WorldWideScience

Sample records for wide spectrum restorer

  1. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1 , BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9 , fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5 , and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  2. A Wide Spectrum Neutron Polarizer for a Pulsed Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    A wide spectrum neutron polarizer for a pulsed neutron source is considered. The polarizer is made in a form of a set of magnetized mirrors placed on a drum. Homogeneous rotation of the polarizer is synchronized with the power pulses of the neutron source. The polarizer may be utilized in a collimated neutron beam with cross section of the order of magnitude of 100 cm 2 within a wavelength from 2 up to 20 A on sources with a pulse repetition frequency up to 50 Hz. (author). 5 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  4. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  5. Wide Spectrum of Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis in Earthquake Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Atabak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the natural disasters such as earthquake, based on severity of trauma, time under the rubble and quality/quantity of hydratation we will confront with a spectrum of traumatic rhabdomyolysis. In present study we evaluate victims of Bam earthquake to show different stage of muscle trauma, from minor trauma with almost normal level of muscle enzyme to those with moderate trauma leading to crush injury and finally to advanced crush syndrome. Questionnaire consisted of clinical, biochemical and demographic items was designed and completed by our research team retrospectively. We divided the patients to crush and non-crush and also crush injury and crush syndrome, and then compared aforementioned items between them. Clinical and laboratory data of 2962 hospitalized victims, with an average age of 28.4(SD14.2 years (range 1-90 were collected (40% female. 611 patients were affected with crush injury (20%. These were entrapped 2.2 hours longer than the others (P<0.001. Mean IV intake in first 5 days was 3.6(SD2.6 liters for these patients in compare with 2.5(SD1.4 liters for others (P<0.001. 200 cases showed complete feature of crush syndrome. Electrolyte imbalance and systemic complications were drastically increased in the worst patients with crush syndrome. In approach to crushed patients of natural disasters by attention to the wide spectrum of muscle damage and systemic problems, the stepwise management protocol based on severity of traumatic rhabdomyolysis is inevitable and warranted.

  6. Spectrum-to-Spectrum Searching Using a Proteome-wide Spectral Library*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Yu; Houel, Stephane; Ahn, Natalie G.; Old, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The unambiguous assignment of tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) to peptide sequences remains a key unsolved problem in proteomics. Spectral library search strategies have emerged as a promising alternative for peptide identification, in which MS/MS spectra are directly compared against a reference library of confidently assigned spectra. Two problems relate to library size. First, reference spectral libraries are limited to rediscovery of previously identified peptides and are not applicable to new peptides, because of their incomplete coverage of the human proteome. Second, problems arise when searching a spectral library the size of the entire human proteome. We observed that traditional dot product scoring methods do not scale well with spectral library size, showing reduction in sensitivity when library size is increased. We show that this problem can be addressed by optimizing scoring metrics for spectrum-to-spectrum searches with large spectral libraries. MS/MS spectra for the 1.3 million predicted tryptic peptides in the human proteome are simulated using a kinetic fragmentation model (MassAnalyzer version2.1) to create a proteome-wide simulated spectral library. Searches of the simulated library increase MS/MS assignments by 24% compared with Mascot, when using probabilistic and rank based scoring methods. The proteome-wide coverage of the simulated library leads to 11% increase in unique peptide assignments, compared with parallel searches of a reference spectral library. Further improvement is attained when reference spectra and simulated spectra are combined into a hybrid spectral library, yielding 52% increased MS/MS assignments compared with Mascot searches. Our study demonstrates the advantages of using probabilistic and rank based scores to improve performance of spectrum-to-spectrum search strategies. PMID:21532008

  7. Histone Acetylome-wide Association Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Poschmann, Jeremie; Cruz-Herrera Del Rosario, Ricardo; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Hajan, Hajira Shreen; Kumar, Vibhor; Ramasamy, Ramalakshmi; Belgard, T Grant; Elanggovan, Bavani; Wong, Chloe Chung Yi; Mill, Jonathan; Geschwind, Daniel H; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2016-11-17

    The association of histone modification changes with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been systematically examined. We conducted a histone acetylome-wide association study (HAWAS) by performing H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) on 257 postmortem samples from ASD and matched control brains. Despite etiological heterogeneity, ≥68% of syndromic and idiopathic ASD cases shared a common acetylome signature at >5,000 cis-regulatory elements in prefrontal and temporal cortex. Similarly, multiple genes associated with rare genetic mutations in ASD showed common "epimutations." Acetylome aberrations in ASD were not attributable to genetic differentiation at cis-SNPs and highlighted genes involved in synaptic transmission, ion transport, epilepsy, behavioral abnormality, chemokinesis, histone deacetylation, and immunity. By correlating histone acetylation with genotype, we discovered >2,000 histone acetylation quantitative trait loci (haQTLs) in human brain regions, including four candidate causal variants for psychiatric diseases. Due to the relative stability of histone modifications postmortem, we anticipate that the HAWAS approach will be applicable to multiple diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, N

    1995-04-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.

  9. Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)

  10. Munchausen Syndrome and the Wide Spectrum of Factitious Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Aybek, Selma; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians. All medical specialities are concerned by these disorders. The diagnosis process involves a first step to exclude an unusual presentation of a common medical condition. The second step consists of excluding somatoform disorders and malingering. Unfortunately, the boundaries between factitious disorder, somatization, and malingering are often unclear. In 1977, the term "Munchausen's syndrome by proxy" was coined to define a situation where a person produces false symptoms in another one, especially a child. This term was extended to similar interactions between human and pets. Because varied conditions have been included in the definition of this syndrome, there is ongoing debate about alternative names. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented.

  12. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  13. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  14. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  15. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  16. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  17. Munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by Streptomyces NRRL 30562, endophytic on Kennedia nigriscans

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, UF; Strobel, GA; Ford, EJ; Hess, WM; Porter, H; Jensen, JB; Albert, H; Robison, R; Condron, MAM; Teplow, DB; Stevens, D; Yaver, D

    2002-01-01

    Munumbicins A, B, C and D are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a Plasmodium sp. These compounds were obtained from Streptomyces NRRL 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (Kennedia nigriscans), native to the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-g...

  18. Genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Xuexian; Guo, Liping; Qi, Tingxiang; Wang, Hailin; Zhang, Jinfa; Xing, Chaozhu

    2017-06-08

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by the cytoplasm from Gossypium harknessii (D2) is an important system for hybrid seed production in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). The male sterility of CMS-D2 (i.e., A line) can be restored to fertility by a restorer (i.e., R line) carrying the restorer gene Rf1 transferred from the D2 nuclear genome. However, the molecular mechanisms of CMS-D2 and its restoration are poorly understood. In this study, a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in flower buds among the isogenic fertile R line and sterile A line derived from a backcross population (BC 8 F 1 ) and the recurrent parent, i.e., the maintainer (B line). A total of 1464 DEGs were identified among the three isogenic lines, and the Rf1-carrying Chr_D05 and its homeologous Chr_A05 had more DEGs than other chromosomes. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed differences in circadian rhythm between the fertile and sterile lines. Eleven DEGs were selected for validation using qRT-PCR, confirming the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, the differential expression profiles of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in Upland cotton were identified. Our results provide an important foundation for further studies into the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between the restorer gene Rf1 and the CMS-D2 cytoplasm.

  19. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene® fixed samples compared to restored FFPE DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Chip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better......Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies......, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap...

  20. Wide-Spectrum Microscope with a Long Working Distance Aspherical Objective Based on Obscuration Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for an initial configuration design based on obscuration constraint and on-axis Taylor series expansion to realize the design of long working distance microscope (numerical aperture (NA = 0.13 and working distance (WD = 525 mm with a low obscuration aspherical Schwarzschild objective in wide-spectrum imaging (λ = 400–900 nm. Experiments of the testing on the resolution target and inspection on United States Air Force (USAF resolution chart and a line charge-coupled device (CCD (pixel size of 14 μm × 56 μm with different wavelength light sources (λ = 480 nm, 550 nm, 660 nm, 850 nm were implemented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (adjust. This dynamic switching between alternative stable states, we postulate will maintain a diversity of habitat types, and support increased steelhead production. In the short-term, we have a host of explicit design hypotheses about the physical and biotic response and a multi-scalar monitoring program geared to test each of these. We will present findings from a preliminary pilot project on three of the study creeks, which was subjected to a major flood, and tests many of these hypotheses

  2. REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM: RESTORING INFORMATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC DENSITY MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    We find that nonlinearities in the dark matter power spectrum are dramatically smaller if the density field first undergoes a logarithmic mapping. In the Millennium simulation, this procedure gives a power spectrum with a shape hardly departing from the linear power spectrum for k ∼ -1 at all redshifts. Also, this procedure unveils pristine Fisher information on a range of scales reaching a factor of 2-3 smaller than in the standard power spectrum, yielding 10 times more cumulative signal to noise at z = 0.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwanese Han Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsiu Kuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic components. Several recent genome-wide association (GWA studies in Caucasian samples have reported a number of gene regions and loci correlated with the risk of ASD--albeit with very little consensus across studies.A two-stage GWA study was employed to identify common genetic variants for ASD in the Taiwanese Han population. The discovery stage included 315 patients with ASD and 1,115 healthy controls, using the Affymetrix SNP array 6.0 platform for genotyping. Several gene regions were then selected for fine-mapping and top markers were examined in extended samples. Single marker, haplotype, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted for associations.Seven SNPs had p-values ranging from 3.4~9.9*10-6, but none reached the genome-wide significant level. Five of them were mapped to three known genes (OR2M4, STYK1, and MNT with significant empirical gene-based p-values in OR2M4 (p = 3.4*10(-5 and MNT (p = 0.0008. Results of the fine-mapping study showed single-marker associations in the GLIS1 (rs12082358 and rs12080993 and NAALADL2 (rs3914502 and rs2222447 genes, and gene-based associations for the OR2M3-OR2T5 (olfactory receptor genes, p = 0.02, and GLIPR1/KRR1 gene regions (p = 0.015. Pathway analyses revealed important pathways for ASD, such as olfactory and G protein-coupled receptors signaling pathways.We reported Taiwanese Han specific susceptibility genes and variants for ASD. However, further replication in other Asian populations is warranted to validate our findings. Investigation in the biological functions of our reported genetic variants might also allow for better understanding on the underlying pathogenesis of autism.

  4. Munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by Streptomyces NRRL 30562, endophytic on Kennedia nigriscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Uvidelio F; Strobel, Gary A; Ford, Eugene J; Hess, Wilford M; Porter, Heidi; Jensen, James B; Albert, Heather; Robison, Richard; Condron, Margret A M; Teplow, David B; Stevens, Dennis; Yaver, Debbie

    2002-09-01

    Munumbicins A, B, C and D are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a Plasmodium sp. These compounds were obtained from Streptomyces NRRL 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (Kennedia nigriscans), native to the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-guided HPLC. The major components were four functionalized peptides with masses of 1269.6, 1298.5, 1312.5 and 1326.5 Da. Numerous other related compounds possessing bioactivity, with differing masses, were also present in the culture broth extract in lower quantities. With few exceptions, the peptide portion of each component contained only the common amino acids threonine, aspartic acid (or asparagine), glutamic acid (or glutamine), valine and proline, in varying ratios. The munumbicins possessed widely differing biological activities depending upon the target organism. For instance, munumbicin B had an MIC of 2.5 microg x ml(-1) against a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, whereas munumbicin A was not active against this organism. In general, the munumbicins demonstrated activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the most impressive biological activity of any of the munumbicins was that of munumbicin D against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, having an IC(50) of 4.5+/-0.07 ng x ml(-1). This report also describes the potential of the munumbicins in medicine and agriculture.

  5. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexity and wide range of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: more than typical manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinming; Yang, Meng-ge; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term “NMO spectrum disorders” (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity. Moreover, cumulative findings have indicated that NMOSD are frequently associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, thereby presenting complex clinical symptoms that make this disease more difficult to recognize. Notably, most neurologists do not heed these symptoms or comorbid conditions in patients with NMOSD. Whereas previous reviews have focused on pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis in NMOSD, we summarize the present knowledge with particular emphasis on atypical manifestations and autoimmune comorbidities in patients with NMOSD. Furthermore, we emphasized the identification of these atypical characteristics to enable a broader and better understanding of NMOSD, and improve early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:29118581

  7. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J.; Klingler, John  P.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas  P.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  9. Plant-wide quantitative assessment of a process industry system's operating state based on color-spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Sun; Jianmin, Gao; Zhiyong, Gao; Hongquan, Jiang; Xu, Gao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to assess the operating state of a process industry system quantitatively based on meshing the theory of scientific data visualization and digital image processing. First, a series of color-spectrum, which represent the operating state of the system, is formed by mapping the monitor data set to a group of digital color images. Second, the common feature of color-spectrum, which is named benchmark-color-spectrum, is extracted as a standard of the normal state. Third, the abnormal degree can be quantified by calculating the difference of the benchmark-color-spectrum with observed color-spectrum. At last, a plant-wide operating state of the system in a period of time can be shown by plotting quantitative abnormal degree. Two case is included to illustrate the proposed method and its appropriateness. One is a general process industry system simulator named Tennessee Eastman Process. Another is an air compressor group which belongs to a real chemical plant.

  10. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma in the Male Breast: A Rare Endpoint of a Wide Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fibrocystic disease of the male breast is uncommon. The presence of a spectrum of changes ranging from fibrocystic disease to duct papilloma to papillary carcinoma in the same patient renders the case a rarity and therefore reportable. Case Report. A case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the male breast is presented. Discussion. The pathological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic options are discussed after reviewing the literature. Conclusion. Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance is the safest option for established cases.

  11. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  12. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Eisenmann

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  13. Cognitive Spectrum Sharing: An Enabling Wireless Communication Technology for a Wide Use of Smart Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fantacci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is an environment where a pervasive, multi-service network is employed to provide citizens improved living conditions as well as better public safety and security. Advanced communication technologies are essential to achieve this goal. In particular, an efficient and reliable communication network plays a crucial role in providing continue, ubiquitous, and reliable interconnections among users, smart devices, and applications. As a consequence, wireless networking appears as the principal enabling communication technology despite the necessity to face severe challenges to satisfy the needs arising from a smart environment, such as explosive data volume, heterogeneous data traffic, and support of quality of service constraints. An interesting approach for meeting the growing data demand due to smart city applications is to adopt suitable methodologies to improve the usage of all potential spectrum resources. Towards this goal, a very promising solution is represented by the Cognitive Radio technology that enables context-aware capability in order to pursue an efficient use of the available communication resources according to the surrounding environment conditions. In this paper we provide a review of the characteristics, challenges, and solutions of a smart city communication architecture, based on the Cognitive Radio technology, by focusing on two new network paradigms—namely, Heterogeneous Network and Machines-to-Machines communications—that are of special interest to efficiently support smart city applications and services.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Studies of a Broad Spectrum of Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Johansson, Ada; Polderman, Tinca J C; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Jansen, Philip; Taylor, Michelle; Tong, Xiaoran; Lu, Qing; Burt, Alexandra S; Tiemeier, Henning; Viding, Essi; Plomin, Robert; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant; Beaver, Kevin M; Waldman, Irwin; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Perry, John R B; Munafò, Marcus; LoParo, Devon; Paunio, Tiina; Tiihonen, Jari; Mous, Sabine E; Pappa, Irene; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Watanabe, Kyoko; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Bigdeli, Tim B; Dick, Danielle; Faraone, Stephen V; Popma, Arne; Medland, Sarah E; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-12-01

    Antisocial behavior (ASB) places a large burden on perpetrators, survivors, and society. Twin studies indicate that half of the variation in this trait is genetic. Specific causal genetic variants have, however, not been identified. To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of ASB; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to reevaluate the candidate gene era data through the Broad Antisocial Behavior Consortium. Genome-wide association data from 5 large population-based cohorts and 3 target samples with genome-wide genotype and ASB data were used for meta-analysis from March 1, 2014, to May 1, 2016. All data sets used quantitative phenotypes, except for the Finnish Crime Study, which applied a case-control design (370 patients and 5850 control individuals). This study adopted relatively broad inclusion criteria to achieve a quantitative measure of ASB derived from multiple measures, maximizing the sample size over different age ranges. The discovery samples comprised 16 400 individuals, whereas the target samples consisted of 9381 individuals (all individuals were of European descent), including child and adult samples (mean age range, 6.7-56.1 years). Three promising loci with sex-discordant associations were found (8535 female individuals, chromosome 1: rs2764450, chromosome 11: rs11215217; 7772 male individuals, chromosome X, rs41456347). Polygenic risk score analyses showed prognostication of antisocial phenotypes in an independent Finnish Crime Study (2536 male individuals and 3684 female individuals) and shared genetic origin with conduct problems in a population-based sample (394 male individuals and 431 female individuals) but not with conduct disorder in a substance-dependent sample (950 male individuals and 1386 female individuals) (R2 = 0.0017 in the most optimal model, P = 0.03). Significant inverse genetic correlation

  15. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  16. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  17. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB

  18. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Carrion

    Full Text Available Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short

  19. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-05-11

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being

  20. Identifying Loci for the Overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-Wide QTL Linkage Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD and 1,453 siblings were analyzed. The total and…

  1. Methodology and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative environmental restoration clean-up goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Short, S.M.; Stiles, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the methodologies and data used for estimating the complex-wide impacts of alternative strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE sites and facilities, but does not address issues relating to Waste Management capabilities. Clean-up strategies and their corresponding goals for contaminated media may be driven by concentration-based regulatory standards, land-use standards (e.g., residential, industrial, wild life reserve, or totally restricted), risk-based standards, or other standards determined through stakeholder input. Strategies implemented to achieve these goals usually require the deployment of (a) clean-up technologies to destroy, remove, or contain the contaminants of concern; (b) institutional controls to prevent potential receptors from coming into contact with the contaminants; or (c) a combination of the above

  2. Wide spectrum of NR5A1‐related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz‐de‐Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF‐1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1‐related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype‐phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian‐determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1‐related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever‐expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal

  3. Translational inhibition of CTX M extended spectrum β-lactamase in clinical strains of Escherichia coli by synthetic antisense oligonucleotides partially restores sensitivity to cefotaxime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benedict Readman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25 mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO and a 13 mer polyamide (peptide nucleic acid (PNA were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and –17 to –5 respectively close to the translational initiation site of the extended spectrum β lactamase resistance genes of CTX M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell free translation transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a blaCTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0 - 40 nM. The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (KFF3K and both significantly (P<0.05 increased sensitivity to cefotaxime in a dose dependent manner (0 - 40 nM in field isolates harbouring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine Dalgarno region of blaCTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates.

