oxides with SnO6 octahedra are highly sensitive to volumetric strain. By applying a small isotropic strain of 2% (-2%), a decrease (increase) of band gaps as large as 0.8 to 1.0 eV are obtained. We...... attribute the ultrahigh strain sensitivity to the pure Sn s-state character of the conduction-band edges. Other Sn-containing compounds may show both increasing and decreasing gaps under tensile strain and we show that the behavior can be understood by analyzing the role of the Sn s states in both...

  4. Diluted II-VI Oxide Semiconductors with Multiple Band Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J; Shan, W.; Beeman, J. W.; Scarpulla, M. A.; Dubon, O. D.; Becla, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the realization of a new multi-band-gap semiconductor. The highly mismatched alloy Zn1-yMnyOxTe1-x has been synthesized using the combination of oxygen ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Incorporation of small quantities of isovalent oxygen leads to the formation of a narrow, oxygen-derived band of extended states located within the band gap of the Zn1-yMnyTe host. When only 1.3% of Te atoms is replaced with oxygen in a Zn0.88Mn0.12Te crystal (with band gap of 2.32 eV) the r...

  5. Relation between Debye temperature and energy band gap of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Bruno; Bhowmick, Mithun; Xi, Haowen

    2017-04-01

    The work addresses an unresolved topic in solid-state physics, i.e., the dependence of the Debye temperature (TD) on the energy band gap (Eg) of semiconducting materials. The systematic calculation of TD by using the ratio of sound velocity and lattice constant from the literature resulted in the relation TD∝exp(Eg). The exponential relationship is confirmed by a theoretical model based on the microscopic analysis of the electrical conductivity in metals and semiconductors.

  6. High-Temperature, Wirebondless, Ultra-Compact Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Modules for Space Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide band-gap semiconductors offer great promise of high power rating, high operating temperature, simple thermal management, and...

  7. Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Structure, Properties, and Band Gap Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, ANDREW M.; NIE, SHUMING

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are tiny light-emitting particles on the nanometer scale. Researchers have studied these particles intensely and have developed them for broad applications in solar energy conversion, optoelectronic devices, molecular and cellular imaging, and ultrasensitive detection. A major feature of semiconductor nanocrystals is the quantum confinement effect, which leads to spatial enclosure of the electronic charge carriers within the nanocrystal. Because of this effect, researchers can use the size and shape of these “artificial atoms” to widely and precisely tune the energy of discrete electronic energy states and optical transitions. As a result, researchers can tune the light emission from these particles throughout the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectral ranges. These particles also span the transition between small molecules and bulk crystals, instilling novel optical properties such as carrier multiplication, single-particle blinking, and spectral diffusion. In addition, semiconductor nanocrystals provide a versatile building block for developing complex nanostructures such as superlattices and multimodal agents for molecular imaging and targeted therapy. In this Account, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the atomic structure and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also discuss new strategies for band gap and electronic wave function engineering to control the location of charge carriers. New methodologies such as alloying, doping, strain-tuning, and band-edge warping will likely play key roles in the further development of these particles for optoelectronic and biomedical applications. PMID:19827808

  8. Study of the Mg incorporation in CdTe for developing wide band gap Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te thin films for possible use as top-cell absorber in a tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Omar S. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica del Estado de Guerrero, Comunidad de Puente Campuzano, C.P. 40325 Taxco de Alarcon, Guerrero (Mexico); Millan, Aduljay Remolina [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Huerta, L.; Santana, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. C.P 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mathews, N.R.; Ramon-Garcia, M.L.; Morales, Erik R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Mathew, X., E-mail: xm@cie.unam.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te with high spatial uniformity and band gap in the range of 1.6-1.96 eV were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te films have the structural characteristics of the CdTe, evidence of the change in atomic scattering due to incorporation of Mg was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD and XPS data confirmed the incorporation of Mg in the lattice of CdTe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM images revealed the impact of Mg incorporation on the morphology of the films, the changes in grain size and grain morphology are noticeable. - Abstract: Thin films of Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te with band gap in the range of 1.6-1.96 eV were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation of CdTe and Mg on glass substrates heated at 300 Degree-Sign C. Different experimental techniques such as XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, and XPS were used to study the effect of Mg incorporation into the lattice of CdTe. The band gap of the films showed a clear tendency to increase as the Mg content in the film is increased. The Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te films maintain all the structural characteristics of the CdTe, however, diminishing of intensity for the XRD patterns is observed due to both change in preferential orientation and change in atomic scattering due to the incorporation of Mg. SEM images showed significant evidences of morphological changes due to the presence of Mg. XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS data confirmed the incorporation of Mg in the lattice of CdTe. The significant increase in band gap of CdTe due to incorporation of Mg suggests that the Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te thin film is a candidate material to use as absorber layer in the top-cell of a tandem solar cell.

  9. Diluted II-VI oxide semiconductors with multiple band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K M; Walukiewicz, W; Wu, J; Shan, W; Beeman, J W; Scarpulla, M A; Dubon, O D; Becla, P

    2003-12-12

    We report the realization of a new mult-band-gap semiconductor. Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x alloys have been synthesized using the combination of oxygen ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Incorporation of small quantities of isovalent oxygen leads to the formation of a narrow, oxygen-derived band of extended states located within the band gap of the Zn(1-y)Mn(y)Te host. When only 1.3% of Te atoms are replaced with oxygen in a Zn0.88Mn0.12Te crystal the resulting band structure consists of two direct band gaps with interband transitions at approximately 1.77 and 2.7 eV. This remarkable modification of the band structure is well described by the band anticrossing model. With multiple band gaps that fall within the solar energy spectrum, Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x is a material perfectly satisfying the conditions for single-junction photovoltaics with the potential for power conversion efficiencies surpassing 50%.

  10. Tuning of optical and electrical properties of wide band gap Fe:SnO2/Li:NiO p- n junctions using 80 MeV oxygen ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Avasthi, D. K.; Joshi, U. S.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical and optical properties of pristine and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiated p- n junction diode have been investigated for advanced electronics application. Fe:SnO2/Li:NiO p- n junction was fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition on c-sapphire substrate. The optical band gaps of Fe:SnO2 and Li:NiO films were obtained to be 3.88 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the oxide-based p- n junction showed a rectifying behaviour with turn-on voltage of 0.95 V. The oxide-based p- n junction diode was irradiated to 80 MeV O+6 ions with 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 fluence. Decrease in grain size due to SHI irradiation is confirmed by the grazing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. In comparison with the pristine p- n junction diode, O+6 ion irradiated p-n junction diode shows the increase of surface roughness and decrease of percentage transmittance in visible region. For irradiated p- n junction diode, current-voltage curve has still rectifying behaviour but exhibits lower turn-on voltage than that of virgin p- n junction diode.

  11. Tuning of optical and electrical properties of wide band gap Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junctions using 80 MeV oxygen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U.S. [Gujarat University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2016-12-15

    Electrical and optical properties of pristine and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiated p-n junction diode have been investigated for advanced electronics application. Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junction was fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition on c-sapphire substrate. The optical band gaps of Fe:SnO{sub 2} and Li:NiO films were obtained to be 3.88 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the oxide-based p-n junction showed a rectifying behaviour with turn-on voltage of 0.95 V. The oxide-based p-n junction diode was irradiated to 80 MeV O{sup +6} ions with 1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence. Decrease in grain size due to SHI irradiation is confirmed by the grazing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. In comparison with the pristine p-n junction diode, O{sup +6} ion irradiated p-n junction diode shows the increase of surface roughness and decrease of percentage transmittance in visible region. For irradiated p-n junction diode, current-voltage curve has still rectifying behaviour but exhibits lower turn-on voltage than that of virgin p-n junction diode. (orig.)

  12. Rectification at Graphene-Semiconductor Interfaces: Zero-Gap Semiconductor-Based Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tongay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using current-voltage (I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V, and electric-field-modulated Raman measurements, we report on the unique physics and promising technical applications associated with the formation of Schottky barriers at the interface of a one-atom-thick zero-gap semiconductor (graphene and conventional semiconductors. When chemical-vapor-deposited graphene is transferred onto n-type Si, GaAs, 4H-SiC, and GaN semiconductor substrates, there is a strong van-der-Waals attraction that is accompanied by charge transfer across the interface and the formation of a rectifying (Schottky barrier. Thermionic-emission theory in conjunction with the Schottky-Mott model within the context of bond-polarization theory provides a surprisingly good description of the electrical properties. Applications can be made to sensors, where in forward bias there is exponential sensitivity to changes in the Schottky-barrier height due to the presence of absorbates on the graphene, and to analog devices, for which Schottky barriers are integral components. Such applications are promising because of graphene’s mechanical stability, its resistance to diffusion, its robustness at high temperatures, and its demonstrated capability to embrace multiple functionalities.

  13. Effect of Temperature on Photonic Band Gaps in Semiconductor-Based One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, J. V.; K. D. Jindal; Vinay Kumar; Vipin Kumar; Arun Kumar; Kh. S. Singh; Singh, T. P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the temperature and angle of incidence on the photonic band gap (PBG) for semiconductor-based photonic crystals has been investigated. The refractive index of semiconductor layers is taken as a function of temperature and wavelength. Three structures have been analyzed by choosing a semiconductor material for one of the two materials in a bilayer structure. The semiconductor material is taken to be ZnS, Si, and Ge with air in first, second, and third structures respectively. The...

  14. Spectroscopy of III-V narrow gap semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Diane C.

    The narrow gap III-V semiconductors, InAs/AlSb/GaSb and InSb, exhibit an array of extreme physical properties, from the lightest effective mass and largest nonparabolicity of III-V semiconductors to heterostructure conduction band offsets ranging from -0.15 to +2.0 eV. In this work, I present three spectroscopic techniques which exploit these unusual properties to provide new insight into the physics of these materials. First, my measurement of cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb and InSb/AlInSb quantum wells was the first spectroscopic application of a new laser, the THz quantum cascade laser. The physical properties mentioned above put these materials into an experimentally accessible range, and InAs's high room temperature mobility and low temperature carrier density enabled us to explore a large temperature range. Previous investigations of other materials in limited temperature ranges had suggested what we confirmed: the cyclotron resonance effective mass increases with temperature, contrary to theoretical expectations. Second, we applied time resolved cyclotron resonance to InSb quantum wells for the first time. Because of InSb's large effective g-factor and nonparabolicity, time resolved cyclotron resonance enabled us to monitor the carrier relaxation and recombination from each Landau- and Zeeman-quantized state directly in time. This unprecedented level of detail could be extended to longer times to probe spin-flip relaxation, a significant parasitic process in quantum computation. Finally, I measured intersubband absorption in narrow InAs/AlSb quantum wells with widths from 10.5 to 1.8 nm. I observed the highest energy intersubband resonance in InAs/AlSb quantum wells: 650 meV at 77 K in a 1.8 nm well. I also performed detailed measurements of the temperature dependence of intersubband absorption and confirmed the correlation between the integrated intensity of intersubband absorption and the carrier distribution inferred from Shubnikov-de Haas and Hall

  15. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Silva, A. M. [Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri-Pi (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S., E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.com [Instituto de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  16. L-Asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, G; Gottfried, C; Silva, A M; Caetano, E W S; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  17. Carrier plasmon induced nonlinear band gap renormalization in two-dimensional semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng; Yang, Li

    2015-02-13

    In reduced-dimensional semiconductors, doping-induced carrier plasmons can strongly couple with quasiparticle excitations, leading to a significant band gap renormalization. However, the physical origin of this generic effect remains obscure. We develop a new plasmon-pole theory that efficiently and accurately captures this coupling. Using monolayer MoS(2) and MoSe(2) as prototype two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, we reveal a striking band gap renormalization above 400 meV and an unusual nonlinear evolution of their band gaps with doping. This prediction significantly differs from the linear behavior that is observed in one-dimensional structures. Notably, our predicted band gap renormalization for MoSe(2) is in excellent agreement with recent experimental results. Our developed approach allows for a quantitative understanding of many-body interactions in general doped 2D semiconductors and paves the way for novel band gap engineering techniques.

  18. Band-gap engineering in two-dimensional semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, M S; Martinez, G

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the multiple band gaps in the two-dimensional semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals of several compositions: semiconductor cylinders in the dielectric background. We consider both square lattice and hexagonal lattice arrangements and compute extensive band structures using a plane-wave method within the framework of an efficient standard eigenvalue problem for both E and H polarizations. The whole range of filling fraction has been explored to claim the existence of the lowest (the so-called acoustic) band gap and multiple higher-energy band gaps within the first 30 to 40 bands for various compositions. Such semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals which are shown to possess huge lowest band gaps below a threshold frequency (the plasma frequency omega(p) ) have an advantage over the dielectric photonic crystals in the emerging technology based on the photonic crystals.

  19. Effect of Temperature on Photonic Band Gaps in Semiconductor-Based One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the temperature and angle of incidence on the photonic band gap (PBG for semiconductor-based photonic crystals has been investigated. The refractive index of semiconductor layers is taken as a function of temperature and wavelength. Three structures have been analyzed by choosing a semiconductor material for one of the two materials in a bilayer structure. The semiconductor material is taken to be ZnS, Si, and Ge with air in first, second, and third structures respectively. The shifting of band gaps with temperature is more pronounced in the third structure than in the first two structures because the change in the refractive index of Ge layers with temperature is more than the change of refractive index of both ZnS and Si layers with temperature. The propagation characteristics of the proposed structures are analyzed by transfer matrix method.

  20. Wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on 40-GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We have performed wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on semiconductor 40-GHz mode-locked lasers by employing electrical waveguide components for the radio-frequency circuit. The intrinsic timing jitters of lasers with one, two, and three quantum wells (QW) are compared and our design...... prediction, concerning noise versus number of QWs, for the first time corroborated by experiments. A minimum jitter of 44 fs is found, by extrapolating to the Nyquist frequency, for the one-QW device having nearly transform-limited pulses of 1.2 ps. This jitter is nearly three times lower than for a three...

  1. Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Q T; Haug, H; Mücke, O D; Tritschler, T; Wegener, M; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M

    2004-05-28

    We observe a triplet around the third harmonic of the semiconductor band gap when exciting 50-100 nm thin GaAs films with 5 fs pulses at 3 x 10(12) W/cm(2). The comparison with solutions of the semiconductor Bloch equations allows us to interpret the observed peak structure as being due to a two-band Mollow triplet. This triplet in the optical spectrum is a result of light-induced gaps in the band structure, which arise from coherent band mixing. The theory is formulated for full tight-binding bands and uses no rotating-wave approximation.

  2. Wide-band array signal processing via spectral smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guanghan; Kailath, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the estimation of direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of multiple wide-band sources via spectral smoothing is presented. The proposed algorithm does not require an initial DOA estimate or a specific signal model. The advantages of replacing the MUSIC search with an ESPRIT search are discussed.

  3. The Use of Cryogenic HEMT Amplifiers in Wide Band Radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosik, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Advances in device fabrication, modelling and design techniques have made wide band, low noise cryogenic amplifiers available at frequencies up to 106 GHz. Microwave radiometry applications as used in radio astronomy capitalize on the low noise and large bandwidths of these amplifiers. Radiometers must be carefully designed so as to preclude sensitivity degradations caused by small, low frequency gain fluctuations inherent in these amplifiers.

  4. Wide Band CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Exploiting Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    Well-known elementary wide band amplifiers suffer from a fundamental trade-off between noise factor and source impedance matching, which limits their noise figure (NF) to values typically above 3dB. Negative feedback can be employed to break this trade-off, thus allowing lower noise figures,

  5. Improved semiconductor lattice parameters and band gaps from a middle-range screened hybrid exchange functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, M J; Henderson, T M; Scuseria, G E

    2012-04-11

    We show that the middle-range exchange-correlation hybrid of Henderson, Izmaylov, Scuseria and Savin (HISS) performs extremely well for elemental and binary semiconductors with narrow or visible spectrum band gaps, as well as some wider gap or more ionic systems used in devices. The lattice parameters are superior to those predicted by the screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE), and provide a significant improvement over the geometries predicted by typical semilocal functionals, yielding results competitive with PBEsol, which was specially tuned for solids. HISS also yields band gaps superior to those produced by functionals developed specifically for the solid state. Timings indicate that HISS is more computationally efficient than HSE, implying that the high quality lattice constants coupled with improved optical band gap predictions render HISS a useful adjunct to HSE in the modeling of geometry-sensitive semiconductors.

  6. Band-gap engineering: from physics and materials to new semiconductor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, F

    1987-01-09

    Band-gap engineering is a powerful technique for the design of new semiconductor materials and devices. Heterojunctions and modern growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy, allow band diagrams with nearly arbitrary and continuous band-gap variations to be made. The transport properties of electrons and holes can be independently and continuously tuned for a given application. A new generation of devices with unique capabilities, ranging from solid-state photomultipliers to resonant tunneling transistors, is emerging from this approach.

  7. Improved Semiconductor Lattice Parameters and Band Gaps from a Middle-Range Screened Hybrid Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Melissa J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the middle-range exchange-correlation hybrid of Henderson, Izmaylov, Scuseria and Savin (HISS) performs extremely well for elemental and binary semiconductors with narrow or visible spectrum band gaps, as well as some wider gap or more ionic systems used commercially. The lattice parameters are superior to those predicted by the screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE), and provide a significant improvement over geometries predicted by semilocal functional...

  8. Alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals with broad tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daocheng; Weng, Ding; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chuanlai; Yang, Zhengzhong; Lu, Yunfeng

    2009-07-28

    Nearly monodisperse alloyed (CuInS2)x(ZnS)1-x nanocrystals with cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully synthesized for the first time, and the band gaps of these alloyed nanocrystals can be tuned in the broad range of 1.5 to 3.7 eV by changing the ratio of CuInS2 to ZnS.

  9. Calculation of semiconductor band gaps with the M06-L density functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-02-21

    The performance of the M06-L density functional has been tested for band gaps in seven semiconductors plus diamond and MgO. Comparison with the local spin density approximation (LSDA), Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP), Perdew-Burke-Eernzerhof (PBE), Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS), and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functionals shows that M06-L has improved performance for calculating band gaps as compared to other local functionals, but it is less accurate than the screened hybrid HSE functional for band gaps.

  10. Location of lanthanide impurity levels in the III-V semiconductor GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, P.; Van der Kolk, E.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge from lanthanide spectroscopy on wide band gap (6–10?eV) inorganic compounds is used to understand and predict optical and electronic properties of the lanthanides in the III-V semiconductor GaN. For the first time the location of the 4fn ground state energy of each divalent and trivalent

  11. Inkjet-Printed Ultra Wide Band Fractal Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    In this work, Paper-based inkjet-printed Ultra-wide band (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Three new designs, a combined UWB fractal monopole based on the fourth order Koch Snowflake fractal which utilizes a Sierpinski Gasket fractal for ink reduction, a Cantor-based fractal antenna which performs a larger bandwidth compared to previously published UWB Cantor fractal monopole antenna, and a 3D loop fractal antenna which attains miniaturization, impedance matching and multiband characteristics. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication cost in inkjet printed antennas while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance.

  12. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  13. Composition-dependent band gaps and indirect-direct band gap transitions of group-IV semiconductor alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Xiao, Jiamin; Sun, Haibin; Hu, Yue; Cao, Ronggen; Wang, Yin; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-09-07

    We used the coherent potential approximation to investigate the band structures of group-IV semiconductor alloys, including Si(x)Ge(1-x), Ge(1-y)Sn(y) and Si(x)Ge(1-x-y)Sn(y). The calculations for Si(x)Ge(1-x) prove the reliability and accuracy of the method we used. For Ge(1-y)Sn(y), the direct band gap optical bowing parameter we obtained is 2.37 eV and the indirect-direct band gap transition point is at y = 0.067, both consistent with the existing experimental data. For Si(x)Ge(1-x-y)Sn(y), with the increase of the Si concentration, the compositional dependency of the band gap becomes complex. An indirect-direct band gap transition is found in Si(x)Ge(1-x-y)Sn(y) in the range of 0 band gaps larger than 0.8 eV at room temperature.

  14. Single-Crystal Semiconductors with Narrow Band Gaps for Solar Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong

    2015-09-07

    Solar water splitting provides a clean and renewable approach to produce hydrogen energy. In recent years, single-crystal semiconductors such as Si and InP with narrow band gaps have demonstrated excellent performance to drive the half reactions of water splitting through visible light due to their suitable band gaps and low bulk recombination. This Minireview describes recent research advances that successfully overcome the primary obstacles in using these semiconductors as photoelectrodes, including photocorrosion, sluggish reaction kinetics, low photovoltage, and unfavorable planar substrate surface. Surface modification strategies, such as surface protection, cocatalyst loading, surface energetics tuning, and surface texturization are highlighted as the solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetime in a direct band-gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonroos, Oldwig (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A direct band-gap semiconductor is exposed to intensity-modulated photon radiation having a characteristic energy at least as great as the energy gap of the semiconductor. This produces a time dependent concentration of excess charge carriers through the material, producing a luminescence signal modulated at the same frequency as the incident radiation but shifted in phase by an amount related to the lifetime of minority carriers. In a preferred embodiment, the phase shift of the luminescence signal is determined by transforming it to a modulated electrical signal and mixing the electrical signal with a reference signal modulated at the same frequency and having a phase which is known relative to the incident radiation. Minority carrier lifetime is calculated by integrating a direct current component of the mixed signal (F sub dc) over a 2 pi range in phase of the reference signal.

  16. Interstitial channels that control band gaps and effective masses in tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yu-ichiro; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2014-04-04

    We find that electron states at the bottom of the conduction bands of covalent semiconductors are distributed mainly in the interstitial channels and that this floating nature leads to the band-gap variation and the anisotropic effective masses in various polytypes of SiC. We find that the channel length, rather than the hexagonality prevailed in the past, is the decisive factor for the band-gap variation in the polytypes. We also find that the floating nature causes two-dimensional electron and hole systems at the interface of different SiC polytypes and even one-dimensional channels near the inclined SiC surface.

  17. A novel theoretical model for the temperature dependence of band gap energy in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peiji; Li, Weiguo; Zhang, Xianhe; Zhang, Xuyao; Deng, Yong; Kou, Haibo

    2017-10-01

    We report a novel theoretical model without any fitting parameters for the temperature dependence of band gap energy in semiconductors. This model relates the band gap energy at the elevated temperature to that at the arbitrary reference temperature. As examples, the band gap energies of Si, Ge, AlN, GaN, InP, InAs, ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe and GaAs at temperatures below 400 K are calculated and are in good agreement with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the band gap energies at high temperatures (T  >  400 K) are predicted, which are greater than the experimental results, and the reasonable analysis is carried out as well. Under low temperatures, the effect of lattice expansion on the band gap energy is very small, but it has much influence on the band gap energy at high temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effect of lattice expansion at high temperatures, and the method considering the effect of lattice expansion has also been given. The model has distinct advantages compared with the widely quoted Varshni’s semi-empirical equation from the aspect of modeling, physical meaning and application. The study provides a convenient method to determine the band gap energy under different temperatures.

  18. Tuning the band gap in hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors using structural templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jeremy L; Martin, James D; Mitzi, David B

    2005-06-27

    Structural distortions within the extensive family of organic/inorganic hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors are correlated with their experimental exciton energies and calculated band gaps. The extent of the in- and out-of-plane angular distortion of the SnI4(2-) perovskite sheets is largely determined by the relative charge density and steric requirements of the organic cations. Variation of the in-plane Sn-I-Sn bond angle was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the tuning of the band gap, and the equatorial Sn-I bond distances have a significant secondary influence. Extended Hückel tight-binding band calculations are employed to decipher the crystal orbital origins of the structural effects that fine-tune the band structure. The calculations suggest that it may be possible to tune the band gap by as much as 1 eV using the templating influence of the organic cation.

  19. Quantized conductance doubling and hard gap in a two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nichele, F; Suominen, H J; Nowak, M P; Wimmer, M; Akhmerov, A R; Folk, J A; Flensberg, K; Shabani, J; Palmstrøm, C J; Marcus, C M

    2016-09-29

    Coupling a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructure to a superconductor opens new research and technology opportunities, including fundamental problems in mesoscopic superconductivity, scalable superconducting electronics, and new topological states of matter. One route towards topological matter is by coupling a 2D electron gas with strong spin-orbit interaction to an s-wave superconductor. Previous efforts along these lines have been adversely affected by interface disorder and unstable gating. Here we show measurements on a gateable InGaAs/InAs 2DEG with patterned epitaxial Al, yielding devices with atomically pristine interfaces between semiconductor and superconductor. Using surface gates to form a quantum point contact (QPC), we find a hard superconducting gap in the tunnelling regime. When the QPC is in the open regime, we observe a first conductance plateau at 4e 2 /h, consistent with theory. The hard-gap semiconductor-superconductor system demonstrated here is amenable to top-down processing and provides a new avenue towards low-dissipation electronics and topological quantum systems.

  20. Universal size dependence of auger constants in direct- and indirect-gap semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robel, Istvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gresback, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Kortshagen, Uwe [U OF MINNESOTA

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of multi-electron phenomena including non radiative Auger recombination. In this process, a conduction-band electron recombines with a valence-band hole by transferring the recombination energy to a third carrier. Significant interest in Auger recombination in NCs has been stimulated by recent studies ofNC lasing, and generation-III photovoltaics enabled by carrier multiplication because in both of these prospective applications Auger recombination represents a dominant carrier-loss mechanism. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of Auger recombination rates in NCs of several different compositions including Ge, PbSe, InAs, and CdSe. We observe that the only factor, which has a significant effect on the measured recombination rates, is the size of the NCs but not the details of the material's electronic structure. Most surprisingly, comparable rates are measured for nanocrystals of directand indirect-gap semiconductor NCs despite a dramatic four-to-five orders of magnitude difference in respective bulk-semiconductor Auger constants. This unusual observation can be explained by confinement-induced relaxation of momentum conservation, which smears out the difference between direct- and indirect-gap materials.

  1. Theoretical investigation of the phonon-assisted tunneling in TFET with an indirect band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Gong, J.

    2017-11-01

    There are intense recent interests in quantum tunneling transistor as a way to go beyond the metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. Phonon-assisted tunneling (PAT) plays the dominating role in tunneling field effect transistors with an indirect band gap semiconductor. In this work, we provide a convenient expression based on Fermi gold rule to study the electron tunneling assisted by phonon from the valence band top to the conduction band bottom. Through the comparison with different phonon modes, the transverse acoustic phonon mode provides the largest contribution to PAT. The results of the transfer matrix model predict slightly higher tunneling current compared to the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation which ignores the effect of the reflection wave. However, the current density calculated by using our method shows that there is about an order of the magnitude lager than Kane's model. Additionally, the temperature enhances the phonon-assisted Zener tunneling current densities. Our results shed some light on understanding the PAT in indirect band gap semiconductors.

  2. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 2. Overview).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-03-18

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  3. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

    2008-03-18

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  4. Quantized conductance doubling and hard gap in a two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Nichele, F; Suominen, Henri Juhani

    2016-01-01

    topological matter is by coupling a 2D electron gas with strong spin-orbit interaction to an s-wave superconductor. Previous efforts along these lines have been adversely affected by interface disorder and unstable gating. Here we show measurements on a gateable InGaAs/InAs 2DEG with patterned epitaxial Al......Coupling a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructure to a superconductor opens new research and technology opportunities, including fundamental problems in mesoscopic superconductivity, scalable superconducting electronics, and new topological states of matter. One route towards......, yielding devices with atomically pristine interfaces between semiconductor and superconductor. Using surface gates to form a quantum point contact (QPC), we find a hard superconducting gap in the tunnelling regime. When the QPC is in the open regime, we observe a first conductance plateau at 4e(2)/h...

  5. Assessing the performance of self-consistent hybrid functional for band gap calculation in oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangang; Franchini, Cesare

    2017-08-16

    In this paper we assess the predictive power of the self-consistent hybrid functional scPBE0 in calculating the band gap of oxide semiconductors. The computational procedure is based on the self-consistent evaluation of the mixing parameter α by means of an iterative calculation of the static dielectric constant using the perturbation expansion after discretization (PEAD) method and making use of the relation α = 1/ε. Our materials dataset is formed by 30 compounds covering a wide range of band gaps and dielectric properties, and includes materials with a wide spectrum of application as thermoelectrics, photocatalysis, photovoltaics, transparent conducting oxides, and refractory materials. Our results show that the scPBE0 functional provides better band gaps than the non self-consistent hybrids PBE0 and HSE06, but scPBE0 does not show significant improvement on the description of the static dielectric constants. Overall, the scPBE0 data exhibit a mean absolute percentage error of 14 % (band gaps) and 10 % (α = 1/ε). For materials with weak dielectric screening and large excitonic biding energies scPBE0, unlike PBE0 and HSE06, overestimates the band gaps, but the value of the gap become very close to the experimental value when excitonic effects are included (e.g. for SiO2). However, special caution must be given to the compounds with small band gaps due to the tendency of scPBE0 to overestimate the dielectric constant in proximity of the metallic limit. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Semiconductor saturable absorbers with recovery time controlled by lattice mismatch and band-gap engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomalainen, S. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)], E-mail: soile.suomalainen@tut.fi; Guina, M.; Hakulinen, T.; Koskinen, R.; Paajaste, J.; Karjalainen, M.; Saarinen, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Marcinkevicius, S. [Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Okhotnikov, O.G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The recovery time of absorption in semiconductor quantum-well structures is one of the key parameters that determines the performance of pulsed lasers mode-locked or Q-switched by semiconductor saturable absorbers. In this paper we discuss new methods to control the recovery time of absorption. The first method is based on controlling the crystalline quality of the absorbing material and thus the density of non-radiative recombination centers that are responsible for the fast recovery of the absorption. With this technique, we were able to fabricate semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) with recovery times of about 4.5 ps at 1 {mu}m and 40 ps at 1.55 {mu}m. Another approach that we propose and demonstrate in this paper is based on band-gap engineering that enables short recovery times to be achieved through fast relaxation of excited photocarriers via intraband scattering. A 24 ps carrier decay time was achieved by placing deep quantum-wells next to the shallow quantum-wells responsible for the nonlinear absorption. We demonstrated that the recovery time can be changed by modifying the thickness of the deep and shallow quantum-wells.

  7. Parametric excitation of optical phonons in weakly polar narrow band gap magnetized semiconductor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Dahiya, Sunita; Singh, Navneet

    2017-11-01

    An analytical treatment based on the hydrodynamic model of plasmas is developed to study parametric amplification and oscillation of optical phonon modes in weakly polar narrow direct-gap magnetized semiconductor plasmas. Second-order optical susceptibility arising due to nonlinear polarization and the basic operational characteristics of the parametric device, viz. threshold nature, power gain mechanisms and conversion efficiency, are obtained. The effects of doping, magnetic field and excitation intensity, on the above operational characteristics have been studied in detail. Numerical estimates are made for an n-InSb crystal at 5 K duly irradiated by a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. The analysis suggests the possibility of observing super-fluorescent parametric emission and oscillation in moderately doped n-InSb crystal under off-resonant nanosecond pulsed not-too-high power laser irradiation, the crystal being immersed in a large magnetic field.

  8. The Theory of ESR Hyperfine-Structure Narrowing as Applied to Wide-Gap Semimagnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev; Tagirov; Tagiev

    1996-11-01

    The theory of ESR hyperfine-structure exchange narrowing is developed. The kinetic equations describing the nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of hyperfine components of ESR spectra are derived by using the nonequilibrium statistical-operator method. Numerical solution of these general equations is applied to the simulation of the experimental spectra of (Cd, Mn)Te crystals with a Mn2+ ion content of between 0.05 and 0.5%. The hyperfine-splitting constant, homogeneous ESR linewidth, and mean-square value of the exchange fluctuation frequency are obtained from the fitting of the spectra for different concentrations of manganese ions. The concentration dependence of the latter quantity is discussed in relation to the spatial dependence of magnetic-ion exchange interaction and the gap value in the band structure of semimagnetic semiconductors.

  9. Longitudinal spin relaxation of donor-bound electrons in direct band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linpeng, Xiayu; Karin, Todd; Durnev, M. V.; Barbour, Russell; Glazov, M. M.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Watkins, S. P.; Seto, Satoru; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2016-09-01

    We measure the donor-bound electron longitudinal spin-relaxation time (T1) as a function of magnetic field (B ) in three high-purity direct band-gap semiconductors: GaAs, InP, and CdTe, observing a maximum T1 of 1.4, 0.4, and 1.2 ms, respectively. In GaAs and InP at low magnetic field, up to ˜2 T, the spin-relaxation mechanism is strongly density and temperature dependent and is attributed to the random precession of the electron spin in hyperfine fields caused by the lattice nuclear spins. In all three semiconductors at high magnetic field, we observe a power-law dependence T1∝B-ν with 3 ≲ν ≲4 . Our theory predicts that the direct spin-phonon interaction is important in all three materials in this regime in contrast to quantum dot structures. In addition, the "admixture" mechanism caused by Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling combined with single-phonon processes has a comparable contribution in GaAs. We find excellent agreement between high-field theory and experiment for GaAs and CdTe with no free parameters, however a significant discrepancy exists for InP.

  10. A model describing the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for the group III–V semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen, E-mail: as3262001@aliyun.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Systems, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnics University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wei, Tong [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin, 300300 (China); Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Systems, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnics University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-08-01

    A model describing the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for the group III–V semiconductors has been developed. It is found that the model describes the pressure dependence of the band gap energy very well. It is also found that, although the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for both the conventional III–V semiconductors and the dilute nitride alloys can be described well by the model in this work, the physical mechanisms for them are different. In addition, the influence of the nonlinear compression of the lattice on the band gap energy is smaller than that of the coupling interaction between the N level and the conduction band minimum of the host material.

  11. New Method for the Development of Plasmonic Metal-Semiconductor Interface Layer: Polymer Composites with Reduced Energy Band Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles within a host polymer of chitosan were synthesized by using in situ method. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was then carried out for the prepared chitosan : silver triflate (CS : AgTf samples, showing a surface plasmonic resonance (SPR peak at 420 nm. To prepare polymer composites with reduced energy band gap, different amounts of alumina nanoparticles were incorporated into the CS : AgTf solution. In the present work, the results showed that the reduced silver nanoparticles and their adsorption on wide band gap alumina (Al2O3 particles are an excellent approach for the preparation of polymer composites with small optical band gaps. The optical dielectric loss parameter has been used to determine the band gap experimentally. The physics behind the optical dielectric loss were interpreted from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. From the quantum-mechanics viewpoint, optical dielectric loss was also found to be a complex equation and required lengthy numerical computation. From the TEM investigation, the adsorption of silver nanoparticles on alumina has been observed. The optical micrograph images showed white spots (silver specks with different sizes on the surface of the films. The second semicircle in impedance Cole-Cole plots was found and attributed to the silver particles.

  12. HLE16: A Local Kohn-Sham Gradient Approximation with Good Performance for Semiconductor Band Gaps and Molecular Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pragya; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-01-19

    Local exchange-correlation functionals have low cost and convenient portability but are known to seriously underestimate semiconductor band gaps and the energies of molecular Rydberg states. Here we present a new local approximation to the exchange-correlation functional called HLE16 that gives good performance for semiconductor band gaps and molecular excitation energies and is competitive with hybrid functionals. By the simultaneous increase of the local exchange and decrease of the local correlation, electronic excitation energies were improved without excessively degrading the ground-state solid-state cohesive energies, molecular bond energies, or chemical reaction barrier heights, although the new functional is not recommended for optimizing lattice constants or molecular bond lengths. The new functional can be useful as-is for calculations on semiconductors or excited states where it is essential to control the cost, and it can also be useful in establishing a starting point for developing even better new functionals that perform well for excited states.

  13. Origin and role of gap states in organic semiconductor studied by UPS: as the nature of organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Peng; Bussolotti, Fabio; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews experimental studies on ‘bridging electronic structure and charge transport property of organic semiconductors’ performed using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and related methods mainly in Chiba University, Japan, in particular on the investigation of the origin and the role of electronic states existing in the highest occupied molecular orbital band-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band (HOMO-LUMO) gap. We summarize experimental observations including direct measurements of ‘invisible’ gap states with ultrahigh sensitivity UPS, which demonstrate that there exist intrinsic gap states in organic semiconductors. We firstly describe the nature of organic molecular solids to understand features of organic semiconductors because such intrinsic gap states are a result of the interplay of these features, which give the principal difference between the organic semiconductor and inorganic counterpart. We then discuss (i) the origin and role of the band gap states in relation to intermolecular interaction/band dispersion and electron-phonon coupling, (ii) the Fermi level pinning issue in organic semiconductors, and (iii) the method of computing the Fermi level position within the HOMO-LUMO gap for experimental groups. The gap states of organic semiconductors appear easily when a weak perturbation is applied to the organic system, namely by contact with other material, by injecting a charge, by elevating temperature, and by exposure to 1 atm gas. What we finally found is that tailing states of HOMO and LUMO always exist, and their energy distributions must not be symmetric; they thus produce a larger Fermi level shift from the mid gap position than previously thought. Furthermore, as shown by computational work, Fermi level pinning, which is a well-known phenomena in semiconductor devices field, occurs in weakly interacting organic/conductor systems without any gap states if the system temperature is not zero (T  >  0). We

  14. Correlation between the band gap expansion and melting temperature depression of nanostructured semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianwei, E-mail: jwl189@163.com; Zhao, Xinsheng [Laboratory for Quantum Design of Functional Material, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Xinjuan [Center for Coordination Bond and Electronic Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zheng, Xuejun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Yang, Xuexian [Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, Hunan (China); Zhu, Zhe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2015-09-28

    The band gap and melting temperature of a semiconductor are tunable with the size and shape of the specimen at the nanometer scale, and related mechanisms remain as yet unclear. In order to understand the common origin of the size and shape effect on these two seemingly irrelevant properties, we clarify, correlate, formulate, and quantify these two properties of GaAs, GaN, InP, and InN nanocrystals from the perspectives of bond order-length-strength correlation using the core-shell configuration. The consistency in the theoretical predictions, experimental observations, and numerical calculations verify that the broken-bond-induced local bond contraction and strength gain dictates the band gap expansion, while the atomic cohesive energy loss due to bond number reduction depresses the melting point. The fraction of the under-coordinated atoms in the skin shell quantitatively determines the shape and size dependency. The atomic under-coordination in the skin down to a depth of two atomic layers inducing a change in the local chemical bond is the common physical origin.

  15. Temperature dependence of band gaps in semiconductors: electron-phonon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Reinhard K.; Cardona, M.; Lauck, R. [MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bhosale, J.; Ramdas, A.K. [Physics Dept., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Burger, A. [Fisk University, Dept. of Life and Physical Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Munoz, A. [MALTA Consolider Team, Dept. de Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Romero, A.H. [CINVESTAV, Dept. de Materiales, Unidad Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle an der Saale (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the energy gap of several semiconductors with chalcopyrite structure and re-examine literature data and analyze own high-resolution reflectivity spectra in view of our new ab initio calculations of their phonon properties. This analysis leads us to distinguish between materials with d-electrons in the valence band (e.g. CuGaS{sub 2}, AgGaS{sub 2}) and those without d-electrons (e.g. ZnSnAs{sub 2}). The former exhibit a rather peculiar non-monotonic temperature dependence of the energy gap which, so far, has resisted cogent theoretical description. We demonstrate it can well be fitted by including two Bose-Einstein oscillators with weights of opposite sign leading to an increase at low-T and a decrease at higher T's. We find that the energy of the former correlates well with characteristic peaks in the phonon density of states associated with low-energy vibrations of the d-electron constituents.

  16. Engineering of band gap states of amorphous SiZnSnO semiconductor as a function of Si doping concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Heo, Keun; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Sangsig; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the band gap of SiZnSnO (SZTO) with different Si contents. Band gap engineering of SZTO is explained by the evolution of the electronic structure, such as changes in the band edge states and band gap. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), it was verified that Si atoms can modify the band gap of SZTO thin films. Carrier generation originating from oxygen vacancies can modify the band-gap states of oxide films with the addition of Si. Since it is not easy to directly derive changes in the band gap states of amorphous oxide semiconductors, no reports of the relationship between the Fermi energy level of oxide semiconductor and the device stability of oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) have been presented. The addition of Si can reduce the total density of trap states and change the band-gap properties. When 0.5 wt% Si was used to fabricate SZTO TFTs, they showed superior stability under negative bias temperature stress. We derived the band gap and Fermi energy level directly using data from UPS, Kelvin probe, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy analyses. PMID:27812035

  17. Perencanaan Dan Pembuatan Antena UWB (Ultra Wide Band) Mahkota (Crown Antenna)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuwono, Rudy

    2010-01-01

    Kemajuan teknologi komunikasi menunjukkan perkembangan yang sangat pesat, khususnya komunikasi wireless. Komunikasi ini membutuhkan antena untuk mengirimkan dan menerima sinyal informasi. Antena yang digunakan dalam komunikasi wireless sangat beragam jenisnya, tergantung aplikasinya. Pada jurnal ini akan dibahas tentang perencanaan dan pembuatan antenna mahkota Ultra Wide Band (UWB). Antenna Ultra Wide Band merupakan sebuah perangkat yang mempunyai emisi/daya pancar dengan bandwith yang lebih...

  18. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Anup, E-mail: a-dey2002@yahoo.com [Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Maiti, Biswajit [Physics Department, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani 741235 (India); Chanda, Debasree [Department of Engineering and Technological Studies, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741235 (India)

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup →}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1−y} lattice matched to InP, as example of III–V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  19. Polycrystalline ZrTe{sub 5} Parameterized as a Narrow Band Gap Semiconductor for Thermoelectric Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Samuel A.; Witting, Ian; Aydemir, Umut; Peng, Lintao; Rettie, Alex; Gorai, Prashun; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grayson, Matthew A.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Toberer, Eric S.; Snyder, G. Jeffery

    2018-01-24

    The transition-metal pentatellurides HfTe5 and ZrTe5 have been studied for their exotic transport properties with much debate over the transport mechanism, band gap, and cause of the resistivity behavior, including a large low-temperature resistivity peak. Single crystals grown by the chemical-vapor-transport method have shown an n-p transition of the Seebeck coefficient at the same temperature as a peak in the resistivity. We show that behavior similar to that of single crystals can be observed in iodine-doped polycrystalline samples but that undoped polycrystalline samples exhibit drastically different properties: they are p type over the entire temperature range. Additionally, the thermal conductivity for polycrystalline samples is much lower, 1.5 Wm-1 K-1, than previously reported for single crystals. It is found that the polycrystalline ZrTe5 system can be modeled as a simple semiconductor with conduction and valence bands both contributing to transport, separated by a band gap of 20 meV. This model demonstrates to first order that a simple two-band model can explain the transition from n- to p-type behavior and the cause of the anomalous resistivity peak. Combined with the experimental data, the two-band model shows that carrier concentration variation is responsible for differences in behavior between samples. Using the twoband model, the thermoelectric performance at different doping levels is predicted, finding zT =0.2 and 0.1 for p and n type, respectively, at 300 K, and zT= 0.23 and 0.32 for p and n type at 600 K. Given the reasonably high zT that is comparable in magnitude for both n and p type, a thermoelectric device with a single compound used for both legs is feasible.

  20. Polycrystalline ZrTe5 Parametrized as a Narrow-Band-Gap Semiconductor for Thermoelectric Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorai, Prashun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stevanovic, Vladan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Toberer, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Samuel A. [Northwestern University; Witting, Ian [Northwestern University; Aydemir, Umut [Northwestern University; Koc University; Peng, Lintao [Northwestern University; Rettie, Alexander J. E. [Argonne National Laboratory; Chung, Duck Young [Argonne National Laboratory; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Argonne National Laboratory; Northwestern University; Grayson, Matthew [Northwestern University; Snyder, G. Jeffrey [Northwestern University

    2018-01-24

    The transition-metal pentatellurides HfTe5 and ZrTe5 have been studied for their exotic transport properties with much debate over the transport mechanism, band gap, and cause of the resistivity behavior, including a large low-temperature resistivity peak. Single crystals grown by the chemical-vapor-transport method have shown an n-p transition of the Seebeck coefficient at the same temperature as a peak in the resistivity. We show that behavior similar to that of single crystals can be observed in iodine-doped polycrystalline samples but that undoped polycrystalline samples exhibit drastically different properties: they are p type over the entire temperature range. Additionally, the thermal conductivity for polycrystalline samples is much lower, 1.5 Wm-1 K-1, than previously reported for single crystals. It is found that the polycrystalline ZrTe5 system can be modeled as a simple semiconductor with conduction and valence bands both contributing to transport, separated by a band gap of 20 meV. This model demonstrates to first order that a simple two-band model can explain the transition from n- to p-type behavior and the cause of the anomalous resistivity peak. Combined with the experimental data, the two-band model shows that carrier concentration variation is responsible for differences in behavior between samples. Using the two-band model, the thermoelectric performance at different doping levels is predicted, finding zT=0.2 and 0.1 for p and n type, respectively, at 300 K, and zT=0.23 and 0.32 for p and n type at 600 K. Given the reasonably high zT that is comparable in magnitude for both n and p type, a thermoelectric device with a single compound used for both legs is feasible.

  1. The Features of GaAs and GaP Semiconductor Cathodes in an Infrared Converter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, H. Hilal; Tanrıverdi, Evrim

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the electrical and optical comparative analysis of semi-insulating GaAs and GaP photoconductive electrodes in an infrared converter system with a resistivity of >107 Ω cm for the same interelectrode distance d and gas pressure p experimentally and theoretically, when the discharge cell has been filled by argon. To provide the stability of the semiconductor electrode in Ar media, the experiments were carried out in Townsend and glow discharge regimes for various parameter sets of pressure, interelectrode gap and discharge voltage. When the discharge exceeds a critical voltage value, some N-shape CVC s, which stem from both semiconductors and Ar gas, have been observed. To compare the features of the GaAs and GaP cathodes, the COMSOL multiphysics programme is used under the Ar media. The mean electron energy, thermal velocity, surface charge density, space charge and initial electron densities, and electron mobilities have been calculated for both semiconductor materials. It has been found that the electron mobility μe, electron thermal velocity, surface charge density σ and mean electron energy of GaAs is higher than those of GaP; hence, GaAs has better opto-electronic features compared to GaP. In addition, the experiments on the optical explorations prove that GaAs exhibit better optical response in the infrared region. The explored transport characteristics of the semiconductor electrodes are of importance, and they have to be taken into account when studying plasma cells.

  2. Predictive & Prognostic Controller for Wide Band Gap (Silicon Carbide) Power Conversion (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gregg; Casey, Leo; Jordan, Brett; Scofield, Jim; Keller, Kirby; Sheahan, Jim; Roach, Jeffrey; Scherrer, Michael; Singh, Ranbir

    2006-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. This paper presents an approach to predictive control and prognostication intended to increase the confidence levels for power converters in aerospace applications...

  3. Low profile, highly configurable, current sharing paralleled wide band gap power device power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Brice; Killeen, Peter D.; Lostetter, Alex; Shaw, Robert; Passmore, Brandon; Hornberger, Jared; Berry, Tony M

    2016-08-23

    A power module with multiple equalized parallel power paths supporting multiple parallel bare die power devices constructed with low inductance equalized current paths for even current sharing and clean switching events. Wide low profile power contacts provide low inductance, short current paths, and large conductor cross section area provides for massive current carrying. An internal gate & source kelvin interconnection substrate is provided with individual ballast resistors and simple bolted construction. Gate drive connectors are provided on either left or right size of the module. The module is configurable as half bridge, full bridge, common source, and common drain topologies.

  4. High Efficiency Three-phase Power Factor Correction Rectifier using Wide Band-Gap Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza

    Improving the conversion efficiency of power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers has become compelling due to their wide applications such as adjustable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs). The attention to PFCs has increased even more...... quality. To have similar harmonic performance the PI controller needs larger filter in comparison with the PR controller. This eventually ends up with lower efficiency of the converter with the PI current controller. In this thesis, two sets of experiments are carried out: • Verification of the designed...

  5. Physics-based simulation of narrow and wide band gap photonic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Marco Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Historically, infrared (IR) detector technologies are connected mainly with controlling and night-vision problems: in a first stage, applications concerned simply with detection of IR radiation, but very soon capabilities to form IR images were developed, opening the way to systems for recognition and surveillance, especially for military purposes. Since the last decade of the twentieth century, the use of IR imaging systems for civil and peaceful purposes have increased continuously: these i...

  6. Predictive & Prognostic Controller for Wide Band Gap (Silicon Carbide) Power Conversion (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    genetic and an environmental component. Many cancers fall into this category. Similarly, power converters have finite lives because the materials age...anti-parallel diodes is determined by the power factor, and the modulation index (in the case of a motor this is essentially determined by the back EMF ...and promoters for human cancers so mechanical shock can clearly initiate micro-cracks that subsequent temperature cycles or vibration can cause to

  7. Optical selection rules and scattering processes in rocksalt wide band gap ZnO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunert, HW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available applications in ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. We have investigated radiative and non-radiative symmetry restricted selection rules, as well as inter- and intra-valley scattering processes....

  8. Nanoscale Studies of Energy Band Gaps and Band Offsets in Compound Semiconductor Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alexander S.

    The identification of the precise band offsets at semiconductor interfaces is crucially important for the successful development of electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, issues at the interfaces, such as strain or defects, needs to be investigated for precise band tuning of semiconductor heterostructures. In this dissertation, the nanometer-scale structural and electronic properties of InGaAs(Sb)N/GaAs interfaces, InGaN/GaN QDs, and GaSb/GaAs QDs are investigated using a combination of XSTM and STS. The influence of Sb incorporation on the InGaAs(Sb)N/GaAs band alignment is investigated. At the InGaAsN/GaAs (InGaAsSbN/GaAs) interfaces, type II (type I) band offsets are observed, due to strain-induced splitting of the valence band and the incorporation of Sb. Band tuning of both conduction and valence band edges with the incorporation of Sb can be used to engineer the band structure with strong confinement of electrons and holes in the InGaAsSbN quantum well layer, which is promising for light emitting applications. The influence of the growth substrate on InGaN/GaN QD formation and properties is examined. The QD density, dimension, and band gaps are compared for different InGaN QDs on free-standing GaN or GaN/AlN/sapphire substrates. We present different sources using nucleation on different substrates, and discuss their influences on the electronic band structure. Our work suggests that a wide variety of InGaN QD dimension, density, and band structure can be achieved by using different starting substrate and number of layers of InGaN QD stacks. Furthermore, the influence of strain and dislocation on the GaSb/GaAs QD band alignment is investigated using both experimental and computational tools. A combination of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), XSTM, and STS reveals the formation of misfit dislocations and both coherent and semi-coherent clustered QDs, independent of Sb- vs. As-termination of the GaAs surface. Furthermore, finite

  9. Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

    Scientific findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last fe...

  10. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  11. Statistical modeling of the ultra wide band propagation channel through the analysis of experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Pascal; Pajusco, Patrice

    2006-09-01

    For the development of future Ultra Wide Band (UWB) communication systems, realistic modeling of the propagation channel is necessary. This article presents an experimental study of the UWB radio channel, based on an extensive sounding campaign covering the indoor office environment. We consider the main characteristics of the UWB channel by studying the propagation loss and wide band parameters, such as the delay spread and the power delay profile decay. From this analysis, we propose a statistical channel model reproducing the UWB channel effects over the frequency bandwidth 3.1-10.6 GHz. To cite this article: P. Pagani, P. Pajusco, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  12. The physics of high-conductivity transparent materials based on wide-band zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkarev, G. V.; Karpyna, V. A.; Ovsiannikova, L. I.; Kartuzov, V. V.; Dranchuk, M. V.; Godlewski, M.; Pietruszka, R.; Khomyak, V. V.; Petrosyan, L. I.

    2017-04-01

    The properties of transparent conductive materials based on wide-gap zinc oxide semiconductors are considered, which are promising in their application to photovoltaics and liquid crystal displays. The impact of aluminum doping on the conductivity of thin ZnO films is examined. Temperature studies of the concentration, mobility, and resistivity in the temperature range of 77-300 K are conducted, revealing the metal conductivity of highly doped films. The electroactivity of aluminum as a donor impurity in the ZnO lattice is studied for thin films grown using atomic layer deposition on glass and silicone, containing 1-7 at. % aluminum. The reasons behind the low electroactivity of Al in ZnO are discussed, as are the methods for its enhancement.

  13. Low band gap polycyclic hydrocarbons: from closed-shell near infrared dyes and semiconductors to open-shell radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Ye, Qun; Chi, Chunyan; Wu, Jishan

    2012-12-07

    Low band gap (E(g) materials for many applications, for example, as semiconductors in organic field effect transistors (OFETs), as light-harvesting dyes in organic solar cells and photodetectors, as near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes in high resolution bio-imaging and bio-sensing, and as chromophores in non-linear optics. The benzenoid polycyclic hydrocarbons as nano-sized graphene fragments also serve as perfect model compounds to understand the fundamental structure-property relationship of graphene. The ground state of these molecules can be described as either a closed-shell or an open-shell structure on the basis of their molecular size and edge structure. In this review, a summary will be given on a series of low band gap polycyclic hydrocarbons about their synthesis, physical properties and material applications.

  14. Wide-Band Optical Fibre System for Investigation of MEMS and NEMS Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowska Karolina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.

  15. Wide-band CMOS low-noise amplifier exploiting thermal noise canceling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    Known elementary wide-band amplifiers suffer from a fundamental tradeoff between noise figure (NF) and source impedance matching, which limits the NF to values typically above 3 dB. Global negative feedback can be used to break this tradeoff, however, at the price of potential instability. In

  16. Emergence of half metallicity in Cr-doped GaP dilute magnetic semiconductor compound within solubility limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Hardev S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119 Haryana (India); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex Systems, FFWP - South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, P.O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119 Haryana (India)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This compound is true half metallic ferromagnet for all studied Cr concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The half metallicity is preserved up to lowest doping concentration, x = 0.03. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HM gap increases with reduction in doping concentration from 0.25 to 0.03. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-d hybridization induces ferromagnetism and half metallicity in the compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double exchange mechanism is responsible for the stabilization of ferromagnetism. - Abstract: The electronic and magnetic properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}P dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) compound for dopant concentration, x = 0.25, 0.125, 0.06 and 0.03 have been investigated using WIEN2k implementation of full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in order to seek out the possibility of new dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) compound within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The calculated results show that the Cr doping in GaP induces the ferromagnetism and originates a half metallic (HM) gap at Fermi level (E{sub F}) in minority spin channel (MIC) for all concentrations. The half metallicity is originated by the hybridization of Cr-d states with P-p states. Moreover, the half metallicity remains intact for all Cr-concentration. We also observed that the HM gap increases with the reduction in doping concentration from 0.25 to 0.03. The total magnetic moment of this compound is mainly due to Cr-d states present at E{sub F}. A small induced magnetic moment on other non magnetic atoms (Ga and P) for all doping concentrations is a consequence of p-d hybridization between Cr-d and P-p states.

  17. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting signal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  18. Emergence of topological semimetals in gap closing in semiconductors without inversion symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shuichi; Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Miyake, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    A band gap for electronic states in crystals governs various properties of solids, such as transport, optical, and magnetic properties. Its estimation and control have been an important issue in solid-state physics. The band gap can be controlled externally by various parameters, such as pressure, atomic compositions, and external field. Sometimes, the gap even collapses by tuning some parameter. In the field of topological insulators, this closing of the gap at a time-reversal invariant momentum indicates a band inversion, that is, it leads to a topological phase transition from a normal insulator to a topological insulator. We show, through an exhaustive study on possible space groups, that the gap closing in inversion-asymmetric crystals is universal, in the sense that the gap closing always leads either to a Weyl semimetal or to a nodal-line semimetal. We consider three-dimensional spinful systems with time-reversal symmetry. The space group of the system and the wave vector at the gap closing uniquely determine which possibility occurs and where the gap-closing points or lines lie in the wave vector space after the closing of the gap. In particular, we show that an insulator-to-insulator transition never happens, which is in sharp contrast to inversion-symmetric systems.

  19. Page 1 _ _- Size quantization effects in II-VI semiconductor films gap ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not cross the threshold limit for agglomeration. The crystallite size did not vary significantly as the deposition time was increased. We have also measured the band gaps of ZnS films deposited at higher temperature. (>320 K) which indicated that the films became poly- crystalline with band gaps nearly equal to the bulk value ...

  20. Design of Wide-Band Bandpass Filter Using Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide-band microstrip bandpass filter (BPF based on the improved composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL structure is presented in this paper. Compared to the traditional CRLH-TL with via hole, the improved one is an all-planar structure, which owns the advantage of fabrication and loss. The equivalent lossless LC circuit model of the proposed structure is established. EM software Sonnet is adopted to design the wide-band filter with bandwidth of 1.4 GHz (from 1.9 GHz to 3.3 GHz. The circuit occupies only 20.6 × 12.8 mm2. Finally, the fabrication and measurement are implemented. A good agreement between simulation and measured results verifies the validity of the design methodology.

  1. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report BFR92A NPN 5 GHz Wide Band Transistor from NXP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Anthony M.; Oldham, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this test was to characterize the Philips/NXP BFR92A NPN 5 gigahertz wide band silicon transistor for total dose response. This test shall serves as the radiation lot acceptance test (RLAT) for the lot date code (LDC) 1027. The BFR92A is packaged in a 3-pin plastic SOT23 package. Low dose rate (LDR/ELDRS) irradiations was performed.

  2. CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} ternary semiconductors band gaps calculation using ground state and GW approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheloufi, Nawal; Bouzid, Abderrazak, E-mail: a_bouzid34@hotmail.com

    2016-06-25

    We present band gap calculations of zinc-blende ternary CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} semiconductors within the standard DFT and quasiparticle calculations employing pseudopotential method. The DFT, the local density approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) based calculations have given very poor results compared to experimental data. The quasiparticle calculations have been investigated via the one-shot GW approximation. The present paper discuses and confirms the effect of inclusion of the semicore states in the cadmium (Cd) pseudopotential. The obtained GW quasiparticle band gap using Cd{sup +20} pseudopotential has been improved compared to the obtained results from the available pseudopotential without the treatment of semicore states. Our DFT and quasiparticle band gap results are discussed and compared to the available theoretical calculations and experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Band gaps improvement concerning the binary and ternary alloys using the GW approximation and Cd{sup 20+} pseudopotential with others levels of approximations (the LDA and GGA approximation employing the Cd{sup 12+} and the LDA within Cd{sup 20+} pseudopotential). - Highlights: • The direct Γ- Γ and indirect Γ- X and Γ- L bands gaps show a nonlinear behavior when S content is enhanced. • The quasiparticle band gap result for the investigated semiconductors is improved using the GW approximation. • All CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} compounds in all compositions range from 0 to 1 are direct band gap semiconductors.

  3. Revealing the Chemistry between Band Gap and Binding Energy for Lead-/Tin-Based Trihalide Perovskite Solar Cell Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Arpita; Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Yamashita, Koichi

    2018-01-23

    A relationship between reported experimental band gaps (solid) and DFT-calculated binding energies (gas) is established, for the first time, for each of the four ten-membered lead (or tin) trihalide perovskite solar cell semiconductor series examined in this study, including CH3 NH3 PbY3 , CsPbY3 , CH3 NH3 SnY3 and CsSnY3 (Y=I(3-x) Brx=1-3 , I(3-x) Clx=1-3 , Br(3-x) Cl x=1-3 , and IBrCl). The relationship unequivocally provides a new dimension for the fundamental understanding of the optoelectronic features of solid-state solar cell thin films by using the 0 K gas-phase energetics of the corresponding molecular building blocks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electron-hole droplet formation in direct-gap semiconductors observed by mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M; Shimano, R; Kuwata-Gonokami, M

    2001-06-18

    Mid-infrared pump-probe measurements with subpicosecond time resolution reveal the existence of a metastable condensed phase of the electron-hole ensemble in a direct-gap semiconductor CuCl. High-density electrons and holes are directly created in a low-temperature state by the resonant femtosecond excitation of excitons above the Mott transition density. Strong metallic reflection with a plasma frequency Planck's over 2pi(omega)p approximately 0.5 eV builds up within 0.3 ps. Within a few picoseconds, the mid-infrared reflection spectrum is transformed from metalliclike into colloidlike. The observed resonance feature at Planck's over 2pi(omega)p/sqrt[3] allows us to obtain the carrier density in the metastable electron-hole droplets of 2x10(20) cm(-3).

  5. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  6. First Principles Electronic Structure of Mn doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Thomas C [ORNL; Temmerman, Walter M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Szotek, Zdzislawa [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Svane, Axel [University of Aarhus, Denmark; Petit, Leon [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn-d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemisison experiments.

  7. First-principles electronic structure of Mn-doped GaAs, GaP, and GaN semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, T C [Computer Science and Mathematics Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Temmerman, W M [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Szotek, Z [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Svane, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Petit, L [Computer Science and Mathematics Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States)

    2007-04-23

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations of Mn-doped III-V semiconductors based on the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) as well as the self-interaction corrected local spin-density method (SIC-LSD). We find that it is crucial to use a self-interaction free approach to properly describe the electronic ground state. The SIC-LSD calculations predict the proper electronic ground state configuration for Mn in GaAs, GaP, and GaN. Excellent quantitative agreement with experiment is found for the magnetic moment and p-d exchange in (GaMn)As. These results allow us to validate commonly used models for magnetic semiconductors. Furthermore, we discuss the delicate problem of extracting binding energies of localized levels from density functional theory calculations. We propose three approaches to take into account final state effects to estimate the binding energies of the Mn d levels in GaAs. We find good agreement between computed values and estimates from photoemission experiments.

  8. Nanostructured pyronin Y thin films as a new organic semiconductor: Linear/nonlinear optics, band gap and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, H.Y. [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Alamri, F.H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    Pyronin Y dye (PY) is a kind of xanthene derivatives. Thin films of pyronin Y were deposited onto highly cleaned glass substrates using low-cost/spin coating technique. The structure properties of pyronin Y thin films with different thicknesses were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). PY thin films for all the studied thicknesses have an amorphous structure supporting the short range order of the grain size. AFM supports the nanostructure with spherical/clusters morphologies of the investigated thin films. The optical constants of pyronin Y thin films for various thicknesses were studied by using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The transmittance T(λ), reflectance R(λ) spectral and absorbance (abs(λ)) were obtained for all film thicknesses at room temperature and the normal light incident. These films showed a high transmittance in the wide scale wavelengths. For different thicknesses of the studied thin films, the optical band gaps were determined and their values around 2 eV. Real and imaginary dielectric constants, dissipation factor and the nonlinear optical parameters were calculated in the wavelengths to the range 300–2500 nm. The pyronin Y is a new organic semiconductor with a good optical absorption in UV–vis regions and it is suitable for nonlinear optical applications. - Highlights: • Pyronin Y (PY) nanostructured thin films were deposited by using spin coating technique. • XRD/AFM were used to study the structure of PY films. • The optical band gap was calculated on the basis of Tauc's model. • Linear/nonlinear optical parameters are calculated and interpreted via the applied optical theories. • PY thin films is a new organic semiconductor for its application in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Contribution to the study of electronic structure of crystalline semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs, Gap, ZnTe, ZnSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhafs B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The band structure of semiconductors was described by several theorists since the Fifties. The main objective of the present paper is to do a comparative study between various families of semi-conductors IV (Si,Ge, III-V (GaAs, GaP and II-VI (ZnSe, ZnTe with both methods; tight Binding1 method and pseudo potential method2. This work enables us to understand as well as the mechanism of conduction process in these semiconductors and powers and limits of the above methods. The obtained results allow to conclude that both methods are in a good agreement to describe the morphology of band structures of the cited semiconductors. This encourages us to study in the future the electronic behaviour through the structure of bands for more complex systems such as the heterostructures.

  10. The determination of minority carrier lifetimes in direct band-gap semiconductors by monitoring intensity-modulated luminescence radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1985-01-01

    When an extrinsic, direct band-gap semiconductor sample is irradiated by photons of an energy higher than the energy of the band gap between valence and conduction bands, excess electron-hole pairs are generated which, while diffusing through the sample, produce luminescence via radiative recombination. If, furthermore, the intensity of the impinging beam of photons is modulated sinusoidally, the luminescence radiation escaping from the sample will be phase shifted with respect to the original photon beam in a characteristic way. It will be shown that by measuring the phase shift at different modulation frequencies, the Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime of minority carriers may be ascertained. The method is nondestructive inasmuch as there is no need to fabricate p-n junctions or Ohmic contacts, nor is it necessary to remove already existing Ohmic contacts of angle lap the surface, etc., procedures often needed when determining lifetimes with the scanning electron microscope (in which case a p-n junction must be present).

  11. Magnetic and transport properties of the narrow-gap semiconductor Yb5Si4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Masashi; Ottomo, Shingo; Machida, Ayumi; Kirigane, Tomoyuki; Numakura, Ryosuke; Katano, Susumu; Michimura, Shinji

    2015-03-01

    We report the synthesis and basic properties of the binary compound Yb5Si4. In this compound, Yb ions occupy three different crystallographic sites, the multiplicity of which is represented by Yb1 : Yb2 : Yb3 = 1:2:2. The estimated effective magnetic moment and magnetic entropy can be explained by the proportion of Yb valence states, Yb3+ : Yb2+ = 2:3. This result suggests the possibility that Yb3+ ions occupy either Yb2 or Yb3 site. Yb5Si4 undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at TN = 1.7 K. The extended high temperature tail in the temperature dependence of the specific heat just above TN has been observed. Yb5Si4 also exhibits the broad maximum peak around 2.3 K in the magnetic susceptibility, corresponding to the specific heat anomaly. We propose that these anomalies are possible to originate from magnetic fluctuations caused by low-dimensional Yb3+ networks. Electrical resistivity measurements on Yb5Si4 reveal semiconducting behavior at all temperatures. The small energy gap Δ = 430 K has been obtained at room temperature estimated by the thermal activation model. The energy gap gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, and reaches about 3 K at low temperatures.