  4. HESS J1427−608: AN UNUSUAL HARD, UNBROKEN γ -RAY SPECTRUM IN A VERY WIDE ENERGY RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Wei-Hong [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xin, Yu-Liang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: gaoweihong@njnu.edu.cn, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We report the detection of a GeV γ -ray source that spatially overlaps and is thus very likely associated with the unidentified very high energy (VHE) γ -ray source HESS J1427−608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope . The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power law with an index of 1.85 ± 0.17 in the energy range of 3–500 GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427−608 at a few hundred gigaelectronvolts. This source shows no significant extension and time variation. The broadband GeV to TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427−608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss the possible nature of HESS J1427−608 according to the multiwavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multiwavelength data from radio to VHE γ -rays. The inferred magnetic field strength is a few micro-Gauss, which is smaller than the typical values of supernova remnants (SNRs) and is consistent with some pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). On the other hand, the flat γ -ray spectrum is slightly different from typical PWNe but is similar to that of some known SNRs.

  5. [Wide-spectrum clinical interventions in mental health: 'care' and 'subject supposed to know' in therapeutic assistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estellita-Lins, Carlos; Oliveira, Verônica Miranda; Coutinho, Maria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the theme therapeutic assistance (TA), understood as homecare-based mental health intervention. We emphasize the importance of community interventions for dealing with psychic suffering, either through reading the symptoms based on visibility, or through a psychoanalytic approach mainly concerned with listening. Lacking an independent theoretical background to support this practice, therapeutic assistance makes use of theories coming from other related fields of knowledge. Therefore, we discuss the influence of psychoanalysis and its role among broad spectrum mental health practice through clinical interventions belonging to the field of TA, focusing on two long-range operative concepts: Lacan's subject supposed to know and Winnicott's care (or caring process). Both concepts guide the clinical action and provide answers to theoretical problems within the TA field. We conclude that TA meets some requirements of the classical management of transference by means of a complex care process developed in the daily life and environment of the patient, in which desire and subjectivity are necessarily recognized although no psychotherapic setting is intentionally settled. Therapeutic assistance performs the role of an advanced clinical sentinel in the field of community psychiatry and public health.

  6. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  7. Bio-Inspired Wide-Angle Broad-Spectrum Cylindrical Lens Based on Reflections from Micro-Mirror Array on a Cylindrical Elastomeric Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chieh Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a wide-angle, broad-spectrum cylindrical lens based on reflections from an array of three-dimensional, high-aspect-ratio micro-mirrors fabricated on a cylindrical elastomeric substrate, functionally inspired by natural reflecting superposition compound eyes. Our device can perform one-dimensional focusing and beam-shaping comparable to conventional refraction-based cylindrical lenses, while avoiding chromatic aberration. The focal length of our cylindrical lens is 1.035 mm, suitable for micro-optical systems. Moreover, it demonstrates a wide field of view of 152° without distortion, as well as modest spherical aberrations. Our work could be applied to diverse applications including laser diode collimation, barcode scanning, holography, digital projection display, microlens arrays, and optical microscopy.

  8. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; McCullough, Peter R.; Burke, Christopher J.; Homeier, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 μm. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2σ, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 μm in diameter.

  9. Beyond the midbrain atrophy: wide spectrum of structural MRI finding in cases of pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Keita; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Shimoji, Keigo; Murayama, Shigeo; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Morimoto, Satoru; Aiba, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases are classified into various clinical subtypes with non-uniform symptoms and imaging findings. This article reviews essential imaging findings, general information, and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for PSP and presents these MRI findings of pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases for educational purposes. With the review of literatures, notably including atypical pathologically proven PSP cases, MRI and clinical information of 15 pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases were retrospectively evaluated. In addition to typical symptoms, PSP patients can exhibit atypical symptoms including levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, pure akinesia, non-fluent aphasia, corticobasal syndrome, and predominant cerebellar ataxia. As well as clinical symptoms, the degree of midbrain atrophy, a well-known imaging hallmark, is not consistent in atypical PSP cases. This fact has important implications for the limitation of midbrain atrophy as a diagnostic imaging biomarker of PSP pathology. Additional evaluation of other imaging findings including various regional atrophies of the globus pallidus, frontal lobe, cerebral peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle is essential for the diagnosis of atypical PSP cases. It is necessary for radiologists to recognize the wide clinical and radiological spectra of typical and atypical PSP cases. (orig.)

  10. Beyond the midbrain atrophy: wide spectrum of structural MRI finding in cases of pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Keita; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Shimoji, Keigo [Tokyo Metropolitan Medical Center of Gerontology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, Shigeo; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Morimoto, Satoru [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Ikuko [National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital, Department of Neurology, Nagoya (Japan); Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Matsukawa, Noriyuki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Nagoya (Japan); Hashizume, Yoshio [Fukushimura Hospital, Choju Medical Institute, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Recently, it has been recognized that pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases are classified into various clinical subtypes with non-uniform symptoms and imaging findings. This article reviews essential imaging findings, general information, and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for PSP and presents these MRI findings of pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases for educational purposes. With the review of literatures, notably including atypical pathologically proven PSP cases, MRI and clinical information of 15 pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases were retrospectively evaluated. In addition to typical symptoms, PSP patients can exhibit atypical symptoms including levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, pure akinesia, non-fluent aphasia, corticobasal syndrome, and predominant cerebellar ataxia. As well as clinical symptoms, the degree of midbrain atrophy, a well-known imaging hallmark, is not consistent in atypical PSP cases. This fact has important implications for the limitation of midbrain atrophy as a diagnostic imaging biomarker of PSP pathology. Additional evaluation of other imaging findings including various regional atrophies of the globus pallidus, frontal lobe, cerebral peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle is essential for the diagnosis of atypical PSP cases. It is necessary for radiologists to recognize the wide clinical and radiological spectra of typical and atypical PSP cases. (orig.)

  11. Protecting the Green Behind the Gold: Catchment-Wide Restoration Efforts Necessary to Achieve Nutrient and Sediment Load Reduction Targets in Gold Coast City, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Barry, Michael; McAlister, Tony; Weber, Tony; Groth, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    The Gold Coast City is the tourist center of Australia and has undergone rapid and massive urban expansion over the past few decades. The Broadwater estuary, in the heart of the City, not only offers an array of ecosystems services for many important aquatic wildlife species, but also supports the livelihood and lifestyles of residents. Not surprisingly, there have been signs of imbalance between these two major services. This study combined a waterway hydraulic and pollutant transport model to simulate diffuse nutrient and sediment loads under past and future proposed land-use changes. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled in an attempt to define optimal catchment scale restoration efforts necessary to protect and enhance the City's waterways. The modeling revealed that for future proposed development, a business as usual approach to catchment management will not reduce nutrient and sediment loading sufficiently to protect the community values. Considerable restoration of upper catchment tributaries is imperative, combined with treatment of stormwater flow from intensively developed sub-catchment areas. Collectively, initiatives undertaken by regulatory authorities to date have successfully reduced nutrient and sediment loading reaching adjoining waterways, although these programs have been ad hoc without strategic systematic planning and vision. Future conservation requires integration of multidisciplinary science and proactive management driven by the high ecological, economical, and community values placed on the City's waterways. Long-term catchment restoration and conservation planning requires an extensive budget (including political and societal support) to handle ongoing maintenance issues associated with scale of restoration determined here.

  12. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: from able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and (1)H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (r(2) = 0.89; P muscle volume compared with (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm(3)) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm(3)) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings.

  13. An X chromosome-wide association study in autism families identifies TBL1X as a novel autism spectrum disorder candidate gene in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ren-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. The skewed prevalence toward males and evidence suggestive of linkage to the X chromosome in some studies suggest the presence of X-linked susceptibility genes in people with ASD. Methods We analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS data on the X chromosome in three independent autism GWAS data sets: two family data sets and one case-control data set. We performed meta- and joint analyses on the combined family and case-control data sets. In addition to the meta- and joint analyses, we performed replication analysis by using the two family data sets as a discovery data set and the case-control data set as a validation data set. Results One SNP, rs17321050, in the transducin β-like 1X-linked (TBL1X gene [OMIM:300196] showed chromosome-wide significance in the meta-analysis (P value = 4.86 × 10-6 and joint analysis (P value = 4.53 × 10-6 in males. The SNP was also close to the replication threshold of 0.0025 in the discovery data set (P = 5.89 × 10-3 and passed the replication threshold in the validation data set (P = 2.56 × 10-4. Two other SNPs in the same gene in linkage disequilibrium with rs17321050 also showed significance close to the chromosome-wide threshold in the meta-analysis. Conclusions TBL1X is in the Wnt signaling pathway, which has previously been implicated as having a role in autism. Deletions in the Xp22.2 to Xp22.3 region containing TBL1X and surrounding genes are associated with several genetic syndromes that include intellectual disability and autistic features. Our results, based on meta-analysis, joint analysis and replication analysis, suggest that TBL1X may play a role in ASD risk.

  14. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  15. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  16. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  18. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  19. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  20. Phase-Engineered Type-II Multimetal-Selenide Heterostructures toward Low-Power Consumption, Flexible, Transparent, and Wide-Spectrum Photoresponse Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ze; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Su, Teng-Yu; Lee, Shao-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chen-Hua; Wang, Kuangye; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2018-05-01

    Phase-engineered type-II metal-selenide heterostructures are demonstrated by directly selenizing indium-tin oxide to form multimetal selenides in a single step. The utilization of a plasma system to assist the selenization facilitates a low-temperature process, which results in large-area films with high uniformity. Compared to single-metal-selenide-based photodetectors, the multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit obviously improved performance, which can be attributed to the Schottky contact at the interface for tuning the carrier transport, as well as the type-II heterostructure that is beneficial for the separation of the electron-hole pairs. The multimetal-selenide photodetectors exhibit a response to light over a broad spectrum from UV to visible light with a high responsivity of 0.8 A W -1 and an on/off current ratio of up to 10 2 . Interestingly, all-transparent photodetectors are successfully produced in this work. Moreover, the possibility of fabricating devices on flexible substrates is also demonstrated with sustainable performance, high strain tolerance, and high durability during bending tests. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Armadillidin H, a glycine-rich peptide from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, displays an unexpected wide antimicrobial spectrum with membranolytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verdon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47% cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed towards Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin, from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity towards human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study (by CD and NMR even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  2. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons measured on an airplane over a wide range of altitude and latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Wilson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Crews of high-altitude aircraft are exposed to radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude airplane. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer. Its detector responses were calculated for energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.5.d with improved nuclear models and including the effects of the airplane structure. New calculations of GCR-induced particle spectra in the atmosphere were used to correct for spectrometer counts produced by protons, pions and light nuclear ions. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the deconvolution code MAXED 3.1. The results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cut-off agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra. (authors)

  3. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  4. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  5. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  6. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  7. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  8. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  9. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  10. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  11. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  12. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  13. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  14. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  15. Uso de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro en un hospital pediátrico de Santiago de Cuba Use of wide spectrum antimicrobials in a children hospital from Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlis Mengana López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de los 1 311 pacientes que recibieron antimicrobianos de amplio espectro en el Hospital Infantil Norte Docente "Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2009, a fin de analizar el uso de estos medicamentos, para lo cual se revisaron las historias clínicas correspondientes y los controles del Departamento de Farmacia. En la casuística predominaron la ceftriaxona como medicamento más empleado (64,8 %, la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos como el servicio que más lo utilizó (41,7 %, la neumonía bacteriana como entidad clínica más común (42,0 % y la evolución favorable de los afectados (98,5 %.A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the 1 311 patients who received wide spectrum antimicrobials in "Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira" Teaching Northern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January to December, 2009, in order to analyze the use of these drugs. For this aim, the corresponding medical records and the controls of the Pharmacy Department were reviewed. Ceftriaxone as the most used medication (64.8 %, the Intensive Care Unit as the most used service (41.7 %, the bacterial pneumonia as the most common clinical entity (42.0 % and the favorable clinical course of those affected (98.5 % prevailed in the case material.

  16. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  17. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  18. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  19. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  20. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  1. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  2. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  3. Spectrum Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  4. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  5. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  6. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  7. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  8. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Atraumatic restorative treatment in atypical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Simino Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The atraumatic restorative treatment has been widely divulged among professionals in the area of Pediatric Dentistry. This restorative technique is included in the philosophy of Minimal Intervention and is considered one of the most conservative treatments, because only the layer of infected dentin caries is removed. Moreover, the atraumatic restorative treatment has been shown to be less painful than conventional approaches, and local anesthesia is rarely required. After the removal of the infected dentin, the cavities are filled with glass ionomer cement, a material that has antimicrobial capacity, good marginal sealing and constant fluorine release and recharge. In spite of the increasing number of studies about atraumatic restorative treatment, only studies related to restorations in occlusal cavities have shown scientific evidences about the technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of atraumatic restorative treatment in cavities with 3 or more surfaces involved, by means of a clinical case report of a patient with extensive dstruction in primary teeth, who was submitted to atraumatic restorative treatment, and observe the result of the treatment after one year of clinical and radiographic control.

  11. Power-law spectra found in plant signal of the Borssele NPP. An analysis using wavelet. Application of wavelet for wide-frequency range investigation and investigation (spectrum) for the secondary system signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Verhoef, J.P.; Tuerkcan, E.

    1996-09-01

    Power-law spectra were found in the temperature signals of the secondary loop in the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant, a PWR in the Netherlands. The coolant temperature before the steam generator inlet was found to fluctuate such that its power spectrum density S, follows S∝f -α , where α is ∝4/3. Analyses using PSD suggested that the value of α is roughly constant over years. Detailed analyses were conducted using wavelet, with the discovery that the power-law appears constantly only at around 0.1 Hz, and the estimated α was found between 1.26 and 1.36. The feedwater pressure signal and feedwater flow rate signal in the same frequency range were white noise and Borwnian motion respectively, and the indication of α=4/3 was not found from them. (orig.)

  12. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  13. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  14. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.

  15. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  16. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  17. Spectrum Utilisation and Management in Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.

    have confirmed this by showing that the considerable amount of radio spectrum is underutilized. Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) and the spectrum refarming are the two viable solutions for the problem of spectrum scarcity. In DSA, unlicensed user opportunistically uses the vacant licensed spectrum...... of licensed spectrum provides efficient use of spectrum. Spectrum refarming means the recovery of spectrum from its existing users for the purpose of re-assignment, either for new uses, or for the introduction of new spectrally efficient technologies. Spectrum refarming is a spectrum management tool that can......In recent years, the demand for radio spectrum for wireless communication is growing due to increase in number of users and popularity of data and multimedia services. This has been observed in the recent auctions completed word wide for the vestige of radio spectrum. The radio spectrum has been...

  18. A systems approach to restoring degraded drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Roger L. Sheley; Todd Erickson; Kimberly S. Rollins; Michael H. Taylor; Kingsley W. Dixon

    2013-01-01

    Drylands support over 2 billion people and are major providers of critical ecosystem goods and services across the globe. Drylands, however, are one of the most susceptible biomes to degradation. International programmes widely recognize dryland restoration as key to combating global dryland degradation and ensuring future global sustainability. While the need to...

  19. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  20. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  1. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  2. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  3. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  4. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  5. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  6. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action Canabidiol: de um canabinóide inativo a uma droga com amplo espectro de ação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the historical development of research on cannabidiol. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from Medline, Web of Science and SciELO. DISCUSSION: After the elucidation of the chemical structure of cannabidiol in 1963, the initial studies showed that cannabidiol was unable to mimic the effects of Cannabis. In the 1970's the number of publications on cannabidiol reached a first peak, having the research focused mainly on the interaction with delta9-THC and its antiepileptic and sedative effects. The following two decades showed lower degree of interest, and the potential therapeutic properties of cannabidiol investigated were mainly the anxiolytic, antipsychotic and on motor diseases effects. The last five years have shown a remarkable increase in publications on cannabidiol mainly stimulated by the discovery of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. These studies have suggested a wide range of possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on several conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory diseases, nausea and cancer. CONCLUSION: In the last 45 years it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has a wide range of pharmacological effects, many of which being of great therapeutic interest, but still waiting to be confirmed by clinical trials.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta revisão é descrever a evolução histórica das pesquisas sobre o canabidiol. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline, Web of Science e SciELO. DISCUSSÃO: Após a elucidação de sua estrutura química, em 1963, os estudos iniciais do canabidiol demonstraram que ele não foi capaz de mimetizar os efeitos da maconha. Na década de 70, o número de publicações sobre o canabidiol atingiu um primeiro pico, com as investigações centrando-se principalmente

  7. The relationship between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration and the mainstreaming of the concept of ecosystem services will be critical if global society is to move toward sustainability. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity should help foster support for vastly increased investment in the better management and restoration of natural capital. Large-scale restoration demonstrably improves ecological functioning to sustain both biodiversity and human well-being. However, much progress is needed to improve the effectiveness and cost efficiency of any restoration. The ecosystem services concept provides a framework for identifying the types of restorative interventions needed to target different forms and degrees of degradation, and achieve goals related to both ecosystem health and delivery of services to people. Moreover, it can strengthen the argument for, and planning of, large-scale restoration and conservation of natural capital. We use case studies from four continents to help demonstrate how the interconnection between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept is being utilized in land-use planning and enlightened ecosystem management. We offer ways in which this relationship can be better understood and communicated to support the scaling up of restoration activities to the landscape and regional scales across the full spectrum of land uses and ecosystem types.

  8. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  9. Comparison of RF spectrum prediction methods for dynamic spectrum access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarskiy, Jacob A.; Martone, Anthony F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) refers to the adaptive utilization of today's busy electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radio/radar technologies require DSA to intelligently transmit and receive information in changing environments. Predicting radio frequency (RF) activity reduces sensing time and energy consumption for identifying usable spectrum. Typical spectrum prediction methods involve modeling spectral statistics with Hidden Markov Models (HMM) or various neural network structures. HMMs describe the time-varying state probabilities of Markov processes as a dynamic Bayesian network. Neural Networks model biological brain neuron connections to perform a wide range of complex and often non-linear computations. This work compares HMM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) algorithms and their ability to perform RF channel state prediction. Monte Carlo simulations on both measured and simulated spectrum data evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Generalizing spectrum occupancy as an alternating renewal process allows Poisson random variables to generate simulated data while energy detection determines the occupancy state of measured RF spectrum data for testing. The results suggest that neural networks achieve better prediction accuracy and prove more adaptable to changing spectral statistics than HMMs given sufficient training data.