  12. Tuning the band gap of PbCrO{sub 4} through high-pressure: Evidence of wide-to-narrow semiconductor transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universitat de València, MALTA ConsoliderTeam, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Bandiello, E.; Segura, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universitat de València, MALTA ConsoliderTeam, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Hamlin, J.J.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Rodriguez-Hernandez, P.; Muñoz, A. [Departamento de Física Fundamental II, Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Universidad de La Laguna, MALTA ConsoliderTeam, La Laguna, 38205 Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of PbCrO{sub 4} are studied under compression. • Band-gap collapses are observed and correlated with structural phase transitions. • PbCrO{sub 4} band-gap is reduced from 2.3 to 0.8 eV in a 20 GPa range. • PbCrO{sub 4} is an n-type semiconductor with donor levels associated to Frenkel defects. • A deep-to-shallow donor transformation at HP induces a large resistivity decrease. -- Abstract: The electronic transport properties and optical properties of lead(II) chromate (PbCrO{sub 4}) have been studied at high pressure by means of resistivity, Hall-effect, and optical-absorption measurements. Band-structure first-principle calculations have been also performed. We found that the low-pressure phase is a direct band-gap semiconductor (Eg = 2.3 eV) that shows a high resistivity. At 3.5 GPa, associated to a structural phase transition, a band-gap collapse takes place, becoming Eg = 1.8 eV. At the same pressure the resistivity suddenly decreases due to an increase of the carrier concentration. In the HP phase, PbCrO{sub 4} behaves as an n-type semiconductor, with a donor level probably associated to the formation of oxygen vacancies. At 15 GPa a second phase transition occurs to a phase with Eg = 1.2 eV. In this phase, the resistivity increases as pressure does probably due to the self-compensation of donor levels and the augmentation of the scattering of electrons with ionized impurities. In the three phases the band gap red shifts under compression. At 20 GPa, Eg reaches a value of 0.8 eV, behaving PbCrO{sub 4} as a narrow-gap semiconductor.

  13. Platinum nanoparticles on gallium nitride surfaces: effect of semiconductor doping on nanoparticle reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Susanne; Wyrzgol, Sonja A; Caterino, Roberta; Jentys, Andreas; Schoell, Sebastian J; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Lercher, Johannes A; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on n- and p-type gallium nitride (GaN) are investigated as novel hybrid systems for the electronic control of catalytic activity via electronic interactions with the semiconductor support. In situ oxidation and reduction were studied with high pressure photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments revealed that the underlying wide-band-gap semiconductor has a large influence on the chemical composition and oxygen affinity of supported nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation. For as-deposited Pt cuboctahedra supported on n-type GaN, a higher fraction of oxidized surface atoms was observed compared to cuboctahedral particles supported on p-type GaN. Under an oxygen atmosphere, immediate oxidation was recorded for nanoparticles on n-type GaN, whereas little oxidation was observed for nanoparticles on p-type GaN. Together, these results indicate that changes in the Pt chemical state under X-ray irradiation depend on the type of GaN doping. The strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the support is consistent with charge transfer of X-ray photogenerated free carriers at the semiconductor-nanoparticle interface and suggests that GaN is a promising wide-band-gap support material for photocatalysis and electronic control of catalysis.

  14. Heterojunctions Based on II-VI Compound Semiconductor One-Dimensional Nanostructures and Their Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wide band gap II-VI semiconductor nanostructures have been extensively studied according to their great potentials for optoelectronic applications, while heterojunctions are fundamental elements for modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. Subsequently, a great deal of achievements in construction and optoelectronic applications of heterojunctions based on II-VI compound semiconductor one-dimensional nanostructures have been obtained in the past decade. Herein, we present a review of a series of progress in this field. First, construction strategies towards different types of heterojunctions are reviewed, including core-shell heterojunctions, one-dimensional axial heterojunctions, crossed nanowires heterojunctions, and one-dimensional nanostructure/thin film or Si substrate heterojunctions. Secondly, optoelectronic applications of these constructed heterojunctions, such as photodetectors, solar cells, light emitting diodes, junction field effect transistors, etc., are discussed briefly. This review shows that heterojunctions based on II-VI compound semiconductor 1-D nanostructures have great potential for future optoelectronic applications.

  15. (A new time of flight) Acoustic flow meter using wide band signals and adaptive beamforming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgan, I.; Ioana, C.; Candel, I.; Anghel, A.; Ballester, J. L.; Reeb, B.; Combes, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present the result of our research concerning the improvement of acoustic time of flight flow metering for water pipes. Current flow meters are based on the estimation of direct time of flight by matched filtering of the received and emitted signals by acoustic transducers. Currently, narrow band signals are used, as well as a single emitter/receptor transducer configuration. Although simple, this configuration presents a series of limitations such as energy losses due to pipe wall/water interface, pressure/flow transients, sensitivity to flow induced vibrations, acoustic beam deformations and shift due to changes in flow velocity and embedded turbulence in the flow. The errors associated with these limitations reduce the overall robustness of existing flow meters, as well as the measured flow rate range and lower accuracy. In order to overcome these limitations, two major innovations were implemented at the signal processing level. The first one concerns the use of wide band signals that optimise the power transfer throughout the acoustic path and also increase the number of velocity/flow readings per second. Using wide band signals having a high duration-bandwidth product increases the precision in terms of time of flight measurements and, in the same time, improves the system robustness. The second contribution consists in the use of a multiple emitter - multiple receivers configuration (for one path) in order to compensate the emitted acoustic beam shift, compensate the time of flight estimation errors and thus increase the flow meter's robustness in case of undesired effects such as the “flow blow” and transient/rapid flow rate/velocity changes. Using a new signal processing algorithm that take advantage of the controlled wide band content coming from multiple receivers, the new flow meters achieves a higher accuracy in terms of flow velocity over a wider velocity range than existing systems. Tests carried out on real scale experimental

  16. The first observations of wide-band interferometers and the spectra of relic gravitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giovannini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons of cosmological origin extend from frequencies of the order of the aHz up to the GHz range. Since the temperature and polarization anisotropies constrain the low frequency normalization of the spectra, in the concordance paradigm the strain amplitude corresponding to the frequency window of wide-band interferometers turns out to be, approximately, nine orders of magnitude smaller than the astounding signal recently reported and attributed to a binary black hole merger. The backgrounds of relic gravitons expected from the early Universe are compared with the stochastic foregrounds stemming from the estimated multiplicity of the astrophysical sources. It is suggested that while the astrophysical foregrounds are likely to dominate between few Hz and 10 kHz, relic gravitons with frequencies exceeding 100 kHz represent a potentially uncontaminated signal for the next generation of high-frequency detectors currently under scrutiny.

  17. A Millimeter Wave Spectrophotometry by a Wide Band Oscillator of the Ledatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Shozo; Ikezawa, Mikihiko

    1983-04-01

    For the purpose of the wavelength scanning spectroscopy in the millimeter wave region, we have made a wide band oscillator using the Ledatron tube. The pulsed output signal is obtained in the wavelength range from 2.6 to 9 mm (1.1 to 3.9 cm-1) almost continuously. The peak output power is over several hundred milliwatts from 4 to 9 mm and over several tens of milliwatts from 2.6 to 4 mm. With this source, a spectrophotometer has been constructed in which light pipes are used as wave guides and the fluctuation of the signal is averaged by a boxcar integrator. A measurement of absorption spectra is demonstrated for a solid state sample of NaCl:OH-.

  18. Ultra wide-band localization and SLAM: a comparative study for mobile robot navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Marcelo J; Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Toibero, Juan M; Mut, Vicente; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work.

  19. Wide-Band Data Transmission System Expected in the Next Generation Space VLBI Mission: VSOP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission (VSOP-2) is currently being planned. We expect the data rate of more than 1 Gbps to get more sensitivity. Here we will present: (1) How to sample the data (on board), including the radiation test results which show we can have the 10 Gbps sampler LSI which can use in space; (2) Possibility of the bit rate more than 1 Gbps to downlink the VLBI data. We studied the link budget for the wide band data transmission, and discussed the various ideas which can get more than 1 Gbps; and (3) What kind of VLBI tracking station and recording system will be expected for the VSOP-2 mission? We will present the idea of using normal radio telescopes as a tracking station, and also review the possibility of recording and processing at the tracking stations and correlators.

  20. CB-CPW based Wide Band Bandpass Filter using Open-Stub Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyra, T.; Parui, S. K.; Das, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper one conductor back coplanar waveguide based wide band bandpass filter is designed with end-coupled λ/4 open-stub resonator at the operating frequency 2.5 GHz. This proposed BPF structure exhibits negligible passband insertion loss of 0.2 dB, 100 % fractional bandwidth at -3 dB, sharp transition from passband to stopband, wide attenuation bandwidth of 4 GHz. This structure is simple in design with reduced size and provides slow-wave characteristics. This designed BPF is used for almost 2.5 GHz band around central frequency, almost no dispersion or scattering other than 0.5 ns group delay. Finally, the proposed structure has been fabricated and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured result. Therefore, the proposed filter is applicable in our modern microwave and millimetre wave communication systems due to its characteristics.

  1. Fully inkjet printed wide band cantor fractal antenna for RF energy harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Bakytbekov, Azamat

    2017-06-07

    Energy harvesting from ambient RF signals is feasible, particularly from the GSM bands such as 900MHz, 1800MHz and the 3G band at 2.1GHz. This requires a wideband receive antenna which can cover all these bands with decent gain performance and an omnidirectional radiation pattern. In this work, a novel Cantor fractal antenna has been designed which fulfills the above mentioned performance requirements. Antenna has been realized through a combination of 3D inkjet printing of plastic substrate and 2D inkjet printing of metallic nanoparticles based ink. The stable impedance and radiation performance of the antenna over a bandwidth of 0.8GHz to 2.2GHz (93 %) shows the feasibility of its employment in wide band energy harvesting applications.

  2. The first observations of wide-band interferometers and the spectra of relic gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons of cosmological origin extend from frequencies of the order of the aHz up to the GHz range. Since the temperature and polarization anisotropies constrain the low frequency normalization of the spectra, in the concordance paradigm the strain amplitude corresponding to the frequency window of wide-band interferometers turns out to be, approximately, nine orders of magnitude smaller than the astounding signal recently reported and attributed to a binary black hole merger. The backgrounds of relic gravitons expected from the early Universe are compared with the stochastic foregrounds stemming from the estimated multiplicity of the astrophysical sources. It is suggested that while the astrophysical foregrounds are likely to dominate between few Hz and 10 kHz, relic gravitons with frequencies exceeding 100 kHz represent a potentially uncontaminated signal for the next generation of high-frequency detectors currently under scrutiny.

  3. Design Considerations for Autocalibrations of Wide-Band ΔΣ Fractional-N PLL Synthesizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Shin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autocalibration of VCO frequency and loop gain is an essential process in PLL frequency synthesizers. In a wide tuning-range fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizer, high-speed and high-precision automatic calibration is especially important for shortening the lock time and improving the phase noise. This paper reviews the design issues of the PLL auto-calibration and discusses on the limitations of the previous techniques. A very simple and efficient auto-calibration method based on a high-speed frequency-to-digital converter (FDC is proposed and verified through simulations. The proposed method is highly suited for a very wide-band ΔΣ fractional-N PLL.

  4. All-electron exact exchange treatment of semiconductors: effect of core-valence interaction on band-gap and d-band position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Dewhurst, J K; Ambrosch-Draxl, C

    2005-09-23

    We present the first all-electron full-potential exact exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham density functional calculations on a range of semiconductors and insulators (Ge, GaAs, CdS, Si, ZnS, C, BN, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe). We remove one of the main computational obstacles of such calculations by the use of a highly efficient basis for inversion of the response function. We find that the band gaps are not as close to experiment as those obtained from previous pseudopotential EXX calculations. The locations of d bands, determined using the full-potential EXX method, are in excellent agreement with experiment, irrespective of whether these are core, semicore, or valence states. We conclude that the inclusion of the core-valence interaction is necessary for accurate determination of EXX Kohn-Sham band structures and that EXX alone is not a complete answer to the band-gap problem in semiconductors.

  5. Crystal Growth and Characterization of the Narrow-Band-Gap Semiconductors OsPn 2 (Pn = P, As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Do, Dat T.; Chung, Duck Young; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-09-15

    Using metal fluxes, crystals of the binary osmium dipnictides OsPn(2) (Pn = P, As, Sb) have been grown for the first time. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms that these compounds crystallize in the marcasite structure type with orthorhombic space group Pnnm. The structure is a three-dimensional framework of corner- and edge-sharing OsPn(6) octahedra, as well as [Pn(2)(-4)] anions. Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of PP single bonds, consistent with the presence of [Pn(2)(-4)] anions and formally Os4+ cations. Optical-band-gap and high-temperature electrical resistivity measurements indicate that these materials are narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The experimentally determined Seebeck coefficients reveal that nominally undoped OsP2 and OsSb2 are n-type semiconductors, whereas OsAs2 is p-type. Electronic band structure using density functional theory calculations shows that these compounds are indirect narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The bonding p orbitals associated with the Pn(2) dimer are below the Fermi energy, and the corresponding antibonding states are above, consistent with a PnPn single bond. Thermopower calculations using Boltzmann transport theory and constant relaxation time approximation show that these materials are potentially good thermoelectrics, in agreement with experiment.

  6. Design of a wide band metasurface as a linear to circular polarization converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Olcay; Unal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Karadag, Faruk; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present a wide band metasurface (MS) polarization converter which converts a linearly polarized signal to a right-handed or left-handed circularly polarized signal both numerically and experimentally. The unit cell of MS has three nested rectangular resonators which have two metallic patches at its crossed corners. The simulated and measured results are achieved by a commercial full wave EM simulator and a vector network analyzer with two horn antennas in microwave frequency regime. The S-parameters are obtained for co-polarized and cross-polarized responses and axial ratio is evaluated by the division of these two responses. The axial ratio is kept below 3 dB for efficient polarization converting activity. Correspondingly, axial ratio bandwidth of 800 MHz is obtained. The proposed MS can easily be fabricated and integrated into many desired applications by proper configurations depending on the application area and frequencies. The proposed MS has potential such as polarization converter with 0.75 efficiency in WiMAX frequency band, PMC-like treatment with a phase reflection around 0∘ and reflection coefficient nearly unity at some frequency points. Beside this, the three nested rectangle MSs also provide opportunities to design low profile antennas with conversion characteristics.

  7. A New Wide-Band Double-Negative Metamaterial for C- and S-Band Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Ikbal; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib

    2014-12-25

    A new design and analysis of a wide-band double-negative metamaterial, considering a frequency range of 0.5 to 7 GHz, is presented in this paper. Four different unit cells with varying design parameters are analyzed to evaluate the effects of the unit-cell size on the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial. Moreover, open and interconnected 2 × 2 array structures of unit cells are analyzed. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, based on the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio, is utilized in the majority of this investigation. The experimental portion of the study was performed in a semi-anechoic chamber. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured S parameters of the developed unit cell and array. The designed unit cell exhibits negative permittivity and permeability simultaneously at S-band (2.95 GHz to 4.00 GHz) microwave frequencies. In addition, the designed unit cell can also operate as a double-negative medium throughout the C band (4.00 GHz to 4.95 GHz and 5.00 GHz to 5.57 GHz). At a number of other frequencies, it exhibits a single negative value. The two array configurations cause a slight shift in the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial and hence lead to a slight shift of the single- and double-negative frequency ranges of the metamaterial.

  8. A New Wide-Band Double-Negative Metamaterial for C- and S-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ikbal Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new design and analysis of a wide-band double-negative metamaterial, considering a frequency range of 0.5 to 7 GHz, is presented in this paper. Four different unit cells with varying design parameters are analyzed to evaluate the effects of the unit-cell size on the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial. Moreover, open and interconnected 2 × 2 array structures of unit cells are analyzed. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method, based on the Computer Simulation Technology (CST Microwave Studio, is utilized in the majority of this investigation. The experimental portion of the study was performed in a semi-anechoic chamber. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured S parameters of the developed unit cell and array. The designed unit cell exhibits negative permittivity and permeability simultaneously at S-band (2.95 GHz to 4.00 GHz microwave frequencies. In addition, the designed unit cell can also operate as a double-negative medium throughout the C band (4.00 GHz to 4.95 GHz and 5.00 GHz to 5.57 GHz. At a number of other frequencies, it exhibits a single negative value. The two array configurations cause a slight shift in the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial and hence lead to a slight shift of the single- and double-negative frequency ranges of the metamaterial.

  9. Multifunctional TiN nanowires for wide band absorption in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdi, Sara; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key issues limiting the efficiency of organic solar cells is the narrow absorption band of the polymer active layer. Thus, a huge amount of the incident sunlight is lost. Here, a new structure is theoretically proposed achieving wide band absorption in organic solar cells using multifunctional TiN nanowires. In addition to the plasmonic properties of TiN, it was reported that TiN has the capability to produce free carriers upon light absorption. Thus, the structure is based on the ability to collect these photo-generated carriers. Using the combination of TiN and polymer significantly broadened the absorption band due to the ability of TiN to localize light inside P3HT:PC70BM in addition to its ability to absorb light at longer wavelengths. The optimized structure enhanced the absorbed power by 95% and the optimal short circuit current by 123% over the same structure without the TiN nanowires. Electric field distribution is studied at different wavelengths to gain further insight on the localization of light inside the structure.

  10. Wide band design on the scaled absorbing material filled with flaky CIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Zichang; Liao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The scaled target measurement is an important method to get the target characteristic. Radar absorbing materials are widely used in the low detectable target, considering the absorbing material frequency dispersion characteristics, it makes designing and manufacturing scaled radar absorbing materials on the scaled target very difficult. This paper proposed a wide band design method on the scaled absorbing material of the thin absorption coating with added carbonyl iron particles. According to the theoretical radar cross section (RCS) of the plate, the reflection loss determined by the permittivity and permeability was chosen as the main design factor. Then, the parameters of the scaled absorbing materials were designed using the effective medium theory, and the scaled absorbing material was constructed. Finally, the full-size coating plate and scaled coating plates (under three different scale factors) were simulated; the RCSs of the coating plates were numerically calculated and measured at 4 GHz and a scale factor of 2. The results showed that the compensated RCS of the scaled coating plate was close to that of the full-size coating plate, that is, the mean deviation was less than 0.5 dB, and the design method for the scaled material was very effective.

  11. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoon, T. F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2011-11-01

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak-Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0-5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets.

  12. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezah Balal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide “chirped” Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  13. WIDE-FIELD WIDE-BAND INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING: THE WB A-PROJECTION AND HYBRID ALGORITHMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Golap, K., E-mail: sbhatnag@nrao.edu, E-mail: rurvashi@nrao.edu, E-mail: kgolap@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Variations of the antenna primary beam (PB) pattern as a function of time, frequency, and polarization form one of the dominant direction-dependent effects at most radio frequency bands. These gains may also vary from antenna to antenna. The A-Projection algorithm, published earlier, accounts for the effects of the narrow-band antenna PB in full polarization. In this paper, we present the wide-band A-Projection algorithm (WB A-Projection) to include the effects of wide bandwidth in the A-term itself and show that the resulting algorithm simultaneously corrects for the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the PB. We discuss the combination of the WB A-Projection and the multi-term multi-frequency synthesis (MT-MFS) algorithm for simultaneous mapping of the sky brightness distribution and the spectral index distribution across a wide field of view. We also discuss the use of the narrow-band A-Projection algorithm in hybrid imaging schemes that account for the frequency dependence of the PB in the image domain.

  14. Defect-induced magnetism in undoped and Mn-doped wide band gap zinc oxide grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, D. E.; Kortidis, I.; Papadaki, D.; Nkosi, S. S.; Mhlongo, G. H.; Wesley-Smith, J.; Malgas, G. F.; Mwakikunga, B. W.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H. C.; Kiriakidis, G.; Ray, S. S.

    2014-08-01

    We present a systemic study on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the un-doped and Mn doped ZnO thin films grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis at different deposition times. XRD profiling has shown that the structures of the prepared products are wurtzite without any evidence of second phases. Surface morphology analysis revealed that incorporation of Mn in the ZnO matrix results in the formation of "doughnut-like" structures while the corresponding un-doped ZnO showed permeable structures only at long deposition time. Optical results demonstrated that Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibited both the characteristic orange Mn2+ ion-related emission at 595 nm and a shoulder around 667 nm, denoting that the Mn ions have successfully occupied lattice positions of Zn ions. The chemical composition and charge states of the Mn ions in the doped ZnO nanostructures analysed by the EDX and XPS, also confirmed that Mn2+ ions were successfully incorporated onto zinc sites in the ZnO host crystal. With the combination of defect analysis based on PL and XPS, the effect of defects on the nature and origin of ferromagnetism through EPR was investigated. These findings suggested that zinc and oxygen defects, especially zinc interstitials and singly ionized oxygen vacancies, play a crucial role in mediating ferromagnetism in the undoped ZnO.

  15. Wide band gap solar cells with high stabilized performance. Annual technical report, 15 July 1995--15 July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronski, C R; Collins, R W; Fujiwara, H [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); and others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work on an improved understanding of stability in materials and silicon solar cells. Topics include novel intrinsic materials optimization; solar cells optimized for p- and i-layer performance; novel p-type materials; interfaces; and device modeling.

  16. Ferromagnetism in wide band gap materials: Mn-ZnO and Mn-Si3N4 thin films.

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral elaborada en el Departamento de Materiales para las Tecnologías de la Información del Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC) y presentada en el Departamento de Física de Materiales de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid el 30 de octubre de 2009.

  17. sup 7 sup 5 As NQR/NMR study of successive phase transitions and energy gap formation in Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, M; Takabatake, T; Tsuji, S; Tou, H; Sera, M

    2003-01-01

    sup 7 sup 5 As NQR/NMR studies were performed to investigate the successive phase transitions found recently, the gap formation and their interplay in a Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs. NQR/NMR spectra in their respective phases change, reflecting lattice modulation modes, q sub 1 = (0, 1/2, 1/2), q sub 2 = (0, 1/3, 1/3) and q sub 3 = (1/3, 0, 0). In particular for well-resolved three NQR lines corresponding to the q sub 3 mode in the lowest temperature phase, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (T sub 1 T) sup - sup 1 shows an activation type T-dependence, suggesting a gap opening over the entire Fermi surface, in contrast to the V-shaped gap in isostructural CeNiSn and CeRhSn. The evaluated gap of 272 K and the bandwidth of about 4000 K are one order of magnitude larger than those in CeNiSn and CeRhSb. A lattice modulation forms a gap different from the V-shaped gap. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  19. Molecular iodine laser with wide-band optical pumping by polychannel cumulative discharge of magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrukov, A.S.; Kashnikov, G.N.; Kozlov, N.P.; Kuznetsov, S.G.; Orlov, V.K.; Protasov, Yu.S.

    1982-02-26

    Lasing is achieved in iodine vapor in experiments with wide-band optical pumping by the emission of a polychannel cumulative discharge of a magnetoplasma compressor. The active medium was excited by radiation from a shock-heated plasma formed by collision and accumulation of high-velocity head-on plasma streams produced by six magnetoplasma compressors 1 arranged in groups of three on each side of discharge chamber 2. The inside diameter of the chamber was 120 mm, and length was 300 mm. Two identical cells 3 containing the active substance were placed inside the chamber parallel to its axis. The cells were made of stainless steel with three flat windows of MgF/sub 2/ through which the pumping radiation was coupled into the active medium. On the end flanges of the cells were either quartz windows for studying luminescence characteristics, or adjustable quartz mirrors to form an optical cavity (laser cells). Brightness of the shock-compressed plasma in the iodine absorption band was enhanced by a xenon atmosphere of 1 to 3 torr in the discharge chamber. The use of a cumulative discharge in low-pressure gas instead of a vacuum discharge enabled effective tuning of the plasma emission spectrum. The buffer gas in the working cells was perfluoromethane. Lasing was observed on 342.0 and 342.4 nm corresponding to transitions with vibrational numbers of 1 to 14 and 2 to 15. Lasing pulse duration at half-amplitude was 1 to 1.5 ..mu..s.

  20. [Wide band tympanometry energy reflectance in Chinese infants and children with normal outer and middle ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yibo; Lu, Wei; Mo, Lingyan

    2014-06-01

    To explore the law of wide band tympanometry energy reflectance (WBTER) in Chinese infants of Han nationality with normal outer and middle ears, and to provide the normal values for the clinical application of WBTER. Ninety four infants (170 ears) of Han nationality with normal outer and middle ears evidenced by temporal bone CT, and 226 Hz and 1 000 Hz tympanometry at the ages between three and 48 months (median age: 14 months) were selected and divided into four groups: 3-6 months (32 ears), 7-12 months (53 ears), 13-24 months (46 ears) and 25-48 months (39 ears). WBTER was conducted on these infants, and the basic law of energy reflectance under different frequencies, as well as the influence of age on energy reflectance were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The normal value of energy reflectance was higher at low frequency, gradually decreased with the increase of frequency, reached the minimum near 4 000 Hz , followed by constantly increased till 8 000 Hz. In the scope of frequency below 1 000 Hz and above 6 350 Hz, the energy reflectance values of infants in the group of 3-6 months were significantly lower than those of infants in other age groups (P reflectance and lower fluctuation. The pattern of energy reflectance across frequency range for Chinese infants and children was consistent with that of other races reported in foreign countries. The WBTER changes with the growing of age, which tends to be stable after the first six months of birth.

  1. Near-edge band structures and band gaps of Cu-based semiconductors predicted by the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Youwei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A. [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Sate Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2013-11-14

    Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV.

  2. Near-edge band structures and band gaps of Cu-based semiconductors predicted by the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A; Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Wenqing

    2013-11-14

    Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV.

  3. Slater half-occupation technique revisited: the LDA-1/2 and GGA-1/2 approaches for atomic ionization energies and band gaps in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G. Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The very old and successful density-functional technique of half-occupation is revisited [J. C. Slater, Adv. Quant. Chem. 6, 1 (1972]. We use it together with the modern exchange-correlation approximations to calculate atomic ionization energies and band gaps in semiconductors [L. G. Ferreira et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 125116 (2008]. Here we enlarge the results of the previous paper, add to its understandability, and show when the technique might fail. Even in this latter circumstance, the calculated band gaps are far better than those of simple LDA or GGA. As before, the difference between the Kohn-Sham ground state one-particle eigenvalues and the half-occupation eigenvalues is simply interpreted as the self-energy (not self-interaction of the particle excitation. In both cases, that of atomic ionization energies and semiconductor band gaps, the technique is proven to be very worthy, because not only the results can be very precise but the calculations are fast and very simple.

  4. Wide-band simultaneous observations of pulsars: disentangling dispersion measure and profile variations : disentangling dispersion measure and profile variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassall, T. E.; Stappers, B. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kramer, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, K.; Coenen, T.; Karastergiou, A.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Lazaridis, K.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Serylak, M.; Sobey, C.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Zagkouris, K.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Bahren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Broderick, J. W.; Corbel, S.; Daw, E. J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Griessmeier, J. -M.; Law, C.; Markoff, S.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Osten, R.; Rol, E.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, B.; Schellart, P.; Spreeuw, H.; Swinbank, J.; ter Veen, S.; Wise, M. W.; Wijnands, R.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Asgekar, A.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Boonstra, A. J.; Brentjens, M.; Brouw, W. N.; Brueggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Garrett, M. A.; Gerbers, M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H.; de Jong, A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; Masters, J.; McKean, J. P.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Munk, H.; Noordam, J. E.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Reich, W.; Rottgering, H.; Sluman, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Sterks, C. G. M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Yatawatta, S.; Jonker, P.

    Dispersion in the interstellar medium is a well known phenomenon that follows a simple relationship, which has been used to predict the time delay of dispersed radio pulses since the late 1960s. We performed wide-band simultaneous observations of four pulsars with LOFAR (at 40-190 MHz), the 76-m

  5. Impulse radio ultra wide-band over multi-mode fiber for in-home signal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Rodes, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2009-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a high speed impulse radio ultra wide-band (IR-UWB) wireless link for in-home network signal distribution. The IR-UWB pulse is distributed over a multimode fiber to the transmitter antenna. Wireless transmitted bit-rates of 1 Gbps at 2 m and 2 Gbps at 1.5 m...

  6. Head and hand detuning effect study of narrow-band against wide-band mobile phone antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    Wide-band (WB) and narrow-band (NB) antennas in terms of performance are compared, when interacting with the user’s right head and hand (RHH). The investigations are done through experimental measurements, using standardised head phantom and hand. It is shown that WB antennas detune more than NB ...

  7. UltraWide Band (UWB) Radar for the High-resolution Imaging of Martian Regolith for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Y.; Jordan, R.; Quddus, M.; Heggy, E.; Plaut, J.-J.

    2012-06-01

    We propose to develop an Ultra-WideBand (UWB) radar that would enable a rover or an astronaut on the surface of Mars to survey their surroundings and readily identify water ice, hydrate minerals, or volatiles buried at Mars shallow subsurface < 1m.

  8. Genetic-Algorithm Discovery of a Direct-Gap and Optically Allowed Superstructure from Indirect-Gap Si and Ge Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Luo, Jun-Wei; Chanier, Thomas; Zunger, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Combining two indirect-gap materials—with different electronic and optical gaps—to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Sin/Gem/…/Sip/Geq superstructures grown on (001) Si1-xGex. The search reveals a robust configurational motif—SiGe2Si2Ge2SiGen on (001) SixGe1-x substrate (x≤0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced Γ-X coupling at the band edges.

  9. Present status and prospects of R&D of radiation-resistant semiconductor devices at JAEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, H.

    2013-05-01

    Research and development of radiation resistant semiconductor devices have been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for their application to electronic system used in harsh environments like space, accelerator and nuclear facilities. Such devices are also indispensable for robots and equipment necessary for decommissioning of the damaged reactors at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. For this purpose, we have fabricated transistors based on a wide band-gap semiconductor SiC and examined their radiation degradation. As a result, SiC-based transistors exhibited no significant degradation up to 1MGy, indicating their excellent radiation resistance. Recent our R&Ds of radiation resistant devices based on SiC are summarized and reviewed.

  10. Genetic-Algorithm Discovery of a Direct-Gap and Optically Allowed Superstructure from Indirect-Gap Si and Ge Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Avezac, M.; Luo, J. W.; Chanier, T.; Zunger, A.

    2012-01-13

    Combining two indirect-gap materials - with different electronic and optical gaps - to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Si{sub n}/Ge{sub m}/.../Si{sub p}/Ge{sub q} superstructures grown on (001) Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}. The search reveals a robust configurational motif - SiGe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}SiGe{sub n} on (001) Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} substrate (x {le} 0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced {Gamma}-X coupling at the band edges.

  11. Mössbauer Studies of dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Gislason, H P; Debernardi, A; Dlamini, W B

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of (dilute) magnetic semiconductors with wide band gaps, e.g. GaN, ZnO and other oxides, having Curie temperatures, T$_{\\textrm{c}}$, well above room temperature, has prompted extraordinary experimental and theoretical efforts to understand, control and exploit this unexpected finding not least in view of the obvious potential of such materials for the fabrication of "spin-(elec)tronic" or magneto-optic devices. Ferromagnetism (FM) was achieved mostly by doping with dilute 3d transition metal impurities, notably Mn, Fe, and Co (in \\% concentrations), during growth or by subsequent ion implantation. However, it is fair to state that experimentally the conditions for the occurrence of ferro-, antiferro- or paramagnetism with these impurities are not yet controlled as generally at least two conflicting forms of magnetism or none have been reported for each system - albeit often produced by different techniques. Theory is challenged as "conventional" models seem to fail and no generally accep...

  12. Wide-banded NTC radiation: local to remote observations by the four Cluster satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. E. Décréau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster multi-point mission offers a unique collection of non-thermal continuum (NTC radio waves observed in the 2–80 kHz frequency range over almost 15 years, from various view points over the radiating plasmasphere. Here we present rather infrequent case events, such as when primary electrostatic sources of such waves are embedded within the plasmapause boundary far from the magnetic equatorial plane. The spectral signature of the emitted electromagnetic waves is structured as a series of wide harmonic bands within the range covered by the step in plasma frequency encountered at the boundary. Developing the concept that the frequency distance df between harmonic bands measures the magnetic field magnitude B at the source (df = Fce, electron gyrofrequency, we analyse three selected events. The first one (studied in Grimald et al., 2008 presents electric field signatures observed by a Cluster constellation of small size (~ 200 to 1000 km spacecraft separation placed in the vicinity of sources. The electric field frequency spectra display frequency peaks placed at frequencies fs = n df (n being an integer, with df of the order of Fce values encountered at the plasmapause by the spacecraft. The second event, taken from the Cluster tilt campaign, leads to a 3-D view of NTC waves ray path orientations and to a localization of a global source region at several Earth radii (RE from Cluster (Décréau et al., 2013. The measured spectra present successive peaks placed at fs ~ (n+ 1/2 df. Next, considering if both situations might be two facets of the same phenomenon, we analyze a third event. The Cluster fleet, configured into a constellation of large size (~ 8000 to 25 000 km spacecraft separation, allows us to observe wide-banded NTC waves at different distances from their sources. Two new findings can be derived from our analysis. First, we point out that a large portion of the plasmasphere boundary layer, covering a large range of magnetic

  13. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R Khoshdel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: 40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75 were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA. CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66 and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77 revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145 but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019. Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P

  14. Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

  15. A low power wide-band CMOS PLL frequency synthesizer for portable hybrid GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shimao; Yu Yunfeng; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin Ming, E-mail: xiaoshimao@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The design consideration and implementation of a CMOS frequency synthesizer for the portable hybrid global navigation satellite system are presented. The large tuning range is achieved by tuning curve compensation using an improved VCO resonant tank, which reduces the power consumption and obtains better phase noise performance. The circuit is validated by simulations and fabricated in a standard 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS process. Close-loop phase noise measured is lower than -95 dBc at 200 kHz offset while the measured tuning range is 21.5% from 1.47 to 1.83 GHz. The proposed synthesizer including source coupled logic prescaler consumes 6.2 mA current from 1.8 V supply. The whole silicon required is only 0.53 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Design of medium band gap Ag-Bi-Nb-O and Ag-Bi-Ta-O semiconductors for driving direct water splitting with visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Cao, Bingfei; Kang, Wei; Hybertsen, Mark; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Domen, Kazunari; Khalifah, Peter G

    2013-08-19

    Two new metal oxide semiconductors belonging to the Ag-Bi-M-O (M = Nb, Ta) chemical systems have been synthesized as candidate compounds for driving overall water splitting with visible light on the basis of cosubstitution of Ag and Bi on the A-site position of known Ca2M2O7 pyrochlores. The low-valence band edge energies of typical oxide semiconductors prevents direct water splitting in compounds with band gaps below 3.0 eV, a limitation which these compounds are designed to overcome through the incorporation of low-lying Ag 4d(10) and Bi 6s(2) states into compounds of nominal composition "AgBiM2O7". It was found that the "AgBiTa2O7" pyrochlores are in fact a solid solution with an approximate range of Ag(x)Bi(5/6)Ta2O(6.25+x/2) with 0.5 semiconductors with the onset of strong direct absorption at 2.72 and 2.96 eV, respectively. Electronic structure calculations for an ordered AgBiNb2O7 structure show that the band gap reduction and the elevation of the valence band primarily result from hybridized Ag d(10)-O 2p orbitals that lie at higher energy than the normal O 2p states in typical pyrochlore oxides. While the minimum energy gap is direct in the band structure, the lowest energy dipole allowed optical transitions start about 0.2 eV higher in energy than the minimum energy transition and involve different bands. This suggests that the minimum electronic band gap in these materials is slightly smaller than the onset energy for strong absorption in the optical measurements. The elevated valence band energies of the niobate and tantalate compounds are experimentally confirmed by the ability of these compounds to reduce 2 H(+) to H2 gas when illuminated after functionalization with a Pt cocatalyst.

  17. Performance analysis for a chaos-based code-division multiple access system in wide-band channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Doru Giurcăneanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Code-division multiple access technology is widely used in telecommunications and its performance has been extensively investigated in the past. Theoretical results for the case of wide-band transmission channel were not available until recently. The novel formulae which have been published in 2014 can have an important impact on the future of wireless multiuser communications, but limitations come from the Gaussian approximations used in their derivation. In this Letter, the authors obtain more accurate expressions of the bit error rate (BER for the case when the model of the wide-band channel is two-ray, with Rayleigh fading. In the authors’ approach, the spreading sequences are assumed to be generated by logistic map given by Chebyshev polynomial function of order two. Their theoretical and experimental results show clearly that the previous results on BER, which rely on the crude Gaussian approximation, are over-pessimistic.

  18. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW theory of III-V nitride semiconductors: Bands, gap bowing, and effective masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Gorczyca, I.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic band structures of InN, GaN, and a hypothetical ordered InGaN2 compound, all in the wurtzite crystal structure, are calculated using the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation. This approach leads to band gaps which are significantly improved compared to gaps calculated...... on the basis of the local approximation to density functional theory, although generally overestimated by 0.2–0.3 eV in comparison with experimental gap values. Details of the electronic energies and the effective masses including their pressure dependence are compared with available experimental information....... The band gap of InGaN2 is considerably smaller than what would be expected by linear interpolation implying a significant band gap bowing in InGaN alloys....

  19. Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1-xO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yaonan; Mei, Zengxia; Du, Xiaolong

    2014-07-01

    It is indispensable to develop wide-band-gap based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs), which are one of the basic building blocks of solid state UV optoelectronic devices. In the last two decades, we have witnessed the renaissance of ZnO as a wide-band-gap semiconductor and an enormous development of ZnO-based UV PDs as a result of its superb optical and electronic properties. Since the first demonstration, a great variety of UV PDs based on ZnO and its related materials have been proposed and demonstrated. These PDs, with diverse device geometries, exhibit either high performance or multiple functions, reflecting a state-of-the-art technology of UV optoelectronics. In this review, we study the latest progress of UV PDs made on ZnO and MgxZn1-xO, which is a representative alloy of ZnO for band-gap engineering techniques. The discussion focuses on the device performance and the behind device physics according to the architecture of UV PDs.

  20. Investigation on wide-band scattering of a 2-D target above 1-D randomly rough surface by FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Guo, Li-Xin; Jiao, Yong-Chang; Li, Ke

    2011-01-17

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a pulse wave excitation is used to investigate the wide-band composite scattering from a two-dimensional(2-D) infinitely long target with arbitrary cross section located above a one-dimensional(1-D) randomly rough surface. The FDTD calculation is performed with a pulse wave incidence, and the 2-D representative time-domain scattered field in the far zone is obtained directly by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. Then the 2-D wide-band scattering result is acquired by transforming the representative time-domain field to the frequency domain with a Fourier transform. Taking the composite scattering of an infinitely long cylinder above rough surface as an example, the wide-band response in the far zone by FDTD with the pulsed excitation is computed and it shows a good agreement with the numerical result by FDTD with the sinusoidal illumination. Finally, the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from a 2-D target above 1-D rough surface versus the incident frequency, and the representative scattered fields in the far zone versus the time are analyzed in detail.

  1. Electromagnetic metamaterial-inspired band gap and perfect transmission in semiconductor and graphene-based electronic and photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, M. R. C.; Al Sayem, Ayed; Shahriar, Arif; Shawon, Jubayer; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Jahangir, Ifat; Matin, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this article, at first we propose a unified and compact classification of single negative electromagnetic metamaterial-based perfect transmission unit cells. The classes are named as: type-A, -B and -C unit cells. Then based on the classification, we have extended these ideas in semiconductor and graphene regimes. For type-A: Based on the idea of electromagnetic Spatial Average Single Negative bandgap, novel bandgap structures have been proposed for electron transmission in semiconductor heterostructures. For type-B: with dielectric-graphene-dielectric structure, almost all angle transparency is achieved for both polarizations of electromagnetic wave in the terahertz frequency range instead of the conventional transparency in the microwave frequency range. Finally the application of the gated dielectric-graphene-dielectric has been demonstrated for the modulation and switching purpose.

  2. Synthesis of Tunable Band Gap Semiconductor Nickel Sulphide Nanoparticles: Rapid and Round the Clock Degradation of Organic Dyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molla, Aniruddha; Sahu, Meenakshi; Hussain, Sahid

    2016-01-01

    Controlled shape and size with tuneable band gap (1.92-2.41 eV), nickel sulphide NPs was achieved in presence of thiourea or thioacetamide as sulphur sources with the variations of temperature and capping agents...

  3. Managing the supercell approximation for charged defects in semiconductors: Finite-size scaling, charge correction factors, the band-gap problem, and the ab initio dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleton, C. W. M.; Höglund, A.; Mirbt, S.

    2006-01-01

    The errors arising in ab initio density functional theory studies of semiconductor point defects using the supercell approximation are analyzed. It is demonstrated that (a) the leading finite size errors are inverse linear and inverse cubic in the supercell size and (b) finite size scaling over a series of supercells gives reliable isolated charged defect formation energies to around ±0.05eV . The scaled results are used to test three correction methods. The Makov-Payne method is insufficient, but combined with the scaling parameters yields an ab initio dielectric constant of 11.6±4.1 for InP. Γ point corrections for defect level dispersion are completely incorrect, even for shallow levels, but realigning the total potential in real-space between defect and bulk cells actually corrects the electrostatic defect-defect interaction errors as well. Isolated defect energies to ±0.1eV are then obtained using a 64 atom supercell, though this does not improve for larger cells. Finally, finite size scaling of known dopant levels shows how to treat the band gap problem: in ⩽200 atom supercells with no corrections, continuing to consider levels into the theoretical conduction band (extended gap) comes closest to experiment. However, for larger cells or when supercell approximation errors are removed, a scissors scheme stretching the theoretical band gap onto the experimental one is in fact correct.

  4. Details in Semiconductors Gordon Conference, New London, NH, August 3-8, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengbai [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2009-09-16

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in homogeneous and structured semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, with an increases emphasis on nanostructures as compared to previous conferences. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference deals with defects in a broad range of bulk and nanoscale electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, doped nanoparticles, and organic semiconductors. Presentations of state-of-the-art theoretical methods will contribute to a fundamental understanding of atomic-scale phenomena. The program consists of about twenty invited talks, with plenty of discussion time, and a number of contributed poster sessions. Because of the large amount of discussion time, the conference provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  5. Zinc Alloys for the Fabrication of Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yungryel; Lee, Tae S.

    2009-01-01

    ZnBeO and ZnCdSeO alloys have been disclosed as materials for the improvement in performance, function, and capability of semiconductor devices. The alloys can be used alone or in combination to form active photonic layers that can emit over a range of wavelength values. Materials with both larger and smaller band gaps would allow for the fabrication of semiconductor heterostructures that have increased function in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. ZnO is a wide band-gap material possessing good radiation-resistance properties. It is desirable to modify the energy band gap of ZnO to smaller values than that for ZnO and to larger values than that for ZnO for use in semiconductor devices. A material with band gap energy larger than that of ZnO would allow for the emission at shorter wavelengths for LED (light emitting diode) and LD (laser diode) devices, while a material with band gap energy smaller than that of ZnO would allow for emission at longer wavelengths for LED and LD devices. The amount of Be in the ZnBeO alloy system can be varied to increase the energy bandgap of ZnO to values larger than that of ZnO. The amount of Cd and Se in the ZnCdSeO alloy system can be varied to decrease the energy band gap of ZnO to values smaller than that of ZnO. Each alloy formed can be undoped or can be p-type doped using selected dopant elements, or can be n-type doped using selected dopant elements. The layers and structures formed with both the ZnBeO and ZnCdSeO semiconductor alloys - including undoped, p-type-doped, and n-type-doped types - can be used for fabricating photonic and electronic semiconductor devices for use in photonic and electronic applications. These devices can be used in LEDs, LDs, FETs (field effect transistors), PN junctions, PIN junctions, Schottky barrier diodes, UV detectors and transmitters, and transistors and transparent transistors. They also can be used in applications for lightemitting display, backlighting for displays, UV and

  6. Thiophene-S,S-dioxidized Indophenine: A Quinoid-Type Building Block with High Electron Affinity for Constructing n-Type Polymer Semiconductors with Narrow Band Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunfeng; Sun, Bin; He, Yinghui; Quinn, Jesse; Guo, Chang; Li, Yuning

    2016-03-01

    Three thiophene-S,S-dioxidized indophenine (IDTO) isomers, 3 a (E,E,E), 3 b (Z,E,E), and 3 c (Z,E,Z), were synthesized by oxidation of an indophenine compound. 3 b and 3 c could be converted into the most-stable 3 a by heating at 110 °C. An IDTO-containing conjugated polymer, PIDTOTT, was prepared using 3 a as a comonomer through a Stille coupling reaction, and it possesses a narrow band gap and low energy levels. In organic field effect transistors (OFETs), PIDTOTT exhibited unipolar n-type semiconductor characteristics with unexpectedly high electron mobility (up to 0.14 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1)), despite its rather disordered chain packing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A CO monolayer: first-principles design of a new direct band-gap semiconductor with excellent mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi-Wei; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xiao-Hong

    2017-05-04

    Group V monolayers, e.g., nitrogene, phosphorene, arsenene, and antimonene have recently emerged as attractive candidates for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, these pristine monolayers are not able to possess direct band gaps suitable for ultraviolet-blue photoresponse. First-principles calculations show that the Pmma-CO monolayer has a direct band gap of 2.4 eV, and predict that the system has a good stability. Unlike an easy direct-indirect gap transition under small strains in phosphorene, the direct band gap feature of Pmma-CO is maintained under a strain up to 12%. Surprisingly, Pmma-CO shows excellent mechanical stability with an anisotropic in-plane stiffness up to 475.7 N m-1 along the b direction, which is higher than that of graphene. The in-plane hole carrier mobility is predicted to be 746.42 cm2 V-1 s-1, similar to that of black phosphorene. When synthesized, the Pmma-CO monolayer may have great potential in the design of new ultraviolet/blue optoelectronic devices.

  8. Optimal Bounded Control for Stationary Response of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators under Combined Harmonic and Wide-Band Noise Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the stochastic optimal bounded control for minimizing the stationary response of strongly nonlinear oscillators under combined harmonic and wide-band noise excitations. The stochastic averaging method and the dynamical programming principle are combined to obtain the fully averaged Itô stochastic differential equations which describe the original controlled strongly nonlinear system approximately. The stationary joint probability density of the amplitude and phase difference of the optimally controlled systems is obtained from solving the corresponding reduced Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK equation. An example is given to illustrate the proposed procedure, and the theoretical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. Design of a wide-band metamaterial absorber based on fractal frequency selective surface and resistive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong-Zhi; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rong-Zhou

    2013-10-01

    We present the design of a wide-band metamaterial absorber, based on fractal frequency selective surface and resistive films. The total thickness is only 0.8 mm and shows a polarization-insensitive and wide-angle strong absorption. Due to the multiband resonance properties of the Minkowski fractal loop structure and Ohmic loss properties of resistive films, a strongly absorptive bandwidth of about 19 GHz is demonstrated numerically in the range 6.51-25.42 GHz. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct a broad-band absorber in stealth technology.

  10. First-principles prediction of a novel cadmium disulfide monolayer (penta-CdS2): Indirect to direct band gap transition by strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2017-10-01

    Using first principles calculation a novel two dimensional structure of Cadmium Disulfide (penta-CdS2) is predicted. The calculated cohesive energy of -3.61 eV/atom indicates the thermodynamic stability of the predicted monolayer. Furthermore, the kinetic stability of the monolayer is examined by phonon dispersion calculation. According to our calculations, penta-CdS2 monolayer is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 2.97 eV, which can be effectively engineered by employing external biaxial compressive and tensile strain, The results emphasize that penta-CdS2 monolayer as a wide band gap semiconductor can become a promising material for application in new generation of nano-optoelectronic devices.

  11. Elastic Properties and the Band Gap of AlNxP1-x Semiconductor Alloy: A Comparative Study of Various Ab Initio Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Polak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural and elastic properties of AlNxP1-x, a novel semiconductor alloy, are studied from the first principles in both zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. Performances of the finite difference (FD method and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT are tested and compared. Both of these methods are applied to two different approaches of alloy simulation, a supercell of 16 and 32 atoms (for zinc-blende and wurtzite structures, resp. and the alchemical mixing (AM method, where the pseudopotentials are mixed in an appropriate way to form an alloy. All elastic properties, including the elastic tensors, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratio, B/G, and relaxation coefficient, as well as lattice parameters are calculated using all said methods. Conclusions about the use of the approaches investigated in this paper and about their performance are drawn. In addition, in both crystal structures, the band gap is studied in the whole composition range using the MBJLDA functional. The band gap bowings are unusually high, which confirms earlier reports.

  12. Designing defect-based qubit candidates in wide-gap binary semiconductors for solid-state quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung; Ma, He; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2017-12-01

    The development of novel quantum bits is key to extending the scope of solid-state quantum-information science and technology. Using first-principles calculations, we propose that large metal ion-vacancy pairs are promising qubit candidates in two binary crystals: 4 H -SiC and w -AlN. In particular, we found that the formation of neutral Hf- and Zr-vacancy pairs is energetically favorable in both solids; these defects have spin-triplet ground states, with electronic structures similar to those of the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center and the SiC divacancy. Interestingly, they exhibit different spin-strain coupling characteristics, and the nature of heavy metal ions may allow for easy defect implantation in desired lattice locations and ensure stability against defect diffusion. To support future experimental identification of the proposed defects, we report predictions of their optical zero-phonon line, zero-field splitting, and hyperfine parameters. The defect design concept identified here may be generalized to other binary semiconductors to facilitate the exploration of new solid-state qubits.

  13. Synthesis of Tunable Band Gap Semiconductor Nickel Sulphide Nanoparticles: Rapid and Round the Clock Degradation of Organic Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Aniruddha; Sahu, Meenakshi; Hussain, Sahid

    2016-05-17

    Controlled shape and size with tuneable band gap (1.92-2.41 eV), nickel sulphide NPs was achieved in presence of thiourea or thioacetamide as sulphur sources with the variations of temperature and capping agents. Synthesized NPs were fully characterized by powder XRD, IR, UV-vis, DRS, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, TGA and BET. Capping agent, temperature and sulphur sources have significant role in controlling the band gaps, morphology and surface area of NPs. The catalytic activities of NPs were tested for round the clock (light and dark) decomposition of crystal violet (CV), rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), nile blue (NB) and eriochrome black T (EBT). Agitation speed, temperature, pH and ionic strength have significant role on its catalytic activities. The catalyst was found to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) both in presence and absence of light which is responsible for the decomposition of dyes into small fractions, identified with ESI-mass spectra.

  14. Energy gaps, electronic structures, and x-ray spectroscopies of finite semiconductor single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Wu, ZiYu; Luo, Yi

    2008-02-28

    We report hybrid density functional theory calculations for electronic structures of hydrogen-terminated finite single-walled carbon nanotubes (6,5) and (8,3) up to 100 nm in length. Gap states that are mainly arisen from the hydrogen-terminated edges have been found in (8,3) tubes, but their contributions to the density of states become invisible when the tube is longer than 10 nm. The electronic structures of (6,5) and (8,3) tubes are found to be converged around 20 nm. The calculated band-gap energies of 100 nm long nanotubes are in good agreement with experimental results. The valence band structures of (6,5), (8,3), as well as (5,5) tubes are also investigated by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra theoretically. The UPS, XES and RIXS spectra become converged already at 10 nm. The length-dependent oscillation behavior is found in the RIXS spectra of (5,5) tubes, indicating that the RIXS spectra may be used to determine the size and length of metallic nanotubes. Furthermore, the chiral dependence observed in the simulated RIXS spectra suggests that RIXS spectra could be a useful technique for the determination of chirality of carbon nanotubes.

  15. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production By Surface Modification of p-Gap Photocathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro; Seger, Brian; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2014-01-01

    .; Hoch, S.; Jaegermann, W. Solar Hydrogen Generation with Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors: GaP(100) Photoelectrodes and Surface Modification. ChemPhysChem 2012, 13, 3053-3060 Butler, M. A.; Ginley, D. S. P-Type GaP as a Semiconducting Photoelectrode. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1980, 127 (6), 1273-1278 [Formula]...... into hydrogen and oxygen (1.23 V) without external applied bias. It is therefore desirable that the photon absorbers utilized in such device provide the highest photovoltage possible together with a significant current density. GaP is a semiconductor material having 2.25 eV indirect bandgap and a theoretical...... maximum photocurrent density of about 12.5 mA/cm2. The best solar cells made of GaP show an open-circuit voltage of approximately 1.5 V and a maximum photocurrent density close to 2 mA/cm2. p-GaP utilized as a photocathode for hydrogen evolution shows significantly lower open-circuit voltage (+0.35 V RHE...

  16. Ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation does not affect UV-induced recombination and mutagenesis in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, O N; Belt, M L; Mathur, S P; Lee, J C; Akyel, Y

    1998-01-01

    Cell samples of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were exposed to 100 J/m2 of 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation followed by a 30 min treatment with ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses. The UWB pulses (101-104 kV/m, 1.0 ns width, 165 ps rise time) were applied at the repetition rates of 0 Hz (sham), 16 Hz, or 600 Hz. The effect of exposures was evaluated from the colony-forming ability of the cells on complete and selective media and the number of aberrant colonies. The experiments established no effect of UWB exposure on the UV-induced reciprocal and non-reciprocal recombination, mutagenesis, or cell survival.

  17. SMART and SMARTI: visible and IR atmospheric radiative-transfer libraries optimized for wide-band applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis

    2011-05-01

    A new C++ library for radiative transfer calculations in the visible and infrared bands which uses MODTRAN as a primary source for atmospheric optical parameters has been developed at Defense R&D Canada, Valcartier (DRDC Valcartier). The main benefit of the library is its capability to perform fast wide spectral band calculations with an appreciably high accuracy. Coherent calculations on wide bands are made possible by using a modified version of the correlated-k theory. The main features of the library are discussed, and comparisons with conventional spectral MODTRAN 4 calculations are presented. It is shown that the library is capable of producing band results that are usually within 5% of MODTRAN 4 with computation times that are thousands of times faster.

  18. Development of atomic force microscope with wide-band magnetic excitation for study of soft matter dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageshima, Masami; Chikamoto, Takuma; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Hirata, Yoshiki; Inoue, Takahito; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    In order to probe dynamical properties of mesoscopic soft matter systems such as polymers, structured liquid, etc., a new atomic force microscopy apparatus with a wide-band magnetic cantilever excitation system was developed. Constant-current driving of an electromagnet up to 1 MHz was implemented with a closed-loop driver circuit. Transfer function of a commercial cantilever attached with a magnetic particle was measured in a frequency range of 1-1000 kHz in distilled water. Effects of the laser spot position, distribution of the force exerted on the cantilever, and difference in the detection scheme on the obtained transfer function are discussed in comparison with theoretical predictions by other research groups. A preliminary result of viscoelasticity spectrum measurement of a single dextran chain is shown and is compared with a recent theoretical calculation.

  19. Soluble semiconductors AAsSe2 (A = Li, Na) with a direct-band-gap and strong second harmonic generation: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tarun K; Jang, Joon I; Song, Jung-Hwan; Malliakas, Christos D; Freeman, Arthur J; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-03-17

    AAsSe(2) (A = Li, Na) have been identified as a new class of polar direct-band gap semiconductors. These I-V-VI(2) ternary alkali-metal chalcoarsenates have infinite single chains of (1/infinity)[AsQ(2)(-)] derived from corner-sharing pyramidal AsQ(3) units with stereochemically active lone pairs of electrons on arsenic. The conformations and packing of the chains depend on the structure-directing alkali metals. This results in at least four different structural types for the Li(1-x)Na(x)AsSe(2) stoichiometry (alpha-LiAsSe(2), beta-LiAsSe(2), gamma-NaAsSe(2), and delta-NaAsSe(2)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed an average cubic NaCl-type structure for alpha-LiAsSe(2), which was further demonstrated to be locally distorted by pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. The beta and gamma forms have polar structures built of different (1/infinity)[AsSe(2)(-)] chain conformations, whereas the delta form has nonpolar packing. A wide range of direct band gaps are observed, depending on composition: namely, 1.11 eV for alpha-LiAsSe(2), 1.60 eV for LiAsS(2), 1.75 eV for gamma-NaAsSe(2), 2.23 eV for NaAsS(2). The AAsQ(2) materials are soluble in common solvents such as methanol, which makes them promising candidates for solution processing. Band structure calculations performed with the highly precise screened-exchange sX-LDA FLAPW method confirm the direct-gap nature and agree well with experiment. The polar gamma-NaAsSe(2) shows very large nonlinear optical (NLO) second harmonic generation (SHG) response in the wavelength range of 600-950 nm. The theoretical studies confirm the experimental results and show that gamma-NaAsSe(2) has the highest static SHG coefficient known to date, 337.9 pm/V, among materials with band gaps larger than 1.0 eV.

  20. Lattice dynamics of local defects in wide-gap semiconductors; Schwingungsverhalten lokaler Defekte in Breitband-Halbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarczyk, G.

    2006-07-01

    The group III-nitrides and zinc oxide are in the focus of material research because of their high application potential. The presentation of the first UV laser diode as well as blue light emitting diodes were the preliminary highlights. Although of all technological progress many physical questions are still open. In this work some of these questions are examined experimentally with Raman-scattering and theoretically with valence-force calculations. Many physical properties such as strain and doping concentration affect the lattice dynamics. As a start the phonons of the center of the Brillouin-zone in GaN, AlN, InN and ZnO are studied with first-order Raman-scattering. These results are the basis for advanced investigations. The acoustical and optical modes at the zone boundary and their combinations and overtones are determinated from the second-order Raman-scattering. Using the valence-force calculations the experimental frequencies are assigned to particular phonon branches or points of the Brillouin zone. The second part of this work treats systematically the physics of local vibrational modes. They occur due to intrinsic defects or impurities in the semiconductors. They are investigated with respect to the vibrational properties of the unperturbed crystals. In order to assign new experimentally found structures, calculations of local vibrational modes in GaN:Mg, GaN:As and ZnO:N systems were carried out. Furthermore, the calculations in Si- and C-doped hexagonal GaN suggest the frequency range for local vibrational modes. In the last section the influence of external parameters such as temperature or strain on the phonon frequency is analyzed. It is shown, that the influence on the temperature dependence of host phonons and local vibrational modes are dominated through different effects. In case of the host phonons it is mainly due to the volume effect whereas the local modes are highly affected by the anharmonic decay. Moreover, the calculations verified

  1. Growth experiment of narrow band-gap semiconductor PbSnTe single crystals in space (M-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoaki

    1993-01-01

    An experiment on crystal growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te in microgravity is planned. This material is an alloy of the compound semiconductors PbTe and SnTe. It is a promising material for infrared diode lasers and detectors in the wavelength region between 6 and 30 micron. Since the electrical properties of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te depend greatly on the Pb/Sn ratio and crystalline defects as well as impurity concentration, homogeneous, defect-free, high-quality crystals are anticipated. Although many growth methods, such as the pulling method, the Bridgman method, the vapor growth method, etc., have been applied to the growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te, large, homogeneous, low-defect-density crystals have not yet been grown on Earth. The unsuccessful results were caused by buoyancy-driven convection in the fluids induced by the specific gravity difference between heated and cooled fluids on Earth. A crystal is grown by cooling the melt from one end of the ampoule. In crystal growth from the melt, about 30 percent of the SnTe in the melt is rejected at the solid-liquid interface during solidification. On Earth, the rejected SnTe is completely mixed with the remaining melt by convection in the melt. Therefore, SnTe concentration in the melt, and accordingly in the crystal, increases as the crystal grows. In the microgravity environment, buoyancy-driven convection is suppressed because the specific gravity difference is negligible. In that case, the rejected SnTe remains at the solid-liquid interface and its concentration increases only at the interface. If the growth rate is higher than the PbTe-SnTe interdiffusion rate, the amount of SnTe which diffuses from the interface into the melt increases as SnTe piles up at the interface, and finally it balances the amount of rejected SnTe during solidification, resulting in steady-state SnTe transportation at the interface. By using this principle, compositionally homogeneous crystals can be grown. Furthermore, low-defect-density crystals will be

  2. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  3. A Low-Profile Reflector-Enhanced Drop-Shaped Printed Antenna for Wide-Band Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cappelletti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved low-profile printed antipodal drop-shaped dipole antenna for wide-band wireless applications is presented. The proposed radiating structure is integrated with a planar metal reflector useful to enhance antenna gain up to 5.5 dBi and the front-to-back ratio up to 21 dB. The geometry of reflector, feeding line, and dipole arms is optimized in order to achieve a broad operating bandwidth useful to meet the requirements of modern wireless communication protocols. Furthermore, the particular shape of the metal reflector and the adoption of a thin low-permittivity dielectric substrate result in a low distortion of the radiated field and a limited back radiation which makes the antenna suitable for UWB applications as well. These features, together with the low profile and the limited occupation area, make the antenna well adapted to mobile terminals as well as radio base stations. A locally conformal FDTD numerical procedure has been adopted to design and analyse the radiating structure, while a SEM technique has been employed to highlight the field perturbation caused by the antenna reflector as well as to extract the characteristics underlying the transient behaviour of the antenna. The experimental measurements performed on an antenna prototype are found to be in good agreement with the numerical computations.

  4. MeerKAT - The South African Array With Composite Dishes and Wide-Band Single Pixel Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    The MeerKAT is a precursor for the "small dish plus single-pixel wide-band feed" scenario for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The current goal specification is for an array of 80 12-m dishes operating over a continuous frequency range of 0.7-10 GHz, thus the individual receptors match the SKA draft specification for midband dishes. The proposed array configuration is centrally concentrated with 70% of the collecting area within a 700-m-diameter circle and the remaining 30% extending out to baselines of 10 km. The site for MeerKAT lies within a radio quiet reserve established in the remote and Northern Cape province of South Africa. The technologies and techniques that MeerKAT will develop and evaluate include wide-bandwidth feeds, low-cost dish antennas, instrumentation for high dynamic range observations, packet-switched array processing architectures, shielding of component radio-frequency interference (RFI), mitigation of external RFI, and low-cost and reliable remote telescope operation.

  5. Wide-band IR imaging in the NIR-MIR-FIR regions for in situ analysis of frescoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Pezzati, L.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Di Biase, R.; Mariotti, P. I.; Frosinini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging methods offer several advantages in the field of conservation allowing to perform non-invasive inspection of works of art. In particular, non-invasive techniques based on imaging in different infrared (IR) regions are widely used for the investigation of paintings. Using radiation beyond the visible range, different characteristics of the inspected artwork may be revealed according to the bandwidth acquired. In this paper we present the recent results of a joint project among the two research institutes DIMEG and CNR-INO, and the restoration facility Opificio delle Pietre Dure, concerning the wide-band integration of IR imaging techniques, in the spectral ranges NIR 0.8-2.5 μm, MIR 3-5 μm, and FIR 8-12 μm, for in situ analysis of artworks. A joint, multi-mode use of reflection and thermal bands is proposed for the diagnostics of mural paintings, and it is demonstrated to be an effective tool in inspecting the layered structure. High resolution IR reflectography and, to a greater extent, IR imaging in the 3-5 μm band, are effectively used to characterize the superficial layer of the fresco and to analyze the stratigraphy of different pictorial layers. IR thermography in the 8-12 μm band is used to characterize the support deep structure. The integration of all the data provides a multi- layered and multi-spectral representation of the fresco that yields a comprehensive analysis.

  6. A new design methodology of obtaining wide band high gain broadband parametric source for infrared wavelength applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maji, Partha Sona; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we have presented a new design methodology of obtaining wide band parametric sources based on highly nonlinear chalcogenide material of As{sub 2}S{sub 3}. The dispersion profile of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been engineered wisely by reducing the diameter of the second air-hole ring to have a favorable higher order dispersion parameter. The parametric gain dependence upon fiber length, pump power, and different pumping wavelengths has been investigated in detail. Based upon the nonlinear four wave mixing phenomenon, we are able to achieve a wideband parametric amplifier with peak gain of 29 dB with FWHM of ≈2000 nm around the IR wavelength by proper tailoring of the dispersion profile of the PCF with a continuous wave Erbium (Er{sup 3+})-doped ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 μm as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. The new design methodology will unleash a new dimension to the chalcogenide material based investigation for wavelength translation around IR wavelength band.

  7. A Compact Wide-Band Hybrid Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Enhanced Gain and Low Cross-Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By loading two printed patches to the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA, a compact wide-band hybrid dielectric resonator antenna with enhanced gain and low cross-polarization is presented. The proposed antenna utilizes a combination of a rectangular dielectric resonator and two printed patches. Due to the hybrid design, multiple resonances were obtained. By adding two air layers between the dielectric resonator and the printed patches, the bandwidth has been significantly improved. Compared to the traditional hybrid dielectric resonator antenna, the proposed antenna can achieve wide bandwidth, high gain, low cross-polarization, and even small size simultaneously. The prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB return loss bandwidth is 25.6% (1.7–2.2 GHz. The measured antenna gains are about 6.3 and 8.2 dBi in the operating frequency band. Low cross-polarization levels of less than −28.5 dB and −43 dB in the E-plane and H-plane are achieved. Moreover, the overall dimensions of the antenna are only 67 × 67 × 34 (mm3. The proposed antenna is especially attractive for small base antenna applications.