  10. Spectrum 101: An Introduction to Spectrum Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    produces a Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL). The JFRL consolidates and classifies the spectrum uses that are most critical to operations and to...Management Office JRFL Joint Restricted Frequency List JSC Joint Spectrum Center JSIR Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution JSME Joint Spectrum...Multifunctional Information Distribution System MILSATCOM Military Satellite Communications MOA Memorandum of Agreement MRFL Master Radio Frequency

  11. Symmetry restoration in the Georgi-Glashow model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Junior, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Symmetry restoration in the SU(5) model is analysed by means of finite temperature field theory. In our calculations symmetry restoration is due to topological defects which appear thanks to thermodynamical effects. We apply our results in cosmology, in order to explain the primordial inhomogeneity. Our results are compatible with Zeldovich's spectrum. (author) [pt

  12. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  13. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  14. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  15. The Organizational Communication Consulting Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Surveys of businesses and business managers indicate that developing communication skills within organizations is a priority. Communication consulting exists over a wide spectrum of activities that include guest speaking, conducting workshops, and conducting management training programs. These three processes can include a "canned program" that…

  16. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  17. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  18. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  19. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  20. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal ...

  1. A wide spectrum type system for transformation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ladkau, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks a programmer can be confronted with is the migration of a legacy system. Usually, these systems are unstructured, poorly documented and contain complex program logic. The reason for this, in most cases, is an emphasis on raw performance rather than on clean and structured code as well as a long period of applying quick fixes and enhancements rather than doing a proper software reengineering process including a full redesign during major enhancements. Nowadays, ...

  2. Widely spaced teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is bothers you. Some dental restorations like crowns, bridges, or implants may help improve the appearance and ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  3. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  4. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  5. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  6. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  7. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  8. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  9. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  10. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone

  11. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  12. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  13. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  14. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  15. Spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Hu Weiwen; Wang Xianchun

    2011-01-01

    FFT method can not meet the basic requirements of power spectrum for non-stationary signal and short signal. A new spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum from Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The procession of obtaining marginal spectrum in HHT method was given and the linear property of marginal spectrum was demonstrated. Compared with the FFT method, the physical meaning and the frequency resolution of marginal spectrum were further analyzed. Then the Hilbert spectrum estimation algorithm was discussed in detail, and the simulation results were given at last. The theory and simulation shows that under the condition of short data signal and non-stationary signal, the frequency resolution and estimation precision of HHT method is better than that of FFT method. (authors)

  16. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  17. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  18. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  19. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  20. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  1. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  2. The Spectrum of the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryley; Masui, Kiyoshi W; Scott, Douglas

    2018-05-01

    Cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to γ-ray energies. Using available data in the literature, we piece together the sky-averaged intensity spectrum and discuss the emission processes responsible for what is observed. We examine the effect of perturbations to the continuum spectrum from atomic and molecular line processes and comment on the detectability of these signals. We also discuss how one could, in principle, obtain a complete census of the CB by measuring the full spectrum of each spherical harmonic expansion coefficient. This set of spectra of multipole moments effectively encodes the entire statistical history of nuclear, atomic, and molecular processes in the Universe.

  3. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  4. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  5. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  6. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  7. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  9. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  10. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  11. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  12. Improved wavefront correction for coherent image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Claudius; Koch, Reinhard

    2017-08-07

    Coherent imaging has a wide range of applications in, for example, microscopy, astronomy, and radar imaging. Particularly interesting is the field of microscopy, where the optical quality of the lens is the main limiting factor. In this article, novel algorithms for the restoration of blurred images in a system with known optical aberrations are presented. Physically motivated by the scalar diffraction theory, the new algorithms are based on Haugazeau POCS and FISTA, and are faster and more robust than methods presented earlier. With the new approach the level of restoration quality on real images is very high, thereby blurring and ringing caused by defocus can be effectively removed. In classical microscopy, lenses with very low aberration must be used, which puts a practical limit on their size and numerical aperture. A coherent microscope using the novel restoration method overcomes this limitation. In contrast to incoherent microscopy, severe optical aberrations including defocus can be removed, hence the requirements on the quality of the optics are lower. This can be exploited for an essential price reduction of the optical system. It can be also used to achieve higher resolution than in classical microscopy, using lenses with high numerical aperture and high aberration. All this makes the coherent microscopy superior to the traditional incoherent in suited applications.

  13. Many channel spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Glumac, B.; Pauko, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of the ITER unfolding code as used for the many channel spectrum unfolding is described. Its unfolding ability is tested on seven typical neutron spectra. The effect of the initial spectrum approximation upon the solution is discussed

  14. Pulsar Emission Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  16. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  17. Restoration of native forest flora in the degraded highlands of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wide spread deforestation and subsequent degradation is severely threatening the natural forest resources in Ethiopia. What is imperatively and urgently needed today is ecological restoration. In order for ecological restoration to be successful and cost effective, critical analyses of possible constraints and available ...

  18. Breeding of early restorer Fuhui 306 and predominant performance of F1 hybrid combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wanyi; Liu Yongqiang; Wu Maoli; Xue Xingqiong

    2004-01-01

    Fuhui 306, an early rice restorer with strong restoring ability, short growth period (86 days) and no restriction of separating areas in seed production, was bred by radiation treatment. F 1 hybrid combinations with different mature period were developed when cross with different sterile lines, that combination would be widely applied to meet the requirement of different ecological environment and harvest period. (authors)

  19. Forest restoration: a global dataset for biodiversity and vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Curran, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Restoration initiatives are becoming increasingly applied around the world. Billions of dollars have been spent on ecological restoration research and initiatives, but restoration outcomes differ widely among these initiatives in part due to variable socioeconomic and ecological contexts. Here, we present the most comprehensive dataset gathered to date on forest restoration. It encompasses 269 primary studies across 221 study landscapes in 53 countries and contains 4,645 quantitative comparisons between reference ecosystems (e.g., old-growth forest) and degraded or restored ecosystems for five taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, invertebrates, herpetofauna, and plants) and five measures of vegetation structure reflecting different ecological processes (cover, density, height, biomass, and litter). We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forest ecosystems; (2) had multiple replicate sampling sites to measure indicators of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure in reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems; and (3) used less-disturbed forests as a reference to the ecosystem under study. We recorded (1) latitude and longitude; (2) study year; (3) country; (4) biogeographic realm; (5) past disturbance type; (6) current disturbance type; (7) forest conversion class; (8) restoration activity; (9) time that a system has been disturbed; (10) time elapsed since restoration started; (11) ecological metric used to assess biodiversity; and (12) quantitative value of the ecological metric of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure for reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems. These were the most common data available in the selected studies. We also estimated forest cover and configuration in each study landscape using a recently developed 1 km consensus land cover dataset. We measured forest configuration as the (1) mean size of all forest patches; (2) size of the largest forest patch; and (3) edge:area ratio of forest patches. Global analyses of the

  20. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  1. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  2. Role of a naturally varying flow regime in Everglades restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson; Wetzel, Paul R.; Lodge, Thomas E.; Engel, Victor C.; Ross, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The Everglades is a low-gradient floodplain predominantly on organic soil that undergoes seasonally pulsing sheetflow through a network of deepwater sloughs separated by slightly higher elevation ridges. The seasonally pulsing flow permitted the coexistence of ridge and slough vegetation, including the persistence of productive, well-connected sloughs that seasonally concentrated prey and supported wading bird nesting success. Here we review factors contributing to the origin and to degradation of the ridge and slough ecosystem in an attempt to answer “How much flow is needed to restore functionality”? A key restoration objective is to increase sheetflow lost during the past century to reestablish interactions between flow, water depth, vegetation production and decomposition, and transport of flocculent organic sediment that build and maintain ridge and slough distinctions. Our review finds broad agreement that perturbations of water level depth and its fluctuations were primary in the degradation of landscape functions, with critical contributions from perturbed water quality, and flow velocity and direction. Whereas water levels are expected to be improved on average across a range of restoration scenarios that replace between 79 and 91% of predrainage flows, the diminished microtopography substantially decreases the probability of timely improvements in some areas whereas others that retain microtopographic differences are poised for restoration benefits. New advances in predicting restoration outcomes are coming from biophysical modeling of ridge–slough dynamics, system-wide measurements of landscape functionality, and large-scale flow restoration experiments, including active management techniques to kick-start slough regeneration.

  3. Use of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Kuebler, L.; Ahmed, S.; Chang, M.-L.; Engel, V.; Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementation of unprecedented projects for restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem are underway and the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of restoration alternatives has become essential for success of restoration efforts. In view of the complex nature of the South Florida water resources system, regional-scale (system-wide) hydrologic models have been developed and used extensively for the development of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In addition, numerous subregional-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models have been developed and are being used for evaluating project-scale water management plans associated with urban, agricultural, and inland costal ecosystems. The authors provide a comprehensive summary of models of all scales, as well as the next generation models under development to meet the future needs of ecosystem restoration efforts in South Florida. The multiagency efforts to develop and apply models have allowed the agencies to understand the complex hydrologic interactions, quantify appropriate performance measures, and use new technologies in simulation algorithms, software development, and GIS/database techniques to meet the future modeling needs of the ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. Use of the geometric mean of opposing planar projections in pre-reconstruction restoration of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulfelfel, D.; Rangayyan, R.M.; Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a restoration scheme for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images that performs restoration before reconstruction (pre-reconstruction restoration) from planar (projection) images. In this scheme, the pixel-by-pixel geometric mean of each pair of opposing (conjugate) planar projections is computed prior to the reconstruction process. The averaging process is shown to help in making the degradation phenomenon less dependent on the distance of each point of the object from the camera. The restoration filters investigated are the Wiener and power spectrum equalization filters. (author)

  5. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  6. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  7. Geomorphic Approach to Regional Sediment Management in Engineered and Restored Fluvial Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin

    2001-01-01

    This document reviews contemporary practice in regional sediment management. It examines whether catchment wide sediment issues have been considered in the design of engineering and restoration/rehabilitation projects...

  8. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  10. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  13. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U 238 were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  14. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U{sup 238} were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  15. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  16. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  17. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V

    2009-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  18. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  19. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  20. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  1. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  2. Orientation identification of the power spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnaya, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The image Fourier transform is widely used for defocus and astigmatism correction in electron microscopy. The shape of a power spectrum (the square of a modulus of image Fourier transform) is directly related to the three microscope’s controls, namely defocus and two-fold (two-parameter)

  3. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  4. Spectrum access games for cognitive radio networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available received a wide acceptance in next generation and intelligent wireless communication systems. In this paper the authors make use of game theory approach to model and analyze cognitive radio networks in order to allow dynamic spectrum access in broadband...

  5. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Panchromatic cooperative hyperspectral adaptive wide band deletion repair method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bitao; Shi, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    In the hyperspectral data, the phenomenon of stripe deletion often occurs, which seriously affects the efficiency and accuracy of data analysis and application. Narrow band deletion can be directly repaired by interpolation, and this method is not ideal for wide band deletion repair. In this paper, an adaptive spectral wide band missing restoration method based on panchromatic information is proposed, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by experiments.

  7. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  8. Designed natural spaces: Informal gardens are perceived to be more restorative than formal gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa eTwedt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  9. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  11. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  12. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  13. Experimental techniques for the consolidation of the neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaraviglio, N.; Bazzana, S.

    2013-01-01

    Unfolding techniques are widely known but their use is not widespread due to their complexity. Such procedure consists in the adjustment of calculated quantities to experimental results by the modification of the neutron spectrum, getting correction factors for the calculated quantities. In this work we describe the general procedure that must be executed for a neutron spectrum unfolding. (author) [es

  14. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  15. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  16. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  17. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  18. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  19. Restorative Glass : Reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Barou, L.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.A.; Henk, Schellen; van Schijndel, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and

  20. The texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil on cut slopes restored with OSSS - Influence of restoration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jiao; Ai, Xiaoyan; Li, Ruirui; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS). The properties measured including soil particle size distribution (PSD), texture, fractal dimension of PSD (D m ), the bias (C S ) and peak convex (C E ) coefficients of aggregate size distribution, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate content, Available nitrogen (N A ), Available phosphorus (P A ), and Available potassium (K A ). The results showed that different restoration time resulted in significant differences in soil PSD, D m , C S , C E , structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, N A , and K A . And these properties improved with increasing restoration age. However, there is still a huge disparity in soil texture, structure, and the availability of nutrients and moisture between the cut slopes and NS over a restoration period of up to 17 years, and this is caused by the little fine particles and the lack of slow release fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the artificial soil, resulting in poorer soil structure stability, retention and availability of moisture and nutrients on the cut slopes. Overall, the OSSS technique shows a long-term effectiveness in southwest of China, but there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  2. Large-scale restoration mitigate land degradation and support the establishment of green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Mitchley, Jonathan; Jongepierová, Ivana; Baasch, Annett; Fajmon, Karel; Kirmer, Anita; Prach, Karel; Řehounková, Klára; Tischew, Sabine; Twiston-Davies, Grace; Dutoit, Thierry; Buisson, Elise; Jeunatre, Renaud; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining the human well-being and the quality of life, it is essential to develop and support green infrastructure (strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services). For developing and sustaining green infrastructure the conservation and restoration of biodiversity in natural and traditionally managed habitats is essential. Species-rich landscapes in Europe have been maintained over centuries by various kinds of low-intensity use. Recently, they suffered by losses in extent and diversity due to land degradation by intensification or abandonment. Conservation of landscape-scale biodiversity requires the maintenance of species-rich habitats and the restoration of lost grasslands. We are focusing on landscape-level restoration studies including multiple sites in wide geographical scale (including Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, and UK). In a European-wide perspective we aimed at to address four specific questions: (i) What were the aims and objectives of landscape-scale restoration? (ii) What results have been achieved? (iii) What are the costs of large-scale restoration? (iv) What policy tools are available for the restoration of landscape-scale biodiversity? We conclude that landscape-level restoration offers exciting new opportunities to reconnect long-disrupted ecological processes and to restore landscape connectivity. Generally, these measures enable to enhance the biodiversity at the landscape scale. The development of policy tools to achieve restoration at the landscape scale are essential for the achievement of the ambitious targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the European Biodiversity Strategy for ecosystem restoration.

  3. Optical properties of composite restorations influenced by dissimilar dentin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Veljovic, Djordje N; Stasic, Jovana N; Savic-Stankovic, Tatjana; Trifkovic, Branka; Miletic, Vesna

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate optical properties (color and translucency) of 'sandwich' restorations of resin-based composites and esthetically unfavorable dentin restoratives. Cylindrical 'dentin' specimens (8mm in diameter and 2mm thick, N=5/group) were prepared using EverX Posterior (GC), Biodentine (Septodont), experimental hydroxyapatite (HAP) or conventional composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, GC; Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z500, 3M ESPE). Capping 'enamel' layers were prepared using composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, Filtek Z250 or Z550) of A1 or A3 shade and the following thickness: 0.6, 1 or 2mm. Color (ΔE) and translucency parameter (TP) were determined using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA Zahnfabrik). Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). TP was greatly affected by layer thickness, whilst ΔE depended on shade and layer thickness of the capping composite. HAP and Biodentine showed significantly lower TP and higher ΔE (deviation from 'ideal white') than composites (p<0.05). Greater TP was seen in EverX_composite groups than in corresponding control groups of the same shade and thickness. TP of composites combined with Biodentine or HAP was below 2, lower than the corresponding control groups (p<0.05). Within-group differences of ΔE were greatest in HAP_composite groups. EverX_Gradia and EverX_FiltekZ250 combinations showed the most comparable ΔE with the control groups. A 2mm thick layer of composite covering dentin restoratives with unfavorable esthetics is recommended for a final 'sandwich' restoration that is esthetically comparable to a conventional, mono-composite control restoration. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  5. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  7. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  8. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  9. Restoration of severely weathered wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Mark. Knaebe

    2000-01-01

    Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pretreatments were applied to both window sashes (stiles and rails) and...

  10. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  11. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  12. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  13. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  14. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  15. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  18. Gluonium spectrum in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.

    1987-02-01

    The scalar (0 ++ ) and the tensor (2 ++ ) gluonium spectrum is analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules. Stable eigenvalue solutions, consistent with duality and low energy theorems, are obtained for the mass and width of these glueballs. (orig.)

  19. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  20. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  1. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fermín Mearin; Speakers Fermín Mearin; Antonio Gasbarrini; Peter Malfertheiner; Mark Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulat...

  2. Adaptively Addressing Uncertainty in Estuarine and Near Coastal Restoration Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Laufle, Jeffrey C.; Glasoe, Stuart

    2005-03-01

    Restoration projects have an uncertain outcome because of a lack of information about current site conditions, historical disturbance levels, effects of landscape alterations on site development, unpredictable trajectories or patterns of ecosystem structural development, and many other factors. A poor understanding of the factors that control the development and dynamics of a system, such as hydrology, salinity, wave energies, can also lead to an unintended outcome. Finally, lack of experience in restoring certain types of systems (e.g., rare or very fragile habitats) or systems in highly modified situations (e.g., highly urbanized estuaries) makes project outcomes uncertain. Because of these uncertainties, project costs can rise dramatically in an attempt to come closer to project goals. All of the potential sources of error can be addressed to a certain degree through adaptive management. The first step is admitting that these uncertainties can exist, and addressing as many of the uncertainties with planning and directed research prior to implementing the project. The second step is to evaluate uncertainties through hypothesis-driven experiments during project implementation. The third step is to use the monitoring program to evaluate and adjust the project as needed to improve the probability of the project to reach is goal. The fourth and final step is to use the information gained in the project to improve future projects. A framework that includes a clear goal statement, a conceptual model, and an evaluation framework can help in this adaptive restoration process. Projects and programs vary in their application of adaptive management in restoration, and it is very difficult to be highly prescriptive in applying adaptive management to projects that necessarily vary widely in scope, goal, ecosystem characteristics, and uncertainties. Very large ecosystem restoration programs in the Mississippi River delta (Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration

  3. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  4. Development of a Indica rice restorer line Fuhui838 and its derivative lines with strong restoring ability and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dasheng; Chen Hao; Deng Wenmin; Feng Lei; Yang Xuefeng; Ma Anlu; Liu Minghai

    2009-01-01

    Fuhui 838 and its derivative restorer lines (Fuhui 718, Fuhui 305, Zhongfu 218, Mianhui 3728, Nuoyou 1...) have the ability of strong restoring, high combining, and good resisting, which were bred and released by combined techniques of radiation-induced mutation, polymerization hybridization, and temperature tolerance screening. At present, about 43 combinations were registered and released to commercial production, the series of combinations present high seed setting rate, good tolerance to chilling and heat stress, wide adaptability, high and stable yield, the accumulated area added up to 40 million hm 2 . II you 838, which is famous one of these combinations, proved to be the best in long term and wide planting after Sanyou 63, and it is also one of the main hybrid rice for exporting in China. (authors)

  5. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  6. Restorative glass: reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra Oikonomopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and aesthetical integrity. Concurrently, the material’s unique mechanical properties enable the structural consolidation of the monument. As a proof of concept, the restoration of Lichtenberg Castle is proposed. Solid cast glass units are suggested to complete the missing parts, in respect to the existing construction technique and aesthetics of the original masonry. Aiming for a reversible system, the glass units are interlocking, ensuring the overall stability without necessitating permanent, adhesive connections. This results in an elegant and reversible intervention.