  8. ESTIMATION OF WIDE BAND RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS OF REGULAR SHAPED OBJECTS USING METHOD OF MOMENTS (MOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  9. Universal Features Underlying the Magnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Antonis N; Menon, Madhu

    2018-02-02

    Investigation of a diverse variety of wide band gap semiconductors and metal oxides that exhibit magnetism on substitutional doping has revealed the existence of universal features that relate the magnetic moment of the dopant to a number of physical properties inherent to the dopants and the hosts. The investigated materials consisted of ZnO, GaN, GaP, TiO2, SnO2, Sn3N4, MoS2, ZnS and CdS doped with 3d-transition metal atoms. The primary physical properties contributing to magnetism include the orbital hybridization and charge distribution, the d-band filling, d-band center, crystal field splitting, electron pairing energy and electronegativity. These features specify the strength of the spin-polarization induced by the dopants on their first nearest neighboring anions which in turn specify the long range magnetic coupling (MC) among the dopants through successively induced spin polarizations (SSP) on neighboring dopants. The proposed local SSP process for the establishment of the MC among the TM-dopants appears as a competitor to other classical processes (superexchange, double exchange, etc). Furthermore, these properties can be used as a set of descriptors suitable for developing statistical predictive theories for a much larger class of magnetic materials. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. A Novel Complex-Coefficient In-Band Interference Suppression Algorithm for Cognitive Ultra-Wide Band Wireless Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless communication systems and electronic techniques, the limited frequency spectrum resources are shared with various wireless devices, leading to a crowded and challenging coexistence circumstance. Cognitive radio (CR and ultra-wide band (UWB, as sophisticated wireless techniques, have been considered as significant solutions to solve the harmonious coexistence issues. UWB wireless sensors can share the spectrum with primary user (PU systems without harmful interference. The in-band interference of UWB systems should be considered because such interference can severely affect the transmissions of UWB wireless systems. In order to solve the in-band interference issues for UWB wireless sensor networks (WSN, a novel in-band narrow band interferences (NBIs elimination scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed narrow band interferences suppression scheme is based on a novel complex-coefficient adaptive notch filter unit with a single constrained zero-pole pair. Moreover, in order to reduce the computation complexity of the proposed scheme, an adaptive complex-coefficient iterative method based on two-order Taylor series is designed. To cope with multiple narrow band interferences, a linear cascaded high order adaptive filter and a cyclic cascaded high order matrix adaptive filter (CCHOMAF interference suppression algorithm based on the basic adaptive notch filter unit are also presented. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed CCHOMAF algorithm can achieve better performance in terms of average bit error rate for UWB WSNs. The proposed in-band NBIs elimination scheme can significantly improve the reception performance of low-cost and low-power UWB wireless systems.

  11. A Novel Complex-Coefficient In-Band Interference Suppression Algorithm for Cognitive Ultra-Wide Band Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hailiang; Zhang, Wensheng; Xu, Hongji; Du, Zhengfeng; Tang, Huaibin; Li, Jing

    2017-05-25

    With the rapid development of wireless communication systems and electronic techniques, the limited frequency spectrum resources are shared with various wireless devices, leading to a crowded and challenging coexistence circumstance. Cognitive radio (CR) and ultra-wide band (UWB), as sophisticated wireless techniques, have been considered as significant solutions to solve the harmonious coexistence issues. UWB wireless sensors can share the spectrum with primary user (PU) systems without harmful interference. The in-band interference of UWB systems should be considered because such interference can severely affect the transmissions of UWB wireless systems. In order to solve the in-band interference issues for UWB wireless sensor networks (WSN), a novel in-band narrow band interferences (NBIs) elimination scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed narrow band interferences suppression scheme is based on a novel complex-coefficient adaptive notch filter unit with a single constrained zero-pole pair. Moreover, in order to reduce the computation complexity of the proposed scheme, an adaptive complex-coefficient iterative method based on two-order Taylor series is designed. To cope with multiple narrow band interferences, a linear cascaded high order adaptive filter and a cyclic cascaded high order matrix adaptive filter (CCHOMAF) interference suppression algorithm based on the basic adaptive notch filter unit are also presented. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed CCHOMAF algorithm can achieve better performance in terms of average bit error rate for UWB WSNs. The proposed in-band NBIs elimination scheme can significantly improve the reception performance of low-cost and low-power UWB wireless systems.

  12. Intriguing electronic properties of two-dimensional MoS2/TM2CO2 (TM = Ti, Zr, or Hf) hetero-bilayers: type-II semiconductors with tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinru; Dai, Ying; Ma, Yandong; Liu, Qunqun; Huang, Baibiao

    2015-03-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal compound (TMC) monolayers, as well as their van der Waals heterostructures with unique properties, are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. Here, heterostructures consisting of a MoS2 monolayer and TM2CO2 (TM = Ti, Zr or Hf) monolayers are systematically researched by means of the density functional theory (DFT). Different from semiconductor/metal contacts, MoS2 and TM2CO2 monolayers are all semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.25-1.67 eV. According to rigorous screening of stacking patterns, MoS2/Zr2CO2 is shown to be an indirect type-II semiconductor with the maximum valence and minimum conduction bands spatially separated on opposite monolayers. Simultaneously, the interface charges transfer from Zr2CO2 to MoS2 results in a built-in field that separates the electrons and holes efficiently. Also, the smaller effective masses of electrons and the holes of band edges indicate the higher carrier mobility. Moreover, strain regulation can make the hetero-bilayer's character a semiconductor-semimetal-metal transition. The physical insights pave the way for the good performance of MoS2/TM2CO2 in next-generation electronic devices and photocatalysts.

  13. Development of a wide band radiative transfer model based on a fast correlated k-distributions generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croize, Laurence; Pierro, Jean; Huet, Thierry; Labarre, Luc

    2016-04-01

    MATISSE which acronym means Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation is developed by ONERA since the mid 1990's. The code main functionality is to compute spectral or integrated natural background radiance images. Natural backgrounds include the atmosphere, low and high altitude clouds, sea and land. It can also provide specific radiative atmospheric terms as path transmission, path radiances, sky radiances or local illumination around a target point. Spectral bandwidth ranges from 700 to 25000 cm-1 wavenumber (i.e. from 0.4 to 14 μm). As far as molecular absorption is concerned, MATISSE v2.0 is based on a correlated K (CK) model and needs a pre-generation of the k-distributions. This method is very precise but is time consuming and is done as an offline calculation. In answer to the increasing need of rapid radiative transfer codes, the future version of the MATISSE v3.0 will include a fast radiative transfer model at low and at medium spectral resolution. This work aims to develop a fast wide band CK model for the acceleration of radiative transfer calculation. As a first step, a statistical k-distributions fast generator was developed. It allows generating k-distributions from 700 to 25000 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 in less than 30 ms(*) for one altitude (that means about three orders of magnitude faster than before). Such speed allows generating k-distributions online. To validate the model, we have compared the obtained transmission spectra with reference spectra using a mix of 6 molecules (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4) in homogenous atmosphere corresponding to different altitudes from 0 to 105 km. Reference spectra were calculated as the convolution of a spectrum obtained with a line by line model and a gate function of 1 cm-1 wide. An average difference of 3×10-3 % and a standard deviation of 3.3% were typically obtained. As a second step, this method of rapid k-distributions generation is now being coupled with a

  14. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  15. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  16. Visible light photocatalytic H2-production activity of wide band gap ZnS nanoparticles based on the photosensitization of grapheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faze; Zheng, Maojun; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Wen; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2015-08-28

    Visible light photocatalytic H(2) production from water splitting is considered an attractive way to solve the increasing global energy crisis in modern life. In this study, a series of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and graphene (GR) sheet composites were synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method, which used zinc chloride, sodium sulfide, and graphite oxide (GO) as the starting materials. The as-prepared ZnS-GR showed highly efficient visible light photocatalytic activity in hydrogen generation. The morphology and structure of the composites obtained by transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffraction exhibited a small crystallite size and a good interfacial contact between the ZnS nanoparticles and the two-dimensional (2D) GR sheet,which were beneficial for the photocatalysis. When the content of the GR in the catalyst was 0.1%, the ZG0.1 sample exhibited the highest H(2)-production rate of 7.42 μmol h(−1) g(−1), eight times more than the pure ZnS sample. This high visible-light photocatalytic H(2) production activity is attributed to the photosensitization of GR. Irradiated by visible light, the electrons photogenerated from GR transfer to the conduction band of ZnS to participate in the photocatalytic process. This study presents the visible-light photocatalytic activity of wide bandgap ZnS and its application in H(2) evolution.

  17. Plasma-Assisted Co-evaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Final Subcontract Report, December 2001 -- April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repins, I.; Wolden, C.

    2005-08-01

    In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species are converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP). This program explored the use of plasma-activated chalcogen sources in CIGS co-evaporation to lower CIGS deposition temperature, increase utilization, increase deposition rate, and improve S:Se stoichiometry control. Plasma activation sources were designed and built, then operated and characterized over a wide range of conditions. Optical emission and mass spectrometry data show that chalcogens are effectively dissociated in the plasma. The enhanced reactivity achieved by the plasma processing was demonstrated by conversion of pre-deposited metal films to respective chalcogen-containing phases at low temperature and low chalcogen flux. The plasma-assisted co-evaporation (PACE) sources were also implemented in CIGS co-evaporation. No benefit from PACE was observed in device results, and frequent deposition failures occurred.

  18. Dissociation of O(2-)2 defects into paramagnetic O(-) in wide band-gap insulators - A magnetic susceptibility study of magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Parvin, K.; Freund, F.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of single-crystal MgO has been measured in the temperature range 300-1000 K, using a Faraday balance. The high-purity crystal (less than 100 ppm transition metals), grown from the melt in a H2O-containing atmosphere, was found to be paramagnetic due to the presence of defects on the O(2-) sublattice. The defects derive from OH(-) introduced into the MgO matrix by the dissolution of traces of H2O during crystal growth. The OH(-) converts into O(2-)2 and H2. Each O(2-)2 represents two coupled, spin-paired O(-) states. The observed strongly temperature-dependent paramagnetism can be described by three contributions that overlay the intrinsic diamagnetism of MgO and arise from the low level of transition-metal impurities, O(-) generated by 0(2-)2 dissociation, and O(-) states trapped by quenching from high temperatures from previous experiments.

  19. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khon, Elena

    light emmision tunability. We reported a general strategy for the assembly of all-inorganic light-emitting nanocrystal films with an emission quantum yield in the 30-52% range. Our methodology relies on solution-processing of CdSe nanocrystals into a crystalline matrix of a wide band gap semiconductor (CdS, ZnS). As a result, we replace original organic ligands on nanocrystal surfaces with an inorganic medium which efficiently preserves the quantum confinement of electrical charges in CdSe NCs. In addition to strong emission, fabricated films demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability, and a large refractive index, which avails their integration into emerging solid-state nanocrystal devices. The ability to control size and shape of NCs is essential as it automatically affects the optoelectronic properties of the crystals. Colloidal chemistry offers an assortment of synthetic tools for tuning the shape of NCs, but some nanoparticle morphologies require alternative processing strategies. We have shown that chemical etching of colloidal nanoparticles can facilitate the realization of desirable nanocrystal geometries. This methodology allows both CdSe and CdS composed semiconductor domains be exposed to the external environment, while maintaining a structural design that is highly desirable for catalytic applications. Hydrogen production tests confirmed the improved catalytic activity of CdSe/CdS dimers. We expect that the demonstrated application will become a common methodology in the synthesis of charge-separating nanocrystals, leading to advanced nanoparticle architectures for applications in the areas of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and light detection.

  20. Semiconductor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuchkevich, V.M.; Frenkel, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This text is a collection of papers devoted mainly to the results of the research work in the field of semiconductors. Topics include photovoltaic solar energy conversion, interacting excitons in germanium and silicon, chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors, optical cooling of the nuclear spin system in a semiconductor, photon drag of electrons in semiconductors, dielectric losses in crystals, light scattering from heavily doped semiconductors, and the capacity of an abrupt asymmetric p-n junction.

  1. Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-10

    Physique du Solide et Energie Solaire We had on-going interaction with Dr. Christian Verie on the growth of high quality narrow-gap semiconductor crystals...The band gap energy of the semiconductor decreases with increasing temperature. Consequently, the absorption of light in the energy region of the...gas and, more importantly, will modulate the electron energy at the difference frequency, wI - 02" Under ordinary circumstances such an energy (or

  2. Progress in the Development of CdTe and CdZnTe Semiconductor Radiation Detectors for Astrophysical and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Stefano Del; Abbene, Leonardo; Caroli, Ezio; Mancini, Anna Maria; Zappettini, Andrea; Ubertini, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), CdTe and CdZnTe detectors show high detection efficiency and good room temperature performance and are well suited for the development of compact and reliable detection systems. In this paper, we review the current status of research in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors by a comprehensive survey on the material properties, the device characteristics, the different techniques for improving the overall detector performance and some major applications. Astrophysical and medical applications are discussed, pointing out the ongoing Italian research activities on the development of these detectors.

  3. Progress in the Development of CdTe and CdZnTe Semiconductor Radiation Detectors for Astrophysical and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mancini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, cadmium telluride (CdTe and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe wide band gap semiconductors have attracted increasing interest as X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Among the traditional high performance spectrometers based on silicon (Si and germanium (Ge, CdTe and CdZnTe detectors show high detection efficiency and good room temperature performance and are well suited for the development of compact and reliable detection systems. In this paper, we review the current status of research in the development of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors by a comprehensive survey on the material properties, the device characteristics, the different techniques for improving the overall detector performance and some major applications. Astrophysical and medical applications are discussed, pointing out the ongoing Italian research activities on the development of these detectors.

  4. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  5. Effect of temperature on terahertz photonic and omnidirectional band gaps in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals composed of semiconductor InSb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin K; Pandey, Praveen C

    2016-07-20

    Engineering of thermally tunable terahertz photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps has been demonstrated theoretically in one-dimensional quasi-periodic photonic crystals (PCs) containing semiconductor and dielectric materials. The considered quasi-periodic structures are taken in the form of Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and double periodic sequences. We have shown that the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps in the quasi-periodic structures with semiconductor constituents are strongly depend on the temperature, thickness of the constituted semiconductor and dielectric material layers, and generations of the quasi-periodic sequences. It has been found that the number of photonic bandgaps increases with layer thickness and generation of the quasi-periodic sequences. Omnidirectional bandgaps in the structures have also been obtained. Results show that the bandwidths of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps are tunable by changing the temperature and lattice parameters of the structures. The generation of quasi-periodic sequences can also change the properties of photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps remarkably. The frequency range of the photonic and omnidirectional bandgaps can be tuned by the change of temperature and layer thickness of the considered quasi-periodic structures. This work will be useful to design tunable terahertz PC devices.

  6. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  7. Comprehensive wide-band magnitudes and albedos for the planets, with applications to exo-planets and Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallama, Anthony; Krobusek, Bruce; Pavlov, Hristo

    2017-01-01

    Complete sets of reference magnitudes in all 7 Johnson-Cousins bands (U, B, V, R, I, RC and IC) and the 5 principal Sloan bands (u', g', r', i', and z') are presented for the 8 planets. These data are accompanied by illumination phase functions and other formulas which characterize the instantaneous brightness of the planets. The main source of Johnson-Cousins magnitudes is a series of individualized photometric studies reported in recent years. Gaps in that dataset were filled with magnitudes synthesized in this study from published spectrophotometry. The planetary Sloan magnitudes, which are established here for the first time, are an average of newly recorded Sloan filter photometry, synthetic magnitudes and values transformed from the Johnson-Cousins system. Geometric albedos derived from these two sets of magnitudes are consistent within each photometric system and between the systems for all planets and in all bands. This consistency validates the albedos themselves as well as the magnitudes from which they were derived. In addition, a quantity termed the delta stellar magnitude is introduced to indicate the difference between the magnitude of a planet and that of its parent star. A table of these delta values for exo-planets possessing a range of physical characteristics is presented. The delta magnitudes are for phase angle 90° where a planet is near the greatest apparent separation from its star. This quantity may be useful in exo-planet detection and observation strategies when an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio is needed. Likewise, the phase curves presented in this paper can be used for characterizing exo-planets. Finally, magnitudes for the proposed Planet Nine are estimated, and we note that P9 may be especially faint at red and near-IR wavelengths.

  8. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  9. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  10. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  11. A Wide-Band High-Gain Compact SIS Receiver Utilizing a 300-μW SiGe IF LNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Shirin; Grimes, Paul K.; Tong, Cheuk-Yu Edward; Bardin, Joseph C.

    2017-06-01

    Low-power low-noise amplifiers integrated with superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers are required to enable implementation of large-scale focal plane arrays. In this work, a 220-GHz SIS mixer has been integrated with a high-gain broad-band low-power IF amplifier into a compact receiver module. The low noise amplifier (LNA) was specifically designed to match to the SIS output impedance and contributes less than 7 K to the system noise temperature over the 4-8 GHz IF frequency range. A receiver noise temperature of 30-45 K was measured for a local oscillator frequency of 220 GHz over an IF spanning 4-8 GHz. The LNA power dissipation was only 300-μW. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the lowest power consumption reported for a high-gain wide-band LNA directly integrated with an SIS mixer.

  12. Photo-induced strain imaging of semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Takata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for high-resolutions imaging of band-gap energies of semiconductors. When electron-hole pairs are generated in a semiconductor irradiated with a laser, they induce electronic strains in the semiconductor. The electronic strains can be detected and imaged by a scanning probe microscope. The electron-hole-pair generation depends on the band-gap and photon energies. When there are variations in band-gap energies in a sample, strains could be detected in regions having narrower gaps than the irradiated photon energy, and so their distributions can be imaged. The threshold of electron-hole-pair generation can be varied by changing the irradiated photon energies. Consequently, we can quantitatively image the band-gap energy distributions of semiconductors.

  13. Multinary I-III-VI2 and I2-II-IV-VI4 Semiconductor Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulacio, Michelle D; Han, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-15

    Semiconductor nanostructures that can effectively serve as light-responsive photocatalysts have been of considerable interest over the past decade. This is because their use in light-induced photocatalysis can potentially address some of the most serious environmental and energy-related concerns facing the world today. One important application is photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under solar radiation. It is regarded as a clean and sustainable approach to hydrogen fuel generation because it makes use of renewable resources (i.e., sunlight and water), does not involve fossil fuel consumption, and does not result in environmental pollution or greenhouse gas emission. Another notable application is the photocatalytic degradation of nonbiodegradable dyes, which offers an effective way of ridding industrial wastewater of toxic organic pollutants prior to its release into the environment. Metal oxide semiconductors (e.g., TiO2) are the most widely studied class of semiconductor photocatalysts. Their nanostructured forms have been reported to efficiently generate hydrogen from water and effectively degrade organic dyes under ultraviolet-light irradiation. However, the wide band gap characteristic of most metal oxides precludes absorption of light in the visible region, which makes up a considerable portion of the solar radiation spectrum. Meanwhile, nanostructures of cadmium chalcogenide semiconductors (e.g., CdS), with their relatively narrow band gap that can be easily adjusted through size control and alloying, have displayed immense potential as visible-light-responsive photocatalysts, but the intrinsic toxicity of cadmium poses potential risks to human health and the environment. In developing new nanostructured semiconductors for light-driven photocatalysis, it is important to choose a semiconducting material that has a high absorption coefficient over a wide spectral range and is safe for use in real-world settings. Among the most promising candidates

  14. Competitive behavior of photons contributing to junction voltage jump in narrow band-gap semiconductor multi-quantum-well laser diodes at lasing threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liefeng Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The junction behavior of different narrow band-gap multi-quantum-well (MQW laser diodes (LDs confirmed that the jump in the junction voltage in the threshold region is a general characteristic of narrow band-gap LDs. The relative change in the 1310 nm LD is the most obvious. To analyze this sudden voltage change, the threshold region is divided into three stages by Ithl and Ithu, as shown in Fig. 2; Ithl is the conventional threshold, and as long as the current is higher than this threshold, lasing exists and the IdV/dI-I plot drops suddenly; Ithu is the steady lasing point, at which the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels of electron and holes across the active region (Vj is suddenly pinned. Based on the evolutionary model of dissipative structure theory, the rate equations of the photons in a single-mode LD were deduced in detail at Ithl and Ithu. The results proved that the observed behavior of stimulated emission suddenly substituting for spontaneous emission, in a manner similar to biological evolution, must lead to a sudden increase in the injection carriers in the threshold region, which then causes the sudden increase in the junction voltage in this region.

  15. PdO Doping Tunes Band-Gap Energy Levels as Well as Oxidative Stress Responses to a Co3O4p-Type Semiconductor in Cells and the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate through PdO doping that creation of heterojunctions on Co3O4 nanoparticles can quantitatively adjust band-gap and Fermi energy levels to study the impact of metal oxide nanoparticle semiconductor properties on cellular redox homeostasis and hazard potential. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was used to synthesize a nanoparticle library in which the gradual increase in the PdO content (0–8.9%) allowed electron transfer from Co3O4 to PdO to align Fermi energy levels across the heterojunctions. This alignment was accompanied by free hole accumulation at the Co3O4 interface and production of hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, there was no concomitant superoxide generation, which could reflect the hole dominance of a p-type semiconductor. Although the electron flux across the heterojunctions induced upward band bending, the Ec levels of the doped particles showed energy overlap with the biological redox potential (BRP). This allows electron capture from the redox couples that maintain the BRP from −4.12 to −4.84 eV, causing disruption of cellular redox homeostasis and induction of oxidative stress. PdO/Co3O4 nanoparticles showed significant increases in cytotoxicity at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL, which was enhanced incrementally by PdO doping in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cells. Oxidative stress presented as a tiered cellular response involving superoxide generation, glutathione depletion, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity in epithelial and macrophage cell lines. A progressive series of acute pro-inflammatory effects could also be seen in the lungs of animals exposed to incremental PdO-doped particles. All considered, generation of a combinatorial PdO/Co3O4 nanoparticle library with incremental heterojunction density allowed us to demonstrate the integrated role of Ev, Ec, and Ef levels in the generation of oxidant injury and inflammation by the p-type semiconductor, Co3O4. PMID:24673286

  16. PdO doping tunes band-gap energy levels as well as oxidative stress responses to a Co₃O₄ p-type semiconductor in cells and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Pokhrel, Suman; Ji, Zhaoxia; Meng, Huan; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Linjiang; Li, Ruibin; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Liu, Rong; Xia, Tian; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E

    2014-04-30

    We demonstrate through PdO doping that creation of heterojunctions on Co3O4 nanoparticles can quantitatively adjust band-gap and Fermi energy levels to study the impact of metal oxide nanoparticle semiconductor properties on cellular redox homeostasis and hazard potential. Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was used to synthesize a nanoparticle library in which the gradual increase in the PdO content (0-8.9%) allowed electron transfer from Co3O4 to PdO to align Fermi energy levels across the heterojunctions. This alignment was accompanied by free hole accumulation at the Co3O4 interface and production of hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, there was no concomitant superoxide generation, which could reflect the hole dominance of a p-type semiconductor. Although the electron flux across the heterojunctions induced upward band bending, the E(c) levels of the doped particles showed energy overlap with the biological redox potential (BRP). This allows electron capture from the redox couples that maintain the BRP from -4.12 to -4.84 eV, causing disruption of cellular redox homeostasis and induction of oxidative stress. PdO/Co3O4 nanoparticles showed significant increases in cytotoxicity at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL, which was enhanced incrementally by PdO doping in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cells. Oxidative stress presented as a tiered cellular response involving superoxide generation, glutathione depletion, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity in epithelial and macrophage cell lines. A progressive series of acute pro-inflammatory effects could also be seen in the lungs of animals exposed to incremental PdO-doped particles. All considered, generation of a combinatorial PdO/Co3O4 nanoparticle library with incremental heterojunction density allowed us to demonstrate the integrated role of E(v), E(c), and E(f) levels in the generation of oxidant injury and inflammation by the p-type semiconductor, Co3O4.

  17. Role of Ionicity in Correcting the Band Gap of Zinc Oxide Using Dft+U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Keshab

    ZnO is a well-known wide band gap semiconductor with promising potential for applications in optoelectronics, transparent electronics, and spintronics. Computational simulations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) play an important role in the research of ZnO. However, the standard density functionals like LDA, GGA and PBE yield the poor accuracy of ZnO's electronic structure. These functionals results in largely underestimated values of the band gap and the binding energies of the Zn3d electrons. Methods like DFT+U and HSE are meant to remedy the weaknesses of DFT, but ZnO remains challenging systems even for them. To improve this situation, we systematically optimize the DFT+U and HSE parametrizations and achieve accurate descriptions of the electronic prperties of ZnO. Both approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations. Specifically, uncertainty regarding the exact amount of Bader Zn-O charge transfer, which determines the ionicity of the material, is brought to attention. The overall optimization procedure is straightforward, gives an encouraging improvement over the existing computational schemes, and can be applied to any materials, being especially useful for materials with the ionic character of bonding.

  18. Optical properties of (AlxGa1-x)(0.52)In0.48P at the crossover from a direct-gap to an indirect-gap semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörr, U.; Schwarz, W.; Wörner, A.

    1998-01-01

    The optical properties and the dynamics of excitons and the electron-hole plasma have been studied in disordered (AlxGa1 – x)0.52In0.48P near to the direct-to-indirect band gap crossover. In particular we have investigated three epitaxial layers grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy...... excitation levels the two crossover samples show stimulated emission at a photon energy of ~ 2.29 eV, i.e., in the green spectral range. Using the variable stripe length method, we find an optical gain of up to ~ 600 cm – 1 at excitation levels of ~ 350 kW/cm2. Stimulated emission involves direct...

  19. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  20. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  1. Coupling with a narrow-band-gap semiconductor for the enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity: preparation of Bi2OxS3-x/Nb6O17 and application to the degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Shi, Hongfei; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhu, Wanbin; Wang, Yonghui; Zang, Hongying; Li, Yangguang

    2016-09-21

    A series of 2D sheet Bi2OxS3-x/Nb6O17 (Bi/Nb) heterostructure photocatalysts were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal vulcanization method between Bi(3+) exchanged K4Nb6O17 and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). XRD results confirm that the heterostructures were composed of Bi2OxS3-x and Nb6O17. HRTEM indicates that Bi2OxS3-x was successfully intercalated into layers of K4Nb6O17. Such large interfacial contacts can be beneficial to the transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Thus the composites exhibit good photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm), which is superior to that of both precursors, pure Bi2S3 and K4Nb6O17. Radical capture tests reveal that photogenerated holes h(+) and ˙O2(-) play important roles in the photodegradation of MO. And based on the UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the band gap of the semiconductors, the mechanism of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of these composites has been proposed.

  2. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2008-09-05

    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  3. Macroporous Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pores in single crystalline semiconductors come in many forms (e.g., pore sizes from 2 nm to > 10 µm; morphologies from perfect pore crystal to fractal and exhibit many unique properties directly or as nanocompounds if the pores are filled. The various kinds of pores obtained in semiconductors like Ge, Si, III-V, and II-VI compound semiconductors are systematically reviewed, emphasizing macropores. Essentials of pore formation mechanisms will be discussed, focusing on differences and some open questions but in particular on common properties. Possible applications of porous semiconductors, including for example high explosives, high efficiency electrodes for Li ion batteries, drug delivery systems, solar cells, thermoelectric elements and many novel electronic, optical or sensor devices, will be introduced and discussed.

  4. Surface energy-mediated construction of anisotropic semiconductor wires with selective crystallographic polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Inn; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Sunghoon; Lee, Sanghyo; Ku, JiYeon; Park, Young Jun; Hong, Jinpyo; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Kyung Ho; Warner, Jamie H; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2014-07-14

    ZnO is a wide band-gap semiconductor with piezoelectric properties suitable for opto-electronics, sensors, and as an electrode material. Controlling the shape and crystallography of any semiconducting nanomaterial is a key step towards extending their use in applications. Whilst anisotropic ZnO wires have been routinely fabricated, precise control over the specific surface facets and tailoring of polar and non-polar growth directions still requires significant refinement. Manipulating the surface energy of crystal facets is a generic approach for the rational design and growth of one-dimensional (1D) building blocks. Although the surface energy is one basic factor for governing crystal nucleation and growth of anisotropic 1D structures, structural control based on surface energy minimization has not been yet demonstrated. Here, we report an electronic configuration scheme to rationally modulate surface electrostatic energies for crystallographic-selective growth of ZnO wires. The facets and orientations of ZnO wires are transformed between hexagonal and rectangular/diamond cross-sections with polar and non-polar growth directions, exhibiting different optical and piezoelectrical properties. Our novel synthetic route for ZnO wire fabrication provides new opportunities for future opto-electronics, piezoelectronics, and electronics, with new topological properties.

  5. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  6. Semiconductor electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Memming, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Providing both an introduction and an up-to-date survey of the entire field, this text captivates the reader with its clear style and inspiring, yet solid presentation. The significantly expanded second edition of this milestone work is supplemented by a completely new chapter on the hot topic of nanoparticles and includes the latest insights into the deposition of dye layers on semiconductor electrodes. In his monograph, the acknowledged expert Professor Memming primarily addresses physical and electrochemists, but materials scientists, physicists, and engineers dealing with semiconductor technology and its applications will also benefit greatly from the contents.

  7. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  8. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O

  9. Synthesis and single crystal growth of perovskite semiconductor CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Zheng, Zhiping; Fu, Qiuyun; Chen, Zheng; He, Jianle; Zhang, Sen; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Wei

    2018-02-01

    As a typical representative of all-inorganic lead halide perovskites, cesium lead bromine (CsPbBr3) has attracted significant attention in recent years. The direct band gap semiconductor CsPbBr3 has a wide band gap of 2.25 eV and high average atomic number (Cs: 55, Pb: 82 and Br: 35), which meet most of the requirements for detection of X- and γ-ray radiation, such as high attenuation, high resistivity, and significant photoconductivity response. However, the growth of large volume CsPbBr3 single crystals remains a challenge. In this paper, the synthesis of CsPbBr3 polycrystalline powders by a chemical co-precipitation method was investigated and the optimum synthesis conditions were obtained. A large CsPbBr3 single crystal of 8 mm diameter and 60 mm length was obtained by a creative electronic dynamic gradient (EDG) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray rocking curve showed that the CsPbBr3 crystal preferentially oriented in the (1 1 0) direction and had a low dislocation density and small residual stress in the crystal. The IR and UV-Vis transmittance and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the crystal had a good basic optical performance. The almost linear current-voltage (I-V) curves implied good ohmic contact between the electrodes and crystal surfaces. The resistivity of the crystal was calculated 109-1010 Ω cm. The above results showed that the quality of the obtained crystal had met the demand of optoelectronic applications.

  10. Ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Jagdeep

    1996-01-01

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures Ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors is currently one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed-matter physics Remarkable recent progress in the generation of tunable femtosecond pulses has allowed direct investigation of the most fundamental dynamical processes in semiconductors This monograph presents some of the most striking recent advances in the field of ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and their nanostructures After a brief overview of the basic concepts and of the recent advances in the techniques of ultrashort pulse generation and ultrafast spectroscopy, it discusses the physics of relaxation, tunneling and transport dynamics in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures following excitation by femtosecond laser pulses

  11. Experimental and first-principles studies of high-pressure effects on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of semiconductors and lanthanide doped solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brik, Mikhail G.; Mahlik, Sebastian; Jankowski, Dawid; Strak, Pawel; Korona, Krzysztof P.; Monroy, Eva; Krukowski, Stanislaw; Kaminska, Agata

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we present a broad overview of our recent experimental and theoretical results obtained for different types of materials: CdTe and CuGa1- x In x S2 chalcopyrite semiconductors, GaN/AlN wide band gap semiconductor quantum wells, and lanthanide-doped dielectric materials. The analysis of pressure-induced phase transitions, variations of the band gaps, refractive index and the pressure dependence of optical properties of these materials is discussed. The presented results show that the high pressure technique is a very useful tool for scientific research and development of of light-emitting technologies. It allows for identification of radiative recombination mechanisms in solid-state light emitters. In polar III-nitride semiconductors, ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced change of the band gap plays minor role, whereas the built-in electric field in heterostructures increases with pressure thus affecting their basic physical properties, i.e., producing a large red-shift of the photoluminescence and lowering the quantum efficiency due to the quantum confined Stark effect. For wide (>4 nm) quantum wells, the reduction of the band-to-band emission efficiency leads to deep defect dominant emission which is almost pressure independent. The observed behavior proves that pressure investigations combined with ab initio calculations can identify the nature of the optical transitions and the main physical factors affecting the radiative efficiency in polar quantum well systems. Furthermore, high pressure studies of the emission and excitation spectra of Y2O2S doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ allowed estimating the energies of the ground states of all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions in respect to the valence and conduction band edges of the Y2O2S host. Band gap energy and difference between energies of the ground states of lanthanide ions and band edges have been calculated as a function of pressure. It is shown that pressure causes an

  12. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  13. High throughput combinatorial screening of semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-11-01

    This article provides an overview of an advanced combinatorial material discovery platform developed recently for screening semiconductor materials with properties that may have applications ranging from radiation detectors to solar cells. Semiconductor thin-film libraries, each consisting of 256 materials of different composition arranged into a 16×16 matrix, were fabricated using laser-assisted evaporation process along with a combinatorial mechanism to achieve variations. The composition and microstructure of individual materials on each thin-film library were characterized with an integrated scanning micro-beam x-ray fluorescence and diffraction system, while the band gaps were determined by scanning optical reflection and transmission of the libraries. An ultrafast ultraviolet photon-induced charge probe was devised to measure the mobility and lifetime of individual thin-film materials on semiconductor libraries. Selected results on the discovery of semiconductors with desired band gaps and transport properties are illustrated.

  14. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...... layer we can stabilize it for both H2 and O2 evolution [7, 8, 9, 10]. Notably NiOx promoted by iron is a material that is transparent, providing protection, and is a good catalyst for O2 evolution. We have also recently started searching for large band gap semicondutors like III-V based or pervoskite...

  15. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluen...

  16. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  17. Power semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubát, M

    1984-01-01

    The book contains a summary of our knowledge of power semiconductor structures. It presents first a short historic introduction (Chap. I) as well as a brief selection of facts from solid state physics, in particular those related to power semiconductors (Chap. 2). The book deals with diode structures in Chap. 3. In addition to fundamental facts in pn-junction theory, the book covers mainly the important processes of power structures. It describes the emitter efficiency and function of microleaks (shunts). the p +p and n + n junctions, and in particular the recent theory of the pin, pvn and p1tn junctions, whose role appears to be decisive for the forward mode not only of diode structures but also of more complex ones. For power diode structures the reverse mode is the decisive factor in pn-junction breakdown theory. The presentation given here uses engineering features (the multiplication factor M and the experimentally detected laws for the volume and surface of crystals), which condenses the presentation an...

  18. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  19. Single-Phase Bidirectional Power Factor Correction Boost Converter - Performance Evaluation of Totem-Pole PFC Converter Using Wide Band Gap Devices: GaN-HEMT and SiC

    OpenAIRE

    Gobena, Kalkidan Amare

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several DC loads in data center and telecom industry are fed by power electronic rectifiers. The same rectifiers are used to charge a number of batteries which serve as a backup power source in case of power outage or failure of rectifiers. However, the stored energy in the backup batteries is not utilized efficiently due to reliable source of power from the mains. Therefore, the industry is demanding a highly efficient PFC converter with bidirectional power flow. Signific...

  20. Energy transfer from the host to Er{sup 3+} dopants in semiconductor SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals segregated in sol-gel silica glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Javier del [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento Fisica Basica (Spain)], E-mail: fjvargas@ull.es; Rodriguez, V. D. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas (Spain)], E-mail: vrguez@ull.es; Yanes, A. C. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento Fisica Basica (Spain); Mendez-Ramos, J. [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Undoped and Er{sup 3+}-doped glass-ceramics of composition (100-x)SiO{sub 2}-xSnO{sub 2}, with x = 5 or 10 and with 0.4 or 0.8 mol% of Er{sup 3+} ions, were synthesised by thermal treatment of precursor sol-gel glasses. Structural studies were developed by X-Ray Diffraction. Wide band gap SnO{sub 2} semiconductor quantum-dots embedded in the insulator SiO{sub 2} glass are obtained. The mean radius of the SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals, ranging from 2 to 3.2 nm, is comparable to the exciton Bohr radius. The luminescence properties have been analysed as a function of sample composition and thermal treatment. The results show that Er{sup 3+} ions are partially partitioned into the nanocrystalline phase. An efficient UV excitation of the Er{sup 3+} ions by energy transfer from the SnO{sub 2} nanocrystal host is observed. The Er{sup 3+} ions located in the SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals are selectively excited by this energy transfer mechanism. On the other hand, emission from the Er{sup 3+} ions remaining in the silica glassy phase is obtained by direct excitation of these ions.

  1. Photoelectrochemical cell including Ga(Sb.sub.x)N.sub.1-x semiconductor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu; Sheetz, Michael; Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Swathi; Jasinski, Jacek B.

    2017-09-05

    The composition of matter comprising Ga(Sb.sub.x)N.sub.1-x where x=0.01 to 0.06 is characterized by a band gap between 2.4 and 1.7 eV. A semiconductor device includes a semiconductor layer of that composition. A photoelectric cell includes that semiconductor device.

  2. The effects of heavy doping on the electronic states in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernelius, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors is reviewed. Topics included in the discussion are energy of the dopant system (kinetic energy in a many-valley semiconductor, exchange energy in an ellipsoidal Fermi volume, energy in a polar semiconductor), self energy shifts, band-gap narrowing, and piezo experiments. 31 refs., 27 figs.

  3. Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Martin; Tress, Wolfgang; Beyer, Beatrice; Gao, Feng; Scholz, Reinhard; Poelking, Carl; Ortstein, Katrin; Günther, Alrun A.; Kasemann, Daniel; Andrienko, Denis; Leo, Karl

    2016-06-01

    A key breakthrough in modern electronics was the introduction of band structure engineering, the design of almost arbitrary electronic potential structures by alloying different semiconductors to continuously tune the band gap and band-edge energies. Implementation of this approach in organic semiconductors has been hindered by strong localization of the electronic states in these materials. We show that the influence of so far largely ignored long-range Coulomb interactions provides a workaround. Photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors can be continuously tuned over a wide range by blending them with their halogenated derivatives. Correspondingly, the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells can be continuously tuned by the blending ratio of these donors.

  4. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  5. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  6. Boron-doped MnTe semiconductor-sensitized ZnO solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and Baxter 2011; Zhu et al 2011), because of its wide band gap (~ 3∙3 eV) and exciton binding energy (~ 60 meV), as well its cheap price, versatility and the possibility of large scale production using non-toxic materials (Kahn et al. 2005; Ravirajan et al 2006). ZnO has better electron mobi- lity than TiO2. The mobility of ZnO ...

  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  8. Reserve current analysis in semiconductor insulator semiconductor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reserve current analysis in semiconductor insulator semiconductor (SIS) solar cells. H Yakubu, PK Mensah. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Handbook of spintronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Offers a review of the field of spintronic semiconductors. This book covers a range of topics, including growth and basic physical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors based on II-VI, III-V and IV semiconductors, developments in theory and experimental techniques and potential device applications.

  10. Anisotropic modulation of magnetic properties and the memory effect in a wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Ying-Ying

    2015-04-24

    Memory effect of electric-field control on magnetic behavior in magnetoelectric composite heterostructures has been a topic of interest for a long time. Although the piezostrain and its transfer across the interface of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic films are known to be important in realizing magnetoelectric coupling, the underlying mechanism for nonvolatile modulation of magnetic behaviors remains a challenge. Here, we report on the electric-field control of magnetic properties in wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 heterostructures. By introducing an electric-field-induced in-plane anisotropic strain field during the cooling process from room temperature, we observe an in-plane anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties in a wide-band Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3 film at low temperatures. We attribute this anisotropic memory effect to the preferential seeding and growth of ferromagnetic (FM) domains under the anisotropic strain field. In addition, we find that the anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties gradually diminishes as the temperature approaches FM transition, indicating that the nonvolatile memory effect is temperature dependent. By taking into account the competition between thermal energy and the potential barrier of the metastable magnetic state induced by the anisotropic strain field, this distinct memory effect is well explained, which provides a promising approach for designing novel electric-writing magnetic memories.

  11. Anisotropic modulation of magnetic properties and the memory effect in a wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jing; Kuang, Hao; Hu, Feng-Xia; Liu, Yao; Wu, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Xi-Xiang; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Memory effect of electric-field control on magnetic behavior in magnetoelectric composite heterostructures has been a topic of interest for a long time. Although the piezostrain and its transfer across the interface of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic films are known to be important in realizing magnetoelectric coupling, the underlying mechanism for nonvolatile modulation of magnetic behaviors remains a challenge. Here, we report on the electric-field control of magnetic properties in wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 heterostructures. By introducing an electric-field-induced in-plane anisotropic strain field during the cooling process from room temperature, we observe an in-plane anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties in a wide-band Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3 film at low temperatures. We attribute this anisotropic memory effect to the preferential seeding and growth of ferromagnetic (FM) domains under the anisotropic strain field. In addition, we find that the anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties gradually diminishes as the temperature approaches FM transition, indicating that the nonvolatile memory effect is temperature dependent. By taking into account the competition between thermal energy and the potential barrier of the metastable magnetic state induced by the anisotropic strain field, this distinct memory effect is well explained, which provides a promising approach for designing novel electric-writing magnetic memories. PMID:25909177

  12. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  13. Wide-band antennas for reverberation chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness measurements in a dual vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber results in very repeatable results for a large frequency range and large dynamic range. Antennas in reverberation chambers do not need any gain, but the losses should be low and the dimensions should be small.

  14. Wide-band antireflection coatings; Breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, A.; Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    In most cases, solar receivers - from solar collectors to buildings - have a transparent cover. In order to minimize the losses due to reflection, the aim is to find an AR coating which can be used for the broad bandwidth of the solar spectrum. Conventional solutions like multilayer systems with high and low refractive index layers are not suitable. The main problem is to produce layers with very low refractive indices. One solution which was investigated in the past is to synthesize layers with a low effective refractive index due to porosity; i.e. by mixing the bulk material with air on a subwavelength scale. Another possibility to achieve this mixture is given by subwave length surface-relief structures. Porous sol-gel coatings are suited for glass, subwavelength surface-relief structures can be replicated mainly in polymer materials by cheap embossing processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahezu alle solaren Empfaenger sind transparent abgedeckt, z.B. durch Glascheiben. An diesen Abdeckungen wird ein Teil der einfallenden Solarstrahlung reflektiert. Diese Verluste koennen durch reflexionsmindernde Oberflaechen reduziert werden. Antireflexbeschichtungen, die z.B. fuer Brillenglaeser eingesetzt werden, eignen sich nicht fuer solare Entspiegelungen, da ihre spektrale Bandbreite nicht ausreicht. Das Hauptproblem liegt darin, dass Materialien mit sehr niedrigen Brechungsindices, wie sie fuer spektral breitbandige Antireflexbeschichtungen benoetigt werden, nicht verfuegbar sind. Der Ausweg besteht in poroesen Beschichtungen bzw. in einer Oberflaechenstrukturierung. Aufgrund des Luftanteils in der Mischung lassen sich sehr niedrige `effektive` Brechungsindices synthetisieren. Poroese Sol-Gel-Schichten eignen sich insbesondere zur Erhoehung der solaren Transmission von anorganischem Glas. Oberflaechenstrukturen sind aufgrund der Herstellbarkeit durch preisguenstige Praegeprozesse vielversprechend, finden aber derzeit ihre Anwendung ueberwiegend bei polymeren Materialien. (orig.)

  15. A Miniature Wide Band Atomic Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    current circuit is easiest to explain if we at first ignore the capacitors . The reference and the DAC output are combined by R401 and R402 to make...atomic magnetometer CSAC – Chip scale atomic clock DAC – Digital to Analog Converter DARPA – Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DBR...Transform FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array GHz – Gigahertz MEMS – Micro-Electro Mechanical System MF – z-component Magnetic Quantum Number, MF MFTFM

  16. A New Wide Band Wall Current Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, P

    2003-01-01

    Wall current monitors (WCM) are commonly used to observe the time profile of particle beams. In CTF3, a test facility for the CERN Linear Collider study CLIC, high current electron beams of 1.5 microseconds pulse length are bunched at 3 GHz and accelerated in a Linac working in fully loaded mode, for which a detailed knowledge of the time structure along the pulse is mandatory. The WCM design is based on an earlier version developed for CTF2, a previous phase of the test facility, in which the beam duration was only 16 ns. Due to the longer pulse width the low frequency cut-off must be lowered to 10 KHz while the high frequency cut-off must remain at 10 GHz. The new WCM therefore has two outputs: a direct one for which an increase of the inductance results in a 10 GHz to 250 kHz bandwidth while the second one, using an active integrator compensating the residual droop, provides a 10 kHz to 300 MHz bandwidth. The new WCM has been installed in CTF2 late 2002 in order to test its high frequency capabilities prio...

  17. Wide band characterization of wind turbine reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Arana Aristi, Ivan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    resistance was nearly identical for both reactors. Additionally, the accuracy of the measurement instrument was validated by comparing measurement results from two simple systems, comprising of a coil (L-system) and a series combination of coils and resistors (RL-system) with the results obtained from two...

  18. Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of III-V Semiconductors in BCl(3)-Based Chemistries: Part 1: GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, C.R,; Han, J.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Lee, J.W.; Maeda, T.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-12-04

    BC13, with addition of Nz, Ar or Hz, is found to provide smooth anisotropic pattern transfer in GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AIGriAs under Inductively Coupled Plasma conditions, Maxima in the etch rates for these materials are observed at 33% N2 or 87$'40 Hz (by flow) addition to BC13, whereas Ar addition does not show this behavior. Maximum etch rates are typically much higher for GaAs, Gap, GaSb and AIGaAs (-1,2 @rein) than for GaN (-0.3 ymu'min) due to the higher bond energies of the iatter. The rates decrease at higher pressure, saturate with source power (ion flux) and tend to show maxima with chuck power (ion energy). The etched surfaces remain stoichiometric over abroad range of plasma conditions.

  19. Photoreflectance Characterization of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimnathwala, Hemant Ghanshyamdas

    Photoreflectance technique has been used as a non-destructive probe of surface photo-voltage in doped and semi-insulating semiconductors. A system used to measure the photoreflectance spectra near the fundamental gap of GaAs and InP has been described. Measurements as a function of pump intensity on n and p type GaAs were used to infer the carrier dynamics leading to change in the surface electric field. Measurements indicate that the surface of GaAs consists of hole traps at the surface in addition to recombination states. This is confirmed by spectroscopic studies carried out by varying the pump modulation frequency at fixed temperatures and the measurements show that the hole trap has an activation energy of 0.29 eV and has an emission time of 0.175 +/- 0.002 msec. at room temperature. In semi-insulating GaAs, it is expected that there is no surface electric field at equilibrium due to pinning at the surface and large concentration of deep defect EL2. Electromodulation, in this case proceeds via preferential trapping of holes at the surface. This is supported by measurements carried out as a function of pump intensity and on wafers having different carbon concentrations. Analysis of carrier dynamics in semi-insulating GaAs is much simplified by use of Nd:YAG laser (instead of a HeNe laser) as a source of pump beam. A sub-band -gap excitation generates mainly excess electrons and the Poisson's equation can be integrated once to find the surface electric field. Numerical integration yields the surface photovoltage. It is shown that this technique is sensitive to the the surface state density and relatively insensitive to bulk properties. It has been applied to study the effect of various chemical reactants on the surface state density. In many PR spectra, features at energies less than the gap energy are observed. These are ascribed to shallow acceptors unrelated to carbon, which was the dominant acceptor in these materials. It is proposed that the electric field

  20. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  1. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  2. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    Blue or ultraviolet semiconducting light-emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize illumination systems in the near-future. Such industrial need has propelled the investigation of several wide-gap semiconducting materials in recent years. Commercial applications include blue lasers for DVD memory and laser printers, while military applications are also expected. Most of the material development has so far been focused on GaN (band gap 3.5 eV at 2 K), and ZnSe (2.9 eV) because these two representative direct transition semiconductors are known to be bright emitting sources. GaN and GaN-based alloys are emerging as the winners in this field because ZnSe is subject to defect formation under high current drive. On the other hand, another II-VI compound, ZnO, has also excited substantial interest in the optoelectronics-oriented research communities because it is the brightest emitter of all, owing to the fact that its excitons have a 60 meV binding energy. This is compared with 26 meV for GaN and 20 meV for ZnSe. The stable excitons could lead to laser action based on their recombination even at temperatures well above room temperature. ZnO has additional major properties that are more advantageous than other wide-gap materials: availability of large area substrates, higher energy radiation stability, environmentally-friendly ingredients, and amenability to wet chemical etching. However, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field as exemplified by several studies made during the 1960s on structural, vibrational, optical and electrical properties (Mollwo E 1982 Landolt-Boernstein New Series vol 17 (Berlin: Springer) p 35). In terms of devices, the luminescence from light-emitting diode structures was demonstrated in which Cu2O was used as the p-type material (Drapak I T 1968 Semiconductors 2 624). The main obstacle to the development of ZnO has been the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO. The possibility of achieving epitaxial p-type layers with the aid of thermal

  3. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results

  4. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  5. Tailoring Mixed-Halide, Wide-Gap Perovskites via Multistep Conversion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, D.; Palmstrom, A.; Roelofs, K.; Mei, Bastian Timo; Chorkendorf, I.; Bent, S.F.; Vesborg, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Wide-band-gap mixed-halide CH3NH3PbI3–XBrX-based solar cells have been prepared by means of a sequential spin-coating process. The spin-rate for PbI2 as well as its repetitive deposition are important in determining the cross-sectional shape and surface morphology of perovskite, and, consequently,

  6. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  7. Semiconductor devices physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sze, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology, Third Edition is an introduction to the physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology. It begins with a brief historical review of major devices and key technologies and is then divided into three sections: semiconductor material properties, physics of semiconductor devices and processing technology to fabricate these semiconductor devices.

  8. A model for the direct-to-indirect band-gap transition in monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A monolayer of MoSe2 is found to be a direct band-gap semiconductor. We show, within ab-initio electronic structure calculations, that a modest biaxial tensile strain of 3% can drive it into an indirect band-gap semiconductor with the valence band maximum (VBM) shifting from K point to point. An analysis of the ...

  9. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  10. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2001-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic physics of semiconductors. All the important equations describing the properties of these materials are derived without the help of other textbooks. The reader is assumed to have only a basic command of mathematics and some elementary semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important semiconductor phenomena, from the simple to the advanced. Examples include recent progress in semiconductor quantum structures such as two-dimensional electron-gas systems, ballistic transport, the quantum Hall effect, the Landauer formula, the Coulomb blockade and the single-electron transistor.

  11. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar...

  12. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  13. Semiconductor terahertz technology devices and systems at room temperature operation

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, G; Hartnagel, H; Preu, S; Raisanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Key advances in Semiconductor Terahertz (THz) Technology now promises important new applications enabling scientists and engineers to overcome the challenges of accessing the so-called "terahertz gap".  This pioneering reference explains the fundamental methods and surveys innovative techniques in the generation, detection and processing of THz waves with solid-state devices, as well as illustrating their potential applications in security and telecommunications, among other fields. With contributions from leading experts, Semiconductor Terahertz Technology: Devices and Systems at Room Tempe

  14. Semiconductor cavity QED: Bandgap induced by vacuum fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Ortega, T.; Kyriienko, O.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider theoretically a semiconductor nanostructure embedded in one-dimensional microcavity and study the modification of its electron energy spectrum by the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. To solve the problem, a non-perturbative diagrammatic approach based on the Green's function formalism is developed. It is shown that the interaction of the system with the vacuum fluctuations of the optical cavity opens gaps within the valence band of the semiconductor. The approach ...

  15. Metastable states in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mikla, Victor I

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting and technologically important class of materials, the amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors. Experimental results on the structural and electronic metastable states in Se-rich chalcogenides are presented. Special attention is paid to the states in the mobility gap and their sensitivity to various factors such as irradiation, annealing and composition. Photoinduced changes of structure and physical properties are also considered and structural transformation at photocrystallization is studied in detail. Finally, the authors discuss potential applications of th

  16. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  17. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany). Semiconductor Lab.

    1999-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: semiconductor radiation detectors, basic semiconductor structures, semiconductors, energy measurement, radiation-level measurement, position measurement, electronics of the readout function, detectors with intrinsic amplification, detector technology, device stability, radiation hardness and device simulation.

  18. Semiconductor Solid-Solution Nanostructures: Synthesis, Property Tailoring, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baodan; Li, Jing; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Xinglai; Jiang, Xin; Bando, Yoshio

    2017-12-01

    The innovation of band-gap engineering in advanced materials caused by the alloying of different semiconductors into solid-solution nanostructures provides numerous opportunities and advantages in optoelectronic property tailoring. The semiconductor solid-solution nanostructures have multifarious emission wavelength, adjustability of absorption edge, tunable electrical resistivity, and cutting-edge photoredox capability, and these advantages can be rationalized by the assorted synthesis strategies such as, binary, ternary, and quaternary solid-solutions. In addition, the abundance of elements in groups IIB, IIIA, VA, VIA, and VIIA provides sufficient room to tailor-make the semiconductor solid-solution nanostructures with the desired properties. Recent progress of semiconductor solid-solution nanostructures including synthesis strategies, structure and composition design, band-gap engineering related to the optical and electrical properties, and their applications in different fields is comprehensively reviewed. The classification, formation principle, synthesis routes, and the advantage of semiconductor solid-solution nanostructures are systematically reviewed. Moreover, the challenges faced in this area and the future prospects are discussed. By combining the information together, it is strongly anticipated that this Review may shed new light on understanding semiconductor solid-solution nanostructures while expected to have continuous breakthroughs in band-gap engineering and advanced optoelectronic nanodevices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thermionic current in metal-superconducting semiconductor contact

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, G V

    2001-01-01

    The thermonuclear mechanism of the carriers transfer from the superconducting semiconductor into the metal is considered. The zonal energy diagram of the n-type metal-superconducting semiconductor is analyzed. The task on calculating the thermal electron current is reduced to determination of the above-the-barrier part of this current. The volt-ampere characteristics of the metal-superconducting semiconductor contact for various intervals of the applied external voltage are considered in detail. The changes in the volt-ampere characteristics are determined by the temperature and the parameter of the superconductor energy gap

  20. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  1. High energy semiconductor switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    The objective was a controller for electric motors. By operating standard Nema B induction motors at variable speed a great deal of energy is saved. This is especially true in pumping and air conditioning applications. To allow wider use of variable speed AC drives, and to provide improved performance, a better semiconductor switch was sought. This was termed the High Energy Semiconductor Switch.

  2. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  3. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  4. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  5. GAP Analysis Program (GAP) Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification of...

  6. Computational design of a robust two-dimensional antiferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sen, Prasenjit

    2017-07-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish the hitherto unknown compound CrCTe3 to be a stable antiferromagnetic semiconductor in the R 3 ¯ crystal structure with an indirect fundamental gap. Successive layers in the bulk compound are weakly bound by van der Waals forces so that individual layers can be easily exfoliated. A monolayer of CrCTe3 is also an antiferromagnetic semiconductor. The monolayer is structurally stable over a large range of compressive and tensile strains, and the antiferromagnetic state is robust over this strain range. Band gap of the monolayer can be tuned by as much as 50% by applying strain in this range.

  7. Effect of ferromagnetic exchange field on band gap and spin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Goswami

    2018-02-19

    Feb 19, 2018 ... and spin polarisation of graphene on a TMD substrate. PARTHA GOSWAMI. Physics ... the following: The GrTMDs, such as graphene on WY2, exhibit (direct) band-gap narrowing/widening (Moss–. Burstein (MB) gap shift) ...... thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors/insulators, the application of an ...

  8. Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Technology for Short Pulse Electromagnetics and Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, Gary J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; O' Malley, Martin W.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1999-08-05

    High gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used to produce high power electromagnetic pulses foc (1) compact, repetitive accelerators, (2) ultra-wide band impulse sources, (3) precision gas switch triggers, (4) optically-activated firesets, and (5) high power optical pulse generation and control. High power, sub-nanosecond optical pulses are used for active optical sensors such as compact optical radars and range-gated hallistic imaging systems. Following a brief introduction to high gain PCSS and its general applications, this paper will focus on PCSS for optical pulse generation and control. PCSS technology can be employed in three distinct approaches to optical pulse generation and control: (1) short pulse carrier injection to induce gain-switching in semiconductor lasers, (2) electro-optical Q-switching, and (3) optically activated Q-switching. The most significant PCSS issues for these applications are switch rise time, jitter, and longevity. This paper will describe both the requirements of these applications and the most recent results from PCSS technology. Experiments to understand and expand the limitations of high gain PCSS will also be described.

  9. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  10. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  11. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  12. Semiconductor nanostructures for plasma energetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Smerdov, Rostislav; Klimenkov, Boris

    2017-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the research results of the three types of ultrasmall electrodes namely the nanoelectrode arrays based on composite nanostructured porous silicon (PS) layers, porous GaP and nanocrystals of ZnO. These semiconductor materials are of great interest to nano- and optoelectronic applications by virtue of their high specific surface area and extensive capability for surface functionalization. The use of semiconductor (GaN) cathodes in photon-enhanced thermionic emission systems has also proved to be effective although only a few (less than 1%) of the incident photons exceed the 3.3 eV GaN band gap. This significant drawback provided us with a solid foundation for our research in the field of nanostructured PS, and composite materials based on it exhibiting nearly optimal parameters in terms of the band gap (1.1 eV). The band gap modification for PS nanostructured layers is possible in the range of less than 1 eV and 3 eV due to the existence of quantum confinement effect and the remarkable possibilities of PS surface alteration thus providing us with a suitable material for both cathode and anode fabrication. The obtained results are applicable for solar concentration and thermionic energy conversion systems. Dr. Sci., Ph.D, Principal Scientist, Professor.

  13. Synchrotron X-ray Characterization of Structural Defects in III-Nitride Wide Bandgap Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang

    III-nitrides have long been viewed as promising semiconductor materials for their wide-band gap and high efficiency for emitting light. They have been widely used in electronic and optoelectronic devices, even in the extreme environments such as high frequencies, high voltages and high temperatures. Despite their favorable properties, their performance is strongly affected by factors; such as the growth method employed and consequently the defect types generated and their quantity. In this thesis, the wide bandgap III-nitrides, aluminum nitride (AlN) and gallium nitride (GaN) will be discussed in the aspect of structure, properties and defects characterization. The density of defects, particularly basal plane dislocations and threading edge and screw dislocations, will be measured across multiple wafers and analyzed in order to gain insights into origins of these defects with respect to the growth process employed. Other defects like low angle grain boundaries and prismatic slip bands are also observed and analyzed. In this study, synchrotron white beam and monochromatic X-ray topography are the main techniques employed to characterize samples, with Nomarski optical microscopy used in a complementary manner. For physical vapor transport (PVT) grown AlN wafers, the distribution of basal plane dislocations and threading dislocations imaged and analyzed synchrotron X-ray topography reveals a wide range of densities from as low as 1.7x102cm-2 to greater than 106cm -2, the resolution limit for X-ray topography techniques. For basal plane dislocations (BPDs), the average density is 1.6747x104 cm-2. As for threading dislocations (TDs), both screw and edge, the average dislocation density is about 1.5515x10 4 cm-2 ranging from a low of 3.00x102 cm-2 to a high of 4.477x104cm -2. These differences among the wafers, is clearly attributable to variations in growth conditions. For hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN wafers on ammonothermal GaN substrates, the threading

  14. Suppressed reflectivity due to spin-controlled localization in a magnetic semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, FP; DiTusa, JF; van der Marel, D; Aeppli, G; Young, DP; Damascelli, A; Mydosh, JA

    The narrow gap semiconductor FeSi owes its strong paramagnetism to electron-correlation effects. Partial Co substitution for Fe produces a spin-polarized doped semiconductor. The spin polarization causes suppression of the metallic reflectivity and increased scattering of charge carriers, in

  15. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  16. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay A.; Harbola, Manoj K.; Pathak, Praveen

    2008-02-01

    Impurities play a pivotal role in semiconductors. One part in a million of phosphorous in silicon alters the conductivity of the latter by several orders of magnitude. Indeed, the information age is possible only because of the unique role of shallow impurities in semiconductors. Although work in semiconductor nanostructures (SN) has been in progress for the past two decades, the role of impurities in them has been only sketchily studied. We outline theoretical approaches to the electronic structure of shallow impurities in SN and discuss their limitations. We find that shallow levels undergo a SHADES (SHAllow-DEep-Shallow) transition as the SN size is decreased. This occurs because of the combined effect of quantum confinement and reduced dielectric constant in SN. Level splitting is pronounced and this can perhaps be probed by ESR and ENDOR techniques. Finally, we suggest that a perusal of literature on (semiconductor) cluster calculations carried out 30 years ago would be useful.

  17. Physics of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rudan, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic physics of semiconductors, including the hierarchy of transport models, and connects the theory with the functioning of actual semiconductor devices.  Details are worked out carefully and derived from the basic physics, while keeping the internal coherence of the concepts and explaining various levels of approximation. Examples are based on silicon due to its industrial importance. Several chapters are included that provide the reader with the quantum-mechanical concepts necessary for understanding the transport properties of crystals. The behavior of crystals incorporating a position-dependent impurity distribution is described, and the different hierarchical transport models for semiconductor devices are derived (from the Boltzmann transport equation to the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion models). The transport models are then applied to a detailed description of the main semiconductor-device architectures (bipolar, MOS). The final chapters are devoted to the description of s...

  18. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  19. Semirelativity in semiconductors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Wlodek

    2017-09-01

    An analogy between behavior of electrons in narrow-gap semiconductors (NGS) and relativistic electrons in vacuum is reviewed. Energy band structures \\varepsilon ≤ft(\\mathbf{k}\\right) are considered for various NGS materials and their correspondence to the energy-momentum relation in special relativity is emphasized. It is indicated that special relativity for vacuum is analogous to a two-band \\mathbf{k}\\centerdot \\mathbf{p} description for NGS. The maximum electron velocity in NGS is u≃ 1× {{10}8}~\\text{cm}~{{\\text{s}}-1} , which corresponds to the light velocity in vacuum. An effective mass of charge carriers in semiconductors is introduced, relating their velocity to quasimomentum and it is shown that this mass depends on electron energy (or velocity) in a way similar to the mass of free relativistic electrons. In \\text{H}{{\\text{g}}1-x}\\text{C}{{\\text{d}}x}\\text{Te} alloys one can reach vanishing energy gap at which electrons and light holes become three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. A wavelength {λz} is defined for NGS, in analogy to the Compton wavelength in relativistic quantum mechanics. It is estimated that {λz} is on the order of tens of Angstroms in typical semiconducting materials which is experimentally confirmed in tunneling experiments on energy dispersion in the forbidden gap. Statistical properties of the electron gas in NGS are calculated and their similarity is demonstrated to those of the Juttner gas of relativistic particles. Interband electron tunneling in NGS is described and shown to be in close analogy to the predicted but unobserved tunneling between negative and positive energies resulting from the Dirac equation for free electrons. It is demonstrated that the relativistic analogy holds for orbital and spin properties of electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field. In particular, it is shown that the spin magnetic moment of both NGS electrons and relativistic electrons approaches zero with increasing

  20. Semiconductor quantum dot-inorganic nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizman, Ronen; Schwartz, Osip; Deutsch, Zvicka; Itzhakov, Stella; Zak, Alla; Cohen, Sidney R; Tenne, Reshef; Oron, Dan

    2012-03-28

    A synthetic route for preparation of inorganic WS(2) nanotube (INT)-colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures is developed, and transient carrier dynamics on these hybrids are studied via transient photoluminescence spectroscopy utilizing several different types of QDs. Measurements reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the INT upon photoexcitation, provided that the QD emission is at a higher energy than the INT direct gap. Charge transfer in the hybrid system, characterized using QDs with band gaps below the INT direct gap, is found to be absent. This is attributed to the presence of an organic barrier layer due to the relatively long-chain organic ligands of the QDs under study. This system, analogous to carbon nanotube-QD hybrids, holds potential for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, luminescence tagging and optoelectronics.

  1. Structure and optoelectronic properties of spray deposited Mg doped p-CuCrO2 semiconductor oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, A. C.; Lim, S. H.; Desu, S. B.

    2008-07-01

    Transparent p-type Mg doped CuCrO2 wide-band-gap oxide semiconductor thin films were deposited over quartz substrates by chemical spray technique using metallo-organic precursors. Crystalline single phase CuCrO2 delafossite structure was dominant in ≥700 °C argon ambient annealed films but the as-deposited films contained spinel CuCr2O4 mixed phases. X-ray photoelectron Cr 2p spectra show spin-orbit splitting energy ˜9.8 eV consistent with Cr3+ valance state and Cr 2p3/2 resolved peaks show mixed valence state on Cr4+/Cr6+ confirming CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 compound phase in spray deposited films. The effect of substrate temperature and film thickness on optical, electrical conductivity, and thermoelectric coefficient was investigated. Highly transparent ≥80% CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 films with direct and indirect optical band gaps of 3.08 and 2.58 eV for 155 nm and 3.14 and 2.79 for 305 nm thin films, respectively, were obtained. Photoluminescence emission bands at 532 and 484 nm interpreted to arise from 3d94s1 and 3d10 Cu+ intraband transitions confirm mixing of Cu 3d, 4s, and 4p with O 2p orbitals necessary for realizing p-type CuCrO2 films. Electrical conductivity of CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 films ranged 0.6-1 S cm-1 exhibiting activation energies ˜0.11 eV in 300-420 °K and ˜0.23 eV in ≥420 °K regions ascribed to activated conduction and grain boundary trap assisted conduction, respectively. Transparent p-(CuCr1-xMgxO2)/n-(ZnO) heterojunction diodes showing rectifying current-voltage characteristics were fabricated.