  7. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  8. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  9. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  10. Wetland restoration: a survey of options for restoring peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lode, Elve

    1999-01-01

    In spite of increased attention to wetland conservation following the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, the peat-harvesting industry in many countries is still interested in the further exploitation of peatlands. In some of the most industrialised countries, all natural peatlands have already been lost. In others, only small areas of native peatland remain. Among other possible uses for cut-over peatlands, peatland restoration is one: there is an urgent need for the development of measures for regenerating peat-accumulation processes. The redevelopment of a fen or bog peat landscape is a long-term process, which will probably take centuries. The restoration of any peatland may therefore be considered successful if the outcome is the development and growth of plant communities able to produce peat. The renewal of the hydrological regime of such areas is a major factor which determines the re-colonisation of cut-over peat fields by peat-forming plants. The aim of this paper is to give a brief survey of wetlands, and especially of peatland restoration options, for use in terminated peat-cuttings. It aims to show how peatland management may be made sustainable by means of existing and tried methods and principles, with the goal of returning cut-over peat fields to their former peat-accumulating state. A glossary of peat and peatland terminology is included 105 refs, 5 figs

  11. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  12. The VEGA Assembly Spectrum Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The VEGA is assembly spectrum code, developed as a design tool for producing a few-group averaged cross section data for a wide range of reactor types including both thermal and fast reactors. It belongs to a class of codes, which may be characterized by the separate stages for micro group, spectrum and macro group assembly calculations. The theoretical foundation for the development of the VEGA code was integral transport theory in the first-flight collision probability formulation. Two versions of VEGA are now in use, VEGA-1 established on standard equivalence theory and VEGA-2 based on new subgroup method applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution is possible. This paper describes a features which are unique to the VEGA codes with concentration on the basic principles and algorithms used in the proposed subgroup method. Presented validation of this method, comprise the results for a homogenous uranium-plutonium mixture and a PWR cell containing a recycled uranium-plutonium oxide. Example application for a realistic fuel dissolver benchmark problem , which was extensive analyzed in the international calculations, is also included. (author)

  13. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  14. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  15. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  16. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  17. Restoration of a fractured central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    The treatment of a traumatically damaged single central incisor poses significant challenges relative to function and esthetics to the restoring clinician. Providing a good long-term prognosis is paramount when determining whether to maintain or extract a structurally compromised tooth. Successful restoration demands timely and thorough risk assessment along with excellent communication with both the patient and the laboratory fabricating the restoration.

  18. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  19. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  20. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  1. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  2. Image restoration and processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    This review will stress the importance of using image restoration techniques that deal with incomplete, inconsistent, and noisy data and do not introduce spurious features into the processed image. No single image is equally suitable for both the resolution of detail and the accurate measurement of intensities. A good general purpose technique is the maximum entropy method and the basis and use of this will be explained. (orig.)

  3. Autonomous algorithms for image restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Griniasty , Meir

    1994-01-01

    We describe a general theoretical framework for algorithms that adaptively tune all their parameters during the restoration of a noisy image. The adaptation procedure is based on a mean field approach which is known as ``Deterministic Annealing'', and is reminiscent of the ``Deterministic Bolzmann Machiné'. The algorithm is less time consuming in comparison with its simulated annealing alternative. We apply the theory to several architectures and compare their performances.

  4. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the re...

  5. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  6. Environmental Restoration 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosper, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    During 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Savannah River Site achieved all of the ''Breakthrough Goals'' that were established with the regulatory agencies in 1995 to advance their cleanup efforts. Effective focus on field remediation was demonstrated by the allocation of 75% of program funding to remediation activities. The Remediation Phase is complete or has begun on sixty-nine waste sites that represent approximately 80% of the known environmental and health risk. The average time required for the assessment phase of active projects was reduced by 50%, from 49 to less than 24 months, which allows cleanup actions to start twice as fast as before. Breakthrough performance has tangible results. During 1997, all of the funding allocation was used effectively to accomplish environmental restoration scope worth over $123 million. That represents a validated cost efficiency of over 20% for the third straight year. Over half of the 500 contaminated acres at SRS have been cleaned up or are currently in the remediation phase. Almost 3 billion gallons of groundwater have been restored by removing over half a million pounds of organic solvents

  7. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  8. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  9. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also ...

  10. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    analysis (log-rank post hoc test at α=.05 for pairwise comparisons). None of the tested specimen withstood all 140 000 cycles. All specimens without a ferrule were affected by an initial failure phenomenon (wide gap at the lingual margin between the core foundation restoration/crown assembly and the root). NfPfP, NfPt, and NfPtB had similar survival (29649 to 30987 mean cycles until initial failure). NfPfB outperformed NfPt and NfPtB. None of the post-and-core foundation restoration materials were able to match the performance of the ferrule group FPf (72667 cycles). In all groups, 100% of failures were catastrophic. The survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule was slightly improved by the use of a fiber post with a bulk-fill composite resin core foundation restoration. However, none of the post-and-core techniques was able to compensate for the absence of a ferrule. The presence of the posts always adversely affected the failure mode. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site`s mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

  12. HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site's mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

  13. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  14. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, Tetsuya; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but recent studies with anti-aquaporin-4-antibody specific to NMO have revealed that the clinical spectrum is wider than previously thought. International consensus diagnostic criteria propose NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as the term to define the entire spectrum including typical NMO, optic neuritis, acute myelitis, brain syndrome, and their combinations. NMOSD is now divided into anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive NMOSD and -seronegative NMOSD (or unknown serostatus). MR imaging and optical coherence tomography are indispensable in the diagnosis and evaluation of NMOSD. This article reviews the clinical and MR imaging findings of anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-seropositive NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smout, G.

    1998-01-01

    Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil's productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow

  16. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  17. Strategic plan for Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Information Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Beck, J.E.; Gephart, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    This strategic plan addresses information management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Hanford Site. This Program leads the cleanup of the Hanford Site's soil, groundwater, buried waste, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities. The vision that drives this strategic plan is to ensure that quality information is available to the people who need it, when they need it, at a convenient location, in a usable form, and at an acceptable cost. Although investments are being made in managing the vast amounts of information, which include data, records and documents associated with the Hanford Site's production history and new cleanup mission, it is widely recognized that efforts to date have not accomplished the vision. Effective information management involves more than the compilation of massive amounts of electronic and non-electronic information. It also involves integrating information management into business processes that support user's needs and decisionmaking. Only then can information management complement and enable environmental restoration priorities and practices, help identify environmental restoration requirements, and enable communication within the Environmental Restoration Program and between the Program and its stakeholders. Successfully accomplishing the Hanford Site mission requires an integrated approach to information management that crosses organizational boundaries, streamlines existing systems, and builds new systems that support the needs of the future. This plan outlines that approach

  18. Investigation of influence of electronic irradiation on photoluminescence spectrum and ir-spectrum of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daineko, E.A.; Dihanbayev, K.K.; Akhtar, P.; Hussain, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we study the influence of 2-Mev electron irradiation on porous silicon (PS). Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and IR-spectrum have been done on both newly-prepared PS samples and samples prepared a year ago after the irradiation. We analyzed PL spectrum for both types of PS samples. The experimental results suggest that the peak position in PL spectrum decreases for newly-prepared PS samples. The size of the nanocrystals calculated by the method of singling out of spectrum components was equal to 3.0-3.2 nm. Porosity of the samples was 60-75%. From IR-spectrum of newly-prepared PS samples wide absorption band was observed at 1100 cm/sup -1/ (Si-O-Si bond). Another peak of Si-O-Si group was observed at 850 cm/sub -1/. Also hydrogen absorption bands were appearing from 2000 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, corresponding to vibration modes SiH, SiH/sub 2/, SiH/sub 3/. As a result of electron irradiation the PL intensity of newly-prepared PS samples decreases abruptly by a factor of 30 without peak shifting. As for the samples prepared a year ago we observed a decrease in the PL intensity by 25-30%. From IR-spectrum of PS samples prepared a year ago it was shown that the intensity of bridge bonds corresponding to absorption band 850 cm/sup -1/, decreases gradually. Our experimental data shows that PS samples stored for longer time have better radiation resistant properties than the newly-prepared PS samples due to the replacement of Si-H bonds with more resistant Si-O bonds. Porous silicon, electrochemical anodizing, photoluminescence spectrum, IR-spectrum, electronic irradiation. (author)

  19. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  20. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question 'can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?' The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  1. Weaving a wide net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Linda

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Any single approach tostudents' heterosexism and homophobia, however well conceived and executed, is most successful when supported by an integrated campus approach to the problem. Taking as a model the multifaceted efforts at California State University, Fresno-a large public institution located in what can be considered the state's Bible Belt-this essay discusses the strengths and logistics of a campus-wide program to address homophobia and alleviate LGBTQ students' feelings of alienation from the institution and their oppression in society. The efforts of CSUF take place at a number of different levels-classroom, academic department, student services, faculty networking-and can be considered a successful work in progress.

  2. Nuclear spectrum analysis by using microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Rao, A.D.; Pethe, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of nuclear spectra by using microcomputer. A nonlinear least square fit of a mathematical model with observed spectrum is performed with variable metric method. The linear search procedure of the variable metric method has been modified so that the algorithm needs less program space and computational time both of which are important for microcomputer implementation. This widely used peak analysis method can now be made available in microcomputer based multichannel analysers. (author)

  3. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  4. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  5. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  6. Assessing floodplain restoration success using soil morphology indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenat, Claire; Fournier, Bertrand; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Grin, Karin; Pfund, Simona; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are complex ecological systems that fulfil different ecological, economic and social functions related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. The fluvial dynamics of most rivers in industrialized countries have been altered to such an extent that floodplains are now one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. This adverse impact has been widely recognized and, nowadays, extensive attempts are underway to return rivers to more natural conditions and restore their ecological quality and essential ecosystem functions. As a consequence, the number of restoration projects worldwide is rapidly increasing. However, despite an estimated global cost of more than 1 billion dollars annually, there is a crucial lack of monitoring and quantitative evaluations. Indeed, most projects are never monitored post-restoration (NRC 1992). In Switzerland, only 35% of the projects include a monitoring program mainly based on flora and fauna (BAFU). The design, selection and optimization of indicators for project monitoring are of major importance for sustainable management of riverine ecosystems. However, despite the growing body of literature on potential indicators and criteria for assessing the success of restoration projects no standardised or generally applicable method exists. Furthermore, soils are rarely considered among the possible indicators despite their crucial roles in ecosystems such as decomposition, supplying resources (habitats, gene pool, biomass, and raw materials), and environmental interactions (storage, filtering, transformation). We therefore hypothesized that soils may constitute an appropriate synthetic and functional indicator for the evaluation of river restoration success, especially in the framework of river widening aiming to increase the terrestrial biodiversity. In agreement with the current concepts of river restoration, we propose an assessment tool for floodplain restoration based on three soil morphology criteria (soil

  7. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  9. Strategic Vision for Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    maneuverable, flexible , and tactically effective. In the last few years, the rapid adoption of commercial communication tech- nologies has taxed...Logistics. The foundation that supports the mobility, flexibility , and precision necessary to accomplish these goals is the electromagnetic spectrum. 2...eGovernment, Enterprise Knowledge, Enterprise Licensing, Information Assurance, Librarian of the Navy, Organizational eLearning , Planning and Measurement

  10. Nonlinear spectrum of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-accelerated planar plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, M. J.; Schmitt, A.

    2007-01-01

    A model for the nonlinear spectrum of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-accelerated planar plasmas has been developed for a wide range of Froude numbers and scale sizes. It is found that the spectrum can be characterized by an inverse power law with spectral index of approximately 2 in the limit of small-wavenumber spectrum cutoffs and small-scale density gradient scale lengths. Comparison of the model spectrum with recent experimental observations is made with good agreement

  11. Long-term evaluation of extensive restorations in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuysen, J.-P. van; D'hoore, W.D.; Carvalho, J.

    2003-01-01

    Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry......Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry...

  12. Wide area monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  13. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  14. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  15. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  16. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  18. SALIVARY PH CHANGES AFTER GIC RESTORATION ON DECIDUOUS TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nila Sukma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC is the most widely used material in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of this study was to analyze pH changes of saliva after GIC restoration on primary teeth. For this purpose, 20 primary canines which were restored with GIC 24 hours previously were plunged into 20 tubes containing each 1,5 ml pH 6,8 Fusayama artificial saliva and then stored in incubator at the temperature of 37°C. The pH changes were measured at 30, 60, and 90 minutes later with digital pH meter PH-201. It was revealed that the highest pH acceleration was at 30 minutes exposure an decrease thereafter and the lowest pH acceleration was at 90 minutes exposure. Statistical analysis was performed by Anova and Tukey HSD.

  19. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, R.F. [Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Lootens, R.J.; Becker, M.K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Successional Restoration is the method being used to restore the prairie at Fermilab on the former agricultural fields. This involves an initial planting, using aggressive species that have wide ecological tolerances which will grow well on abandoned agricultural fields. Collectively, these species are designated as the prairie matrix. The species used for this prairie matrix compete with and eventually eliminate most weedy species. They also provide an adequate fuel load capable of sustaining a fire within a few years after a site has been initially planted. Associated changes in the biological and physical structure of the soil help prepare the way for the successful introduction of plants of the later successional species. Only after the species of the prairie matrix are well established, is the species diversity increased by introducing species with narrower ecological tolerances. These species are thus characteristic of the later successional stages.

  20. A New Power System Restoration Technique based on WAMS Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Phanendra Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of a Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS is the ability to recover data during a communication failure. This paper presents a novel scheme of partitioning a PMU installed power network into a number of WAMS regions in order to make the power system restoration process simpler. This algorithm also proposes the optimal placement of Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs in each region to record the data from PMUs. This paper considers the restoration constraints like transformer equivalent bus, generation-load balance and the observability of region for the partitioning of power system. The proposed scheme is demonstrated with an IEEE-30 bus system. It is then applied on IEEE-39, IEEE-118 bus systems and on a Northern Regional Grid of the Indian Power Grid.

  1. [Research on the aging of all-ceramics restoration materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjiao; Chen, Xinmin

    2011-10-01

    All-ceramic crowns and bridges have been widely used for dental restorations owing to their excellent functionality, aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, the premature clinical failure of all-ceramic crowns and bridges may easily occur when they are subjected to the complex environment of oral cavity. In the oral environment, all-ceramic materials are prone to aging. Aging can lead all-ceramic materials to change color, to lower bending strength, and to reduce anti-fracture toughness. There are many factors affecting the aging of the all-ceramic materials, for example, the grain size, the type of stabilizer, the residual stress and the water environment. In order to analyze the aging behavior, to optimize the design of all-ceramic crowns and bridges, and to evaluate the reliability and durability, we review in this paper recent research progress of aging behavior for all-ceramics restoration materials.

  2. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-12-01

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration, including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving species richness and diversity. Although models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, few researchers have attempted to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We developed a combined state-and-transition, species-distribution model to predict the effects of restoration actions on vegetation condition and extent, bird diversity, and the distribution of several bird species in southeastern Australian woodlands. The actions reflected several management objectives. We then validated the models against an independent data set and investigated how the best management decision might change when objectives were valued differently. We also used model results to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. In the examples we evaluated, no one action (improving vegetation condition and extent, increasing bird diversity, or increasing the probability of occurrence for threatened species) provided the best outcome across all objectives. In agricultural lands, the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus), an iconic threatened species, resulted in little improvement in the extent of the vegetation and a high probability of decreased vegetation condition. This result highlights that the best management action in any situation depends on how much the different objectives are valued. In our example scenario, no management or weed control were most likely to be the best management options to satisfy multiple restoration objectives. Our approach to exploring trade-offs in management outcomes through integrated modeling and structured decision-support approaches has wide application for situations in which trade-offs exist between competing

  3. Wide Awake Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Borchgrevink, Grethe E; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-09-01

    "Wide awake hand surgery", where surgery is performed in local anaesthesia with adrenaline, without sedation or a tourniquet, has become widespread in some countries. It has a number of potential advantages and we wished to evaluate it among our patients. All 122 patients treated by this method during one year were evaluated by the surgeons and the patients on a numerical scale from 0 (best/least) to 10 (worst/most). Theatre time was compared to that recorded for a year when regional or general anaesthesia had been used. The patients' mean score for the general care they had received was 0.1 (SD 0.6), for pain during lidocaine injection 2.4 (SD 2.2), for pain during surgery 0.9 (SD 1.5), and for other discomfort during surgery 0.5 (SD 1.4). Eight reported that they would want general anaesthesia if they were to be operated again. The surgeons' mean evaluation of bleeding during surgery was 1.6 (SD 1.8), oedema during surgery 0.4 (SD 1.1), general disadvantages with the method 1.0 (SD 1.6) and general advantages 6.5 (SD 4.3). The estimation of advantages was 9.9 (DS 0.5) for tendon suture. 28 patients needed intra-operative additional anaesthesia. The proportion was lower among trained hand surgeons and fell significantly during the study period. Non-surgical theatre time was 46 (SD 15) minutes during the study period and 55 (SD 22) minutes during the regional/general period (p theatre.

  4. The use of multi-dimensional flow and morphodynamic models for restoration design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R.; Nelson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    River restoration projects with the goal of restoring a wide range of morphologic and ecologic channel processes and functions have become common. The complex interactions between flow and sediment-transport make it challenging to design river channels that are both self-sustaining and improve ecosystem function. The relative immaturity of the field of river restoration and shortcomings in existing methodologies for evaluating channel designs contribute to this problem, often leading to project failures. The call for increased monitoring of constructed channels to evaluate which restoration techniques do and do not work is ubiquitous and may lead to improved channel restoration projects. However, an alternative approach is to detect project flaws before the channels are built by using numerical models to simulate hydraulic and sediment-transport processes and habitat in the proposed channel (Restoration Design Analysis). Multi-dimensional models provide spatially distributed quantities throughout the project domain that may be used to quantitatively evaluate restoration designs for such important metrics as (1) the change in water-surface elevation which can affect the extent and duration of floodplain reconnection, (2) sediment-transport and morphologic change which can affect the channel stability and long-term maintenance of the design; and (3) habitat changes. These models also provide an efficient way to evaluate such quantities over a range of appropriate discharges including low-probability events which often prove the greatest risk to the long-term stability of restored channels. Currently there are many free and open-source modeling frameworks available for such analysis including iRIC, Delft3D, and TELEMAC. In this presentation we give examples of Restoration Design Analysis for each of the metrics above from projects on the Russian River, CA and the Kootenai River, ID. These examples demonstrate how detailed Restoration Design Analysis can be used to

  5. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  6. Adaptive spectrum decision framework for heterogeneous dynamic spectrum access networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) system to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy dynamic spectrum access network (DSAN) users¿ quality of service (QoS) requirements without causing harmful interference...

  7. Storied experiences of school-based habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne C.

    ethical commitment to broader discussions about environmental issues and concerns. Although this potential was realized to widely varying degrees, at its best school-based habitat restoration offered a tangible means of living out stories about humanity's interdependence with and responsibilities within the larger web of life. 1I borrow the expression "more-than-human" from David Abram's The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World (New York: Pantheon Books, 1996).

  8. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  9. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  10. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.; Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.

    2012-11-05

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with packable and hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: With recent introduction of packable composites, it is claimed that they apply less stress on tooth structure because of reduced polymerization shrinkage, and similarity of coefficient of thermal expansion to tooth structure. However, the high viscosity may in turn cause less adaptation, so it is not clearly known whether these materials strengthen tooth structure or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of maxillary premolars, receiving hybrid or packable composite restorations with different methods of application and curing. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, seventy five intact premolars were randomly assigned to five groups of 15 teeth each. One group was maintained intact as the control group. Similar MOD cavities were prepared in the other teeth. The teeth in group two were restored with Spectrum in incremental layers and light cured with 500 mw/cm2 intensity. The third group were filled with Surefil and cured with light intensity of 500 mw/cm2. The groups four and five were restored with Surefil in bulk technique with two different modes: 500 mw/cm2 intensity and a ramp mode (100-900 mw/cm2 respectively. After thermocycling, force to fracture was assessed and degree of conversion (DC at the bottom of cavities was evaluated for different modes and methods. The curing and placement methods in groups tested for DC (A to D were the same as fracture resistance groups (2 to 5. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: All the restored groups showed significantly less fracture resistance than the control group, but had no significant difference among themselves. DC of Spectrum was higher than Surefil. Bulk method with 500 mw/cm2 light intensity, significantly decreased DC. DC in bulk method with high light intensity was not significantly different from incremental method with 500 mw/cm2 light intensity. Conclusion

  13. The neutrino mass from beta spectrum (ITEP-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubimov, V.

    1986-01-01

    The new cycle of tritium beta spectrum measurements in valine with the ITEP spectrometer is discussed (ITEP-85). The detailed investigation of the total response function (TRF) has been performed. The special run of beta spectrum measurements carried out in a wide energy interval (3.4 KeV) has turned out to be a sensitive mode for the TRF experimental test. The results confirm the indication of the neutrino nonzero mass. 11 refs., 10 figs

  14. The electromagnetic spectrum: current and future applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Ron R

    2013-05-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum is composed of waves of various energies that interact with matter. When focused upon and directed at tumors, these energy sources can be employed as a means of lesion ablation. While the use of x-rays is widely known in this regard, a growing body of evidence shows that other members of this family can also achieve oncologic success. This article will review therapeutic application of the electromagnetic spectrum in current interventions and potential future applications.

  15. How to make complexity look simple? Conveying ecosystems restoration complexity for socio-economic research and public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenk, Klaus; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people’s livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem’s information in a way that is accessible to the wider public. In this paper we take up this challenge with the ultimate aim of contributing to making a step change in science’s contribution to ecosystems restoration practice. Using peatlands as a paradigmatically complex ecosystem, we put in place a transdisciplinary process to articulate a description of the processes and outcomes of restoration that can be understood widely by the public. We provide evidence of the usefulness of the process and tools in addressing four key challenges relevant to restoration of any complex ecosystem: (1) how to represent restoration outcomes; (2) how to establish a restoration reference; (3) how to cope with varying restoration time-lags and (4) how to define spatial units for restoration. This evidence includes the way the process resulted in the creation of materials that are now being used by restoration practitioners for communication with the public and in other research contexts. Our main contribution is of an epistemological nature: while ecosystem services-based approaches have enhanced the integration of academic disciplines and non-specialist knowledge, this has so far only followed one direction (from the biophysical underpinning to the description of ecosystem services and their appreciation by the public). We propose that it is the mix of approaches and epistemological directions (including from the public to the

  16. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  17. Restoration of variable density film soundtracks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassaïne , Abdelâali; Decencière , Etienne; Besserer , Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Full text available at http://www.eurasip.org/Proceedings/Eusipco/Eusipco2009/contents/papers/1569192297.pdf; International audience; The restoration of motion picture films has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however has mainly been performed at the audio domain in spite of the fast that it is recorded as a continuous image on the film stock. In this paper, we propose a new restoration method for variable density soundtracks. The method first d...

  18. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  19. Conservation and restoration of ornamental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rallo Gruss

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention on a building as complex and rich in ornamentation as the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas requires special attention as regards the restoration of all the singular elements, both inside and outside, and the different finishes and furnishings. Within this methodology of integral restoration, it is worth pointing out especially the consolidation and cleaning of the emblematic alabaster portal, the restoration of the paintings and the treatment of the different collections of tiles.

  20. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  1. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  2. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  5. The Role of Tidal Marsh Restoration in Fish Management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Herbold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011. Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha. In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta, one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013. The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010. This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium. 

  6. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  7. Forward-looking farmers owning multiple potential wetland restoration sites: implications for efficient restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder (Kushch), Svetlana; Lang, Zhengxin; Rabotyagov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Wetland restoration can increase the provision of multiple non-market ecosystem services. Environmental and socio-economic factors need to be accounted for when land is withdrawn from agriculture and wetlands are restored. We build multi-objective optimization models to provide decision support for wetland restoration in the Le Sueur river watershed in Southern Minnesota. We integrate environmental objectives of sediment reduction and habitat protection with socio-economic factors associated with the overlap of private land with potential wetland restoration sites in the watershed and the costs representing forward-looking farmers voluntarily taking land out of agricultural production in favor of wetland restoration. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of these factors early on in the restoration planning process affects both the total costs of the restoration project and the spatial distribution of optimally selected wetland restoration sites.

  8. Fast radio burst search: cross spectrum vs. auto spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zheng, Weimin; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Juan

    2018-06-01

    The search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a hot topic in current radio astronomy studies. In this work, we carry out a single pulse search with a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) pulsar observation data set using both auto spectrum and cross spectrum search methods. The cross spectrum method, first proposed in Liu et al., maximizes the signal power by fully utilizing the fringe phase information of the baseline cross spectrum. The auto spectrum search method is based on the popular pulsar software package PRESTO, which extracts single pulses from the auto spectrum of each station. According to our comparison, the cross spectrum method is able to enhance the signal power and therefore extract single pulses from data contaminated by high levels of radio frequency interference (RFI), which makes it possible to carry out a search for FRBs in regular VLBI observations when RFI is present.

  9. Applications of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Lasers) for Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ajlal, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) has been used widely in a range of biomedical and dental applications in recent years. In the field of restorative dentistry, various kinds of lasers have been developed for diagnostic (e.g. caries detection) and operative applications (e.g. tooth ablation, cavity preparation, restorations, bleaching). The main benefits for laser applications are patient comfort, pain relief and better results for specific applications. Major concerns for using dental lasers frequently are high cost, need for specialized training and sensitivity of the technique, thereby compromising its usefulness particularly in developing countries. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and summarize the applications of lasers in restorative dentistry, including a comparison of the applications of lasers for major restorative dental procedures and conventional clinical approaches. A remarkable increase in the use of lasers for dental application is expected in the near future. PMID:26642047

  10. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  11. Restoring chromatin after replication: How new and old histone marks come together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasencakova, Zusana; Groth, Anja

    2010-01-01

    In dividing cells genome stability and function rely on faithful transmission of both DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin. In the course of DNA replication chromatin undergoes transient genome-wide disruption followed by restoration on new DNA. This involves tight coordination of DNA...... replication and chromatin assembly processes in time and space. Dynamic recycling and de novo deposition of histones are fundamental for chromatin restoration. Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are thought to have a causal role in establishing distinct chromatin structures. Here we discuss PTMs...... present on new and parental histones and how they influence genome stability and restoration of epigenetically defined domains. Newly deposited histones must change their signature in the process of chromatin restoration, this may occur in a step-wise fashion involving replication-coupled processes...

  12. Anterior provisional restorations used to determine form, function, and esthetics for complex restorative situations, using all-ceramic restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Kim, Tae

    2010-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the restoration of a large and visible maxillary anterior defect. The importance of proper diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication is emphasized. Irreversible treatment should only be rendered once patient approval has been obtained through objective evaluation with provisional restorations. The techniques presented in this article use a combination of ceramic systems currently available to satisfy functional demands while achieving acceptable esthetics. A controlled series of steps, where the provisional restorative components are being replaced by the definitive ones is planned. The only difference between the provisional and definitive restorative components is the material used. The definitive restorations consisted of an implant-supported zirconium oxide framework. Individual pressed porcelain restorations were luted to the framework and a natural tooth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Provisional restorations allow an objective form of communication. Vertical and horizontal transitional lines can be effectively masked with appropriate treatment planning and a skilled ceramist. Many traditional dental laboratory steps may be eliminated or simplified without compromising the definitive restorations.

  13. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  14. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  15. Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of tables and listings from the results of the Phase I data gathering activities of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The table of contents outlines the presentation of the material and has been annotated to indicate the key fields used to order the printing of each data table. Definitions of selected column headings are provided. Sample collection information is shown first and then more specific information for each matrix type is presented. The analytical results have been reviewed by independent validators and the qualifiers shown are the results of their efforts. No data that were rejected by the validation process are included in this listing. Only results of routine samples are listed; quality control sample results were excluded. All data, both detected and nondetected values, were used to calculated the summary table values. However, only Detected values are given on the analyte specific listings

  16. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... resources, aquatic-life forms, and sport fishing; and (e) develop responsible attitudes and ethics toward..., Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... governing the Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter...

  17. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  18. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... justify restoration, trustees may proceed with the Restoration Planning Phase. Otherwise, trustees may not... discount all service quantities and/or values to the date the demand is presented to the responsible...

  19. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  20. TRAVERTINE THE RESTORATION STONE FOR THE ZAGREB CATHEDRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Roman travertine San Pietro Classico, from a deposit in the Acque Albule basin near Rome, will be used for the restoration of the cathedral in Zagreb instead of the previosly used lithotamnian limestone. The genesis and properties of travertine are described. Also the differences in genesis and characteristics of travertine and calc-tufa are presented. Travertine and calc-tufa are created by different genetic processes and thus cannot be considered equivalent. Travertine is a dimensional stone that has world-wide significance, while calc-tufa, has only local or at the most some minor regional importance.

  1. Break-up stage restoration in multifragmentation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raduta, Ad.R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)]|[NIPNE, Bucharest-Magurele, POB-MG 6 (Romania); Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Le Neindre, N.; Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [Dip. di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Universita di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Fi (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    In the case of Xe+Sn at 32 MeV/nucleon multifragmentation reaction break-up fragments are built-up from the experimentally detected ones using evaluations of light particle evaporation multiplicities which thus settle fragment internal excitation. Freeze-out characteristics are extracted from experimental kinetic energy spectra under the assumption of full decoupling between fragment formation and energy dissipated in different degrees of freedom. Thermal kinetic energy is determined uniquely while for freeze-out volume - collective energy a multiple solution is obtained. Coherence between the solutions of the break-up restoration algorithm and the predictions of a multifragmentation model with identical definition of primary fragments is regarded as a way to select the true value. The broad kinetic energy spectrum of {sup 3}He is consistent with break-up genesis of this isotope. (authors)

  2. Break-up stage restoration in multifragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raduta, Ad.R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Le Neindre, N.; Rivet, M.F.; Piantelli, S.

    2007-02-01

    In the case of Xe+Sn at 32 MeV/nucleon multifragmentation reaction break-up fragments are built-up from the experimentally detected ones using evaluations of light particle evaporation multiplicities which thus settle fragment internal excitation. Freeze-out characteristics are extracted from experimental kinetic energy spectra under the assumption of full decoupling between fragment formation and energy dissipated in different degrees of freedom. Thermal kinetic energy is determined uniquely while for freeze-out volume - collective energy a multiple solution is obtained. Coherence between the solutions of the break-up restoration algorithm and the predictions of a multifragmentation model with identical definition of primary fragments is regarded as a way to select the true value. The broad kinetic energy spectrum of 3 He is consistent with break-up genesis of this isotope. (authors)

  3. Spectrum of cosmic fireballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE; Horstman, H M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1981-03-01

    A progress report on cosmic fireballs is presented. The main new results are: (a) the phenomenon should be almost universal, and most explosive ..gamma..-ray sources should show the characteristic fireball spectrum; (b) even if the radiation density is insufficient, pair production in electron-proton or electron-electron scattering might start the fireball; (c) some computed fireball spectra are shown. They all have in common a 1/E low-energy behaviour, a 100 keV flattening, and a approx.0.5 MeV cut-off.

  4. Air shower density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Foster, J.M.; Hodson, A.L.; Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the differential local density spectrum have been made using a 1 m 2 discharge chamber mounted in the Leeds discharge chamber array. The results are fitted to a power law of the form h(δ)dδ = kδsup(-ν)dδ, where ν=2.47+-0.04; k=0.21 s - 1 , for 7 m - 2 - 2 ; ν=2.90+-0.22; k=2.18 s - 1 , for δ > 200 m - 2 . Details of the measurement techniques are given with particular reference to the treatment of closely-spaced discharges. A comparison of these results with previous experiments using different techniques is made

  5. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  6. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  7. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  8. Psychological Restoration Practices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…

  9. Restoring Nature: Human Actions, Interactions and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    Regardless of one's viewpoint, the conflict that erupted in the spring of 1996 and became known as the Chicago restoration controversy has left an indelible mark on the region's environmental community and has forever changed the way those involved will think about restoration. Its implications extend far beyond Chicago; since its inception, the controversy...

  10. Plant succession and approaches to community restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    2005-01-01

    The processes of vegetation change over time, or plant succession, are also the processes involved in plant community restoration. Restoration efforts attempt to use designed disturbance, seedbed preparation and sowing methods, and selection of adapted and compatible native plant materials to enhance ecological function. The large scale of wildfires and weed invasion...

  11. The restoration lines; Les chaines de restauration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference allowed the restoration sector to discover the advantages of the gas energy for cooking: a cheaper cost, a adequate technology for a maximum of efficiency and safety. Gaz De France presents a great interest in this restoration sector and will continue to invest on this market in the future. (A.L.B.)

  12. Transformational restoration: novel ecosystems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Khosro Sagheb-Talebi; Ole K. Hansen

    2018-01-01

    Restoring the estimated 1 billion hectares of degraded forests must consider future climate accompanied by novel ecosystems. Transformational restoration can play a key role in adaptation to climate change but it is conceptually the most divergent from contemporary approaches favoring native species and natural disturbance regimes. Here...

  13. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  14. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  15. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  16. 43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and definition. (1) In the event of a natural resource emergency, the natural resource trustee shall contact the National Response... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency restorations. 11.21 Section 11...

  17. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  18. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-05-14

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  19. Mining in New Caledonia: environmental stakes and restoration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soil to access ores wipes out flora. Resulting perturbations on water flows and dramatic soil erosion lead to metal-rich sediment transport downstream into rivers and the lagoon. Conflicting environmental and economic aspects of mining are discussed in this paper. However, mining practices are also improving, and where impacts are inescapable ecological restoration is now considered. Past and ongoing experiences in the restoration of New Caledonian terrestrial ecosystems are presented and discussed here. Economic use of the local floristic diversity could also promote conservation and restoration, while providing alternative incomes. In this regard, Ecocatalysis, an innovative approach to make use of metal hyperaccumulating plants, is of particular interest.

  20. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Golet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to characterize the status of terrestrial and floodplain resources (e.g., flora and fauna, channel dynamics (e.g., planform, geomorphology, and the flow regime. Indicators were also associated with specific goal statements of the CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program. A collective weight of evidence approach was used to assess restoration success. Our synthesis demonstrates good progress in the restoration of riparian habitats, birds and other wildlife, but not in restoration of streamflows and geomorphic processes. For example, from 1999 to 2007, there was a > 600% increase in forest patch core size, and a 43% increase in the area of the river bordered by natural habitat > 500 m wide. Species richness of landbirds and beetles increased at restoration sites, as did detections of bats. However, degraded post-Shasta Dam streamflow conditions continued. Relative to pre-dam conditions, the average number of years that pass between flows that are sufficient to mobilize the bed, and those that are of sufficient magnitude to inundate the floodplain, increased by over 100%. Trends in geomorphic processes were strongly negative, with increases in the amount of bank hardened with riprap, and decreases in the area of floodplain reworked. Overall the channel simplified, becoming less sinuous with reduced overall channel length. Our progress assessment presents a compelling case for what needs to be done to further advance the ecological restoration of the river. The most

  1. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  2. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  3. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  4. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  5. Clinical spectrum of onchodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the frequency and to see various dermatological presentations of onchocerciasis in black Africans of Sierra Leone. Local black patients of all age groups, attending dermatology outpatient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone) with clinical diagnosis of onchodermatitis, based on symptomatology and morphological features of the disease, were included. UN troops were excluded. Laboratory investigations including blood complete picture and skin snips were carried out in all patients. Skin biopsy and nodule biopsy was performed in selected cases. Skin manifestations were recorded and categorized into various clinical patterns, i.e. acute, chronic, lichenified, onchocercoma, etc. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics in Instat. A total of 3011 patients, belonging to different local tribes, having a variety of skin disorders, were seen during the study period. One hundred and eighty-seven (6.2%) patients were found to have onchodermatitis. Patients were of all ages and both sexes, their ages ranging from 1 month to 73 years. Gender ratio was almost equal. A whole clinical spectrum of onchodermatitis was observed, chronic papular onchodermatitis being the most common pattern. Onchodermatitis with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations was seen in black Africans of the eastern part of Sierra Leone. (author)

  6. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  7. Restoration and repair of Earth's damaged ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Barbier, Edward B; Blackburn, Ryan C; Rey Benayas, Jose M; Holl, Karen D; McCrackin, Michelle; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Mateos, David Moreno

    2018-02-28

    Given that few ecosystems on the Earth have been unaffected by humans, restoring them holds great promise for stemming the biodiversity crisis and ensuring ecosystem services are provided to humanity. Nonetheless, few studies have documented the recovery of ecosystems globally or the rates at which ecosystems recover. Even fewer have addressed the added benefit of actively restoring ecosystems versus allowing them to recover without human intervention following the cessation of a disturbance. Our meta-analysis of 400 studies worldwide that document recovery from large-scale disturbances, such as oil spills, agriculture and logging, suggests that though ecosystems are progressing towards recovery following disturbances, they rarely recover completely. This result reinforces conservation of intact ecosystems as a key strategy for protecting biodiversity. Recovery rates slowed down with time since the disturbance ended, suggesting that the final stages of recovery are the most challenging to achieve. Active restoration did not result in faster or more complete recovery than simply ending the disturbances ecosystems face. Our results on the added benefit of restoration must be interpreted cautiously, because few studies directly compared different restoration actions in the same location after the same disturbance. The lack of consistent value added of active restoration following disturbance suggests that passive recovery should be considered as a first option; if recovery is slow, then active restoration actions should be better tailored to overcome specific obstacles to recovery and achieve restoration goals. We call for a more strategic investment of limited restoration resources into innovative collaborative efforts between scientists, local communities and practitioners to develop restoration techniques that are ecologically, economically and socially viable. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Fracture Resistance and Failure Mode of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Different Adhesive Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sarabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a topic that has been studied extensively but it is still a challenge for dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance, fracture patterns and fracture location of endodontically treated human maxillary premolars restored with direct and indirect composite resin and ceramic restoration. Methods: Eighty non-carious maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (n=20. Endodontic treatment and mesio-occluso-distal preparations were carried out in all the groups except for the control group (group I. Subsequently, the prepared teeth were restored as follows: group II: indirect composite restoration; group III: ceramic restoration; group IV: direct composite restoration. The specimens were subjected to compressive axial loading until fracture occurred. The mode of failure was also recorded. Results: Group I had higher fracture resistance (1196.82±241.74 than the other groups (P

  9. Wide area Hyperspectral Motion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    detection at a manageable false alarm rate using the adaptive coherence estimator algorithm. A radiance spectrum was calculated with MODTRAN at 5km...1mHz. In order to meet SNR and update rate, the area coverage is reduced to less than the size of a football stadium. An interferometer has

  10. Strategies for energy efficient restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke

    The conservation of our heritage buildings is a European wide policy objective. Historical buildings are not only works of art, but embody an important source of local identity and form a connection to our past. Protection agencies aim to preserve historical qualities for future generations. Their

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  12. Geometry and spectrum of Casimir forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, Rauno; Emig, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    We present a new approach to the Helmholtz spectrum for arbitrarily shaped boundaries and general boundary conditions. We derive the boundary induced change of the density of states in terms of the free Green's function from which we obtain nonperturbative results for the Casimir interaction between rigid surfaces. As an example, we compute the lateral electrodynamic force between two corrugated surfaces over a wide parameter range. Universal behavior, fixed only by the largest wavelength component of the surface shape, is identified at large surface separations, complementing known short distance expansions which we also reproduce with high precision

  13. Environnmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    In the first Five-Year Plan, written in 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) committed to rapidly bringing all operating facilities into compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to cleaning up the 1989 inventory of contaminated inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. This FY 1993--1997 Five-Year Plan moves the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) one step closer to this 30-year goal. The overall EM strategy has three thrusts. First, where risk assessment shows an actual or potential threat to human health and safety -- do immediately whatever is possible to reduce, mitigate, stabilize, and confine the threat. Second, where nobody knows how to solve a problem (as distinct from merely preventing it from getting worse) -- act decisively to develop methods to do it right the first time. Third, where compliance and cleanup must proceed with or without next-generation technologies -- plan, with affected parties and within the provisions of Interagency Agreements, the work to be accomplished and its schedule. This third Five-Year Plan discusses current EM program accomplishments, what the program intends to achieve over the next 5 years, and where it needs to be heading in order to meet its 30-year and other environmental goals

  14. Environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Five-Year Plan is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. DOE is committed to an open and participatory process for developing a national priority system for expenditure of funds. This system will be based on scientific principles and risk reduction in terms that are understandable to the public. The Plan will be revised annually, with a five-year planning horizon. For FY 1991--1995, this Plan encompasses total program activities and costs for DOE Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, Waste Management Operations, and Applied R ampersand D. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes. The Plan does not include the Safety and Health Program (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health) or programs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. It does include the annual Defense Programs contribution to the Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal of defense high-level waste and research toward characterizing the defense waste form for repository disposal

  15. Clínica ampliada em saúde mental: cuidar e suposição de saber no acompanhamento terapêutico Wide-spectrum clinical interventions in mental health: " care" and " subject supposed to know" in therapeutic assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estellita-Lins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o acompanhamento terapêutico, entendido como intervenção em saúde mental baseada em cuidados domiciliares. Destacamos a importância de intervenções comunitárias privilegiando formas de lidar com o sofrimento, seja através de uma concepção médica dos sintomas, fundada na visibilidade, seja valorizando uma leitura psicanalítica que recorre à escuta. Carecendo de teorização independente que fundamente sua prática, o AT (acompanhamento terapêutico apropria-se de teorias provenientes de outros campos do saber que guardam afinidades. Neste sentido, abordamos a influência da psicanálise e sua participação na clínica ampliada em saúde mental através da prática clínica do AT, utilizando dois conceitos operatórios de amplo alcance, que são: sujeito suposto saber, proveniente da obra de Lacan, e cuidado, derivado de Winnicott. Ambos respondem a questões do campo teórico e orientam a atuação clínica. Concluímos que o AT realiza exigências do manejo transferencial sob a forma do cuidar exercido no cotidiano do sujeito, no qual desejo e subjetividade são necessariamente reconhecidos, sem que se configure como tecnologia psicoterápica, situando-se mais propriamente como sentinela clínica no campo da psiquiatria comunitária e saúde coletiva.This paper discusses the theme therapeutic assistance (TA, understood as homecare-based mental health intervention. We emphasize the importance of community interventions for dealing with psychic suffering, either through reading the symptoms based on visibility, or through a psychoanalytic approach mainly concerned with listening. Lacking an independent theoretical background to support this practice, therapeutic assistance makes use of theories coming from other related fields of knowledge. Therefore, we discuss the influence of psychoanalysis and its role among broad spectrum mental health practice through clinical interventions belonging to the field of TA

  16. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  17. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  18. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  20. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  1. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  2. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-10-17

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  3. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, W; Godlewska, M; Rosiek, R; Wcislo, D

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results. (paper)

  4. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  5. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  6. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  7. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  9. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Soong, Keryea; Zvuloni, Assaf; Rinkevich, Baruch; Alino, Porfirio

    2015-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (ICCB 8) was held in Eilat, Israel from December 1st to 5th 2013. The conference included 15 sessions, one of which discussed the latest information on the conservation, management, and restoration of Coelenterata in different parts of the world. A total of 16 oral presentations and 5 posters were presented in this session. Of these 21 papers, 11 were related to conservation issues, 7 described management, and 3 discussed restoration. This session provided insights on the current conservation, management, and restoration of coelenterates in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Current Concepts in Restorative Implant Dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prof.Marchack

    2009-01-01

    Patients today are incteasingly aware of dental implants.and their expectations are for esthetically and functionally pleasingimplant restorations that mimic natural teeth.This presentation will give both the experienced and novice practitioner a better understand-ing of how restorative implant dentistry has evolved.Treatment planning and restorative options for single implants.multiple implants andfully edentulons arches will be discussed,and the use of modern materials and CADCAM technology in fabricating the most contemporaryfixed implant supported prostheses will be demonstrated.

  11. Restoration of opencast coal mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent-Jones, E.

    1983-10-01

    The paper describes the measures taken by the NCB Opencast Executive in the restoration of opencast sites on completion of mining. Soil surveys are carried out before mining and these, together with geological information, enable a comprehensive soil restoration strategy to be worked out. The soils replacement plan shows the location and thickness of soils to be replaced, and whether special treatment is required to improve the condition of the soil. The equipment that has been developed to cope with the heavy restoration work is described and the conditions under which it is used are given.

  12. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  13. [Advantages and disadvantages of applying yttrium stabilized zirconium-dioxide post and core restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétercsák, Anita; Radics, Tünde; Hegedus, Csaba

    2014-03-01

    Full ceramic restorations are associated with metal free post and core prosthodontics for teeth with seriously destroyed clinical crowns. Using custom made zirconium-dioxide post and cores can be flattering not only to give a good aesthetic result, but also to provide excellent retention. As none of the post systems stands all demands, prudent planning is mandatory. Our paper deals with favourable and unfavourable conditions as well as common causes of failures of post and core restorations. We took morphological, esthetical and functional considerations that can help to achieve the best results. Amongst them individual anatomic constitution, shape, width and length of the root and root canal, shape of the clinical crown, direction and magnitude of chewing forces are the most important factors. To give examples we present two cases of zirconium-dioxide post and core restorations. In our first case the missing clinical crown and a too wide root canal entrance created a questionable prognosis. To minimize adverse effect of the missing ferrule effect we applied custom-made zirconium-dioxide post and core and an additional abutment. After 7 years the restoration is still functioning. The second case represented a much favourable situation with 1,5 mm clinical crown height. The restoration was a custom-made zirconia post and core and a full-ceramic crown as a single tooth restoration. Although in this case we expected a better prognosis, 15 months later the patient showed up with a post fracture for applying extreme forces on the crown.

  14. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

  15. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored with condensable resin with and without cusp coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened human premolars (MOD cavity preparation and pulp chamber roof removal restored with condensable resin composite with and without cusp coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty human maxillary premolars were divided into three groups: Group A (control, sound teeth; Group B, wide MOD cavities prepared and the pulp chamber roof removed and restored with resin composite without cusp coverage; Group C, same as Group B with 2.0 mm of buccal and palatal cusps reduced and restored with the same resin. The teeth were included in metal rings with self-curing acrylic resin, stored in water for 24 h and thereafter subjected to a compressive axial load in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The mean fracture resistance values ± standart deviation (kgf were: group A: 151.40 ± 55.32, group B: 60.54 ± 12.61, group C: 141.90 ± 30.82. Statistically significant differences were found only between Group B and the other groups (p<0.05. The condensable resin restoration of weakened human premolars with cusp coverage significantly increased the fracture resistance of the teeth as compared to teeth restored without cusp coverage. CONCLUSION: The results showed that cusp coverage with condensable resin might be a safe option for restoring weakened endodontically treated teeth.

  16. Community Resilience: Workshops on Private Sector and Property Owner Requirements for Recovery and Restoration from a Diasaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-12-22

    This report summarizes the results of a proejct sponsored by DTRA to 1) Assess the readiness of private-sector businesses, building owners, and service providers to restore property and recover operations in the aftermath of a wide-area dispersal of anthrax; and 2) Understand what private property owners and businesses "want and need" from federal, state, and local government to support recovery and restoration from such an incident.

  17. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    and negative effects of human presence on the local and global water supply. Student research scientifically tested ways to slow down the effects of run-off contaminants. Students also revisit water analysis and plant trees as buffers as part of their stream preservation efforts in a culminating activity. Oyster Reef Restoration Project: As a result of changes in climate, pollution and human consumption, the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay had previously been on a rapid decline. The Oyster Reef Restoration Project allows students to understand the creatures of the bay and the cause of this decline. They explore the domino effect this has had on the quality of the water in the bay and future implications on the environment when the oyster population fluctuates significantly. Students construct concrete reefs and study the components of its contents and the reef's impact on the bay. Students are responsible for mixing, pouring and preparing the reef for its eventual drop in the bay. Wetlands Recovery: Following the elimination of a substantial amount of the natural wetlands behind the elementary and middle schools, a wetlands area was erected on the school grounds. This pond has been used to learn about habitats and the role humans, plants and organisms play in the preservation of the earth soil and water supply. This wetland is used by both the elementary and middle schools as a place for hands-on inquiry based learning. Students maintain the upkeep of the pond and teach other students at lower grades.

  18. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  19. Is there a tree economics spectrum of decomposability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Hefting, Mariet M.; Berg, Matty P.; van Logtestijn, Richard S.P.; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Liu, Jin Chun; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Sterck, Frank J.; Poorter, Lourens; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    2018-01-01

    The plant economics spectrum (PES) integrates trade-offs and coordination in resource traits among species within and between organs, and affects ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. This PES is currently based on trait variation among a wide range of plant types and growth forms. Here

  20. Neoplastic stomach lesions and their mimickers: spectrum of imaging manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Vivek; Khandelwal, Ashish; Sethi, Vineeta; Fraser-Hill, Margret; Fasih, Najla; Kielar, Ania

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This review illustrates a wide spectrum of gastric neoplasms with emphasis on imaging findings helpful in characterizing various gastric neoplasms. Both the malignant and benign neoplasms along with focal gastric masses mimicking tumour are illustrated. Moreover, imaging clues to reach an accurate diagnosis are emphasized.

  1. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  2. Brief Report: The Autism Spectrum Quotient Has Convergent Validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale in a High-Functioning Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to measure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and screen for ASD. It is readily available free of charge online and is easily accessible to practitioners, researchers and individuals who suspect that they may have an ASD. Thus, the AQ is a potentially useful, widely accessible tool for ASD…

  3. The potential role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the restoration of degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha Asmelash Belay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiences worldwide reveal that degraded lands restoration projects achieve little success or fail. Hence, understanding the underlining causes and accordingly, devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. In doing so, the ever-increasing aspiration and global commitments in degraded lands restoration could be realized. Here we explain that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF biotechnology is a potential mechanism to significantly improve the restoration success of degraded lands. There are abundant scientific evidences to demonstrate that AMF significantly improve soil attributes, increase above and belowground biodiversity, significantly improve tree/shrub seedlings survival, growth and establishment on moisture and nutrient stressed soils. AMF have also been shown to drive plant succession and may prevent invasion by alien species. The very few conditions where infective AMF are low in abundance and diversity is when the soil erodes, is disturbed and is devoid of vegetation cover. These are all common features of degraded lands. Meanwhile, degraded lands harbor low levels of infective AMF abundance and diversity. Therefore, the successful restoration of infective AMF can potentially improve the restoration success of degraded lands. Better AMF inoculation effects result when inocula are composed of native fungi instead of exotics, early seral instead of late seral fungi, and are consortia instead of few or single species. Future research efforts should focus on AMF effect on plant community primary productivity and plant competition. Further investigation focusing on forest ecosystems and carried out at the field condition is highly recommended. Devising cheap and ethically widely accepted inocula production methods and better ways of AMF in-situ management for effective restoration of degraded lands will also remain to be important research areas. Keywords: AMF, ecological restoration, facilitation, inoculation, land degradation

  4. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2018-04-30

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  5. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  6. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  7. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  8. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  9. Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale (Cosmogram) Part 1. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... is one, who is in harmony or at peace with his world of relationships (Cosmos).

  10. Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip

    2001-01-01

    .... A geomorphic engineering approach is presented, which recognizes that the river is ultimately the best restorer of its natural morphology and should be allowed to participate in its own recovery...

  11. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Schö lkopf, Bernhard; Hirsch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  12. ROV Based Underwater Blurred Image Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; DING Tianfu; WANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV's detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  13. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation.

  14. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  15. Fisheries Restoration Grant Program Projects [ds168

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile (FRGP_All_020209.shp) represents the locations of all ongoing and completed salmonid restoration projects in California with existing records in the...

  16. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  17. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  18. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  19. Thermal Energy Transfer Through All Ceramic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    correlate to a histological status or disease process. A positive response only expresses that there is a viable nerve fibers located within the pulp ...INTRODUCTION: The literature has demonstrated that cold testing with 1,1,1,2- tetrafluoroethane (TFE) can be used to assess the pulp vitality of teeth restored...restorative materials to natural teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermoprobes (T-type, Omega) were inserted into the pulp chamber of 3 extracted human

  20. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  1. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  2. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2015-01-01

    Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success...... to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation), and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration...

  3. Nd: YAG laser in art works restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Moreno, B.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Laser cleaning in works of art has a number of advantages over traditional techniques of restoration. In this article, the technique used and the physical mechanisms that explain the process of ablation of pollutants are described. The results obtained in the cleaning of statues of marble and alabaster are exposed as well as oil-painting restoration. In this last specific case, the Nd: YAG laser is used with successful results. (Author) 6 refs

  4. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  5. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  6. Marginal microfiltration in amalgam restorations. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud Salem, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present articule is review references from phenomenon of microfiltration in restorations with amalgam and yours consecuents in changes of color in the interface tooth-restorations, margin deterioted , sensitivity dentinarea postoperate, caries secondary and pulp inflamation. Besides naming the mechanicals for to reduce microfiltration, and yours effects for use of sealers dentinaries representation for the varnish cavitys and adhesive systens Conclusive indicate wath the amalgam is the ma...

  7. STRATIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN MAXILLARY ANTERIOR INCISORS RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of their main characteristics: transparency, opalescence and color density, the tooth structures are extremely difficult to restore by means of completely inconspicuous restorations of the natural tooth tissue characteristics. The aim is to show successful aesthetic restoration of III Class dental lesions in upper incisors by means of high quality composites. Materials and method: A female patient visited the clinic being not satisfied with the esthetics of her front teeth. The intraoral examination showed previous restorations and carious lesions in 12, 11, 21, 22. After defining the tooth color a silicone key was made. The treatment was performed under anesthesia, the existing restorations were removed and the carious lesions in teeth 11, 12, 21, 22 were treated with restorations using Vanini edge preparation. The teeth were restored by means of stratification technique. After etching and rinsing, bonding was applied for 20 sec. and then polymerized. After fixing the silicone key enamel shade was applied and then dentine shades UD2, UD3, UD4 of 0.5mm thickness each. The polymerization was done layer by layer. Applied were 10 to 15 layers in total. The composite material was preheated in oven up to 55. Teeth 21 and 22 are restored with Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium. Results and Discussion: Excellent aesthetics is achieved with composite material. They have enamel and dentine shades and allow high quality aesthetics. The polishing is excellent in Enamel Plus HRi (Micerium which is typical for this type of composite. The result of the carious lesion treatment in this patient is real improvement of the dental appearance of her anterior incisors. Conclusion: Materials show excellent aesthetic results due to their characteristics and the stratification technique used.

  8. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  9. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  10. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  11. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  12. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  13. A spectrum of applications of automated reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wos, L.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood of an automated reasoning program being of substantial assistance for a wide spectrum of applications rests with the nature of the options and parameters it offers on which to base needed strategies and methodologies. This article focuses on such a spectrum, featuring W. McCune's program OTTER, discussing widely varied successes in answering open questions, and touching on some of the strategies and methodologies that played a key role. The applications include finding a first proof, discovering single axioms, locating improved axiom systems, and simplifying existing proofs. The last application is directly pertinent to the recently found (by R. Thiele) Hilbert's twenty-fourth problem-which is extremely amenable to attack with the appropriate automated reasoning program, a problem concerned with proof simplification. The methodologies include those for seeking shorter proofs and for finding proofs that avoid unwanted lemmas or classes of term, a specific option for seeking proofs with smaller equational or formula complexity, and a different option to address the variable richness of a proof. The type of proof one obtains with the use of OTTER is Hilbert-style axiomatic, including details that permit one sometimes to gain new insights. We include questions still open and challenges that merit consideration

  14. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a use r to specify physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the type and thickness of absorbers, the size and composition of the detector (Ge or NaI), and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function vs energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results will be presented

  15. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  16. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  17. Statistical Shape Modelling and Markov Random Field Restoration (invited tutorial and exercise)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This tutorial focuses on statistical shape analysis using point distribution models (PDM) which is widely used in modelling biological shape variability over a set of annotated training data. Furthermore, Active Shape Models (ASM) and Active Appearance Models (AAM) are based on PDMs and have proven...... deformation field between shapes. The tutorial demonstrates both generative active shape and appearance models, and MRF restoration on 3D polygonized surfaces. ''Exercise: Spectral-Spatial classification of multivariate images'' From annotated training data this exercise applies spatial image restoration...... using Markov random field relaxation of a spectral classifier. Keywords: the Ising model, the Potts model, stochastic sampling, discriminant analysis, expectation maximization....

  18. Generation of solar spectrum by using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Pei, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Xue, Bin; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-09-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been recognized as an applicable light source for indoor and outdoor lighting, city beautifying, landscape facilities, and municipal engineering etc. Conventional LED has superior characteristics such as long life time, low power consumption, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Recently, LED with high color-rendering index and special spectral characteristics has received more and more attention. This paper is intended to report a solar spectrum simulated by multichip LED light source. The typical solar spectrum of 5500k released by CIE was simulated as a reference. Four types of LEDs with different spectral power distributions would be used in the LED light source, which included a 430nm LED, a 480nm LED, a 500nm LED and a white LED. In order to obtain better simulation results, the white LED was achieved by a 450nm LED chip with the mixture of phosphor. The phosphor combination was prepared by mixing green phosphor, yellow phosphor and red phosphor in a certain proportion. The multichip LED light source could provide a high fidelity spectral match with the typical solar spectrum of 5500k by adjusting injection current to each device. The luminous flux, CIE chromaticity coordinate x, y, CCT, and Ra were 104.7 lm, 0.3337, 0.3681, 5460K, and 88.6, respectively. Because of high color-rendering index and highly match to the solar spectrum, the multichip LED light source is a competitive candidate for applications where special spectral is required, such as colorimetric measurements, visual inspection, gemstone identification and agriculture.

  19. Structures in the primary spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S.P.; Malecki, R.

    2009-01-01

    Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.

  20. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  1. Applying Attention Restoration Theory to Understand and Address Clergy's Need to Restore Cognitive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chelsea; Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2018-02-06

    Attention Restoration Theory is applied to explore the causes and consequences of mental fatigue in clergy and suggest practical interventions to restore cognitive wellbeing. Previous research has investigated the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of clergy, but has largely neglected clergy cognitive wellbeing. Due to the demanding nature of their work, clergy are particularly susceptible to mental fatigue and depletion of their capacity to maintain attention. Symptoms include inability to focus attention, inhibit distractions, make decisions or solve problems. Mental fatigue can be overcome, and cognitive capacity restored, by spending time in restorative environments that allow directed attention to rest.

  2. Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, a disorder of unprovoked seizures is a multifaceted disease affecting individuals of all ages with a particular predilection for the very young and old. In addition to seizures, many patients often report cognitive and psychiatric problems associated with both the seizures themselves and its therapy. Epilepsy has numerous etiologies both idiopathic and acquired with a wide range of therapeutic responses. Despite numerous treatments available to control repetitive seizures including medications, diets, immunotherapy, surgery, and neuromodulatory devices, a large percentage of patients continue to suffer the consequences of uncontrolled seizures, which include psychosocial stigma and death. PMID:26328931

  3. A Review of Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Kozeneski, Nicole; Skinner-Foster, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of widely used measures for assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised," "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule," "Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition," "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition," and "Childhood Autism…

  4. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  5. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  6. Maximum-entropy data restoration using both real- and Fourier-space analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Martin, D.C.; Thomas, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    An extension of the maximum-entropy (ME) data-restoration method is presented that is sensitive to periodic correlations in data. The method takes advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio for periodic information in Fourier space, thus enhancing statistically significant frequencies in a manner which avoids the user bias inherent in conventional Fourier filtering. This procedure incorporates concepts underlying new approaches in quantum mechanics that consider entropies in both position and momentum spaces, although the emphasis here is on data restoration rather than quantum physics. After a fast Fourier transform of the image, the phases are saved and the array of Fourier moduli are restored using the maximum-entropy criterion. A first-order continuation method is introduced that speeds convergence of the ME computation. The restored moduli together with the original phases are then Fourier inverted to yield a new image; traditional real-space ME restoration is applied to this new image completing one stage in the restoration process. In test cases improvement can be obtained from two to four stages of iteration. It is shown that in traditional Fourier filtering spurious features can be induced by selection or elimination of Fourier components without regard to their statistical significance. With the present approach there is no such freedom for the user to exert personal bias, so that features present in the final image and power spectrum are those which have survived the tests of statistical significance in both real and Fourier space. However, it is still possible for periodicities to 'bleed' across sharp boundaries. An 'uncertainty' relation is derived describing the inverse relationship between the resolution of these boundaries and the level of noise that can be eliminated. (orig./BHO)

  7. An automatic method to determine cutoff frequency based on image power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beis, J.S.; Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, British Columbia; Celler, A.; Barney, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present an algorithm for automatically choosing filter cutoff frequency (F c ) using the power spectrum of the projections. The method is based on the assumption that the expectation of the image power spectrum is the sum of the expectation of the blurred object power spectrum (dominant at low frequencies) plus a constant value due to Poisson noise. By considering the discrete components of the noise-dominated high-frequency spectrum as a Gaussian distribution N(μ,σ), the Student t-test determines F c as the highest frequency for which the image frequency components are unlikely to be drawn from N (μ,σ). The method is general and can be applied to any filter. In this work, the authors tested the approach using the Metz restoration filter on simulated, phantom, and patient data with good results. Quantitative performance of the technique was evaluated by plotting recovery coefficient (RC) versus NMSE of reconstructed images

  8. Rangeland restoration for Hirola, the world's most endangered antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland restoration can improve habitat for threatened species such as the hirola antelope (Beatragus hunteri) that inhabit savannas of eastern Kenya. However, restoration success likely varies across soil types and target restoration species, as well as according to restoration approach. We teste...

  9. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  10. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  11. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  12. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. River restoration: separating myths from reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, N.; Woodward, G.

    2015-12-01

    River restorations are a social construct where degraded systems are physically modified to obtain a pre-disturbance set of attributes. These can be purely esthetic but are often linked to some kind of biotic recovery or the provision of important ecosystem services such as flood control or self-purification. The social setting of restoration projects, with a range of potential conflicts, significantly reduces scale of most interventions to a size with little room, or wish, for natural processes. We show that projects sizes are still very small and that the restoration target is not to recover natural geomorphic processes but rather to fulfil human perception of what a nice stream looks like. One case from Danish lowland streams, using a space-for-time substitution approach, shows excess use of pebble and gravel when restoring channelized sandy bottom streams, de-coupling the link between energy and substrate characteristics that are found in natural lowland systems. This has implication for both the biological structure and functioning of these systems as a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity was not found in restored streams, while the density of grazer increased indicating an increased use of periphyton as a basal resource. Another case of adding woody debris to UK lowland streams, using a BACI study design, showed very little effect on the macroinvertebrate community even after a 100-year flood, which indicate that added tree trunks did not provide additional flow refugia. We suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers.

  14. Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum): Validation of a questionnaire investigating subthreshold autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Gesi, C; Massimetti, E; Cremone, I M; Barbuti, M; Maccariello, G; Moroni, I; Barlati, S; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Bossini, L; Rocchetti, M; Signorelli, M; Aguglia, E; Fagiolini, A; Politi, P; Ricca, V; Vita, A; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2017-02-01

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum. The AdAS Spectrum demonstrated excellent internal consistency for the total score (Kuder-Richardson's coefficient=.964) as well as for five out of seven domains (all coefficients>.80) and sound test-retest reliability (ICC=.976). The total and domain AdAS Spectrum scores showed a moderate to strong (>.50) positive correlation with one another and with the AQ and RAADS-14 total scores. ASDc subjects reported significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than both FED (pcriteria (FED 0 ) and those with one ASD symptom criterion (FED 1 ) , a gradient of severity in AdAS Spectrum scores from CTL subjects to ASD patients, across FED 0 , ASD 1 , FED 1 was shown. The AdAS Spectrum showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and strong convergent validity with alternative dimensional measures of ASD. The questionnaire performed differently among the three diagnostic groups and enlightened some significant effects of gender in the expression of autistic traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  16. Psycholegal abilities and restoration of competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; Deyoung, Nathaniel J

    2012-01-01

    Criminal defendants adjudicated incompetent to stand trial are typically hospitalized for competence restoration in state institutions. Prolonged restoration hospitalizations involve civil rights concerns and increasing financial costs, and there remains interest in determining which individuals are likely to be successfully restored. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of 455 male defendants admitted to a forensic treatment center for competence restoration in an effort to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses, demographic factors, or psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful or failed restoration. At varying stages of restoration efforts, psychotic disorder, mental retardation, and previous state hospitalization predicted unsuccessful restoration, while substance use and personality disorders were predictive of successful restoration. Psycholegal abilities were predictive of successful restoration and appeared to form a continuum, with basic behavior and outlook, factual legal understanding, and rational attorney assistance factors demonstrating progressively increased importance in successful restoration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The state-of-the-art of ART restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-04-01

    ART is less anxiety- and pain-provoking than traditional restorative treatments; administration of local anaesthesia is rarely required. Systematic reviews have provided evidence of the high level of effectiveness of high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restoration in restoring single-surface cavities, both in primary and permanent posterior teeth, but its survival rates in restoring multiple-surface cavities in primary posterior teeth needs to be improved. Insufficient information is available regarding the survival rates of multiple-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth. Evidence from these reviews indicates no difference in the survival rates of single-surface high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations and amalgam restorations in primary and permanent posterior teeth. Where indicated, high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations can be used alongside traditional restorations. ART provides a much more acceptable introduction to dental restorative care than the traditional 'injection, drill and fill'.

  18. Neutron spectrum unfolding: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiullah; Wiyaja, D.S.; Berzonis, M.A.; Bondars, H.; Lapenas, A.A.; Kudo, K.; Majeed, A.; Durrani, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described the use of the computer code SAIPS in neutron spectrum unfolding. Here in Part II, we present our experimental work carried out to study the shape of the neutron spectrum in different experimental channels of a 5 MW light-water cooled and moderated research reactor. The spectral neutron flux was determined using various fission foils (placed in close contact with mica track detectors) and activation detectors. From the measured activities, the neutron spectrum was unfolded by SAIPS. (author)

  19. Hardware architecture design of image restoration based on time-frequency domain computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Jiao, Zipeng

    2013-10-01

    The image restoration algorithms based on time-frequency domain computation is high maturity and applied widely in engineering. To solve the high-speed implementation of these algorithms, the TFDC hardware architecture is proposed. Firstly, the main module is designed, by analyzing the common processing and numerical calculation. Then, to improve the commonality, the iteration control module is planed for iterative algorithms. In addition, to reduce the computational cost and memory requirements, the necessary optimizations are suggested for the time-consuming module, which include two-dimensional FFT/IFFT and the plural calculation. Eventually, the TFDC hardware architecture is adopted for hardware design of real-time image restoration system. The result proves that, the TFDC hardware architecture and its optimizations can be applied to image restoration algorithms based on TFDC, with good algorithm commonality, hardware realizability and high efficiency.

  20. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  1. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  2. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  3. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... these regulations on June 10, 2010, to address changes in law, regulation, policy, technology, and... Service 50 CFR Part 80 Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter... 80 [Docket No. FWS-R9-WSR-2009-0088; 91400-5110-POLI-7B; 91400-9410-POLI- 7B] RIN 1018-AW65 Financial...

  4. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  5. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  6. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  7. Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and channel morphology, and hydrologic regime to define conditions promoting distinct floodplain forest assemblages. Species assemblages were dominated by floodplain-associated trees on surfaces experiencing flood durations between 4.5 and 91 days/year, which were generally well below the stage of the two-year recurrence interval flood, a widely-used benchmark for floodplain restoration. These tree species rarely occurred on surfaces that flooded less than 1 day/year. By contrast abundance of most woody invasive species decreased with flooding. Such flood-prone surfaces were jointly determined by characteristics of the hydrograph (high discharges of long duration and topography (low gradient and reduced valley constraint, resulting in increased availability of floodplain habitat with increasing watershed area and/or decreasing stream gradient. Downstream mainstem reaches provided the most floodplain habitat, largely associated with low-energy features such as back swamps and point bars, and were dominated by silver maple (Acer saccharinum. However, we were able to identify a number of suitable sites in the upper part of the basin and in large tributaries, often associated with in-channel islands and bars and frequently dominated by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis and flood disturbance-dependent species. Our results imply that restoring flows by modifying dam operations to benefit floodplain forests on existing surfaces need not conflict with flood protection in some regional settings. These results underscore the need to understand how flow, geomorphology, and species traits

  8. Evaluation of color stability of different temporary restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Quinelli Mazaro

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionTemporary restorative materials are widely used, however, little is know about their color stability.Objectiveto evaluate the color stability of the following temporary restorative materials: acrylic and bis-acrylic resins after immersion in pigmenting solutions for different periods of storage.Material and methodFour materials were tested (Dêncor/Clássico, Protemp 4/3M ESPE; Structur 2 SC/Voco; Luxatemp AM Plus/DMG and 30 test specimens (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick per material were fabricated. They were divided according to the storage medium (artificial saliva, saliva + cola type soda, and saliva + coffee and storage time intervals (2, 5, 7 and 15 days. Color measurements were made before and after immersions, with use of a spectrophotometer, by means of the CIE L*a*b* system. The data were analyzed by the analysis of variance and the Tukey Test, at a level of significance of 5%.ResultAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. When bis-acrylic resins were compared no significant difference was observed between the resins Structur and Luxatemp (p=0.767. As regards solutions tested, coffee showed the highest color change values (p<0.001, and the longer the storage time interval, the greater was the color change in all the temporary restorative materials analyzed (p<0.001.ConclusionAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. Coffee caused the greatest color change, and immersion time was determinant in color stability of the temporary materials analyzed.

  9. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  10. The observational approach in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Quinn, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to completing environmental restoration of its facilities within the next 28 years (DOE 1990b). In order to achieve this, DOE must ensure that its restoration activities are both effective and efficient. A key aspect of fulfilling this commitment is the recognition and management of uncertainty that is inherent in waste-site clean-up actions. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the applicability and implementation of what is known as the ''observational approach'' to better address these needs. PNL's initial investigation resulted in the positive conclusion that the observational approach had potential benefit to DOE during environmental restoration. In a follow-on effort, PNL supported by CH2M HILL, has been providing guidance to DOE field-offices on observational approach fundamentals, implementation, and application to waste-site remediation. This paper outlines the fundamentals of the observational approach and discusses the progress in integrating the observational approach in DOE's environmental restoration efforts. 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Symmetrical Processing of Interferogram and Spectrum Reconstruction in Interference Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚建军; 赵达尊

    2003-01-01

    Because of its all-reflective layout based on the Fresnel double-mirror interference system, the newly developed Fourier transform imaging spectrometer has a very large spectral bandwidth ranged from a cut-off wavelength (related to the cut-off wave number σmax) to far infrared. According to the signal's symmetry and wide-band characteristics, a simple method that can efficiently weaken the low frequency noise in the reconstructed spectrum is presented. Also, according to the symmetry, the eigenvector method is applied to the reconstruction of the spectrum.

  12. Imaging spectrum in sclerotic myelomas: an experience of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.B.; Dhar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The classic radiographic presentation of multiple myeloma is lytic skeletal lesions. Primary sclerotic manifestations are rare and occur only in 3 % of cases. The imaging spectrum in three cases of multiple myeloma with primary osteosclerosis is described. The first patient had spiculated sclerosis of the orbit, which is an uncommon site for myeloma. The second patient with POEMS syndrome had multiple, scattered, skeletal lesions with sclerotic margins. The third patient presented with a chest wall mass and had an expansile thick spiculated sclerosis in the rib. The wide imaging spectrum possible in sclerotic myelomas and their relevant differential diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet By Karen Ansel, MS, RDN, CDN Published April 2, 2018 nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological ...

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. The range ...

  15. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  16. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  17. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L; Holmes, S Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  18. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L.; Holmes, S. Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A.

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  19. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  2. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report, [February 12, 1992--April 30, 1994]- Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Costanza, R.

    1994-07-11

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  3. The Potential Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Restoration of Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmelash, Fisseha; Bekele, Tamrat; Birhane, Emiru

    2016-01-01

    Experiences worldwide reveal that degraded lands restoration projects achieve little success or fail. Hence, understanding the underlying causes and accordingly, devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. In doing so, the ever-increasing aspiration and global commitments in degraded lands restoration could be realized. Here we explain that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biotechnology is a potential mechanism to significantly improve the restoration success of degraded lands. There are abundant scientific evidences to demonstrate that AMF significantly improve soil attributes, increase above and belowground biodiversity, significantly improve tree/shrub seedlings survival, growth and establishment on moisture and nutrient stressed soils. AMF have also been shown to drive plant succession and may prevent invasion by alien species. The very few conditions where infective AMF are low in abundance and diversity is when the soil erodes, is disturbed and is devoid of vegetation cover. These are all common features of degraded lands. Meanwhile, degraded lands harbor low levels of infective AMF abundance and diversity. Therefore, the successful restoration of infective AMF can potentially improve the restoration success of degraded lands. Better AMF inoculation effects result when inocula are composed of native fungi instead of exotics, early seral instead of late seral fungi, and are consortia instead of few or single species. Future research efforts should focus on AMF effect on plant community primary productivity and plant competition. Further investigation focusing on forest ecosystems, and carried out at the field condition is highly recommended. Devising cheap and ethically widely accepted inocula production methods and better ways of AMF in situ management for effective restoration of degraded lands will also remain to be important research areas. PMID:27507960

  4. A physical framework for evaluating net effects of wet meadow restoration on late summer streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Nash, C.; Selker, J. S.; Lewis, S.; Noël, P.

    2017-12-01

    Restoration of degraded wet meadows that develop on upland valley floors is intended to achieve a range of ecological benefits. A widely cited benefit is the potential for meadow restoration to augment late-season streamflow; however, there has been little field data demonstrating increased summer flows following restoration. Instead, the hydrologic consequences of restoration have typically been explored using coupled groundwater and surface water flow models at instrumented sites. The expected magnitude and direction of change provided by models has, however, been inconclusive. Here, we assess the streamflow benefit that can be obtained by wet meadow restoration using a parsimonious, physically-based approach. We use a one-dimensional linearized Boussinesq equation with a superimposed solution for changes in storage due to groundwater upwelling and and explicitly calculate evapotranspiration using the White Method. The model accurately predicts water table elevations from field data in the Middle Fork John Day watershed in Oregon, USA. The full solution shows that while raising channel beds can increase total water storage via increases in water table elevation in upland valley bottoms, the contributions of both lateral and longitudinal drainage from restored floodplains to late summer streamflow are undetectably small, while losses in streamflow due to greater transpiration, lower hydraulic gradients, and less drainable pore volume are substantial. Although late-summer streamflow increases should not be expected as a direct result of wet meadow restoration, these approaches offer benefits for improving the quality and health of riparian and meadow vegetation that would warrant considering such measures, even at the cost of increased water demand and reduced streamflow.

  5. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  6. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Tarighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: "gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent" were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  7. Identity Restored: Nesmin's Forensic Facial Reconstruction in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Anđelković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of archaeological human remains stay, for the most part, anonymous and are consequently treated as objects of analysis; not as dead people. With the growing availability of medical imaging and rapidly developing computer technology, 3D digital facial reconstruction, as a noninvasive form of study, offers a successful method of recreating faces from mummified human remains. Forensic facial reconstruction has been utilized for various purposes in scientific investigation, including restoring the physical appearance of the people of ancient civilizations which is an important aspect of their individual identity. Restoring the identity of the Belgrade mummy started in 1991. Along with the absolute dating, gender, age, name, rank and provenance, we also established his genealogy. The owner of Cairo stela 22053 discovered at Akhmim in 1885, and the Belgrade coffin purchased in Luxor in 1888, in which the mummy rests, have been identified as the very same person. Forensic facial reconstruction was used to reproduce, with the highest possible degree of accuracy, the facial appearance of the mummy Nesmin, ca. 300 B.C., a priest from Akhmim, when he was alive.

  8. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  9. Antibacterial agents in composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Azevedo, Marina

    2013-12-17

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which the fermentation of food sugars by bacteria from the biofilm (dental plaque) leads to localised demineralisation of tooth surfaces, which may ultimately result in cavity formation. Resin composites are widely used in dentistry to restore teeth. These restorations can fail for a number of reasons, such as secondary caries, and restorative material fracture and other minor reasons. From these, secondary caries, which are caries lesions developed adjacent to restorations, is the main cause for restorations replacement. The presence of antibacterials in both the filling material and the bonding systems would theoretically be able to affect the initiation and progression of caries adjacent to restorations. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2009. To assess the effects of antibacterial agents incorporated into composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 23 July 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 23 July 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 23 July 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform (www.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing resin composite restorations containing antibacterial agents with composite restorations not containing antibacterial agents. Two review authors conducted screening of studies in duplicate and independently, and although no eligible trials were identified, the two authors had planned to extract data independently and

  10. The rotational spectrum of IBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiemann, E.; Moeller, T.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of IBr was measured in the low rotational transition J = 3 → 2 in order to resolve the hyperfine structure as completely as possible. Rotational constants and quadrupole coupling constants were derived for both nuclei. The observation of the rotational spectrum in different vibrational states yields the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants as well as of the hyperfine parameters. The Dunham potential coefficients α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , α 3 are given. (orig.) [de

  11. Planning for Environmental Restoration in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The restoration in the Slovak Republic concerns to the contaminated banks of the waste water recipient of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. The identified contamination, consisting mainly of 137 Cs, is a result of two accidents on the CO 2 -cooled and heavy water moderated NPP Bohunice-A1 unit of NPP Bohunice complex. Two type of radiation risk scenarios, namely the bank use and contaminated soil (from bank) use scenario were investigated in relation to decision making on the planning for restoration of the contaminated banks. Results of dose assessments and the approach to planning for restoration of contaminated banks are summarized in the paper. Some details from the worked out technical design of the contaminated soil removal from the banks and its safe disposal in a near surface isolated basin are introduced in the paper too

  12. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  13. Restoration of the Serranos Towers in Valencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Mileto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent restoration of the emblematic Serranos Towers carried out by an interdisciplinary team of specialists was an excuse to delve into the history and masonry of the towers, from their initial building and use as a prison to the restorations works practised in the 19th century and subsequent repairs. The cleaning of the walls permitted a direct study of the masonry, which provided a great deal of information that complemented the rigorous historical investigation. The maintenance scheme planned for the future is an interesting proposal, where good sense prevails over improvisation, so often a reality in the restoration of monuments today.

  14. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  15. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  16. Environmental Restoration Program Roadmap: Strategic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a strategic plan for accomplishing environmental restoration objectives at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Waste Management (WM) for environmental restoration activities and integration of these activities into the PORTS WM operations is addressed in this document. The document provides detailed information concerning specific assumptions and activities required to meet DOE's environmental restoration objectives at this site. Environmental contamination at PORTS consists mainly of spent solvents and low level radionuclides. Solvents were used for industrial metal cleaning operations required to maintain the process during operations. Plumes of groundwater contamination resulting from past disposal of these spent solvents in landfills and impoundments extend from several locations within the site. Also, two sludge impoundments associated with a chromate reduction facility were characterized as having soil and groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium

  17. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  18. Design for Restoration: beyond the survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbonara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  This new issue, that we can define special, marks an important change for DISEGNARECON (its transfer from the University of Bologna to the University of L’Aquila facing the topic of the Design for the Restoration in a way that is special too. Treated in fact - beside the outgoing editor in chief, Roberto Mingucci - by Mario Centofanti, who now assumes the responsibility for the magazine, and Giovanni Carbonara, which is definitely authoritative reference in the field. Sharing a strong interest for communicating the Restoration Project, they intended to indicate the substantial union of methods and objectives between the disciplines of architectural survey and of restoration, which makes the meaning of an aggregation now also institutionally formalized and particularly significant for the project on the existing architecture. 

  19. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  20. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  1. Ursolic Acid—A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid with a Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Woźniak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA is a natural terpene compound exhibiting many pharmaceutical properties. In this review the current state of knowledge about the health-promoting properties of this widespread, biologically active compound, as well as information about its occurrence and biosynthesis are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the application of ursolic acid as an anti-cancer agent; it is worth noticing that clinical tests suggesting the possibility of practical use of UA have already been conducted. Amongst other pharmacological properties of UA one can mention protective effect on lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, anti-inflammatory properties, anabolic effects on skeletal muscles and the ability to suppress bone density loss leading to osteoporosis. Ursolic acid also exhibits anti-microbial features against numerous strains of bacteria, HIV and HCV viruses and Plasmodium protozoa causing malaria.

  2. The wide spectrum high biocidal potency of Bioxy formulation when dissolved in water at different concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Dagher, Dori; Ungar, Ken; Robison, Richard; Dagher, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats") are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter ...

  3. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  4. Wide emission spectrum from superluminescent diodes with chirped quantum dot multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.H.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A.; Occhi, L.; Velez, C.

    2005-01-01

    A superluminescent diode (SLED) using chirped multiple InAs quantum dot (QD) layers as the active region is demonstrated. The fabricated QD SLEDs exhibit a large spectral width up to 121 nm, covering the range 1165-1286 nm.

  5. Retinal metabolic events in preconditioning light stress as revealed by wide-spectrum targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, Juan Manuel Chao; Huang, Nuan-Ting; Jiao, Haihan; Tessier, Lydie; Gadras, Cédric; Simard, Gilles; Natoli, Riccardo; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Reynier, Pascal; Valter, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Light is the primary stimulus for vision, but may also cause damage to the retina. Pre-exposing the retina to sub-lethal amount of light (or preconditioning) improves chances for retinal cells to survive acute damaging light stress. This study aims at exploring the changes in retinal metabolome after mild light stress and identifying mechanisms that may be involved in preconditioning. Retinas from 12 rats exposed to mild light stress (1000 lux × for 12 h) and 12 controls were collected one and seven days after light stress (LS). One retina was used for targeted metabolomics analysis using the Biocrates p180 kit while the fellow retina was used for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that in this experiment, a mild LS with retinal immune response and minimal photoreceptor loss occurred. Compared to controls, LS induced an increased concentration in phosphatidylcholines. The concentration in some amino acids and biogenic amines, particularly those related to the nitric oxide pathway (like asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), arginine and citrulline) also increased 1 day after LS. 7 days after LS, the concentration in two sphingomyelins and phenylethylamine was found to be higher. We further found that in controls, retina metabolome was different between males and females: male retinas had an increased concentration in tyrosine, acetyl-ornithine, phosphatidylcholines and (acyl)-carnitines. Besides retinal sexual metabolic dimorphism, this study shows that preconditioning is mostly associated with re-organisation of lipid metabolism and changes in amino acid composition, likely reflecting the involvement of arginine-dependent NO signalling.

  6. The wide spectrum high biocidal potency of Bioxy formulation when dissolved in water at different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds (“quats”) are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans. Aldehydes may be carcinogenic to both human and animals upon repeated exposures, are corrosive, cross-link living tissues and many synthetic materials, and may lose efficacy when pathogens enzymatically adapt to them. Alcohols are flammable and volatile and can be enzymatically degraded by certain bacterial pathogens. Quats are highly irritating to mucous membranes and over time can induce pathogen resistance, especially if they are not alternated with functionally different disinfectants. In contrast, peracetic acid (PAA), a potent oxidizer, liberates hydrogen peroxide (itself a disinfectant), biodegrades to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen, and is at least as efficacious as contact biocides e.g., halogens and aldehydes. Nevertheless, the standard form of liquid PAA is highly corrosive, is neutralized by metals and organic matter, gives off noxious odours and must be stored in vented containers. For the reasons stated above, Bioxy formulations were developed, a series of powder forms of PAA, which are odourless, stable in storage and safe to transport and handle. They generate up to 10% PAA in situ when dissolved in water. A 0.2% aqueous solution of Bioxy (equivalent to 200 ppm PAA) effected a 6.76 log reduction in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within 2 minutes after application. A 5% aqueous solution of Bioxy achieved a 3.93 log reduction in the bovine tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis, within 10 minutes after contact. A 1% solution of Bioxy reduced vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 6.31 and 7.18 logs, respectively, within 3 minutes after application. A 0.5% solution of Bioxy inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) within 15 minutes of contact, and a 5% solution of Bioxy realized a 5.36 log reduction in the spores of Clostridium difficile within 10 minutes of application. In summary, Bioxy is safe and easy to transport and store, poses negligible human, animal and environmental health risks, shows high levels of pathogen control efficacy and does not induce microbial resistance. Further investigations are recommended to explore its use as an industrial biocide. PMID:28207828

  7. RYR1-related myopathies: a wide spectrum of phenotypes throughout life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kusters, B.; Lammens, M.M.; Meijer, R.; Molenaar, J.P.F.; Raaphorst, J.; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.C.; Straathof, C.S.; Sie, L.T.L.; Coo, I.F.M. de; Pol, W.L. van der; Visser, M de; Scheffer, H.; Treves, S.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.; Kamsteeg, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although several recent studies have implicated RYR1 mutations as a common cause of various myopathies and the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait, many of these studies have been limited to certain age groups, confined geographical regions or specific

  8. A wide spectrum of fastidious and ampicillin-susceptible bacteria dominate in animal-caused wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, O.; Johansson, A. V.; Monstein, H.-J.; Nilsson, L. E.; Bredberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the actual occurrence of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacteria (GNOP) in human wounds caused by animals, mostly cat and dog bites and scratches, and with signs of infection. We report a prospective series of 92 wound samples. Routine culturing was combined with a procedure optimised for fastidious GNOP. All GNOP isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. We observed a more prominent role of GNOP, including at least 30 s...

  9. Hearing loss and PRPS1 mutations: Wide spectrum of phenotypes and potential therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.Z.; Xie, D.; Yuan, H.J.; Brouwer, A.P. de; Christodoulou, J.; Yan, D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current literature on phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1)-related diseases and their consequences on hearing function. DESIGN: A literature search of peer-reviewed, published journal articles was conducted in online bibliographic

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies of a Broad Spectrum of Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Johansson, Ada; Polderman, Tinca J C; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Jansen, Philip; Taylor, Michelle; Tong, Xiaoran; Lu, Qing; Burt, Alexandra S; Tiemeier, Henning; Viding, Essi; Plomin, Robert; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant; Beaver, Kevin M; Waldman, Irwin; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Perry, John R B; Munafò, Marcus; LoParo, Devon; Paunio, Tiina; Tiihonen, Jari; Mous, Sabine E; Pappa, Irene; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Watanabe, Kyoko; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Bigdeli, Tim B; Dick, Danielle; Faraone, Stephen V; Popma, Arne; Medland, Sarah E; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Antisocial behavior (ASB) places a large burden on perpetrators, survivors, and society. Twin studies indicate that half of the variation in this trait is genetic. Specific causal genetic variants have, however, not been identified. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide

  11. Expanding sialidosis spectrum by genome-wide screening: NEU1 mutations in adult-onset myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canafoglia, Laura; Robbiano, Angela; Pareyson, Davide; Panzica, Ferruccio; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Venerando, Anna; Gellera, Cinzia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Zara, Federico

    2014-06-03

    To identify the genetic cause of a familial form of late-onset action myoclonus in 2 unrelated patients. Both probands had 2 siblings displaying a similar disorder. Extensive laboratory examinations, including biochemical assessment for urine sialic acid in the 2 probands, were negative. Exome sequencing was performed in the probands using an Illumina platform. Segregation analysis of putative mutations was performed in all family members by standard Sanger sequencing protocols. NEU1 mutations were detected in 3 siblings of each family with prominent cortical myoclonus presenting in the third decade of life and having a mild and slowly progressive course. They did not have macular cherry-red spot and their urinary sialic acid excretion was within normal values. Genetic analysis demonstrated a homozygous mutation in family 1 (c.200G>T, p.S67I) and 2 compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.679G>A, p.G227R; c.913C>T, p.R305C). Our observation indicates that sialidosis should be suspected and the NEU1 gene analyzed in patients with isolated action myoclonus presenting in adulthood in the absence of other typical clinical and laboratory findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianfoni, A.; Caulo, M.; Cerase, A.; Della Marca, G.; Falcone, C.; Di Lella, G.M.; Gaudino, S.; Edwards, J.; Colosimo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention

  13. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  14. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  15. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Regional restoration benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Gilliam, David S.; Goergen, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Sean P.; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Lustic, Caitlin; Maxwell, Kerry; Walter, Cory S.

    2017-12-01

    Coral gardening plays an important role in the recovery of depleted populations of threatened Acropora cervicornis in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, high survival coupled with fast growth of in situ nursery corals have allowed practitioners to create healthy and genotypically diverse nursery stocks. Currently, thousands of corals are propagated and outplanted onto degraded reefs on a yearly basis, representing a substantial increase in the abundance, biomass, and overall footprint of A. cervicornis. Here, we combined an extensive dataset collected by restoration practitioners to document early (1-2 yr) restoration success metrics in Florida and Puerto Rico, USA. By reporting region-specific data on the impacts of fragment collection on donor colonies, survivorship and productivity of nursery corals, and survivorship and productivity of outplanted corals during normal conditions, we provide the basis for a stop-light indicator framework for new or existing restoration programs to evaluate their performance. We show that current restoration methods are very effective, that no excess damage is caused to donor colonies, and that once outplanted, corals behave just as wild colonies. We also provide science-based benchmarks that can be used by programs to evaluate successes and challenges of their efforts, and to make modifications where needed. We propose that up to 10% of the biomass can be collected from healthy, large A. cervicornis donor colonies for nursery propagation. We also propose the following benchmarks for the first year of activities for A. cervicornis restoration: (1) >75% live tissue cover on donor colonies; (2) >80% survivorship of nursery corals; and (3) >70% survivorship of outplanted corals. Finally, we report productivity means of 4.4 cm yr-1 for nursery corals and 4.8 cm yr-1 for outplants as a frame of reference for ranking performance within programs. Such benchmarks, and potential subsequent adaptive actions, are needed to fully assess the

  17. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  19. Genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations: Micronuclei-Based cohort and case–control study in oral exfoliated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeslin Mary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A huge number of people carry dental fillings which contain either mercury-based amalgam and/or the recently introduced methacrylate-based resins. It has been shown that both these materials are known to be leached into the oral cavity and induce genotoxic alterations in the buccal mucosal cells. Because of its low cost and ease of manipulation, dental amalgam is still widely used as a restorative material in developing countries. The health risks associated with the components of this restorative material has always been a matter of concern. The present study was designed to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN in oral mucosal cells as it is a promising tool for studying the genotoxic effect of clastogenic agents on them. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations by measuring the mean number of MN in oral exfoliated cells. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective cohort study which includes a study group consisting of 110 participants. The study sample was equally divided into 55 participants requiring only amalgam restoration and 55 participants requiring only composite restoration in any permanent molar teeth. The same participants before the restoration formed the control group. Smears were obtained from each patient before and 10 days after restoration and were stained with DNA-specific Feulgen stain. The number of cells containing MN out of 500 cells were counted and recorded. After the evaluation of the slides, the results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01 variation in the mean number of MN after the restoration in both amalgam (5.41 ± 1.25 and composite (2.83 ± 0.85 restorations when compared to before the restoration. However, the mean number of MN in composite restoration was significantly less when compared to amalgam restoration. There was also a statistically

  20. All-ceramic restorations: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, F; Carossa, S; Pera, P; Preti, G

    1998-09-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations are reviewed particularly from the aesthetic point of view. All-ceramic restorations offer the best results because they let the light through optimally. In constructing all-ceramic crowns on teeth which have been endodontically treated, the material used to rebuild the pin-abutments must be taken into consideration if the best aesthetic results are to be achieved. Materials which, because of their translucent characteristics, are the most aesthetic alternatives to metal alloy pin-abutments in rebuilding teeth which have been endodontically treated, are then described.