  2. Electrowetting on a semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    We report electrowetting on a semiconductor using of a mercury droplet resting on a silicon surface. The effect is demonstrated using commercial n-type and p-type single-crystal (100) silicon wafers of different doping levels. The electrowetting is reversible - the voltage-dependent wetting contact angle variation of the mercury droplet is observed to depend on both the underlying semiconductor doping density and type. The electrowetting behaviour is explained by the voltage-dependent modulat...

  3. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  4. Active Microwave Technologies Using Ultra-High efficiency P-Band and L -Band Power Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN devices on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 85%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors...

  5. On-line diagnosis of high power motors based on ultra wide band partial discharge detection; Diagnostico en linea de motores de gran capacidad mediante la deteccion de descargas parciales utilizando tecnicas de banda ultra ancha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal M, F. Antonio; Garcia Colon H, Vicente R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Asiain, Tomas [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a non-standardized method for on-line diagnostic of high capacity motors based on Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Partial Discharge (PD) measuring techniques is theoretically supported, implemented and applied. The method developed is non invasive and consist in the measurement of PD in the main motor power supply cables and its ground shields connection using a near field sensor (Rogowski coil, clamp-on type) with a bandwidth of 2 to 40 MHz. The measured signals by the sensor, are stretched electronically, digitized and fed to a conventional Partial Discharge digital detector. The UWB PD detection system used displays the output in a Pulse repetition frequency-Charge-Phase angle (N-Q-?) PD pattern. The results obtained in thirteen 2500 H.P., 13.8 kV motors performed during operating in an Oil Pumping facility are presented, including its analysis and comparison with values and PD patterns reported in literature. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos teoricos, la implementacion y aplicacion de un metodo no normalizado, para el diagnostico en linea de motores de gran capacidad, basado en la deteccion de Descargas Parciales (DP) utilizando tecnicas de medicion de Banda Ultra Ancha. El metodo desarrollado es no invasivo y consiste en la medicion de las DP en los conductores y conexiones a tierra de la pantalla de los cables principales de suministro de energia al motor, utilizando un sensor de campo cercano (bobina Rogowski, tipo gancho) cuyo ancho de banda de medicion es de 2 a 40 MHz. Las senales medidas por el sensor son electronicamente procesadas para ampliar su duracion, digitalizadas y enviadas a un detector digital de Descargas Parciales convencional. El sistema de deteccion de DP en Banda Ultra Ancha despliega la medicion en un patron de DP tipo frecuencia de repeticion de Pulso-Carga-Angulo de fase (N-Q-?). Se presentan los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion en linea de trece motores de 2500 C.P. a 13.8 kV, instalados y operando en una

  6. Calculations of quasi-particle spectra of semiconductors under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel; Cardona, M.

    2011-01-01

    Different approximations in calculations of electronic quasiparticle states in semiconductors are compared and evaluated with respect to their validity in predictions of optical properties. The quasi-particle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach yields values of the band gaps which are close...

  7. Atomistic approach for modeling metal-semiconductor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stradi, Daniele; Martinez, Umberto; Blom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present a general framework for simulating interfaces using an atomistic approach based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's functions. The method includes all the relevant ingredients, such as doping and an accurate value of the semiconductor band gap, required to model re...

  8. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  9. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  10. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  11. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  12. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  13. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  14. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  15. Optical processes in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1975-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures at Berkeley, 1968-1969, this is the first book to deal comprehensively with all of the phenomena involving light in semiconductors. The author has combined, for the graduate student and researcher, a great variety of source material, journal research, and many years of experimental research, adding new insights published for the first time in this book.Coverage includes energy states in semiconductors and their perturbation by external parameters, absorption, relationships between optical constants, spectroscopy, radiative transitions, nonradiative recombination

  16. Growth of photovoltaic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonovitch, E. (Bell Communications Research, Red Bank, NJ (United States)); Stringfellow, G.B. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Greene, J.E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1993-01-01

    We assess the opportunities for improving the quality and lowering the cost of thin crystalline semiconductor films for photovoltaics. We find that novel growth and processing methods can lower the cost of crystalline semiconductor films to satisfy the economic conditions for a major expansion of the photovoltaic industry. The research requirements are in the areas of novel precursors for vapor phase growth, atomic layer epitaxy for unprecedented control, and the requirement for novel in situ and ex situ probes to ensure that the new growth methods are producing the utmost in photovoltaic material quality. 42 refs.

  17. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  18. The electronic structure of impurities in semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Nylandsted larsen, A; Svane, A

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of isolated substitutional or interstitial impurities in group IV, IV-IV, and III-V compound semiconductors will be studied. Mössbauer spectroscopy will be used to investigate the incorporation of the implanted isotopes on the proper lattice sites. The data can be directly compared to theoretical calculations using the LMTO scheme. Deep level transient spectroscopy will be used to identify the band gap levels introduced by metallic impurities, mainly in Si~and~Si$ _{x}$Ge$_{1-x}$. \\\\ \\\\

  19. Band gap engineering of atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cui-Huan; Li, Hong-Lai; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Pan, An-Lian

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374092, 61474040, 61574054, and 61505051), the Aid Program for Science and Technology Innovative Research Team in Higher Educational Institutions of Hunan Province, China, and the Science and Technology Department of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 2014FJ2001).

  20. Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemers, Christian

    2012-10-19

    Throughout this work the electronic transport properties of InAs, InN, and GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires have been analyzed. This includes the analysis of specific resistivity at room temperature and low temperatures as well as the breakdown of resistivity by a contribution of mobility and carrier concentration using gate measurements. While the InN nanowires showed homogeneous transport properties, there was a large statistical spread in the properties of InAs nanowires. Differing crystal structures and the surface conditions are identified to be the main reasons for the statistical spread. Both quantities of influence have been pointed out by comparing the transport parameters before and after a surface treatment (electron irradiation and long time ambient air exposure), and by comparing the transport parameters of wires grown by different growth methods which exhibit different kinds of crystal structure. In particular, the temperature dependence of the conductivity revealed different activation energies in nanowires with differing crystal structures. An explanation has been suggested in terms of stacking fault induced potential barriers. A field-effect measurement setup has been utilized to determine the nanowire mobility and carrier concentration. Even though this method is widely used for nanowires, it is subject to a serious disadvantage concerning the influence of surface and interface states on the measurements. As an alternative method which does not suffer from this drawback, Hall measurements have been successfully performed on InAs nanowires for the first time. These measurements became possible because of the utilization of a new electron beam lithographic procedure with an alignment accuracy in the 5 nm range. Carrier concentration values could be determined and compared to the ones obtained from conventional field-effect measurements. The results of the Hall measurements revealed a methodical overestimation of the carrier concentrations obtained from the field-effect measurements due to the influence of surface states. The homogeneity in transport characteristics of the InN nanowires allowed for an accurate analysis of the diameter dependence of the nanowire resistivity. The effect of donor deactivation has been found to increase the resistivity of InN nanowires with small diameters. Furthermore, a quantum confinement effect has been observed in GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires. For very low shell thicknesses below 10 nm a drastic resistivity increase has been found. Simulations with a self consistent Schroedinger-Poisson solver confirmed the interpretation in terms of quantum confinement. A further major topic of this work has been the analysis of phase coherent transport at low temperatures. In particular, universal conductance fluctuations have been analyzed and a consistent method to determine the phase coherence length quantitatively has been developed. In addition, transport measurements on GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires with a magnetic field applied parallel to the wire axis demonstrated Aharonov-Bohm-type conductance oscillations. An explanation in terms of coherent angular momentum quantum states in the conductive InAs shell has been developed to interpret these oscillations. To conclude, both room temperature and low temperature measurements allowed gaining insights into basic classical as well as quantum transport properties of nanowires. In the face of a future application of nanowires in quantum information processing or their use in so-called phase-based switching devices, valuable information is provided within this work. Furthermore, the room temperature results show that for application of nanowires in electronic devices, both the crystal structure and the surface conditions have to be controlled. Here, it will be inevitable for future progress to achieve a controlled passivation of the wire surfaces for defined and stable surface conditions. Furthermore, a more detailed investigation of the correlation between the crystal structure and the transport properties is needed.

  1. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  2. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  3. Hierarchical active factors to band gap and nonlinear optical response in Ag-containing quaternary-chalcogenide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jun-ben [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Material and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); Mamat, Mamatrishat, E-mail: mmtrxt@xju.edu.cn [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Pan, Shilie [Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Material and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Material and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this research work, Ag-containing quaternary-chalcogenide compounds KAg{sub 2}TS{sub 4} (T=P, Sb) (I-II) and RbAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} (III) have been studied by means of Density Functional Theory as potential IR nonlinear optical materials. The origin of wide band gap, different optical anisotropy and large SHG response is explained via a combination of density of states, electronic density difference and bond population analysis. It is indicated that the different covalent interaction behavior of P-S and Sb-S bonds dominates the band gap and birefringence. Specifically, the Ag-containing chalcogenide compound KAg{sub 2}PS{sub 4} possesses wide band gap and SHG response comparable with that of AgGaS{sub 2}. By exploring the origin of the band gap and NLO response for compounds KAg{sub 2}TS{sub 4} (T=P, Sb), we found the determination factor to the properties is different, especially the roles of Ag-d orbitals and bonding behavior of P-S or Sb-S. Thus, the compounds KAg{sub 2}TS{sub 4} (T=P, Sb) and RbAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} can be used in infrared (IR) region. - Graphical abstract: Metal thiophosphates RbPbPS{sub 4} and KSbP{sub 2}S{sub 6} have a similar band gap with KAg{sub 2}PS{sub 4}. However, based on first principles calculated results it shown that KAg{sub 2}PS{sub 4} possesses wide band gap (3.02 eV) and relatively large SHG response. Display Omitted.

  4. Band-Gap Engineering in two-dimensional periodic photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of the dispersion characteristics of plasmons in a two-dimensional periodic system of semiconductor (dielectric) cylinders embedded in a dielectric (semiconductor) background. We consider both square and hexagonal arrangements and calculate extensive band structures for plasmons using a plane-wave method within the framework of a local theory. It is found that such a system of semiconductor-dielectric composite can give rise to huge full band gaps (with a g...

  5. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear......In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... is determined by (but not equal to) the electron momentum relaxation rate. Single cycle pulses of light, irrespective of the frequency range to which they belong, inherently have an ultrabroadband spectrum covering many octaves of frequencies. Unlike the single-cycle pulses in optical domain, the THz pulses can...... be easily sampled with sub-cycle resolution using conventional femtosecond lasers. This makes the THz pulses accessible model tools for direct observation of general nonlinear optical phenomena occurring in the single-cycle regime....

  6. Physics of semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prew, B.A.

    1975-09-01

    The properties of semiconductors which make them important in the electronic devices industry, and how these properties are controlled by doping, are described. The physics and applications of p-n and other junction devices, and of bulk effect devices are discussed. Avalanche devices, optical devices, solar cells, Schottky barriers, MOS devices, heterojunctions, photoconductors, and transferred electron devices are considered.

  7. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11] A detailed review article of defects in semiconductor nanostructures is currently under preparation. [12] V Ranjan and Vijay A Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6415 (2001). [13] V Ranjan, R K Pandey, Manoj K Harbola and Vijay A Singh, Phys. Rev.

  8. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    heterostructures, observing clear evidence of supercurrent, and the first direct spectroscopy of an induced superconducting gap in a two-dimensional electron gas. Nonetheless, these experiments reveal inhomogeneous contacts and a soft-induced superconducting gap, likely due to disorder at the Sm-S interface....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...... with previous reports of Majorana modes in semiconductor nanowires. By offering a patternable two-dimensional platform, our approach opens up the door to experiments probing the predicted topological properties in this system....

  9. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Suman S; Ramaniah, Lavanya M; Ruda, Harry E; Nair, Selvakumar V

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  10. Magnetosphere Structure and the Annular Gap Model of Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, G. J.; Lee, K. J.; Wang, H. G.; Xu, R. X.

    Pulsar radio and γ-ray emission has been studied for about forty years, yet no elaborated model is present to account for all the emission of pulsars from radio to γ-ray bands. A reasonable emission model should present the mechanism for wide band radiation. The magnetosphere structure and particle acceleration regions are the basis for solving problem, observations are important inputs to establish a reasonable model. In our work, both radio and gamma-ray observations have been considered. We will show how they can limit the radiation locations and radiation mechanisms. The advantages and disadvantages for different radiation locations (such as the polar gap, the outer gap and the annular gap) are discussed in comparison with observational facts. The annular gap model, an joint model for both radio and γ-ray emissions, was proposed recently and reproduce successfully some important observational phenomenon, e.g., bi-drifting. We will also discuss for radio and γ-ray observations of PSR B1055-52, and show that radiations come from the annular region and the core region. Success in reproducing many observational facts suggest that the annular gap is a promising model for pulsar multi-wavelength radiation.

  11. Defect Tolerant Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakutayev, Andriy; Caskey, Christopher M; Fioretti, Angela N; Ginley, David S; Vidal, Julien; Stevanovic, Vladan; Tea, Eric; Lany, Stephan

    2014-04-03

    Defect tolerance is the tendency of a semiconductor to keep its properties despite the presence of crystallographic defects. Scientific understanding of the origin of defect tolerance is currently missing. Here we show that semiconductors with antibonding states at the top of the valence band are likely to be tolerant to defects. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that Cu3N with antibonding valence band maximum has shallow intrinsic defects and no surface states, in contrast to GaN with bonding valence band maximum. Experimental measurements indicate shallow native donors and acceptors in Cu3N thin films, leading to 10(16)-10(17) cm(-3) doping with either electrons or holes depending on the growth conditions. The experimentally measured bipolar doping and the solar-matched optical absorption onset (1.4 eV) make Cu3N a promising candidate absorber for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, despite the calculated indirect fundamental band gap (1.0 eV). These conclusions can be extended to other materials with antibonding character of the valence band, defining a class of defect-tolerant semiconductors for solar energy conversion applications.

  12. The Gap Within the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Michelmore

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in educational achievement between high- and low-income children are growing. Administrative data sets maintained by states and districts lack information about income but do indicate whether a student is eligible for subsidized school meals. We leverage the longitudinal structure of these data sets to develop a new measure of economic disadvantage. Half of eighth graders in Michigan are eligible for a subsidized meal, but just 14% have been eligible for subsidized meals in every grade since kindergarten. These children score 0.94 standard deviations below those who are never eligible for meal subsidies and 0.23 below those who are occasionally eligible. There is a negative, linear relationship between grades spent in economic disadvantage and eighth-grade test scores. This is not an exposure effect; the relationship is almost identical in third-grade, before children have been exposed to varying years of economic disadvantage. Survey data show that the number of years that a child will spend eligible for subsidized lunch is negatively correlated with her or his current household income. Years eligible for subsidized meals can therefore be used as a reasonable proxy for income. Our proposed measure can be used to estimate heterogeneous effects in program evaluations, to improve value-added calculations, and to better target resources.

  13. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  14. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  15. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  16. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  17. Infrared Semiconductor Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0310 Infrared Semiconductor Metamaterials Jon Schuller UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA 3227 CHEADLE HL SANTA BARBARA, CA...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California , Santa Barbara Office of Research, 3227 Cheadle Hall Santa Barbara, CA 93106-2050 8. PERFORMING...Using Heterojunction Resonators. Advanced Optical Materials, available online (2016). New discoveries, inventions, or patent disclosures: Do you have

  18. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  19. Hole crystallization in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonitz, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Filinov, V S [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V E [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Levashov, P R [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, l7487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-04-28

    When electrons in a solid are excited to a higher energy band they leave behind a vacancy (hole) in the original band which behaves like a positively charged particle. Here we predict that holes can spontaneously order into a regular lattice in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands. The critical hole to electron effective mass ratio required for this phase transition is found to be of the order of 80.

  20. Hole crystallization in semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bonitz, M.; Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Fehske, H.

    2005-01-01

    When electrons in a solid are excited to a higher energy band they leave behind a vacancy (hole) in the original band which behaves like a positively charged particle. Here we predict that holes can spontaneously order into a regular lattice in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands. The critical hole to electron effective mass ratio required for this phase transition is found to be of the order of 80.

  1. Survey of semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    1992-01-01

    Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top­ ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge­ neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a g...

  2. Nonlinear Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Chaos in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Eckehard

    2005-08-01

    Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.

  3. Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

  4. Ferroelectric Rashba Semiconductors as a novel class of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Silvia

    2014-02-01

    The discovery of novel properties, effects or microscopic mechanisms in modern materials science is often driven by the quest for combining, into a single compound, several functionalities: not only the juxtaposition of the latter functionalities, but especially their coupling, can open new horizons in basic condensed matter physics as well as in technology. Semiconductor spintronics makes no exception. In this context, we have discovered by means of density-functional simulations that, when a sizeable spin-orbit coupling is combined with ferroelectricity, such as in GeTe, one obtains novel multifunctional materials - called Ferro-Electric Rashba Semi-Conductors (FERSC) - where, thanks to a giant Rashba spin-splitting, the spin texture is controllable and switchable via an electric field. This peculiar spin-electric coupling can find a natural playground in small-gap insulators, such as chalcogenides, and can bring brand new assets into the field of electrically-controlled semiconductor spintronics.

  5. Study of indium nitride and indium oxynitride band gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sparvoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the study of the optical band gap of indium oxynitride (InNO and indium nitride (InN deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering. InNO shows multi-functionality in electrical and photonic applications, transparency in visible range, wide band gap, high resistivity and low leakage current. The deposition processes were performed in a magnetron sputtering system using a four-inches pure In (99.999% target and nitrogen and oxygen as plasma gases. The pressure was kept constant at 1.33 Pa and the RF power (13.56 MHz constant at 250 W. Three-inches diameter silicon wafer with 370 micrometer thickness and resistivity in the range of 10 ohm-centimeter was used as substrate. The thin films were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR reflectance, photoluminescence (PL and Hall Effect. The band gap was obtained from Tauc analysis of the reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The band gap was evaluated for both films: for InNO the value was 2.48 eV and for InN, 1.52 eV. The relative quantities obtained from RBS spectra analysis in InNO sample are 48% O, 12% N, 40% In and in InN sample are 8% O, 65% N, 27% In.

  6. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a new organic semiconductor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffour, Imane [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Dehbi, Abdelkader [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I., E-mail: ahmourad@uaeu.ac.ae [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 15551 (United Arab Emirates); Belfedal, Abdelkader [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); LPCMME, Département de Physique, Université d' Oran Es-sénia, 3100 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to create an ideal mixture of Acetaminophen/Curcumin leading to a new and improved semiconductor material, by a study of the electrical, thermal and optical properties. This new material will be compared with existing semiconductor technology to discuss its viability within the industry. The electrical properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy and optical properties were studied by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The electric conductivity σ, the dielectric constant ε{sub r}, the activation energy E{sub a}, the optical transmittance T and the gap energy E{sub g} have been investigated in order to characterize our organic material. The electrical conductivity of the material is approximately 10{sup −5} S/m at room temperature, increasing the temperature causes σ to increase exponentially to approximately 10{sup −4} S/m. The activation energy obtained for the material is equal to 0.49 ± 0.02 ev. The optical absorption spectra show that the investigating material has absorbance in the visible range with a maximum wavelength (λ{sub max}) 424 nm. From analysis, the absorption spectra it was found the optical band gap equal to 2.6 ± 0.02 eV and 2.46 ± 0.02 eV for the direct and indirect transition, respectively. In general, the study shows that the developed material has characteristics of organic semiconductor material that has a promising future in the field of organic electronics and their potential applications, e.g., photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • Development of a new organic acetaminophen/Curcumin semiconductor material. • The developed material has characteristics of an organic semiconductor. • It has electrical conductivity comparable to available organic semiconductors. • It has high optical transmittance and low permittivity/dielectric constant.

  8. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  9. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  10. Diffusive, Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Defects in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Wagner, F E

    2002-01-01

    Electronic properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to defects and impurities that have localized electronic states with energy levels in the band gap of the semiconductor. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), or Hall effect, that are able to detect and characterize band gap states do not reveal direct information about their microscopic origin. To overcome this chemical "blindness", the present approach is to use radioactive isotopes as a tracer. Moreover, the recoil energies involved in $\\beta$ and $\\gamma$-decays can be used to create intrinsic isolated point defects (interstitials, vacancies) in a controlled way. A microscopic insight into the structure and the thermodynamic properties of complexes formed by interacting defects can be gained by detecting the hyperfine interaction between the nuclear moments of radioactive dopants and the electromagnetic fields present at the site of the radioactive nucleus. The understanding and the co...

  11. Role of metal d states in II-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S.; Zunger, A.

    1988-05-15

    All-electron band-structure calculations and photoemission experiments on II-VI semiconductors both exhibit a metal d subband inside the main valence band. It has nevertheless been customary in pseudopotential and tight-binding approaches to neglect the metal d band by choosing Hamiltonian parameters which place this band inside the chemically inert atomic cores. Using all-electron self-consistent electronic-structure techniques (which treat the outermost d electrons on the same footing as other valence electrons) and comparing the results to those obtained by methods which remove the d band from the valence spectrum, we study their effects on valence properties. For II-VI semiconductors we find that p-d repulsion and hybridization (i) lower the band gaps, (ii) reduce the cohesive energy, (iii) increase the equilibrium lattice parameters, (iv) reduce the spin-orbit splitting, (v) alter the sign of the crystal-field splitting, (vi) increase the valence-band offset between common-anion II-VI semiconductors, and (vii) modify the charge distributions of various II-VI systems and their alloys. p-d repulsion is also shown to be responsible for the occurrence of deep Cu acceptor levels in II-VI semiconductors (compared with shallow acceptors of Zn in III-V), for the anomalously small band gaps in chalcopyrites, and for the negative exchange splitting in ferromagnetic MnTe.

  12. Bipolar doping and band-gap anomalies in delafossite transparent conductive oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiliang; Wei, Su-Huai; Zhang, S B

    2002-02-11

    Doping wide-gap materials p type is highly desirable but often difficult. This makes the recent discovery of p-type delafossite oxides, CuM(III)O2, very attractive. The CuM(III)O2 also show unique and unexplained physical properties: Increasing band gap from M(III) = Al,Ga, to In, not seen in conventional semiconductors. The largest gap CuInO2 can be mysteriously doped both n and p type but not the smaller gaps CuAlO2 and CuGaO2. Here, we show that both properties are results of a large disparity between the fundamental gap and the apparent optical gap, a finding that could lead to a breakthrough in the study of bipolarly dopable wide-gap semiconductor oxides.

  13. Parity (and time-reversal) anomaly in a semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    2000-01-01

    The physics of a parity anomaly, potentially observable in a narrow-gap semiconductor, is revisited. Fradkin, Dagotto, and Boyanovsky have suggested that a Hall current of anomalous parity can be induced by a Peierls distortion on a domain wall. I argue that a perturbation inducing the parity anomaly must break the time reversal symmetry, which rules out the Peierls distortion as a potential cause. I list all possible perturbations that can generate the anomaly.

  14. CrystaL Growth and Mechanical Properties of Semiconductor Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-14

    these approaches with the following specific studies: an attempt to grow thick films of GaPAs by isothermal vapor phase epitaxy (ISOVPE); Vickers...for understanding the complex plastic behavior in semiconductors. III. Growth of GaPAs epitaxial layers The isothermal vapor phase epitaxial (ISOVPE...films of GaPAs using a GaAs wafer as the substrate and polycrystalline GaP as the source. The experiment was performed at 6750 C for 70 hours. There was

  15. Controlling light absorption in charge-separating core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevu, Rekha; Yelameli, Aniruddha R; Panigrahy, Bharati; Pandey, Anshu

    2013-12-23

    Semiconductor nanocrystals of different formulations have been extensively studied for use in thin-film photovoltaics. Materials used in such devices need to satisfy the stringent requirement of having large absorption cross sections. Hence, type-II semiconductor nanocrystals that are generally considered to be poor light absorbers have largely been ignored. In this article, we show that type-II semiconductor nanocrystals can be tailored to match the light-absorption abilities of other types of nanostructures as well as bulk semiconductors. We synthesize type-II ZnTe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. This material is found to exhibit a tunable band gap as well as absorption cross sections that are comparable to CdTe. This result has significant implications for thin-film photovoltaics, where the use of type-II nanocrystals instead of pure semiconductors can improve charge separation while also providing a much needed handle to regulate device composition.

  16. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  17. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed cove

  18. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  19. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  20. Edge currents shunt the insulating bulk in gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M. J.; Kretinin, A. V.; Thompson, M. D.; Bandurin, D. A.; Hu, S.; Yu, G. L.; Birkbeck, J.; Mishchenko, A.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Polini, M.; Prance, J. R.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Ben Shalom, M.

    2017-02-01

    An energy gap can be opened in the spectrum of graphene reaching values as large as 0.2 eV in the case of bilayers. However, such gaps rarely lead to the highly insulating state expected at low temperatures. This long-standing puzzle is usually explained by charge inhomogeneity. Here we revisit the issue by investigating proximity-induced superconductivity in gapped graphene and comparing normal-state measurements in the Hall bar and Corbino geometries. We find that the supercurrent at the charge neutrality point in gapped graphene propagates along narrow channels near the edges. This observation is corroborated by using the edgeless Corbino geometry in which case resistivity at the neutrality point increases exponentially with increasing the gap, as expected for an ordinary semiconductor. In contrast, resistivity in the Hall bar geometry saturates to values of about a few resistance quanta. We attribute the metallic-like edge conductance to a nontrivial topology of gapped Dirac spectra.

  1. Effective Electron Mass in Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the Effective Electron Mass (EEM) in low dimensional semiconductors. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, GaP, Ge, PtSb2, zero-gap, stressed, Bismuth, carbon nanotubes, GaSb, IV-VI, Te, II-V, Bi2Te3, Sb, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI semiconductors and quantized III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices. The presence of intense electric field and the light waves change the band structure of optoelectronic semiconductors in fundamental ways, which have also been incorporated in the study of the EEM in quantized structures of optoelectronic compounds that control the studies of the quantum effect devices under strong fields. The importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under strong electric field and external photo excitation has also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the EEM and the EEM in heavily doped sem...

  2. Quantum theory of the electronic and optical properties of low-dimensional semiconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wayne Heung

    This thesis examines the electronic and optical properties of low-dimensional semiconductor systems. A theory is developed to study the electron-hole generation-recombination process of type-II semimetallic semiconductor heterojunctions based on a 3 x 3 k·p matrix Hamiltonian (three-band model) and an 8 x 8 k·p matrix Hamiltonian (eight-band model). A novel electron-hole generation and recombination process, which is called activationless generation-recombination process, is predicted. It is demonstrated that the current through the type-II semimetallic semiconductor heterojunctions is governed by the activationless electron-hole generation-recombination process at the heterointerfaces, and that the current-voltage characteristics are essentially linear. A qualitative agreement between theory and experiments is observed. The numerical results of the eight-band model are compared with those of the threeband model. Based on a lattice gas model, a theory is developed to study the influence of a random potential on the ionization equilibrium conditions for bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) in III--V semiconductor heterostructures. It is demonstrated that ionization equilibrium conditions for bound electron-hole pairs change drastically in the presence of strong disorder. It is predicted that strong disorder promotes dissociation of excitons in III--V semiconductor heterostructures. A theory of polariton (photon dressed by phonon) spontaneous emission in a III--V semiconductor doped with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) or quantum wells (QWs) is developed. For the first time, superradiant and subradiant polariton spontaneous emission phenomena in a polariton-QD (QW) coupled system are predicted when the resonance energies of the two identical QDs (QWs) lie outside the polaritonic energy gap. It is also predicted that when the resonance energies of the two identical QDs (QWs) lie inside the polaritonic energy gap, spontaneous emission of polariton in the polariton

  3. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  4. Squeezed light in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, M B

    2001-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the generation of photon-number squeezed states of light as a result of multi-photon absorption. Photon-number squeezing as a result of non-linear absorption has long been predicted and results have been obtained utilising two very different material systems: (i) an AIGaAs waveguide in which high optical intensities can be maintained over a relatively long interaction length of 2 mm; (ii) the organic polymer p-toluene sulphonate polydiacetylene that is essentially a one-dimensional semiconductor possessing a highly nonlinear optical susceptibility. The resulting nonlinear absorption is shown to leave the transmitted light in a state that is clearly nonclassical, exhibiting photon-number fluctuations below the shot-noise limit. Tuning the laser wavelength across the half-bandgap energy has enabled a comparison between two- and three-photon processes in the semiconductor waveguide. The correlations created between different spectral components of a pulsed beam of light as ...

  5. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  8. Semiconductor materials and their properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre; Reinders, Angele; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor materials are the basic materials which are used in photovoltaic (PV) devices. This chapter introduces solid-state physics and semiconductor properties that are relevant to photovoltaics without spending too much time on unnecessary information. Usually atoms in the group of

  9. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  10. Luminescence studies of semiconductor electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, J.J.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Meulenkamp, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we review our recent results of in-situ luminescence studies of semiconductor electrodes. Three classes of materials are considered: single crystal compound semiconductors, porous silicon and semiconducting oxides doped with luminescent ions. We show how photoluminescence (PL) and

  11. Band-gap engineering of functional perovskites through quantum confinement and tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Pandey, Mohnish; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    An optimal band gap that allows for a high solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency is one of the key factors to achieve sustainability. We investigate computationally the band gaps and optical spectra of functional perovskites composed of layers of the two cubic perovskite semiconductors BaSnO3...

  12. A model for the direct-to-indirect band-gap transition in monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... A model for the direct-to-indirect band-gap transition in monolayer MoSe2 under strain ... Abstract. A monolayer of MoSe2 is found to be a direct band-gap semiconductor. ... Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700 098, India ...

  13. Organic semiconductors in a spin

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, I

    2002-01-01

    A little palladium can go a long way in polymer-based light-emitting diodes. Inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide are essential for countless applications in everyday life, ranging from PCs to CD players. However, while they offer unrivalled computational speed, inorganic semiconductors are also rigid and brittle, which means that they are less suited to applications such as displays and flexible electronics. A completely different class of materials - organic semiconductors - are being developed for these applications. Organic semiconductors have many attractive features: they are easy to make, they can emit visible light, and there is tremendous scope for tailoring their properties to specific applications by changing their chemical structure. Research groups and companies around the world have developed a wide range of organic-semiconductor devices, including transistors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells and lasers. (U.K.)

  14. Sub-band-gap laser micromachining of lithium niobate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. K.; Müllenborn, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    method is reported which enables us to do laser processing of lithium niobate using sub-band-gap photons. Using high scan speeds, moderate power densities, and sub-band-gap photon energies results in volume removal rates in excess of 106µm3/s. This enables fast micromachining of small piezoelectric......Laser processing of insulators and semiconductors is usually realized using photon energies exceeding the band-gap energy. This makes laser processing of insulators difficult since high photon energies typically require either a pulsed laser or a frequency-doubled continuous-wave laser. A new...

  15. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  16. Optical processes in dilute nitrides Semiconductors; Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, R J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the narrow bandgap semiconductor alloys known as dilute nitrides. The initial part of this project was concerned with characterisation of chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) grown samples so that growth techniques could be refined. Early samples show evidence of structural/compositional disorder resulting from the large miscibility gap induced by nitrogen. Non-equilibrium growth was employed to overcome this, eventually resulting in improved material. In the second part of this project, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, along with photomodulated reflectance were employed to investigate the optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GalnNAs, GaNAs and InGaAs quantum wells (QWs). Low temperature results show evidence of carrier localization, which was interpreted in terms of structural/compositional fluctuations induced by the nitrogen incorporation. Poor photoluminescence efficiency and rapid decay of emission kinetics indicate the presence of strong non-radi...

  17. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  18. Photocatalysis Using Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, T.R.; Wilcoxon,J.P.

    1999-01-21

    We report on experiments using nanosize MoS{sub 2} to photo-oxidize organic pollutants in water using visible light as the energy source. We have demonstrated that we can vary the redox potentials and absorbance characteristics of these small semiconductors by adjusting their size, and our studies of the photooxidation of organic molecules have revealed that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing bandgap (i.e. more positive valence band and more negative conduction band potentials). Because these photocatalysis reactions can be performed with the nanoclusters fully dispersed and stable in solution, liquid chromatography can be used to determine both the intermediate reaction products and the state of the nanoclusters during the reaction. We have demonstrated that the MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters remain unchanged during the photooxidation process by this technique. We also report on studies of MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters deposited on TiO{sub 2} powder.

  19. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  20. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollingworth, A R

    2001-01-01

    level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore this technique has been shown that the inhomogeneous broadening of the photoluminescence spectrum is not purely affected by just size and composition. We suggest that other processes such as state occupancy, In roughing, and exciton binding energies may account for the extra energy. We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their futu...

  1. Semiconductor adiabatic qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; Witzel, Wayne; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Ganti, Anand; Landahl, Andrew J.; Lilly, Michael; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Bishop, Nathaniel; Carr, Stephen M.; Bussmann, Ezra; Nielsen, Erik; Levy, James Ewers; Blume-Kohout, Robin J.; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-12-27

    A quantum computing device that includes a plurality of semiconductor adiabatic qubits is described herein. The qubits are programmed with local biases and coupling terms between qubits that represent a problem of interest. The qubits are initialized by way of a tuneable parameter, a local tunnel coupling within each qubit, such that the qubits remain in a ground energy state, and that initial state is represented by the qubits being in a superposition of |0> and |1> states. The parameter is altered over time adiabatically or such that relaxation mechanisms maintain a large fraction of ground state occupation through decreasing the tunnel coupling barrier within each qubit with the appropriate schedule. The final state when tunnel coupling is effectively zero represents the solution state to the problem represented in the |0> and |1> basis, which can be accurately read at each qubit location.

  2. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  3. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  4. Ionization potentials of semiconductors from first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Shen, Yu-Chen

    2013-10-28

    The ionization potential is the key to determine the absolute positions of valence and conduction bands of a semiconductor with respect to the vacuum level, which play a crucial role in physical and chemical properties of surfaces and interfaces. In spite of its far-reaching significance, theoretical determination of ionization potentials has not attained as much attention as that of band gaps. In this work, a set of prototypical semiconductors are considered to establish the performance of the state-of-the-art first-principles approaches. We have shown that in general Kohn-Sham density functional theory with local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation (LDA/GGA) significantly underestimates the ionization potentials of semiconductors. When the quasi-particle correction from many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation is taken into account, the agreement between theory and experiment can be greatly improved. We have made a critical comparison between two GW correction schemes, one taking into account the GW correction to the valence band maximum (VBM) of the bulk system, and the other based on the assumption that the LDA/GGA gives correct band gap center (BGC). Our study shows that the VBM scheme is better founded theoretically and leads to closer agreement with experiment practically than the BGC scheme. For semiconductors with shallow semicore states, for which the band gaps from the GW approach also exhibit significant errors, there is still significant discrepancy between GW and experiment, indicating the necessity to go beyond the standard GW approach for these materials.

  5. Semiconductor-superconductor optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouscher, Shlomi; Panna, Dmitry; Hayat, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Devices combining superconductors with semiconductors offer a wide range of applications, particularly in the growing field of quantum information processing. This is due to their ability to take advantage of both the extensive knowledge gathered in the field of semiconductors and the unique quantum properties of superconductors. This results in novel device concepts, such as structures generating and detecting entangled photon pairs as well as novel optical gain and laser realizations. In this review, we discuss the fundamental concepts and the underlying physical phenomena of superconductor-semiconductor optoelectronics as well as practical device implementations.

  6. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  7. Toward designing semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts show a great potential for environmental and energy-related applications, however one of the major disadvantages is their relatively low photocatalytic performance due to the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, intensive research is being conducted toward design of heterojunctions, which have been shown to be effective for improving the charge-transfer properties and efficiency of photocatalysts. According to the type of band alignment and direction of internal electric field, heterojunctions are categorized into five different types, each of which is associated with its own charge transfer characteristics. Since the design of heterojunctions requires the knowledge of band edge positions of component semiconductors, the commonly used techniques for the assessment of band edge positions are reviewed. Among them the electronegativity-based calculation method is applied for a large number of popular visible-light-active semiconductors, including some widely investigated bismuth-containing semiconductors. On basis of the calculated band edge positions and the type of component semiconductors reported, heterojunctions composed of the selected bismuth-containing semiconductors are proposed. Finally, the most popular synthetic techniques for the fabrication of heterojunctions are briefly discussed.

  8. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  9. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, Muenchen (Germany). Semiconductor Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Starting from basic principles, the author, whose own contributions to these developments have been significant, describes the rapidly growing field of modern semiconductor detectors used for energy and position measurement radiation. This development was stimulated by requirements in elementary particle physics where it has led to important scientific discoveries. It has now spread to many other fields of science and technology. The book is written in a didactic way and includes an introduction to semiconductor physics. The working principles of semiconductor radiation detectors are explained in an intuitive way, followed by formal quantitative analysis. Broad coverage is also given to electronic signal readout and to the subject of radiation damage. The book is the first to comprehensively cover the semiconductor radiation detectors currently in use. It is useful as a teaching guide and as a reference work for research and applications. (orig.)

  10. Physics of semiconductor laser devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of laser design and development are considered along with semiconductor materials for lasers, problems of device fabrication, crystal growth, the degradation of lasers, and the integration of semiconductor lasers with other optical components. A description is presented of light emission processes and laser action in semiconductors, taking into account electronic radiative transitions, the relation between emission and absorption processes, transition probabilities, the density of electron states in the highly doped semiconductor, carrier recombination and spontaneous emission, the gain/current relation, light-current characteristics, optical modes, and the evolution of mode spectrum and intensity with current. Attention is given to laser heterostructures and the properties of heterojunctions, optical waveguides, the performance of heterostructure lasers, stripe geometry lasers, and the dynamic response of lasers. Lasers with distributed feedback and Bragg reflectors are also discussed.

  11. Energy transfer with semiconductor nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogach, A.L.; Klar, T.A.; Lupton, J.M.; Meijerink, A.; Feldmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fo¨ rster (or fluorescence) resonant energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful spectroscopic technique to study interactions, conformational and distance changes, in hybrid nanosystems. Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as colloidal quantum dots, are highly efficient fluorophores with a strong

  12. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Gül, Ö.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Nowak, M.P.; Wimmer, M.; Zuo, K.; Mourik, V.; Vries, F.K. de; Veen, J. van; Moor, M.W.A. de; Bommer, J.D.S.; Woerkom, D.J. van; Car, D.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Quintero Pérez, M.; Cassidy, M.C.; Koelling, S.; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of

  13. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  14. Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Various Quantum Mechanical Concepts for Confinements in Semiconductor Nanocrystals. Jayakrishna Khatei Karuna Kar Nanda. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 771-776 ...

  15. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  16. Fractal properties of nanostructured semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhanabaev, Z.Zh. [Al-Farabi Khazakh National University, Tole bi Street, 96, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Grevtseva, T.Yu. [Al-Farabi Khazakh National University, Tole bi Street, 96, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: kenwp@mail.ru

    2007-03-15

    A theory for the temperature and time dependence of current carrier concentration in semiconductors with different non-equilibrium nanocluster structure has been developed. It was shown that the scale-invariant fractal self-similar and self-affine laws can exist near by the transition point to the equilibrium state. Results of the theory have been compared to the experimental data from electrical properties of semiconductor films with nanoclusters.

  17. Dissipative chaos in semiconductor superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moghadam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the motion of electron in a miniband of a semiconductor superlattice (SSL under the influence of external electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The electric field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the layers of the semiconductor superlattice, and the magnetic field is applied in different direction Numerical calculations show conditions led to the possibility of chaotic behaviors.

  18. A new electrode design for ambipolar injection in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-17

    Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection. Contact resistance for electron injection from Au/pc-OSC/TTC and hole injection from Ca/pc-OSC/TTC are comparable to those for electron injection from Ca and hole injection from Au, respectively. Furthermore, the highest field-effect mobilities of holes (22 cm2 V-1 s-1) and electrons (5.0 cm2 V-1 s-1) are observed in rubrene among field-effect transistors with electrodes so far proposed by employing Ca/pc-OSC/TTC and Au/pc-OSC/TTC electrodes for electron and hole injection, respectively.One of technological challenges building organic electronics is efficient injection of electrons at metal-semiconductor interfaces compared to that of holes. The authors show an air-stable electrode design with induced gap states, which support Fermi level pinning and thus ambipolar carrier injection.

  19. Field-effect-modulated Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernstich, K P; Rössner, B; Batlogg, B

    2008-04-01

    Central to the operation of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices is the transport of charge and energy in the organic semiconductor, and to understand the nature and dynamics of charge carriers is at the focus of intense research efforts. As a basic transport property of solids, the Seebeck coefficient S provides deep insight as it is given by the entropy transported by thermally excited charge carriers and involves in the simplest case only electronic contributions where the transported entropy is determined by details of the band structure and scattering events. We have succeeded for the first time to measure the temperature- and carrier-density-dependent thermopower in single crystals and thin films of two prototypical organic semiconductors by a controlled modulation of the chemical potential in a field-effect geometry. Surprisingly, we find the Seebeck coefficient to be well within the range of the electronic contribution in conventional inorganic semiconductors, highlighting the similarity of transport mechanisms in organic and inorganic semiconductors. Charge and entropy transport is best described as band-like transport of quasiparticles that are subjected to scattering, with exponentially distributed in-gap trap states, and without further contributions to S.

  20. A scaling rule of indentation hardness of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonenaga, Ichiro; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2003-03-01

    We report a scaling rule of the indentation hardness of semiconductor crystals from room temperature to their melting. The Vickers hardness of fifteen semiconductors, Si, Ge, SiC, AlN, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, InSb, ZnO, ZnSe, ZnTe and CdTe, has been investigated from room temperature to their melting points. The temperature dependences of the hardness H v of eleven of these semiconductors, namely those with a cubic structure, obey a universal relationship when H v and the temperature T are scaled respectively by the shear modulus G and by G b ^3 / k _B, with b being the magnitude of the Burgers vector and k B the Boltzmann constant. The scaling rule is the same as that found for the temperature dependence of the critical shear stress τ c for the 111 slip system. The result leads a link between hardness and macroscopic yielding (dislocation motion). The relationshipH v = (70 ˜ 100) τ c is deduced for the cubic semiconductors is about ten times as large as the value for metals.

  1. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  2. Natural Intermediate Band in I 2 -II-IV-VI4 Quaternary Chalcogenide Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiheng; Cai, Zenghua; Han, Dan; Chen, Shiyou

    2018-01-25

    An intermediate band in the band gap of semiconductors is fundamental to the development of the intermediate band solar cells, but it is usually produced artificially, which imposes technical challenges on the experimental realization. Here we found that there are natural intermediate bands in the band gaps of the I2-II-IV-VI4 quaternary chalcogenide semiconductors such as Cu2ZnSnS4 and Ag2ZnSnSe4, which had been proposed as promising light-absorber semiconductors in thin film solar cells. By first-principles calculations, we found the lowest conduction band of these I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductors in the kesterite structure is isolated (a lone band, resulting from the energy separation between Sn 5s and 5p states), which can be viewed as a natural intermediate band. The gap between the intermediate band and higher-energy conduction band can be increased through changing the crystal structure from the zincblende-derived kesterite structure to the wurtzite-derived wurtzite-kesterite structure. In contrast, the intermediate-conduction band gap shrinks when the component element Sn is replaced by Ge (Cu2ZnGeS4), and the gap even disappears (intermediate band disappear) when Sn is replaced by Si (Cu2ZnSiS4). Through tuning the intermediate-conduction and intermediate-valence band gaps, we show that the wurtzite-kesterite structured Ag2ZnSnSe4 may be a potential light-absorber semiconductor in intermediate band solar cells.

  3. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m **2 and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 cm**-**2 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degree C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary radhard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminiutn/Kapton tapes and cooled by C//3F//8 evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected flue...

  4. Glass-forming ability and rigidity percolation in SeTePb lone-pair semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj [Jaypee University of Information Technology, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. (India)

    2016-04-15

    Correlating the various physical parameters of known semiconductors and pointing the properties of new ones, a number of parameters have been employed recently with different levels of success. Taking this into account an attempt has been made to correlate the physical properties of Pb-doped Se-Te lone-pair semiconductors. The small band gap and large Bohr radius of lead (Pb) containing lone-pair semiconductors assist them with specific optical, electrical and thermal properties. The various physical parameters like number of constraints, lone pair of electron, heat of atomization, density, compactness, free volume percentage have been analyzed in terms of mean coordination number for (Se{sub 90}Te{sub 10}){sub 100-x} Pb{sub x} (x=0,4,8,12,16,20,24). The band gap for the compositions has been determined theoretically, and the obtained results are very well explained in terms of cohesive energy, electronegativity and average single bond energy. (orig.)

  5. Near-infrared photonic band structure in a semiconductor metamaterial photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Wu, Chien-Jang; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we theoretically investigate the near-infrared (NIR) photonic band structure (PBS) in a one-dimensional semiconductor metamaterial (MM) photonic crystal (PC). The considered PC is (AB)N, where N is the stack number, A is a dielectric, and B is a semiconductor MM composed of Al-doped ZnO and ZnO. It is found that the photonic band gaps (PBGs) can be tunable by the variations in filling factor, and thicknesses of A and B. It is of particular interest to see that the PBG will vanish when the thicknesses of A and B satisfy a certain condition. The results provide fundamental information on a NIR PBS that could be of technical use in photonic applications using such a semiconductor MM. The band gap vanishing makes it possible to design a wider band pass filter at NIR based on the use of such a PC.

  6. One-Dimensional Nanostructures and Devices of II–V Group Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Guozhen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The II–V group semiconductors, with narrow band gaps, are important materials with many applications in infrared detectors, lasers, solar cells, ultrasonic multipliers, and Hall generators. Since the first report on trumpet-like Zn3P2nanowires, one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures of II–V group semiconductors have attracted great research attention recently because these special 1-D nanostructures may find applications in fabricating new electronic and optoelectronic nanoscale devices. This article covers the 1-D II–V semiconducting nanostructures that have been synthesized till now, focusing on nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and special nanostructures like heterostructured nanowires. Novel electronic and optoelectronic devices built on 1-D II–V semiconducting nanostructures will also be discussed, which include metal–insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors, andp–nheterojunction photodiode. We intent to provide the readers a brief account of these exciting research activities.

  7. Carrier lifetimes and recombination-generation mechanisms in semiconductor device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Vinod Kumar [Solid State Devices Division, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2004-03-01

    The existence of a multiplicity of carrier lifetimes and their inextricable linkage to the measurement technique, injection level and position of the recombination centre in the forbidden energy gap presents difficulties in the teaching of this key semiconductor parameter controlling the performance of semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors, insulated gate bipolar transistors, thyristors and solar cells. This paper points out that in the teaching of carrier lifetime in semiconductor device courses, the types of lifetime, their physical significance and underlying recombination-generation mechanisms should be introduced and the correlation of each lifetime with the terminal property of the semiconductor device should be highlighted. The use of a particular method for measurement of the relevant lifetime and the injection level of carriers chosen should be explained. The paper provides an update on the important considerations about carrier lifetimes which need to be stressed by the teacher.

  8. Semiconductor-metal transition induced by giant Stark effect in blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Peng-Yu; Chen, Shi-Zhang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2017-06-28

    The electronic structures and transport properties in monolayer blue phosphorene nanoribbons (BPNRs) with transverse electric field have been studied by using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions method. The results show that the band gaps of BPNRs with both armchair and zigzag edges are linearly decreased with the increasing of the strength of transverse electric field. A semiconductor-metal transition occurs when the electric field strength reaches to 5 V/nm. The Stark coefficient presents a linear dependency on BPNRs widths, and the slopes of both zBPNRs and aBPNRs are 0.41 and 0.54, respectively, which shows a giant Stark effect occurs. Our studies show that the semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect. - Highlights: • The electronic transport in blue phosphorene nanoribbons. • Semiconductor-metal transition can be observed. • The semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect.

  9. One-Dimensional Nanostructures and Devices of II-V Group Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Di

    2009-05-15

    The II-V group semiconductors, with narrow band gaps, are important materials with many applications in infrared detectors, lasers, solar cells, ultrasonic multipliers, and Hall generators. Since the first report on trumpet-like Zn(3)P(2) nanowires, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures of II-V group semiconductors have attracted great research attention recently because these special 1-D nanostructures may find applications in fabricating new electronic and optoelectronic nanoscale devices. This article covers the 1-D II-V semiconducting nanostructures that have been synthesized till now, focusing on nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and special nanostructures like heterostructured nanowires. Novel electronic and optoelectronic devices built on 1-D II-V semiconducting nanostructures will also be discussed, which include metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and p-n heterojunction photodiode. We intent to provide the readers a brief account of these exciting research activities.

  10. Boron-doped MnTe semiconductor-sensitized ZnO solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It can be noted that the boron doping effects with the change in the band gap and lead to an improvement in the crystalline quality and also intimate contact ... However, this kind of semiconductor sensitizer can be further extended by experiments on yielding a higher power conversion efficiency and greater stability of the ...

  11. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  12. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  13. Microscopical Studies of Structural and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of point defects in semiconductors, e.g. radiation defects, impurities or passivating defects can excellently be studied by the hyperfine technique of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC). The serious limitation of this method, the small number of chemically different radioactive PAC probe atoms can be widely overcome by means of ISOLDE. Providing shortliving isotopes, which represent common dopants as well as suitable PAC probe atoms, the ISOLDE facility enables a much broader application of PAC to problems in semiconductor physics.\\\\ Using the probe atom $^{111m}$ Cd , the whole class of III-V compounds becomes accessible for PAC investigations. First successful experiments in GaAs, InP and GaP have been performed, concerning impurity complex formation and plasma induced defects. In Si and Ge, the electronic properties~-~especially their influence on acceptor-donor interaction~-~could be exemplarily st...

  14. Electrical Activation of Dopant Atoms in the II-VI Materials M-X (M = Zn, Cd and X = S, Se, Te)

    CERN Multimedia

    Ostheimer, V; Lauer, S

    2002-01-01

    % IS328 \\\\ \\\\ Little is known about the properties and behaviour of intrinsic point defects and impurities in II-VI semiconductors, mainly because their identification and their mutual interactions still pose a major puzzle. Intrinsic point defects and impurities are blamed for the failure of making working p-n junction devices out of wide-band-gap semiconductors. Using the perturbed $\\gamma$

  15. Analysis of Wide-Band Signals Using Wavelet Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisii, V.; Saccorotti, G.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets transforms allow for precise time-frequency localization in the analysis of non-stationary signals. In wavelet analysis the trade-off between frequency bandwidth and time duration, also known as Heisenberg inequality, is by-passed using a fully scalable modulated window which solves the signal-cutting problem of Windowed Fourier Transform. We propose a new seismic array data processing procedure capable of displaying the localized spatial coherence of the signal in both the time- and frequency-domain, in turn deriving the propagation parameters of the most coherent signals crossing the array. The procedure consists in: a) Wavelet coherence analysis for each station pair of the instruments array, aimed at retrieving the frequency- and time-localisation of coherent signals. To this purpose, we use the normalised wavelet cross- power spectrum, smoothed along the time and scale domains. We calculate different coherence spectra adopting smoothing windows of increasing lengths; a final, robust estimate of the time-frequency localisation of spatially-coherent signals is eventually retrieved from the stack of the individual coherence distribution. This step allows for a quick and reliable signal discrimination: wave groups propagating across the network will manifest as high-coherence patches spanning the corresponding time-scale region. b) Once the signals have been localised in the time and frequency domain,their propagation parameters are estimated using a modified MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Characterization) algorithm. We select the MUSIC approach as it demonstrated superior performances in the case of low SNR signals, more plane waves contemporaneously impinging at the array and closely separated sources. The narrow-band Coherent Signal Subspace technique is applied to the complex Continuous Wavelet Transform of multichannel data for improving the singularity of the estimated cross-covariance matrix and the accuracy of the estimated signal eigenvectors. Using synthetic multichannel data generated for different signal types, the resolution in time-frequency-slowness domains is estimated by a direct comparision with the Windowed Fourier Transform MUSIC algorithm. The main advantages of our Wavelet Transform MUSIC algorithm (WTM) consists in: a) The simplicity of the procedure, as different frequency bands are processed at once without sacrifying time resolution; b) Its ability to selectively process only those data windows which depict significant coherence throughout the network, thus ensuring the physical meaning of the solution. We applied this metodology to the study of the wavefield characteristic of seismo-volcanic activity recorded by a dense array of short-period seismometers deployed at Stromboli volcano during its 2002-2003 eruption. WTM gives precise descriptions of the distribution in time and frequency of the different wavefield components, in turn providing precise estimates of the corresponding wavevectors. These achievements represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the seismic wavefields associated with volcanic activity.

  16. THz Imaging by a Wide-band Compact FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Uk Jeong Young; Cheol Lee Byung; Hee-Park, S

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory-scale users facility with a compact THz FEL. The FEL operates in the wide wavelength range of 100–1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3-3 THz. THz radiation from the FEL shows well collimated Gaussian spatial distribution and narrow spectral width of 0.3 μm, which is Fourier transform limited by the estimated pulse duration of 20 ps. The main application of the FEL is THz imaging for bio-medical researches. We are developing THz imaging techniques by 2-D scanning, single pulse capturing with the electro-optic method, and 3-D holography. High power, coherent, and pulsed feature of the FEL radiation is expected to show much better performance in advanced THz imaging of 3-D tomography by comparing with incoherent and weak THz sources. By controlling the optical delay between reference beam and scattered light from an object, we can get its 3-D tomography by the holograms. The coherent and pulse length of the FEL beam is measured to be 3-6 mm. In this paper we will show a...

  17. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  18. A Structure for a Wide Band Wall Current Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EuroTeV programme a new wall current monitor for application in linear accelerators is currently being developed. A bandwidth of 20 GHz is aimed for in the new design. This note proposes an improved structure with very high bandwidth.

  19. A Wide-Band CMOS Injection Locked Frequency Divider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Leenaerts, Domine; Nauta, Bram

    In this paper we propose a novel inductorless injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) that can make divisions with ratios 2,4,6 and 8 with wide locking ranges. Fabricated in a digital 0.18 μm CMOS process the divider can operate up to 15 GHz. The measured locking ranges of the divider for division

  20. Wide Band Low Noise Love Wave Magnetic Field Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittmann, Anne; Durdaut, Phillip; Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Schmalz, Julius; Spetzler, Benjamin; Meyners, Dirk; Sun, Nian X; McCord, Jeffrey; Gerken, Martina; Schmidt, Gerhard; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Faupel, Franz; Quandt, Eckhard

    2018-01-10

    We present a comprehensive study of a magnetic sensor system that benefits from a new technique to substantially increase the magnetoelastic coupling of surface acoustic waves (SAW). The device uses shear horizontal acoustic surface waves that are guided by a fused silica layer with an amorphous magnetostrictive FeCoSiB thin film on top. The velocity of these so-called Love waves follows the magnetoelastically-induced changes of the shear modulus according to the magnetic field present. The SAW sensor is operated in a delay line configuration at approximately 150 MHz and translates the magnetic field to a time delay and a related phase shift. The fundamentals of this sensor concept are motivated by magnetic and mechanical simulations. They are experimentally verified using customized low-noise readout electronics. With an extremely low magnetic noise level of ≈100 pT/[Formula: see text], a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a dynamic range of 120 dB, this magnetic field sensor system shows outstanding characteristics. A range of additional measures to further increase the sensitivity are investigated with simulations.

  1. Wide band focusing x-ray spectrograph with spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, S A; Douglass, J D; Shelkovenko, T A; Sinars, D B; Hammer, D A

    2008-01-01

    A new, wide spectral bandwidth x-ray spectrograph, the wide-bandwidth focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution (WB-FSSR), based on spherically bent mica crystals, is described. The wide bandwidth is achieved by combining three crystals to form a large aperture dispersive element. Since the WB-FSSR covers a wide spectral band, it is very convenient for application as a routine diagnostic tool in experiments in which the desired spectral coverage is different from one test to the next. The WB-FSSR has been tested in imploding wire-array experiments on a 1 MA pulsed power machine, and x-ray spectra were recorded in the 1-20 A spectral band using different orders of mica crystal reflection. Using a two mirror-symmetrically placed WB-FSSR configuration, it was also possible to distinguish between a real spectral shift and a shift of recorded spectral lines caused by the spatial distribution of the radiating plasma. A spectral resolution of about 2000 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of approximately 100 microm was achieved in the spectral band of 5-10 A in second order of mica reflection. A simple method of numerical analysis of spectrograph capability is proposed.

  2. Biconical Ring Antenna Array for Wide Band Applications

    OpenAIRE

    C.SUBBA RAO; Sudhakar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Circular or ring arrays are conformal to the cylindrical surfaces unlike the linear arrays and can be mounted on moving objects. Biconical antenna is simple in construction and exhibits broad band characteristics. This antenna presents broad band radiation characteristics. In this paper circular or ring array of biconical antenna is proposed and its characteristics are analyzed for frequency band of 0.1 to 1GHz range. Radiation characteristicsof the array with excitation phase change are pres...

  3. Statistical-mechanics approach to wide-band digital communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efraim, Hadar; Peleg, Yitzhak; Kanter, Ido; Shental, Ori; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2010-12-01

    The emerging popular scheme of fourth generation wireless communication, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, is mapped onto a variant of a random field Ising Hamiltonian and results in an efficient physical intercarrier interference (ICI) cancellation decoding scheme. This scheme is based on Monte Carlo (MC) dynamics at zero temperature as well as at the Nishimori temperature and demonstrates improved bit error rate (BER) and robust convergence time compared to the state of the art ICI cancellation decoding scheme. An optimal BER performance is achieved with MC dynamics at the Nishimori temperature but with a substantial computational cost overhead. The suggested ICI cancellation scheme also supports the transmission of biased signals.

  4. Printed Antenna Elements with Attested Ultra Wide Band Array Applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanyer-Ti?rek, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels, for short-range high-bandwidth communications, by using a large radio spectrum. Due to its high speed rate, this technology is nowadays one of the most promising solutions for communications. Maximum data that can

  5. Multifunctional Antenna with Reconfigurable Ultra-Wide Band Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multifunctional antenna is presented which offers an ultra-wideband (UWB operation, an UWB operation with two switchable notches and reconfigurable dual-band operation for WiMAX and WLAN applications, respectively. Total seven functions/states could be achieved from a single antenna using an electronic switching. The antenna uses dual slots on the ground plane to provide a wide bandwidth, ranging from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. U-Shaped slot and C-Shaped printed strip in the ground are used to generate two notches at 3.6 GHz(WiMAX and 5.2 GHz (WLAN/ WiFi bands, respectively. Moreover, four parasitic strips are added in the feed side to make antenna functional at either3.6 GHz or 5.2 GHz or both. Total Five PIN diodes are required to obtain seven operations from the proposed antenna. Seven structures are fabricated and measured to verify the seven states and results are found in good agreement with estimated results obtained from the simulation.

  6. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  7. Non Resonant Slots for Wide Band 2D Scanning Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Maci, S.

    2005-01-01

    A novel type of broadband integrated array scanning in one plane is proposed. Such arrays are aimed to meet the requirements typically set for airborne Synthetic Aperture Radars, while allowing the highest degree of integration between the T/R modules and radiating elements. The array is composed by

  8. The New Wide Band Equipment for the URAN Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Lozins'kyy, A. B.; Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelyev, V. A.

    2006-08-01

    The decameter range VLBI network URAN consists of 5 radio telescopes including the world largest in the range - UTR-2. They make up interferometers with the baselines 42 to 946 km. Large size antennas arrays (up to 2 km), electrically controlled over both coordinates, are used to increase the sensitivity and decrease the confusion and interference effects. The system of distributed preamplification with a high dynamic range and receivers with narrow IF bandwidths (20 kHz) have been applied in order to minimize the broadcast station interference. Studies with the URAN were carrying out for a number of years and several tens of radio sources have been already observed successfully. For successful prolongation of the investigations it is necessary to increase the sensitivity of the system since the reliable determination of the sources angular structure needs a high signal-to-noise ratio. The increasing of the antennas effective area is cost-intensive and it is impossible now. An alternative way is a broadening of the received band and/or increasing of the coherent integration time to boost the radiometric gain. At the decameter wavelengths the coherent integration time is significantly limited by the effect of the interplanetary and ionosphere plasma. Front-end facility of all the URAN telescopes is broadband so a new generation of wideband back-end equipment has been developed including receivers with wide bandpass, fast ADCs and a computer based data storage devices. New equipment, the algorithms of the interferences rejection and the data reduction methods will be described in the report.

  9. Low frequency noise sources and mechanisms in semiconductor nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Collin James

    Semiconductor nanowires are attractive candidates for use in future high-speed electronics, transparent/flexible devices, and chemical sensors. Among other materials, III-V semiconductors have gained considerable interest for their high bulk mobility and low band gap, making them promising for high-speed nanoscale devices. However, nanowire devices also exhibit high levels of low-frequency noise due to their low band gap and high surface-to-volume ratio. The sources and mechanisms of this noise must be understood and controlled in order to realize practical applications of nanowire electronics. This work seeks to understand the underlying noise mechanisms of nanowire transistors in order discover ways to reduce noise levels. It also demonstrates how noise can provide a spectroscopy for analyzing device quality. Most traditional noise studies tend to apply standard MOSFET models to nanowire noise and transport, which lump together all possible independent noise sources in a nanowire, ignoring effects of the contacts or multiple gates, and could lead to misestimation of the noise figures for a device. This work demonstrates how noise in a nanowire transistor can stem from the channel, ungated access regions, metal- semiconductor contacts, and tunnel barriers, all independently adding to the total noise. Each source of noise can contribute and may dominate the overall noise behavior under certain bias regimes and temperatures, as demonstrated in this work through various device structures and measurements. For example, the contacts can influence noise even below the threshold voltage under certain conditions, emphasizing the need for high-quality metal-semiconductor interface technology.

  10. Tuning characteristic of band gap and waveguide in a multi-stub locally resonant phononic crystal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tuning characteristics of band gaps and waveguides in a locally resonant phononic crystal structure, consisting of multiple square stubs deposited on a thin homogeneous plate, are investigated. Using the finite element method and supercell technique, the dispersion relationships and power transmission spectra of those structures are calculated. In contrast to a system of one square stub, systems of multiple square stubs show wide band gaps at lower frequencies and an increased quantity of band gaps at higher frequencies. The vibration modes of the band gap edges are analyzed to clarify the mechanism of the generation of the lowest band gap. Additionally, the influence of the stubs arrangement on the band gaps in multi-stub systems is investigated. The arrangements of the stubs were found to influence the band gaps; this is critical to understand for practical applications. Based on this finding, a novel method to form defect scatterers by changing the arrangement of square stubs in a multi-stub perfect phononic crystal plate was developed. Defect bands can be induced by creating defects inside the original complete band gaps. The frequency can then be tuned by changing the defect scatterers’ stub arrangement. These results will help in fabricating devices such as acoustic filters and waveguides whose band frequency can be modulated.

  11. Band-gap dependence of field emission from one-dimensional nanostructures grown on n-type and p-type silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, L. C.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, C. W.; Chen, Y. F.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2003-09-01

    Field emission of electrons from narrow-band-gap and wide-band-gap one-dimensional nanostructures were studied. N-type silicon substrates enhanced the emission from the low-band-gap silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes, whereas p-type substrates were a better choice for field emission from wide-band-gap silicon carbon nitride nanocrystalline thin films and nanorods. The role of the substrate-nanostructure interface was modeled based on different junction mechanisms to explain, qualitatively, the fundamentally different emission behavior of these nanostructures when n- and p-type silicon substrates were used. The results could be explained on the basis of simple carrier transport across the silicon-silicon nanowire interface and subsequent tunneling of electrons for the silicon nanowires. Schottky barrier theory can explain the better field emission of electrons from the n-type silicon supported carbon nanotubes. The decreased barrier height at the interface of the silicon-silicon carbon nitride heterojunction, when p-type silicon substrate was used, could explain the superior field emission in comparison to when n-type silicon substrates were used.

  12. Physics of semiconductor laser devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The physics of the semiconductor laser is studied. The basic phenomena that control the operation of the device are analyzed and described in considerable detail. The treatment has been keyed particularly to fundamental concepts and kept general in order to avoid being overtaken by events. The range of phenomena in a semiconductor laser involves a number of scientific disciplines. To cater for the reader who is not already a specialist in all of these the author has endeavoured, in the chapters on fundamental behaviour, to provide in a readable form the minimum background that is needed to understand the more specialist part of the text. As an introduction a general review is given of the whole range of semiconductor laser devices that now exist, the technology involved in their fabrication, the factors that determine their reliability, and their possible role in integrated systems.

  13. Thiophene-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Gulsen; Cinar, M Emin; Ozturk, Turan

    2017-10-24

    Thiophene-based π-conjugated organic small molecules and polymers are the research subject of significant current interest owing to their potential use as organic semiconductors in material chemistry. Despite simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thiophene-based organic semiconductors are rather diverse. Design of high performance organic semiconducting materials requires a thorough understanding of inter- and intra-molecular interactions, solid-state packing, and the influence of both factors on the charge carrier transport. In this chapter, thiophene-based organic semiconductors, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures and their structure-property relationships, are addressed for the potential applications as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  14. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  15. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  16. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  17. Semiconductor device physics and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, J S

    1998-01-01

    This volume provides thorough coverage of modern semiconductor devices -including hetero- and homo-junction devices-using a two-dimensional simulator (MEDICI) to perform the analysis and generate simulation results Each device is examined in terms of dc, ac, and transient simulator results; relevant device physics; and implications for design and analysis Two hundred forty-four useful figures illustrate the physical mechanisms and characteristics of the devices simulated Comprehensive and carefully organized, Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation is the ideal bridge from device physics to practical device design

  18. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    The developments with coherent control (CC) techniques in optical spectroscopy have recently demonstrated population control and coherence manipulations when the induced optical phase is explored with phase-locked laser pulses. These and other developments have been guiding the new research field...... of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase-locked...

  19. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  20. Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C

    1994-01-01

    Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors