WorldWideScience

Sample records for wide spectrum restorer

  1. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  2. Wide spectrum microwave pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Various techniques are postulated as diagnostics for wide band microwave pulses. The diagnostics include determinations of both the instantaneous amplitude and the frequency content of one-shot pulses. 6 refs., 11 figs. (WRF)

  3. Faciocardiorenal syndrome: a wide clinical spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambila Tapia, A J L; Vásquez Velásque, A I; González Mercado, M G; Macías Chumacera, A; Gutierrez-Amavizca, B E; Lara Aguilar, R A; Pérez Juárez, Canton R; Moreno Andrade, A; Figuera, L E

    2012-01-01

    Faciocardiorenal syndrome (FCRS), also named Eastman-Bixler syndrome, is an apparent autosomal recessive entity, characterized by endocardial fibroelastosis, unusual facial appearance, renal defects and mental retardation. We report a 7 months male patient, with the diagnosis of endocardial fibroelastosis, an abnormal facial appearance (arched eyebrows, broad nasal root, long philtrum and microretrognathia) and psychomotor delay. Associated anomalies were: plagiocephaly, broad halluces, nail hypoplasia, cryptorchidism, diastasis recti, and adducted thumbs. Focal seizures in the mouth were also observed. The radiographs revealed advanced bone age and metaphyseal widening of femur and tibia. FCRS has an unknown etiology with only three reported cases so far (since 1977). We report a patient with the main features of FCRS but without the renal component, suggesting that this entity can present a wide clinical spectrum. Based on these findings and on the few previously reported cases with a highly variable phenotype when compared with the original report, we suggest that FCRS should be further clinical delineated according to the following leading anomalies: endocardial fibroelastosis, unusual facial appearance and mental retardation, in order to find more cases that allow a wider clinical description and the identification of the genetic defect(s).

  4. Is chiral symmetry restored in the excited meson spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernández, F.

    2008-04-01

    The large degeneracy observed in the excited meson spectrum by the Cristal Barrel Collaboration in the experimental data on proton-antiproton annihilation in flight into mesons in the range 1.9-2.4 GeV has been interpreted as a signal of chiral symmetry restoration. In this work we suggest that such degeneracy may be an indication of the confinement potential modification by color screening. The experimental data can be fairly well reproduced in a constituent quark model with a screened linear confinement potential without changing the dynamical quark mass. Observables that could discriminate our model from those which explicitly restore the chiral symmetry are proposed.

  5. Wide Spectrum of Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis in Earthquake Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Atabak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the natural disasters such as earthquake, based on severity of trauma, time under the rubble and quality/quantity of hydratation we will confront with a spectrum of traumatic rhabdomyolysis. In present study we evaluate victims of Bam earthquake to show different stage of muscle trauma, from minor trauma with almost normal level of muscle enzyme to those with moderate trauma leading to crush injury and finally to advanced crush syndrome. Questionnaire consisted of clinical, biochemical and demographic items was designed and completed by our research team retrospectively. We divided the patients to crush and non-crush and also crush injury and crush syndrome, and then compared aforementioned items between them. Clinical and laboratory data of 2962 hospitalized victims, with an average age of 28.4(SD14.2 years (range 1-90 were collected (40% female. 611 patients were affected with crush injury (20%. These were entrapped 2.2 hours longer than the others (P<0.001. Mean IV intake in first 5 days was 3.6(SD2.6 liters for these patients in compare with 2.5(SD1.4 liters for others (P<0.001. 200 cases showed complete feature of crush syndrome. Electrolyte imbalance and systemic complications were drastically increased in the worst patients with crush syndrome. In approach to crushed patients of natural disasters by attention to the wide spectrum of muscle damage and systemic problems, the stepwise management protocol based on severity of traumatic rhabdomyolysis is inevitable and warranted.

  6. Spectrum-to-Spectrum Searching Using a Proteome-wide Spectral Library*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Yu; Houel, Stephane; Ahn, Natalie G.; Old, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The unambiguous assignment of tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) to peptide sequences remains a key unsolved problem in proteomics. Spectral library search strategies have emerged as a promising alternative for peptide identification, in which MS/MS spectra are directly compared against a reference library of confidently assigned spectra. Two problems relate to library size. First, reference spectral libraries are limited to rediscovery of previously identified peptides and are not applicable to new peptides, because of their incomplete coverage of the human proteome. Second, problems arise when searching a spectral library the size of the entire human proteome. We observed that traditional dot product scoring methods do not scale well with spectral library size, showing reduction in sensitivity when library size is increased. We show that this problem can be addressed by optimizing scoring metrics for spectrum-to-spectrum searches with large spectral libraries. MS/MS spectra for the 1.3 million predicted tryptic peptides in the human proteome are simulated using a kinetic fragmentation model (MassAnalyzer version2.1) to create a proteome-wide simulated spectral library. Searches of the simulated library increase MS/MS assignments by 24% compared with Mascot, when using probabilistic and rank based scoring methods. The proteome-wide coverage of the simulated library leads to 11% increase in unique peptide assignments, compared with parallel searches of a reference spectral library. Further improvement is attained when reference spectra and simulated spectra are combined into a hybrid spectral library, yielding 52% increased MS/MS assignments compared with Mascot searches. Our study demonstrates the advantages of using probabilistic and rank based scores to improve performance of spectrum-to-spectrum search strategies. PMID:21532008

  7. Munchausen Syndrome and the Wide Spectrum of Factitious Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Aybek, Selma; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians. All medical specialities are concerned by these disorders. The diagnosis process involves a first step to exclude an unusual presentation of a common medical condition. The second step consists of excluding somatoform disorders and malingering. Unfortunately, the boundaries between factitious disorder, somatization, and malingering are often unclear. In 1977, the term "Munchausen's syndrome by proxy" was coined to define a situation where a person produces false symptoms in another one, especially a child. This term was extended to similar interactions between human and pets. Because varied conditions have been included in the definition of this syndrome, there is ongoing debate about alternative names. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Fast Restoration Based on Alternative Wavelength Paths in a Wide Area Optical IP Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Francesco; Rea, Luca; Venezia, Matteo; Capanna, Lorenzo; Del Prete, Giuseppe

    In this article we describe an experimental investigation of IP network restoration based on wavelength recovery. We propose a procedure for metro and wide area gigabit Ethernet networks that allows us to route the wavelength in case of link failure to another existing link by exploiting wavelength division multiplexing in the fiber. Such a procedure is obtained by means of an optical switch that is managed by a loss-of-light signal that is generated by a router in case of link failure. Such a method has been tested in an IP network consisting of three core routers with optical gigabit Ethernet interfaces connected by means of 50-km-long single-mode fibers between Rome and Pomezia. Compared with other conventional restoration techniques, such as OSPF and MPLS, our method -in very fast (20 ms) and is compatible with real-time TV services and low-cost chips.

  9. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  10. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  11. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Vishal Vishal; Dutta, Satadal; Annema, Anne J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, Bram

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant overlap

  12. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  13. Wide-window angular spectrum method for optical field propagation through ABCD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyang; Guo, Jin; Liu, Lisheng; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng

    2014-10-01

    The wide-window angular spectrum (WWAS) method is proposed to simulate field propagation through paraxial optical systems, mainly based on the Collins formula and the scaled Fourier transform (SFT). The application of the SFT algorithm makes the sampling processes in the input space, output space and spatial-frequency domains completely independent, and as a result, we can choose a larger calculation window size for simulating long-distance propagation without increasing the calculation burden. The sampling criteria are derived analytically and used in the numerical simulations to present the correctness and effectiveness of the WWAS algorithm. The advantages of the algorithm are shown by making a comparison with other angular spectrum methods for the free-space propagation case.

  14. Genome-wide expression studies in autism spectrum disorder, Rett syndrome, and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, Carla; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2012-01-01

    Though different in their aetiology, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome (RTT) and Down syndrome (DS) are three neurodevelopmental disorders sharing significant clinical and neuropathological overlaps. Genome-wide expression studies are reviewed and available datasets from post-mortem brains reanalyzed to identify genes and gene pathways dysregulated in all three disorders. Our results surprisingly converge upon immune, and not neurodevelopmental genes, as the most consistently shared abnormality in genome-wide expression patterns. A dysregulated immune response, accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial metabolism seemingly represents the common molecular underpinning of these neurodevelopmental disorders. This conclusion may be important for the definition of pharmacological therapies able to ameliorate clinical symptoms across these disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Xuexian; Guo, Liping; Qi, Tingxiang; Wang, Hailin; Zhang, Jinfa; Xing, Chaozhu

    2017-06-08

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by the cytoplasm from Gossypium harknessii (D2) is an important system for hybrid seed production in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum). The male sterility of CMS-D2 (i.e., A line) can be restored to fertility by a restorer (i.e., R line) carrying the restorer gene Rf1 transferred from the D2 nuclear genome. However, the molecular mechanisms of CMS-D2 and its restoration are poorly understood. In this study, a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in flower buds among the isogenic fertile R line and sterile A line derived from a backcross population (BC 8 F 1 ) and the recurrent parent, i.e., the maintainer (B line). A total of 1464 DEGs were identified among the three isogenic lines, and the Rf1-carrying Chr_D05 and its homeologous Chr_A05 had more DEGs than other chromosomes. The results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed differences in circadian rhythm between the fertile and sterile lines. Eleven DEGs were selected for validation using qRT-PCR, confirming the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, the differential expression profiles of CMS-D2 and its maintainer and restorer lines in Upland cotton were identified. Our results provide an important foundation for further studies into the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between the restorer gene Rf1 and the CMS-D2 cytoplasm.

  16. Is there a species spectrum within the world-wide leaf economics spectrum? Major variations in leaf functional traits in the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo

    2015-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum is a general concept describing coordinated variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits across resource gradients. Yet, within this concept,the role of within-species variation, including ecotypic and plastic variation components, has been largely neglected. This study hypothesized that there is a within-species economics spectrum within the general spectrum in the evergreen sclerophyll Quercus ilex which dominates low resource ecosystems over an exceptionally wide range. An extensive database of foliage traits covering the full species range was constructed, and improved filtering algorithms were developed. Standardized data filtering was deemed absolutely essential as additional variation sources can result in trait variation of 10–300%,blurring the broad relationships. Strong trait variation, c. two-fold for most traits to up to almost an order of magnitude, was uncovered.Although the Q. ilex spectrum is part of the general spectrum, within-species trait and climatic relationships in this species partly differed from the overall spectrum. Contrary to world-wide trends, Q. ilex does not necessarily have a low nitrogen content per mass and can increase photosynthetic capacity with increasing foliage robustness. This study argues that the within-species economics spectrum needs to be considered in regional- to biome-level analyses.

  17. Wide-Spectrum Microscope with a Long Working Distance Aspherical Objective Based on Obscuration Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for an initial configuration design based on obscuration constraint and on-axis Taylor series expansion to realize the design of long working distance microscope (numerical aperture (NA = 0.13 and working distance (WD = 525 mm with a low obscuration aspherical Schwarzschild objective in wide-spectrum imaging (λ = 400–900 nm. Experiments of the testing on the resolution target and inspection on United States Air Force (USAF resolution chart and a line charge-coupled device (CCD (pixel size of 14 μm × 56 μm with different wavelength light sources (λ = 480 nm, 550 nm, 660 nm, 850 nm were implemented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Moving into the wide clinical spectrum of consciousness disorders: Pearls, perils and pitfalls

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    Rocco Salvatore Calabrò

    2016-01-01

    Transient loss of consciousness can be due to alterations in cerebral blood flow leading to fainting or syncope, migraine, metabolic dysfunctions, unexpected intracranial pressure increases, epileptic seizures, and sleep disorders. Chronic disorders of consciousness are a tragic success of high-technology treatment, in an attempt to maintain or reestablish brain function, which is to be considered as the main goal of therapeutics. Management of vegetative or a minimally conscious state individuals involves charily getting the right diagnosis with an evidence-based prognosis, also taking into account the medical, ethical, and legal key factors of the ideal treatment. This paper is aimed at exploring the wide spectrum of consciousness disorders and their clinical differential diagnosis, with particular regards to those with a negative impact on patient and their caregiver quality of life, including epilepsy, sleep disorders, and vegetative/minimally conscious state.

  19. Effect of Abutment Height on Retention of Single Cementretained, Wide- and Narrow-platform Implant-supported Restorations

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    Fariba Saleh Saber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. In contrast to prepared natural dentin abutments, little is known concerning factors influencing the retention of fixed prostheses cemented to implant abutments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment height on the retention of single castings cemented to wide and narrow platform implant abutments. Materials and methods. Thirty-six parallel-sided abutments (Biohorizon Straight Abutment of narrow platform (NP and wide platform (WP sizes with their analogs were used. In each group of platform size, abutments were prepared with axial wall heights of 5, 4, 3, 2 mm (n=9. On the whole 72 castings were constructed, which incorporated an attachment to allow removal. Castings were cemented to abutments with TempBond®. A uniaxial tensile force was applied to the crown using an Instron machine until cement failure occurred. Analysis of variance of the models were fit to determine the effect of height of abutment of the restorations on the mean tensile strength (α=0.05. Results. The mean peak removal force for corresponding abutments was significantly different (P NP; (2 with alteration of axial wall height for NP: 5 mm > 4 mm > 3 mm = 2 mm and for WP: 5 mm > 4 mm = 3 mm = 2 mm. Conclusion. The retention of NP cement-retained restorations is influenced by the wall height but not in same manner as WP. Restorations of narrow-platform size with longer abutment exhibited higher tensile resistance to dislodgement.

  20. Regenerant Arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J; Klingler, John P; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2011-08-23

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acanthamoeba Keratitis: A 12-Year Experience Covering a Wide Spectrum of Presentations, Diagnoses, and Outcomes

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    Michael A. Page

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review characteristics of confocal microscopy, clinical presentation, and clinical outcome in 372 cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK from 1999 to 2011. Methods. A retrospective case review was performed on 372 cases of AK diagnosed by confocal microscopy (CFM at a single institution in Portland, Oregon, from 1999 to 2011. A numbered grading system was devised for describing the relative microscopic severity of the AK infections detected. Results. “grade 1,” 94 as “grade 2,” 40 as “grade 3,” and 62 as “grade 4.” Peak incidences occurred during 2000–2002 and 2005–2007. Seasonal variation was noted, with a peak during summer months. For the 231 cases with complete records, 64% indicated a history of soft contact lens use. Nine progressed to multiple failed penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs or enucleation. Conclusion. We report an average of 31 new cases of AK per year from 1999 to 2011. This figure equates to 10.3 new cases/1,000,000/year for the Portland metropolitan area. Patients diagnosed with AK exhibited a wide spectrum of clinical and microscopic characteristics. Soft contact lens use remained the single largest risk factor.

  3. Methylsulfonyl Zn phthalocyanine: A polyvalent and powerful hydrophobic photosensitizer with a wide spectrum of photodynamic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşci, Ümit; Beyreis, Marlena; Tortik, Nicole; Topal, Sevinc Z; Glueck, Michael; Ahsen, Vefa; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Kiesslich, Tobias; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2016-03-01

    The biomedical photodynamic principle is based on the light-induced and photosensitizer-mediated killing of unwanted or harmful cells by overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Motivated by the success of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against several types of tumors, further applications of this approach are constantly identified which require the design and synthesis of novel photosensitizers with specifically tailored properties for a particular clinical application. Hydrophobic photosensitizers are currently gaining attention and hence a tetramethylsulfonyl Zn(II) phthalocyanine (2) was designed with respect to the desired photoproperties. The photodynamic potential of 2 was assessed by the determination of its photophysical and photochemical properties, and by a large range of biological tests including its phototoxicity against cancer cells and Gram(+) bacteria. Unsubstituted ZnPc was used as a reference compound for comparison purposes. Phthalocyanine 2 has a better oxygen generation and is more photostable than ZnPc. 2 is a polyvalent and powerful hydrophobic photosensitizer with a wide spectrum of photodynamic applications against cancer (tested on A431 cells) and for Gram(+) PDI. Against Staphylococcus aureus, a maximum photokilling efficiency of more than 6 log10 steps was induced by a 5μM concentration of 2, outperforming the 3 log10 criterion for an antimicrobial effect (according to the recommendation of the American Society for Microbiology) by more than three orders of magnitude. Phthalocyanine 2 has attractive photophysical and -chemical characteristics. Initial evaluation of its application in anti-tumor PDT and PDI suggest potential for further pre-clinical and clinical development of this compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wide spectrum of NR5A1-related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2016-12-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF-1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1-related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian-determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1-related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever-expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal dysfunction

  5. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  6. Crown-root Fracture Restoration on a Patient with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Edna; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Guelmann, Marcio

    2016-09-01

    Children with intellectual and physical disabilities including autism are susceptible to dental trauma as a sequela from falls due to poor muscular coordination. In addition, their altered muscle tonus often results in an open bite with labial flaring of the maxillary incisors and lip incompetence, predisposing these teeth to fractures. This case report describes an alternative approach of restoring a fractured maxillary permanent central incisor with a composite strip crown during surgical repositioning of the periodontium on an autistic patient. The prognosis of the incisor is guarded due to the probability of re-injury. However, the decision to maintain the tooth clinically was esthetically preferable in comparison to an extraction or decoronation.

  7. Phosphodiesterase inhibition increases CREB phosphorylation and restores orientation selectivity in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

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    Thomas E Krahe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading cause of mental retardation in the western world and children with FASD present altered somatosensory, auditory and visual processing. There is growing evidence that some of these sensory processing problems may be related to altered cortical maps caused by impaired developmental neuronal plasticity.Here we show that the primary visual cortex of ferrets exposed to alcohol during the third trimester equivalent of human gestation have decreased CREB phosphorylation and poor orientation selectivity revealed by western blotting, optical imaging of intrinsic signals and single-unit extracellular recording techniques. Treating animals several days after the period of alcohol exposure with a phosphodiesterase type 1 inhibitor (Vinpocetine increased CREB phosphorylation and restored orientation selectivity columns and neuronal orientation tuning.These findings suggest that CREB function is important for the maturation of orientation selectivity and that plasticity enhancement by vinpocetine may play a role in the treatment of sensory problems in FASD.

  8. Overexpression of Serum Response Factor in Neurons Restores Ocular Dominance Plasticity in a Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, W Alex; Medina, Alexandre E

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in neuronal plasticity underlie many neurobehavioral and cognitive problems presented in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Our laboratory has developed a ferret model showing that early alcohol exposure leads to a persistent disruption in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). For instance, a few days of monocular deprivation results in a robust reduction of visual cortex neurons' responsiveness to stimulation of the deprived eye in normal animals, but not in ferrets with early alcohol exposure. Previously our laboratory demonstrated that overexpression of serum response factor (SRF) exclusively in astrocytes can improve neuronal plasticity in FASD. Here, we test whether neuronal overexpression of SRF can achieve similar effects. Ferrets received 3.5 g/kg alcohol intraperitoneally (25% in saline) or saline as control every other day between postnatal day 10 to 30, which is roughly equivalent to the third trimester of human gestation. Animals were given intracortical injections of a Herpes Simplex Virus-based vector to express either green fluorescent protein or a constitutively active form of SRF in infected neurons. They were then monocularly deprived by eyelid suture for 4 to 5 days after which single-unit recordings were conducted to determine whether changes in ocular dominance had occurred. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of SRF by neurons restored ODP in alcohol-treated animals. This effect was observed only in areas near the site of viral infection. Overexpression of SRF in neurons can restore plasticity in the ferret model of FASD, but only in areas near the site of infection. This contrasts with SRF overexpression in astrocytes which restored plasticity throughout the visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Plant-wide quantitative assessment of a process industry system's operating state based on color-spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Sun; Jianmin, Gao; Zhiyong, Gao; Hongquan, Jiang; Xu, Gao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to assess the operating state of a process industry system quantitatively based on meshing the theory of scientific data visualization and digital image processing. First, a series of color-spectrum, which represent the operating state of the system, is formed by mapping the monitor data set to a group of digital color images. Second, the common feature of color-spectrum, which is named benchmark-color-spectrum, is extracted as a standard of the normal state. Third, the abnormal degree can be quantified by calculating the difference of the benchmark-color-spectrum with observed color-spectrum. At last, a plant-wide operating state of the system in a period of time can be shown by plotting quantitative abnormal degree. Two case is included to illustrate the proposed method and its appropriateness. One is a general process industry system simulator named Tennessee Eastman Process. Another is an air compressor group which belongs to a real chemical plant.

  10. Two-dimensional semimetal in wide HgTe quantum wells: Charge-carrier energy spectrum and magnetotransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germanenko, A. V., E-mail: Alexander.Germanenko@usu.ru [Ural Federal University, Institute of Natural Sciences (Russian Federation); Minkov, G. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Rut, O. E. [Ural Federal University, Institute of Natural Sciences (Russian Federation); Sherstobitov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The magnetoresistivity and the Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas effects in heterostructures with a single 20.2-nm-wide quantum well made from the gapless semiconductor HgTe are studied experimentally. The measurements are performed on gated samples over a wide range of electron and hole densities. The data obtained are used to reconstruct the energy spectrum of electrons and holes in the vicinity of the extrema of the quantum-confinement subbands. It is shown that the charge-carrier dispersion relation in the investigated systems differs from that calculated within the framework of the conventional kp model.

  11. Quantitative restoration the Gulf of Mexico continental margins based on a newly-derived, basin-wide, crustal thickness map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2016-12-01

    For decades, one of the main difficulties for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is quantifying the amount of crustal thinning of its deeply-buried and salt-covered continental margins formed during the Triassic-Jurassic rifting. In this study, we present a new crustal thickness map for the entire GOM and its surrounding areas based on integration of: 1) depth to basement compilation of previous seismic refraction and well data; and 2) regional estimation of Moho depths from 3D gravity inversion. Gravity modeling of salt thickness and Moho depth provide new constraints on crustal thickness in areas where refraction and well data are not available from both the US and Mexican GOM. Our derived crustal thickness map shows a zone of stretched continental crust with an average thickness of 20 km extending 700 km from the Ouachita foldbelt to the Sigsbee escarpment and in a 200-km-wide zone along the north and NW edge of the Yucatan block. To fully reconstruct the GOM to its pre-rift stage, we first close the late Jurassic oceanic part of the deep GOM using the traces of oceanic transform faults mapped from satellite gravity data. We then use our crustal thickness map to restore the thinned continental crust of the conjugate margins. Restoring the Yucatan block in a NW-SE direction produces the optimal, closed-fit model which supports a two-phase, GOM opening concept with early asymmetrical rifting across a broader, more extended, North American lower plate ( 250 km) in the northern, US GOM and a narrower, less extended, Yucatan upper plate ( 100 km) in the southern, Mexican GOM. Our full-fit reconstruction shows a single, post-rift Louann-Campeche salt-filled sag basin and re-aligned Paleozoic magnetic trends between the Yucatan block and Florida.

  12. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma in the Male Breast: A Rare Endpoint of a Wide Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fibrocystic disease of the male breast is uncommon. The presence of a spectrum of changes ranging from fibrocystic disease to duct papilloma to papillary carcinoma in the same patient renders the case a rarity and therefore reportable. Case Report. A case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the male breast is presented. Discussion. The pathological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic options are discussed after reviewing the literature. Conclusion. Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance is the safest option for established cases.

  13. Hearing loss and PRPS1 mutations: Wide spectrum of phenotypes and potential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue Zhong; Xie, Dinghua; Yuan, Hui Jun; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Christodoulou, John; Yan, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current literature on phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1)-related diseases and their consequences on hearing function. A literature search of peer-reviewed, published journal articles was conducted in online bibliographic databases. Three databases for medical research were included in this review. Mutations in PRPS1 are associated with a spectrum of non-syndromic to syndromic hearing loss. Hearing loss in male patients with PRPS1 mutations is bilateral, moderate to profound, and can be prelingual or postlingual, progressive or non-progressive. Audiogram shapes associated with PRPS1 deafness are usually residual and flat. Female carriers can have unilateral or bilateral hearing impairment. Gain of function mutations in PRPS1 cause a superactivity of the PRS-I protein whereas the loss-of-function mutations result in X-linked nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness type 2 (DFN2), or in syndromic deafness including Arts syndrome and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5). Lower residual activity in PRS-I leads to a more severe clinical manifestation. Clinical and molecular findings suggest that the four PRPS1 disorders discovered to date belong to the same disease spectrum. Dietary supplementation with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) appeared to alleviate the symptoms of Arts syndrome patients, suggesting that SAM could compensate for PRS-I deficiency.

  14. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tunable scattered colors over a wide spectrum from a single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youju; Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2013-08-01

    By controlling the thickness of the silver shell, Au-Ag core-shell nanorods with quadruple plasmonic peaks corresponding to red, green, violet and deep violet regions have been prepared. Additionally, under polarized light, we achieved tunability of scattered colors from a single nanoparticle over an exceptionally wide wavelength range. The observed colors include red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple.By controlling the thickness of the silver shell, Au-Ag core-shell nanorods with quadruple plasmonic peaks corresponding to red, green, violet and deep violet regions have been prepared. Additionally, under polarized light, we achieved tunability of scattered colors from a single nanoparticle over an exceptionally wide wavelength range. The observed colors include red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02718j

  16. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Eisenmann

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  17. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  18. A Wide Spectrum of Solar Science for After School Astronomy Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Lou; Thieman, James R.

    2008-01-01

    After School Astronomy clubs are an important method of exposing students to astronomy at the critical middle school age when sparking an interest can inspire a lifelong career or hobby. We know that teachers complain that they can spend little time on astronomy in the classroom since they must teach to the test and the curriculum requirements do not have very extensive astronomy coverage. We also know that space is a very popular subject with students that can motivate them to join an after school club. One of the problems with after school astronomy clubs is that they don't often have a chance to observe the night sky. We propose to train club mentors on how to do daytime solar observing so students fulfill the IYA goal of looking through a telescope. We propose to provide a half day workshop for elementary and middle school teachers on starting and maintaining After School Astronomy clubs with special emphasis on observing the Sun not only in the visible spectrum but with radio waves and other parts of the spectrum as well. We will use NASA-oriented or NASA-funded educational materials and websites to bring a variety of ideas to the mentors and a broad knowledge of astronomy to the students. Attendees will be given an overview of the science of the Sun and how it can affect us on the Earth. They will be shown the dynamic nature of the Sun and what to look for to track the events happening there. The educators will be shown simple approaches to directly observing the Sun such as pinhole cameras, use of projection techniques with telescopes or binoculars, etc. They will be acquainted with sunspotter scopes and the advantages and disadvantages (such as expense) they pose for getting students involved. We will also point out the possibilities of using regular telescopes with solar filters and the specialized solar viewing telescopes such as the Coronado. Once the educators are comfortable with the simple approaches to viewing the Sun we will expose them to advanced

  19. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T

    2016-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 um-long coupled L0-type photonic crystalmicrocavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystalmicrocavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystalmicrocavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 us, and a fall time of 18.5 us. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as l...

  20. Resveratrol restores Nrf2 level and prevents ethanol-induced toxic effects in the cerebellum of a rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ambrish; Singh, Chandra K; Lavoie, Holly A; Dipette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2011-09-01

    In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy produces a wide range of abnormalities in infants collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal malformations in FASD manifest as postnatal behavioral and functional disturbances. The cerebellum is particularly sensitive to ethanol during development. In a rodent model of FASD, high doses of ethanol (blood ethanol concentration 80 mM) induces neuronal cell death in the cerebellum. However, information on potential agent(s) that may protect the cerebellum against the toxic effects of ethanol is lacking. Growing evidence suggests that a polyphenolic compound, resveratrol, has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we studied whether resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in red grapes and blueberries, protects the cerebellar granule neurons against ethanol-induced cell death. In the present study, we showed that administration of resveratrol (100 mg/kg) to postnatal day 7 rat pups prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species in the external granule layer of the cerebellum and increases the survival of cerebellar granule cells. It restores ethanol-induced changes in the level of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid derived 2-like 2 (nfe2l2, also known as Nrf2) in the nucleus. This in turn retains the expression and activity of its downstream gene targets such as NADPH quinine oxidoreductase 1 and superoxide dismutase in cerebellum of ethanol-exposed pups. These studies indicate that resveratrol exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebellum by acting at redox regulating proteins in a rodent model of FASD.

  1. Combined genome-wide linkage and targeted association analysis of head circumference in autism spectrum disorder families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Smith, M; Bilder, D A; Morgan, J; Jerominski, L; Darlington, T; Dyer, T; Paterson, A D; Coon, H

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there is an association between enlarged head circumference (HC) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the genetics of HC in ASD is not well understood. In order to investigate the genetic underpinning of HC in ASD, we undertook a genome-wide linkage study of HC followed by linkage signal targeted association among a sample of 67 extended pedigrees with ASD. HC measurements on members of 67 multiplex ASD extended pedigrees were used as a quantitative trait in a genome-wide linkage analysis. The Illumina 6K SNP linkage panel was used, and analyses were carried out using the SOLAR implemented variance components model. Loci identified in this way formed the target for subsequent association analysis using the Illumina OmniExpress chip and imputed genotypes. A modification of the qTDT was used as implemented in SOLAR. We identified a linkage signal spanning 6p21.31 to 6p22.2 (maximum LOD = 3.4). Although targeted association did not find evidence of association with any SNP overall, in one family with the strongest evidence of linkage, there was evidence for association (rs17586672, p = 1.72E-07). Although this region does not overlap with ASD linkage signals in these same samples, it has been associated with other psychiatric risk, including ADHD, developmental dyslexia, schizophrenia, specific language impairment, and juvenile bipolar disorder. The genome-wide significant linkage signal represents the first reported observation of a potential quantitative trait locus for HC in ASD and may be relevant in the context of complex multivariate risk likely leading to ASD.

  2. Affected female carriers of MTM1 mutations display a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological involvement: delineating diagnostic clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Valérie; Scheidecker, Sophie; Miguet, Marguerite; Laquerrière, Annie; Romero, Norma B; Stojkovic, Tanya; Abath Neto, Osorio; Mercier, Sandra; Voermans, Nicol; Tanner, Laura; Rogers, Curtis; Ollagnon-Roman, Elisabeth; Roper, Helen; Boutte, Célia; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Lornage, Xavière; Vasli, Nasim; Schaefer, Elise; Laforet, Pascal; Pouget, Jean; Moerman, Alexandre; Pasquier, Laurent; Marcorelle, Pascale; Magot, Armelle; Küsters, Benno; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Tranchant, Christine; Dondaine, Nicolas; Schneider, Raphael; Gasnier, Claire; Calmels, Nadège; Kremer, Valérie; Nguyen, Karine; Perrier, Julie; Kamsteeg, Erik Jan; Carlier, Pierre; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Thompson, Julie; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Fardeau, Michel; Zanoteli, Edmar; Eymard, Bruno; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2017-12-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a severe congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene located on the X chromosome. A majority of affected males die in the early postnatal period, whereas female carriers are believed to be usually asymptomatic. Nevertheless, several affected females have been reported. To assess the phenotypic and pathological spectra of carrier females and to delineate diagnostic clues, we characterized 17 new unrelated affected females and performed a detailed comparison with previously reported cases at the clinical, muscle imaging, histological, ultrastructural and molecular levels. Taken together, the analysis of this large cohort of 43 cases highlights a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from severe neonatal and generalized weakness, similar to XLMTM male, to milder adult forms. Several females show a decline in respiratory function. Asymmetric weakness is a noteworthy frequent specific feature potentially correlated to an increased prevalence of highly skewed X inactivation. Asymmetry of growth was also noted. Other diagnostic clues include facial weakness, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, skeletal and joint abnormalities, and histopathological signs that are hallmarks of centronuclear myopathy such as centralized nuclei and necklace fibers. The histopathological findings also demonstrate a general disorganization of muscle structure in addition to these specific hallmarks. Thus, MTM1 mutations in carrier females define a specific myopathy, which may be independent of the presence of an XLMTM male in the family. As several of the reported affected females carry large heterozygous MTM1 deletions not detectable by Sanger sequencing, and as milder phenotypes present as adult-onset limb-girdle myopathy, the prevalence of this myopathy is likely to be greatly underestimated. This report should aid diagnosis and thus the clinical management and genetic counseling of MTM1 carrier females. Furthermore, the clinical and

  3. Commentary: Addressing Racial Disparities in Stroke: The Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert J; Ellis, Charles; Magwood, Gayenell; Kindy, Mark S; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lackland, Daniel T

    2018-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery." As a result, three related projects (basic science, clinical science and population science) were designed utilizing animal modeling, mapping of brain connections, and community-based interventions. In this article we describe: 1) the goals and objectives of the individual projects; and 2) how these projects could provide critical evidence to explain why racial-ethnic minorities traditionally experience recovery trajectories that are worse than Whites.

  4. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene® fixed samples compared to restored FFPE DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, p...

  5. Genome-wide linkage analyses of two repetitive behavior phenotypes in Utah pedigrees with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Dale S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that efforts to identify genetic risk markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD would benefit from the analysis of more narrowly defined ASD phenotypes. Previous research indicates that 'insistence on sameness' (IS and 'repetitive sensory-motor actions' (RSMA are two factors within the ASD 'repetitive and stereotyped behavior' domain. The primary aim of this study was to identify genetic risk markers of both factors to allow comparison of those markers with one another and with markers found in the same set of pedigrees using ASD diagnosis as the phenotype. Thus, we empirically addresses the possibilities that more narrowly defined phenotypes improve linkage analysis signals and that different narrowly defined phenotypes are associated with different loci. Secondary aims were to examine the correlates of IS and RSMA and to assess the heritability of both scales. Methods A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted with a sample of 70 multiplex ASD pedigrees using IS and RSMA as phenotypes. Genotyping services were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the 6 K single nucleotide polymorphism linkage panel. Analysis was done using the multipoint linkage software program MCLINK, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method that allows for multilocus linkage analysis on large extended pedigrees. Results Genome-wide significance was observed for IS at 2q37.1-q37.3 (dominant model heterogeneity lod score (hlod 3.42 and for RSMA at 15q13.1-q14 (recessive model hlod 3.93. We found some linkage signals that overlapped and others that were not observed in our previous linkage analysis of the ASD phenotype in the same pedigrees, and regions varied in the range of phenotypes with which they were linked. A new finding with respect to IS was that it is positively associated with IQ if the IS-RSMA correlation is statistically controlled. Conclusions The finding that IS and RSMA are linked to different

  6. Identifying Loci for the Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-wide QTL Linkage Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen. V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD

  7. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C Josh; Campbell, Karl J; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-05-11

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short-term, and is being

  8. Archipelago-wide island restoration in the Galápagos Islands: reducing costs of invasive mammal eradication programs and reinvasion risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Carrion

    Full Text Available Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and the ability to eradicate non-native species more cost-effectively. Investments in removing invasive species, however, must be weighed against the risk of reintroduction. One way to reduce reintroduction risks is to eradicate the target invasive species from an entire archipelago, and thus eliminate readily available sources. We illustrate the costs and benefits of this approach with the efforts to remove invasive goats from the Galápagos Islands. Project Isabela, the world's largest island restoration effort to date, removed >140,000 goats from >500,000 ha for a cost of US$10.5 million. Leveraging the capacity built during Project Isabela, and given that goat reintroductions have been common over the past decade, we implemented an archipelago-wide goat eradication strategy. Feral goats remain on three islands in the archipelago, and removal efforts are underway. Efforts on the Galápagos Islands demonstrate that for some species, island size is no longer the limiting factor with respect to eradication. Rather, bureaucratic processes, financing, political will, and stakeholder approval appear to be the new challenges. Eradication efforts have delivered a suite of biodiversity benefits that are in the process of revealing themselves. The costs of rectifying intentional reintroductions are high in terms of financial and human resources. Reducing the archipelago-wide goat density to low levels is a technical approach to reducing reintroduction risk in the short

  9. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Commensal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains Differentially Restore Intestinal and Systemic Adaptive Immune Cell Populations Following Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekciu, Ira; von Klitzing, Eliane; Neumann, Christian; Bacher, Petra; Scheffold, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that were immunosuppressed by antibiotics-induced microbiota depletion. Conventional mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks and perorally reassociated with E. coli, L. johnsonii or with a complex murine microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Analyses at days (d) 7 and 28 revealed that immune cell populations in the small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice were decreased after antibiotic treatment but were completely or at least partially restored upon FMT or by recolonization with the respective bacterial species. Remarkably, L. johnsonii recolonization resulted in the highest CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers in the small intestine and spleen, whereas neither of the commensal species could stably restore those cell populations in the colon until d28. Meanwhile less efficient than FMT, both species increased the frequencies of regulatory T cells and activated dendritic cells and completely restored intestinal memory/effector T cell populations at d28. Furthermore, recolonization with either single species maintained pro- and anti-inflammatory immune functions in parallel. However, FMT could most effectively recover the decreased frequencies of cytokine producing CD4+ lymphocytes in mucosal and systemic compartments. E. coli recolonization increased the production of cytokines such as TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-22, particularly in the small intestine. Conversely, only L. johnsonii recolonization maintained colonic IL-10 production. In summary, FMT appears to be most efficient in the restoration of

  10. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Commensal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains Differentially Restore Intestinal and Systemic Adaptive Immune Cell Populations Following Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ekmekciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that were immunosuppressed by antibiotics-induced microbiota depletion. Conventional mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks and perorally reassociated with E. coli, L. johnsonii or with a complex murine microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT. Analyses at days (d 7 and 28 revealed that immune cell populations in the small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice were decreased after antibiotic treatment but were completely or at least partially restored upon FMT or by recolonization with the respective bacterial species. Remarkably, L. johnsonii recolonization resulted in the highest CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers in the small intestine and spleen, whereas neither of the commensal species could stably restore those cell populations in the colon until d28. Meanwhile less efficient than FMT, both species increased the frequencies of regulatory T cells and activated dendritic cells and completely restored intestinal memory/effector T cell populations at d28. Furthermore, recolonization with either single species maintained pro- and anti-inflammatory immune functions in parallel. However, FMT could most effectively recover the decreased frequencies of cytokine producing CD4+ lymphocytes in mucosal and systemic compartments. E. coli recolonization increased the production of cytokines such as TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-22, particularly in the small intestine. Conversely, only L. johnsonii recolonization maintained colonic IL-10 production. In summary, FMT appears to be most efficient in the

  11. Wide spectrum of NR5A1‐related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz‐de‐Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF‐1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1‐related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype‐phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian‐determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1‐related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever‐expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal

  12. Identifying bvFTD Within the Wide Spectrum of Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: A Clinical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Kerssens, C.J.; Dols, A.; Prins, N.D.; Moller, C.; Schouws, S.N.T.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Sikkes, S.A.M.; Stek, M.L.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be difficult to diagnose because of the extensive differential diagnosis, including many other diseases presenting with a frontal lobe syndrome. We aimed to identify the diagnostic spectrum causing a late onset frontal lobe

  13. Spectrum of choices to restore the smile of a child: An update on current pediatric anterior crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic treatment of severely damaged primary teeth is one of the greatest challenges to pediatric dentists. A wide variety of full coverage esthetic crowns for primary teeth are commercially available in the market. A practitioner should choose convenient, durable, and reliable solution which is fulfilled with complete knowledge of different crown forms. This article on esthetic crowns for children gives an outline of various anterior crowns in a tabular form, reviews their composition, advantages, disadvantages, and selection criteria.

  14. HESS J1427-608: An Unusual Hard, Unbroken Gamma-Ray Spectrum in a Very Wide Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Xin, Yu-Liang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV γ-ray source that spatially overlaps and is thus very likely associated with the unidentified very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J1427-608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power law with an index of 1.85 ± 0.17 in the energy range of 3-500 GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427-608 at a few hundred gigaelectronvolts. This source shows no significant extension and time variation. The broadband GeV to TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427-608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss the possible nature of HESS J1427-608 according to the multiwavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multiwavelength data from radio to VHE γ-rays. The inferred magnetic field strength is a few micro-Gauss, which is smaller than the typical values of supernova remnants (SNRs) and is consistent with some pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). On the other hand, the flat γ-ray spectrum is slightly different from typical PWNe but is similar to that of some known SNRs.

  15. Identifying bvFTD Within the Wide Spectrum of Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: A Clinical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Kerssens, Cora J; Dols, Annemiek; Prins, Niels D; Möller, Christiane; Schouws, Sigfried; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sikkes, Sietske; Stek, Max L; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-10-01

    The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be difficult to diagnose because of the extensive differential diagnosis, including many other diseases presenting with a frontal lobe syndrome. We aimed to identify the diagnostic spectrum causing a late onset frontal lobe syndrome and examine the quality of commonly used instruments to distinguish between bvFTD and non-bvFTD patients, within this syndrome. A total of 137 patients fulfilling the criteria of late onset frontal lobe syndrome, aged 45 to 75 years, were included in a prospective observational study. Diagnoses were made after clinical and neuropsychological examination, and neuroimaging and cerebral spinal fluid results were taken into account. Baseline characteristics and the scores on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI), and Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI) were compared between the bvFTD and the non-bvFTD group. Fifty-five (40%) of the patients received a bvFTD diagnosis (33% probable and 7% possible bvFTD). Fifty-one patients (37%) had a psychiatric disorder, including 20 with major depressive disorder. Thirty-one patients received an alternative neurological, including neurodegenerative, diagnosis. MMSE and FAB scores were unspecific for a particular diagnosis. A score above 12 on the positive FBI subscale or a score above 5 on the SRI were indicative of a bvFTD diagnosis. A broad spectrum of both neurological and psychiatric disorders underlies late onset frontal lobe syndrome, of which bvFTD was the most prevalent diagnosis in our cohort. The commonly used MMSE and the FAB could not successfully distinguish between bvFTD and non-bvFTD, but this could be achieved with the more specific FBI and SRI. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketogenic diet restores aberrant cortical motor maps and excitation-to-inhibition imbalance in the BTBR mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacklyn; Rho, Jong M; Teskey, G Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and restricted and/or repetitive motor behaviors. Amongst the diverse hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of ASD, one possibility is that there is increased neuronal excitation, leading to alterations in sensory processing, functional integration and behavior. Meanwhile, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD), traditionally used in the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy, has already been shown to reduce autistic behaviors in both humans and in rodent models of ASD. While the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear, we hypothesized that this dietary approach might shift the balance of excitation and inhibition towards more normal levels of inhibition. Using high-resolution intracortical microstimulation, we investigated basal sensorimotor excitation/inhibition in the BTBR T+Itpr(tf)/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and tested whether the KD restores the balance of excitation/inhibition. We found that BTBR mice had lower movement thresholds and larger motor maps indicative of higher excitation/inhibition compared to C57BL/6J (B6) controls, and that the KD reversed both these abnormalities. Collectively, our results afford a greater understanding of cortical excitation/inhibition balance in ASD and may help expedite the development of therapeutic approaches aimed at improving functional outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burke, Christopher J. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: zberta@cfa.harvard.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2012-03-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 {mu}m. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2{sigma}, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 {mu}m in diameter.

  18. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  19. Beyond the midbrain atrophy: wide spectrum of structural MRI finding in cases of pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Keita; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Shimoji, Keigo [Tokyo Metropolitan Medical Center of Gerontology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, Shigeo; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Morimoto, Satoru [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Ikuko [National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital, Department of Neurology, Nagoya (Japan); Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Matsukawa, Noriyuki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Nagoya (Japan); Hashizume, Yoshio [Fukushimura Hospital, Choju Medical Institute, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Recently, it has been recognized that pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases are classified into various clinical subtypes with non-uniform symptoms and imaging findings. This article reviews essential imaging findings, general information, and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for PSP and presents these MRI findings of pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases for educational purposes. With the review of literatures, notably including atypical pathologically proven PSP cases, MRI and clinical information of 15 pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases were retrospectively evaluated. In addition to typical symptoms, PSP patients can exhibit atypical symptoms including levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, pure akinesia, non-fluent aphasia, corticobasal syndrome, and predominant cerebellar ataxia. As well as clinical symptoms, the degree of midbrain atrophy, a well-known imaging hallmark, is not consistent in atypical PSP cases. This fact has important implications for the limitation of midbrain atrophy as a diagnostic imaging biomarker of PSP pathology. Additional evaluation of other imaging findings including various regional atrophies of the globus pallidus, frontal lobe, cerebral peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle is essential for the diagnosis of atypical PSP cases. It is necessary for radiologists to recognize the wide clinical and radiological spectra of typical and atypical PSP cases. (orig.)

  20. Genome-Wide Biases in the Rate and Molecular Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Marcus M; Sung, Way; Sebra, Robert; Lynch, Michael; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2017-01-01

    The vast diversity in nucleotide composition and architecture among bacterial genomes may be partly explained by inherent biases in the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations. Bacterial genomes with multiple chromosomes are relatively unusual but some are relevant to human health, none more so than the causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae Here, we present the genome-wide mutation spectra in wild-type and mismatch repair (MMR) defective backgrounds of two Vibrio species, the low-%GC squid symbiont V. fischeri and the pathogen V. cholerae, collected under conditions that greatly minimize the efficiency of natural selection. In apparent contrast to their high diversity in nature, both wild-type V. fischeri and V. cholerae have among the lowest rates for base-substitution mutations (bpsms) and insertion-deletion mutations (indels) that have been measured, below 10(-)(3)/genome/generation. Vibrio fischeri and V. cholerae have distinct mutation spectra, but both are AT-biased and produce a surprising number of multi-nucleotide indels. Furthermore, the loss of a functional MMR system caused the mutation spectra of these species to converge, implying that the MMR system itself contributes to species-specific mutation patterns. Bpsm and indel rates varied among genome regions, but do not explain the more rapid evolutionary rates of genes on chromosome 2, which likely result from weaker purifying selection. More generally, the very low mutation rates of Vibrio species correlate inversely with their immense population sizes and suggest that selection may not only have maximized replication fidelity but also optimized other polygenic traits relative to the constraints of genetic drift. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Archipelago-Wide Island Restoration in the Galápagos Islands: Reducing Costs of Invasive Mammal Eradication Programs and Reinvasion Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carrion, Victor; Donlan, C. Josh; Campbell, Karl J.; Lavoie, Christian; Cruz, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien mammals are the major driver of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation on islands. Over the past three decades, invasive mammal eradication from islands has become one of society's most powerful tools for preventing extinction of insular endemics and restoring insular ecosystems. As practitioners tackle larger islands for restoration, three factors will heavily influence success and outcomes: the degree of local support, the ability to mitigate for non-target impacts, and ...

  2. Comparative genome analysis of Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reveals a wide spectrum of endophytic lifestyles based on interaction strategies with host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMitter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a naturally occurring plant-associated bacterial endophyte that effectively colonizes a wide range of plants and stimulates their growth and vitality. Here we analyze whole genomes, of PsJN and of eight other endophytic bacteria. This study illustrates that a wide spectrum of endophytic life styles exists. Although we postulate the existence of typical endophytic traits, no unique gene cluster could be exclusively linked to the endophytic lifestyle. Furthermore, our study revealed a high genetic diversity among bacterial endophytes as reflected in their genotypic and phenotypic features. B. phytofirmans PsJN is in many aspects outstanding among the selected endophytes. It has the biggest genome consisting of two chromosomes and one plasmid, well equipped with genes for the degradation of complex organic compounds and detoxification, e.g. 24 glutathione-S-transferase genes. Furthermore, strain PsJN has a high number of cell surface signaling and secretion systems and harbors the 3-OH-PAME quorum-sensing system that coordinates the switch of free-living to the symbiotic lifestyle in the plant-pathogen R. solanacearum. The ability of B. phytofirmans PsJN to successfully colonize such a wide variety of plant species might be based on its large genome harboring a broad range of physiological functions.

  3. Quantum theory a wide spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Manoukian, E B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for instructors and graduate students in Physics, and researchers and professional scientists in Theoretical Physics, this textbook focuses on Quantum Theory. It includes traditional topics and contains numerous problems some of which are challenging enough for research

  4. Wide-spectrum Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO TCO thin films for solar cells grown via magnetron sputtering with H{sub 2} introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin-liang, E-mail: cxlruzhou@163.com [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Jie-ming; Ni, Jian; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-dan [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Hydrogenated Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO thin films are obtained. • Low resistivity and high optical transmittances in wide spectrum range are achieved. • Solar cells with HMGZO layer present higher quantum efficiency. - Abstract: Wide-spectrum Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films are deposited via magnetron sputtering at various H{sub 2} flow rates on glass substrates. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of MGZO thin films are investigated with different H{sub 2} flow rates. The experiment results show that the MGZO thin films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure exhibiting a preferred (0 0 2) crystal plane orientation. The carrier concentration remarkably increases from 5.15 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} to 2.12 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} with increasing the H{sub 2} flow rate from 0 sccm to 4.0 sccm and then decreases when further increasing the H{sub 2} flow rate. The glass/MGZO thin film deposited at the H{sub 2} flow rate of 4.0 sccm exhibits the lowest resistivity of 1.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm (film thickness d ∼ 548 nm) and an average transmittance (Ta) of 80.5% in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 1100 nm. Optical measurements indicate that the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of MGZO thin films varies from 3.45 eV to 3.78 eV with adjusting H{sub 2} flow rate from 0 sccm to 12.0 sccm. The obtained MGZO thin films with an appropriate thickness are preliminarily applied in p–i–n type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells. The a-Si:H solar cell with MGZO layer presents higher quantum efficiency in the short wavelength region than that with GZO layer, resulting from widened optical band gap.

  5. Fukutin-related protein is essential for mouse muscle, brain and eye development and mutation recapitulates the wide clinical spectrums of dystroglycanopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiumo Michael; Keramaris-Vrantsis, Elizabeth; Lidov, Hart G; Norton, James H; Zinchenko, Natalia; Gruber, Helen E; Thresher, Randy; Blake, Derek J; Ashar, Jignya; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Lu, Qi L

    2010-10-15

    Mutations in fukutin-related protein (FKRP) cause a common subset of muscular dystrophies characterized by aberrant glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (α-DG), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies. The clinical variations associated with FKRP mutations range from mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with predominantly muscle phenotypes to severe Walker-Warburg syndrome and muscle-eye-brain disease with striking structural brain and eye defects. In the present study, we have generated animal models and demonstrated that ablation of FKRP functions is embryonic lethal and that the homozygous-null embryos die before reaching E12.5. The homozygous knock-in mouse carrying the missense P448L mutation almost completely lacks functional glycosylation of α-DG in muscles and brain, validating the essential role of FKRP in the functional glycosylation of α-DG. However, the knock-in mouse survives and develops a wide range of structural abnormalities in the central nervous system, characteristics of neuronal migration defects. The brain and eye defects are highly reminiscent of the phenotypes seen in severe dystroglycanopathy patients. In addition, skeletal muscles develop progressive muscular dystrophy. Our results confirm that post-translational modifications of α-DG are essential for normal development of the brain and eyes. In addition, both the mutation itself and the levels of FKRP expression are equally critical for the survival of the animals. The exceptionally wide clinical spectrums recapitulated in the P448L mice also suggest the involvement of other factors in the disease progression. The mutant mouse represents a valuable model to further elucidate the functions of FKRP and develop therapies for FKRP-related muscular dystrophies.

  6. Scapuloperoneal syndrome type Kaeser and a wide phenotypic spectrum of adult-onset, dominant myopathies are associated with the desmin mutation R350P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M C; Reilich, P; Huebner, A; Fischer, D; Schröder, R; Vorgerd, M; Kress, W; Born, C; Schoser, B G; Krause, K H; Klutzny, U; Bulst, S; Frey, J R; Lochmüller, H

    2007-06-01

    In 1965, an adult-onset, autosomal dominant disorder with a peculiar scapuloperoneal distribution of weakness and atrophy was described in a large, multi-generation kindred and named 'scapuloperoneal syndrome type Kaeser' (OMIM #181400). By genetic analysis of the original kindred, we discovered a heterozygous missense mutation of the desmin gene (R350P) cosegregating with the disorder. Moreover, we detected DES R350P in four unrelated German families allowing for genotype-phenotype correlations in a total of 15 patients carrying the same mutation. Large clinical variability was recognized, even within the same family, ranging from scapuloperoneal (n = 2, 12%), limb girdle (n = 10, 60%) and distal phenotypes (n = 3, 18%) with variable cardiac (n = 7, 41%) or respiratory involvement (n = 7, 41%). Facial weakness, dysphagia and gynaecomastia were frequent additional symptoms. Overall and within each family, affected men seemingly bear a higher risk of sudden, cardiac death as compared to affected women. Moreover, histological and immunohistochemical examination of muscle biopsy specimens revealed a wide spectrum of findings ranging from near normal or unspecific pathology to typical, myofibrillar changes with accumulation of desmin. This study reveals that the clinical and pathological variability generally observed in desminopathies may not be attributed to the nature of the DES mutation alone, but may be influenced by additional genetic and epigenetic factors such as gender. In addition, mutations of the desmin gene should be considered early in the diagnostic work-up of any adult-onset, dominant myopathy, even if specific myofibrillar pathology is absent.

  7. Peripheral myelin protein 22 gene duplication with atypical presentations: a new example of the wide spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Corcia, Philippe; Tazir, Meriem; Camu, William; Magdelaine, Corinne; Latour, Philippe; Biberon, Julien; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Richard, Laurence; Magy, Laurent; Funalot, Benoît; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are both autosomal-dominant disorders linked to peripheral myelin anomalies. CMT1A is associated with a Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22) duplication, whereas HNPP is due to a PMP22 deletion on chromosome 17. In spite of this crucial difference, we report three observations of patients with the 1.4 megabase CMT1A duplication and atypical presentation (electrophysiological, clinical or pathological): a 10 year-old girl with tomaculous lesions on nerve biopsy; a 26 year-old woman with recurrent paresthesiae and block conduction on the electrophysiological study; a 46 year-old woman with transient recurrent nerve palsies mimicking HNPP. These observations highlight the wide spectrum of CMT1A and the overlap between CMT1A and HNPP (both linked to the PMP22 gene), and finally illustrate the complexity of the genotype-phenotype correlations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An X chromosome-wide association study in autism families identifies TBL1X as a novel autism spectrum disorder candidate gene in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ren-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. The skewed prevalence toward males and evidence suggestive of linkage to the X chromosome in some studies suggest the presence of X-linked susceptibility genes in people with ASD. Methods We analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS data on the X chromosome in three independent autism GWAS data sets: two family data sets and one case-control data set. We performed meta- and joint analyses on the combined family and case-control data sets. In addition to the meta- and joint analyses, we performed replication analysis by using the two family data sets as a discovery data set and the case-control data set as a validation data set. Results One SNP, rs17321050, in the transducin β-like 1X-linked (TBL1X gene [OMIM:300196] showed chromosome-wide significance in the meta-analysis (P value = 4.86 × 10-6 and joint analysis (P value = 4.53 × 10-6 in males. The SNP was also close to the replication threshold of 0.0025 in the discovery data set (P = 5.89 × 10-3 and passed the replication threshold in the validation data set (P = 2.56 × 10-4. Two other SNPs in the same gene in linkage disequilibrium with rs17321050 also showed significance close to the chromosome-wide threshold in the meta-analysis. Conclusions TBL1X is in the Wnt signaling pathway, which has previously been implicated as having a role in autism. Deletions in the Xp22.2 to Xp22.3 region containing TBL1X and surrounding genes are associated with several genetic syndromes that include intellectual disability and autistic features. Our results, based on meta-analysis, joint analysis and replication analysis, suggest that TBL1X may play a role in ASD risk.

  9. Wide optical spectrum range, sub-volt, compact modulator based on electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    We design and demonstrate a compact and low-power band-engineered electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) modulator. The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and near-infrared transparency. A PCW step coupler is used for optimum coupling to the slow-light mode of the band-engineered PCW. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be V{\\pi}=0.97+-0.02V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to the effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and V{\\pi} L of 0.291+-0.006V mm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot.

  10. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  11. Armadillidin H, a glycine-rich peptide from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, displays an unexpected wide antimicrobial spectrum with membranolytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verdon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47% cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed towards Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin, from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity towards human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study (by CD and NMR even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  12. A Restorative Approach to Postvention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Restorative principles are at the core of effective response to crisis situations. The goal of these interventions is to repair hurt and rebuild trust between persons and within the community. Restorative practices can be implemented in a wide variety of settings, offering an opportunity for healing to take place in a way which benefits not only…

  13. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  14. The effect of a hospital-wide urine culture screening intervention on the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H; Bilker, Warren B; Nachamkin, Irving; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Coffin, Susan E; Linkin, Darren R; Hu, Baofeng; Tolomeo, Pam; Fishman, Neil O; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2013-11-01

    Optimal strategies for limiting the transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp (ESBL-EK) in the hospital setting remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a urine culture screening strategy on the incidence of ESBL-EK. Prospective quasi-experimental study. Two intervention hospitals and one control hospital within a university health system from 2005 to 2009. All clinical urine cultures with E. coli or Klebsiella spp were screened for ESBL-EK. Patients determined to be colonized or infected with ESBL-EK were placed in a private room with contact precautions. The primary outcome of interest was nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence in nonurinary clinical cultures (cases occurring more than 48 hours after admission). Changes in monthly ESBL-EK incidence rates were evaluated with mixed-effects Poisson regression models, with adjustment for institution-level characteristics (eg, total admissions). The overall incidence of ESBL-EK increased from 1.42/10,000 patient-days to 2.16/10,000 patient-days during the study period. The incidence of community-acquired ESBL-EK increased nearly 3-fold, from 0.33/10,000 patient-days to 0.92/10,000 patient-days (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the intervention was not significantly associated with a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence (incidence rate ratio, 1.38 [95% confidence interval, 0.83-2.31]; P - .21). Universal screening of clinical urine cultures for ESBL-EK did not result in a reduction in nosocomial ESBL-EK incidence rates, most likely because of increases in importation of ESBL-EK cases from the community. Further studies are needed on elucidating optimal infection control interventions to limit spread of ESBL-producing organisms in the hospital setting.

  15. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  16. Restoration Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William R.; Gilpin, Michael E.; Aber, John D.

    1990-08-01

    This book explores the ecological concepts and ideas involved in the practice of habitat restoration by taking a theoretical approach that will appeal to ecologists concerned with the structure and dynamics of communities. The contributors examine aspects of this new realization and its implications for both ecology and the practice of habitat restoration. What emerges is the outline of a new paradigm for ecological research and the basis for a stronger relationship between theory and practice in this area.

  17. Expression of Surface Protein LapB by a Wide Spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes Serotypes as Demonstrated with Anti-LapB Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Teela; Elmgren, Cathie; Brooks, Brian W; Huang, Hongsheng; Pagotto, Franco; Lin, Min

    2016-11-15

    adhesion protein B (LapB), a surface protein involved in L. monocytogenes virulence, was present in L. monocytogenes strains and absent from other Listeria spp. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant LapB (rLapB) detected the exposed epitopes on the surface of L. monocytogenes Production and extensive assessment of 48 MAbs to rLapB showed that 6 anti-LapB MAbs (M3484, M3495, M3500, M3509, M3517, and M3519) detected the expression of LapB in a wide range of L. monocytogenes isolates representing 10 of 12 serotypes tested, suggesting that LapB, together with specific MAbs, can be targeted as a biomarker for pathogen detection and isolation. © Crown copyright 2016.

  18. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA; KUSUMO WINARNO; AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2004-01-01

    R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both o...

  19. Ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Barton; John I. Blake; Donald W. Imm

    2005-01-01

    The long history of human settlement, agriculture, and industry at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has created extensive opportunities for ecological restoration. Two hundred years of farming, drainage, dam construction, stream channeling, fire protection, subsistence hunting and fishing, exotic animal and plant introduction, and selective timber harvesting have caused...

  20. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  1. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  2. Assessing restoration outcomes in light of succession: management implications for tropical riparian forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Manrique-Hernandez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley; M. Barreto-Orta; C. M. Betancourt-Roman; J. R. Ortiz-Zayas

    2016-01-01

    Today there is a wide variety of approaches on how to determine when a river restoration project can be considered ecologically successful. The limited information on river restoration responses renders this practice a subjective component of river management. We aimed to contribute to this issue by assessing the ecological outcomes of a restoration project conducted...

  3. Three New Cool Brown Dwarfs Discovered with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and an Improved Spectrum of the Y0 Dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  4. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Gould, Andrew, E-mail: michael.cushing@utoledo.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  5. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  6. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s Disease (IRD) The disorders ... of the Zellweger spectrum: Zellweger syndrome (ZS), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and infantile Refsum disease (IRD). While these ...

  7. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  8. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  9. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  10. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  11. Restoration of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osborne, L. L.; Bayley, P. B.; Higler, L. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991......Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991...

  12. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Power, Mary E; Comín, Francisco A; Yockteng, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    .... Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain...

  13. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  14. Restoration of seagrasses with economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (Univ. of Miami, FL); Austin, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    The technique of restoration of populations of land plants is an old one that is well understood by scientists, agronomists, forestry experts, and the general public. However, only recently has attention been turned to restoring underwater areas with so-called seagrasses. From 1947 onwards, attempts have been made to restore suitable marine areas by using important species; however, only very recently (from August 1973) have large-scale restoration projects been undertaken. The efforts that have been made to replant various seagrass species by different techniques are reviewed, but only two seagrasses, Zostera noltii and Thalassia testudinum, have been restored on a large scale. Both of these can be restored successfully; however, the seeding method of Thalassia appears to be the most practical operation of all, and the most potentially valuable for future research into large-scale restoration, as it allows flexibility of location and of depth of transplantation, and involves the minimum of damage to the donor site. It also ensures the most rapid regrowth, besides being in the long run the most economical method yet devised of restoring a seagrass community. An economic model and analysis for restoration costs are given and finally a wide range of uses of restoration of such beds of seagrasses are enumerated.

  15. Marginal microleakage of class II composite resin restorations due to restorative techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Andreia A.; Moreira, Francine C. L.; Cunha, Larissa M.; de Moura, Samara M.; Souza, João Batista de; Estrela, Carlos; Lopes, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the marginal microleakage of class II composite resin (CR) restorations due to restorative techniques. METHODS: Forty human extracted premolars were assigned to 4 groups (n=10). Class II cavities were prepared (4-mm wide, 2-mm axially, with the gingival margin located 1 mm beyond the cementum-enamel-junction), and the restorative adhesive system Prime & Bond 2.1/TPH³ (Dentsply) was used. CR was inserted by the oblique incremental technique (OIT) and cured in continuous ex...

  16. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  17. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  18. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  19. Science of landscape restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Benita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available or email bdewet@ csir.co.za. The science of landscape restoration Over the last two decades the ecological restoration of industrial land has developed into a specialist science combined with highly sophisticated management activities. A prime...

  20. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  1. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D

    1991-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  2. Restoring the incisal edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    Restorative dentistry evolves with each development of new material and innovative technique. Selection of improved restorative materials that simulate the physical properties and other characteristics of natural teeth, in combination with restorative techniques such as the proximal adaptation and incremental layering, provide the framework that ensures the optimal development of an esthetic restoration. These advanced placement techniques offer benefits such as enhanced chromatic integration, polychromatism, ideal anatomical form and function, optimal proximal contact, improved marginal integrity and longer lasting directly placed composite restorations. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a better understanding of the complex restorative challenge in achieving true harmonization of the primary parameters in esthetics (that is, color, shape and texture) represented by the replacement of a single anterior tooth. The case presented demonstrates the restoration of a Class IV fracture integrating basic adhesive principles with these placement techniques and a recently developed nanoparticle hybrid composite resin system (Premise, Kerr/Sybron, Orange, CA). The clinical presentation describes preoperative considerations, tooth preparation, development of the body layer, internal characterization with tints, development of the artificial enamel layer, shaping and contouring, and polishing of a Class IV composite restoration. The clinical significance is that anterior tooth fractures can be predictably restored using contemporary small particle hybrid composite resin systems with the aforementioned restorative techniques. These placement techniques when used with proper attention to preparation design, adhesive protocol and finishing and polishing procedures, allow the clinician to successfully restore form, function and esthetics to the single anterior tooth replacement.

  3. Spectrum war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    a conflict in accessing to the valuable spectrum resources allocated to TV broadcast that has been there for many years and which has been intensified in different phases of technological development and the second being an obvious conflict of interest between the different stake holders within the mobile...

  4. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in a Greek sample with a wide range of intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Katerina; Paliokosta, Elena; Houliaras, Giorgos; Vgenopoulou, Sofia; Giouroukou, Eleni; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Tomaras, Vlassis; Tsiantis, Ioannis

    2009-03-01

    We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis was estimated as satisfactory and moderate, respectively, while both instruments presented with excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of autistic disorder along with satisfactory specificity. ADOS-G/ADI-R agreement was estimated as fair. Our results confirm the discriminant validity of ADI-R and ADOS-G in diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with a wide range of intellectual abilities.

  5. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Watzke, Ronny; Peschke, Arnd; Kappert, Heinrich

    2008-11-01

    Sintered ceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used as biomaterials for dental restoration, especially as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Biomaterials were developed either to veneer metal frameworks or to produce metal-free dental restorations. Different types of glass-ceramics and ceramics are available and necessary today to fulfill customers' needs (patients, dentists and dental technicians) regarding the properties of the biomaterials and the processing of the products. All of these different types of biomaterials already cover the entire range of indications of dental restorations. Today, patients are increasingly interested in metal-free restoration. Glass-ceramics are particularly suitable for fabricating inlays, crowns and small bridges, as these materials achieve very strong, esthetic results. High-strength ceramics are preferred in situations where the material is exposed to high masticatory forces.

  8. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes. PMID:27990188

  9. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.

  10. Trajectories of ecosystem service change in restored peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Martin; Shuttleworth, Emma; Pilkington, Mike; Allott, Tim; Walker, Jonathan; Spencer, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands provide a wide range of ecosystem services but across the world degradation of these systems through a range of human impacts has had a negative effect on the provision of these services. A wide variety of peatland restoration approaches have been developed with the aim of mitigating these impacts. Understanding of trajectories of change in ecosystem structure and function is central to evaluating the efficacy of these restoration methods. This paper considers data on post-restoration trajectories of water table change, vegetation recovery, runoff production and water quality based on extensive data from peatland restoration work in the southern Pennines of the U.K. Data have been compiled from multiple restoration initiatives undertaken across the region, spanning up to 12 years post restoration. The data show variations in the time scale of ecosystem change which are indicative of the process basis of the ecosystem trajectories. Rapid changes in runoff are controlled by physical changes to the peatland surface. These are contrasted with longer term evolution of vegetation and water table behaviour which suggest ongoing recovery as the ecosystem adjusts to the restoration process. In order to assess restoration of ecosystem function, and so of ecosystem services, it is important that the process links between ecosystem structure and function are well understood. Establishing typical restoration trajectories can be of practical use in determining restoration project milestones, and can also provide insight into the nature of these process links.

  11. Toponymic Restoration in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Snarsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the discussion on restoration of historical names of public spaces in Irkutsk. It also reviews different approaches to the problem that appeared in the historical science and publicism. The author says about the necessity of a strictly historical approach to the toponymic restoration.

  12. Restoration of southern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Kenneth Outcalt; William H. Conner; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of the myriad communities of bottomland hardwood and wetland forests and of the diverse communities of fire-dominated pine forests is the subject of intense interest in the Southern United States. Restoration practice is relatively advanced for bottomland hardwoods and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), and less so for swamps and...

  13. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  14. Are we restoring enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A.R.; Hjältén, J.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat restoration is often implemented to mitigate the negative effects of intensive forestry on biodiversity. It may be increasingly adopted in future to alleviate additional negative effects of climate change. Ascertaining the restoration effort needed to fulfill project goals is difficult.

  15. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  16. Restoration of native forest flora in the degraded highlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wide spread deforestation and subsequent degradation is severely threatening the natural forest resources in Ethiopia. What is imperatively and urgently needed today is ecological restoration. In order for ecological restoration to be successful and cost effective, critical analyses of possible constraints and available ...

  17. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  18. Fracture reasons in ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M

    Ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations are widely used in dentistry with a high degree of general success. Fracture of the ceramic veneers as a result of oral function or trauma is not an uncommon problem in clinical practice. Although fractures of such restorations do not necessarily mean the failure

  19. 78 FR 56202 - Ecological Restoration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... with OMB circular A-4, ``Regulatory Analysis,'' a cost/benefit analysis was conducted. The analysis... consistent and uniform understanding and Service-wide application of restoration policies, principles, and... exchange of flow, sediments, and nutrients; the daily and seasonal movements of animals within home ranges...

  20. Comparison of RF spectrum prediction methods for dynamic spectrum access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarskiy, Jacob A.; Martone, Anthony F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) refers to the adaptive utilization of today's busy electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radio/radar technologies require DSA to intelligently transmit and receive information in changing environments. Predicting radio frequency (RF) activity reduces sensing time and energy consumption for identifying usable spectrum. Typical spectrum prediction methods involve modeling spectral statistics with Hidden Markov Models (HMM) or various neural network structures. HMMs describe the time-varying state probabilities of Markov processes as a dynamic Bayesian network. Neural Networks model biological brain neuron connections to perform a wide range of complex and often non-linear computations. This work compares HMM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) algorithms and their ability to perform RF channel state prediction. Monte Carlo simulations on both measured and simulated spectrum data evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Generalizing spectrum occupancy as an alternating renewal process allows Poisson random variables to generate simulated data while energy detection determines the occupancy state of measured RF spectrum data for testing. The results suggest that neural networks achieve better prediction accuracy and prove more adaptable to changing spectral statistics than HMMs given sufficient training data.

  1. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action Canabidiol: de um canabinóide inativo a uma droga com amplo espectro de ação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the historical development of research on cannabidiol. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from Medline, Web of Science and SciELO. DISCUSSION: After the elucidation of the chemical structure of cannabidiol in 1963, the initial studies showed that cannabidiol was unable to mimic the effects of Cannabis. In the 1970's the number of publications on cannabidiol reached a first peak, having the research focused mainly on the interaction with delta9-THC and its antiepileptic and sedative effects. The following two decades showed lower degree of interest, and the potential therapeutic properties of cannabidiol investigated were mainly the anxiolytic, antipsychotic and on motor diseases effects. The last five years have shown a remarkable increase in publications on cannabidiol mainly stimulated by the discovery of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. These studies have suggested a wide range of possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on several conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory diseases, nausea and cancer. CONCLUSION: In the last 45 years it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has a wide range of pharmacological effects, many of which being of great therapeutic interest, but still waiting to be confirmed by clinical trials.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta revisão é descrever a evolução histórica das pesquisas sobre o canabidiol. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline, Web of Science e SciELO. DISCUSSÃO: Após a elucidação de sua estrutura química, em 1963, os estudos iniciais do canabidiol demonstraram que ele não foi capaz de mimetizar os efeitos da maconha. Na década de 70, o número de publicações sobre o canabidiol atingiu um primeiro pico, com as investigações centrando-se principalmente

  2. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Shehata, Salah H

    2011-11-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance.

  3. Research perspectives for restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gurrieri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay proposes a critical overview on the basic principles of restoration comparing with the evolution of aesthetics ideals. Starting both from the Roberto Pane theory and the fundamental documents of the discipline (Restoration Charts and Venice Chart specially the essay points out the contemporary crises caused by Post-Modernism and the coming of new aesthetic condition. Thus the paper deepens the concept of “naught” and “nowhere” coming to prospect new opportunities for restoration in the framework of reuse project referring to the latest experience of the New Museum of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, Italy.

  4. Desarrollo tecnológico de un antiviral de amplio espectro para administración parenteral: ribavirina 100 mg/mL Technological development of a wide spectrum antiviral agent to parenteral administration: 100 mg/mL Ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelia Collado Coello

    2010-09-01

    appropriate package to guarantee stability of end product. Three drugs batches were manufactured, which were packing in colourless glass bulbs with a hydrolytic I quality and stored at room temperature of 30 ± 2 ºC for 12 months; its physical and chemical was studied by accelerated method and shelf life. Its microbiological stability was verified by sterility trial in each of processed batches at study onset and at the end according to USA Pharmacopeia-30 and the regulation established by Cuban State Center for Drug Control with satisfactory results. A toxicology study was conducted of injectable agent showing a wide safety margin to human use. All results obtained fulfilled the quality limits established in official literature for this type of pharmaceutical way thus concluded that the developed drug is properly formulated from the medical point of view with a useful life time of 12 months, stored under study conditions. Finally, the drug was introduced at industrial level without technological problems.

  5. The Gelså River Restoration Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Kristensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    conductedworld-wide. Additionally, a 0.5 km upstream (control) reach that remained channelized has been sampledsince 1989. In this paper, we examined macroinvertebrate assemblages in distinct habitats in 2008, 19years after the restoration, and community persistence between two years, 1997 and 2008...... to saturationin 1997 and that only limited immigration of new species occurred in the intervening period until 2008.The lack of long term benefits could be attributed to the simultaneous cessation of weed cutting (whichhad almost as big a positive impact as restoration), other types of stress on the river...

  6. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  7. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  8. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  9. Selection of restorative materials for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, H K; Smales, R J; Ngo, H C; Tay, F R; Chu, F C

    2001-01-01

    The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique or approach for the restoration of primary and permanent teeth has been widely adopted in, but not limited to, developing countries. However, the requirement for the placement of the restorative materials under often less-than-ideal conditions imposes significant restrictions on their selection; and there have been very few randomized clinical trials or reports comparing different types of restorative materials and treatments. Although conventional glass-ionomer cements (GICs) have relatively poor mechanical and adhesive strengths, their satisfactory biological features, ease of use, and low costs are distinct advantages. Most of the published reports of the clinical performance of the newer, high-strength esthetic conventional GICs specifically marketed for the ART approach have been from short-term studies. Satisfactory clinical performance has been demonstrated for single-surface posterior restorations only, over three years. Findings indicate that further improvements in restorative materials are still required for their use with the ART approach, together with further clinical investigations of the remineralization of shallow open caries lesions, as an alternative to placing definitive restorations.

  10. Ecosystem Restoration: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Kenna; Gilpin R., Jr. Robinson; Bill Pell; Michael A. Thompson; Joe McNeel

    1999-01-01

    Elements of ecological restoration underlie much of what we think of as ecosystem management, and restoration projects on federal lands represent some of the most exciting, challenging, and convincing demonstrations of applied ecosystem management. The Society for Ecological Restoration defined restoration as "the process of reestablishing to the extent possible...

  11. Development of a Wide-Spectrum Organic Analysis Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY’13 we expanded our analysis of samples to include astromaterials and biological materials relevant to international space station (ISS) and human space...

  12. Developing Wide-Spectrum Antiproteotoxicity Agents to Treat ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    litters, and females are infertile . As a result, the breeding has been time-consuming. The majority of the SOD1 mice were used in the work for Task 3 in...than other approaches. The injections were done in a sterilized hood with a 33 gauge, 1.0 inch, 12 degree point, sterile needle connected to a 10ul

  13. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  14. Construction traditions and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paolo Torsello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the physical and material incompatibility of many restoration works performed in the past, in recent years there has arisen a debate about the wisdom of retrieving old building traditions for the restoration process with a simple mechanical interpretation. Professor Torsello dissects the concept of tradition as regards its relationship with experience, science, history and production to discover an order of problems that affect the structure of our knowledge and whose origin resides in the radical changes that characterise modernity.

  15. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  16. Adhesive restorations replacing cusps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study addressed a clinical problem in dentistry. The problem concerns the occurrence of complete fracture of a cusp of premolars with an existing Class II restoration, and the required treatment after this cusp fracture. The traditional treatment in these cases is the making of a crown. Crown

  17. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  18. Realistic restoration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Robert. Whetsell

    2016-01-01

    These reference ecosystems and historic range of variability may be hard to define or determine, but accepted methods can include cultural evidence such as written descriptions, oral histories, maps and photographs, and survey records (Egan and Howell 2001). Another tactic is to focus on restoring species composition (such as returning the American chestnut) and...

  19. The marine diversity spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the ‘diversity spectrum’, which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope −0·5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between −0·5 and −0·1. Slopes of −0·5 and −0·1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of −0·5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of −0·1 depicts a 1·6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour

  20. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  1. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  2. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  3. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature......In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... history and more openness towards constant change. In this approach the idea of palimpsest as metaphor for the cultural landscape plays an important role. Rather than being an obstacle for the restoration of nature, the historical layer following the comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s...

  4. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  5. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  6. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  7. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  8. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  9. Restoration variables and postoperative hypersensitivity in Class I restorations: PEARL Network findings. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Peter; Wong, Ying; Matthews, Abigail G; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G; Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated postoperative hypersensitivity at 1, 4, and 13 weeks following resin-based composite restoration of occlusal caries as well as the relationship to materials and technique employed by PEARL Network Practitioner Investigators (P-Is). PEARL P-Is (n = 45) enrolled patients with early occlusal caries lesions deemed to require treatment and placed restorations using their routine technique. Data on 485 restorations at 4 weeks included: baseline sensitivity; ranking of dentin caries activity; post-preparation use of antimicrobials, liners, and dentin bonding agent; type of resin-based composite (RBC) employed; whether layer or bulk fill was used; and patient demographics. Patients anonymously reported at 1, 4, and 13 weeks any sensitivity to hot, cold, sweets, clenching, and chewing as well as quality of life (QOL) related to the restoration(s). Appreciable hypersensitivity (AH)--ie, sensitivity of 3 or greater on an 11-point anchored scale--was reported in 30% of all 668 eligible carious teeth at baseline. Among them, 10% of study teeth with no baseline AH had developed AH at 4 weeks post-treatment. With restoration, 63% of teeth with baseline AH no longer had AH, while the remainder had no improvement. Neither change in AH nor change in greatest sensitivity was associated with use of a liner, use of flowable or hybrid RBC, or bulk or layer technique. With use of an antimicrobial, at 1 week, there was a significant but transient effect on AH (P = 0.006), which was generally not present at 4 weeks, although it continued for one product. At 4 weeks, the change in greatest sensitivity was associated with the type of dentin bonding agent, total etch or self etch, (P = 0.004). Using similar materials and techniques, P-Is had widely differing patient-reported outcomes. Patient self-reported post-restoration AH-either acquired or remaining-at 4 weeks was generally not related to the materials or techniques recorded in these small- to moderate

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. ... be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people ...

  11. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  12. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  13. Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.

    2017-06-01

    A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).

  14. Fast Image Restoration for Spatially Varying Defocus Blur of Imaging Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejin Cheong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast adaptive image restoration method for removing spatially varying out-of-focus blur of a general imaging sensor. After estimating the parameters of space-variant point-spread-function (PSF using the derivative in each uniformly blurred region, the proposed method performs spatially adaptive image restoration by selecting the optimal restoration filter according to the estimated blur parameters. Each restoration filter is implemented in the form of a combination of multiple FIR filters, which guarantees the fast image restoration without the need of iterative or recursive processing. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms existing space-invariant restoration methods in the sense of both objective and subjective performance measures. The proposed algorithm can be employed to a wide area of image restoration applications, such as mobile imaging devices, robot vision, and satellite image processing.

  15. Influence of dental restorative material properties on bond interface reliability: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-tao; Zhang, Yu-mei; Hou, Shu-xun; Kong, Liang; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Yi-min; Huo, Na

    2013-03-01

    Varieties of restorative materials are widely used in dentistry. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of different dental restorative materials on bond interface reliability. A two-dimensional finite element analysis method was adopted to simulate the shear-bond efficacy test. The influence of elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio were investigated separately. Several dental restorative materials including resins, metals, and ceramics were analyzed in this study. The deformation and peak equivalent stress level of the dentin-adhesive interface rose sharply following a decrease in the elasticity of restorative materials, especially those with a low elastic modulus range. The influence of the Poisson's coefficient was not significant. Ceramics and gold alloy were preferred to resin composite in restorations bearing extensive shear load during service. Restorative materials with an elastic modulus similar to that of teeth are not always the best clinical choice. This research provides a helpful guide for the application of different restorative materials in clinical practice.

  16. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  17. Demineralization around restorations with different restorative materials containing fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Letícia Caliento

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the demineralization on tooth/restoration interface of eight restorative materials after demineralization/remineralization cycling. Eighty class V cavities were prepared with margins at enamel and dentin/cementum, and were restored with Fuji II LC, Fuji IX, Ketac-fil, Ketac Molar, Ariston pHc, Compoglass, Degufill Mineral and Z100. After the restorative procedures, the restorations were submitted to demineralization/ remineralization cycling during 14 days. Specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and submitted to serial sectioning. The sections were examined by optical microscope, and demineralization around restoration was measured on cervical and occlusal margins. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05. Glass ionomer cements showed less demineralization on enamel and dentin/restoration interfaces when compared to the tested composite resins (Z100 and Degufill Mineral. In conclusion, glass ionomer cements suffered less demineralization but did not protect completely the tooth/restoration interface.

  18. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity.

  19. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral therapy across the spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive-behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge.

  1. Archived film analysis and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They

  2. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  3. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Hospital eTool Administration Central Supply Clinical Services Dietary Emergency Engineering Healthcare Wide Hazards Heliport Housekeeping ICU Laboratory Laundry ...

  4. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  5. Identification of a microsatellite marker linked to the fertility-restoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) has been widely used for exploiting heterosis in rapeseed breeding. The dominant restorer gene of pol CMS (Rfp) is found in the nucleus and is a key component of hybrid production by achieving F1 progeny with complete fertility restoration. To identify the molecular markers ...

  6. Fracture reasons in ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Versch. in: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2003 30; 265–269 Ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations are widely used in dentistry with a high degree of general success. Fracture of the ceramic eneers as a result of oral function or trauma is not an uncommon problem in clinical practice. Although

  7. Spectrum access games for cognitive radio networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available received a wide acceptance in next generation and intelligent wireless communication systems. In this paper the authors make use of game theory approach to model and analyze cognitive radio networks in order to allow dynamic spectrum access in broadband...

  8. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  9. Restoration of optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You SW

    2017-03-01

    . Many genes, such as Bcl-2, PTEN, and mTOR, are crucial in cell proliferation, axon guidance, and growth during development, and play important roles in the regeneration and extension of RGC axons. With transgenic mice and related gene regulations, robust regeneration of RGC axons has been observed after ON injury in laboratories. Although various means of experimental treatments such as cell transplantation and gene therapy have achieved significant progress in neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and restoration of the visual function after ON injury, many unresolved scientific problems still exist for their clinical applications. Therefore, we still need to overcome hurdles before developing effective therapy to treat optic neuropathy diseases in patients. Keywords: retinal ganglion cells, optic nerve injury, neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, vision restoration

  10. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  11. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  12. Fractionation of Social Brain Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…

  13. The Restoration of Wholeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Sen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wholeness is an innate state, a quality which is lost with our exposure to the world. Our life is spent in efforts to restore the state of wholeness in us. The world takes from us our tranquility and balance. Yet it is only from this giving of us that we can recover our lost self. That which takes also gives. Integration is a process which takes place in time and space. It is a developmental experience that admits of degrees, failures and regenerations. The integral self is not a finished perfect product. The self is born in nature and to nature. As such, it can mature, shine and bring itself to fruition only through trials and tribulations. Without the loss of wholeness we would never even have a vision of what constitutes wholeness; nor would we aspire after its retrieval. Creation is an evolutionary process which travels a path with many perils and also rewards. The journey to integration is difficult when we separate ourselves from our fellow humans and other forms of life or see ourselves as different from the soil and air and water that make us. Once we see ourselves in all that surrounds us and recognize them in ourselves uniting is not hard any longer. When we unite with the world we achieve a united, harmonious, whole self within as well.

  14. A Wetland Restoration Spatial Decision Support System for the Mississippi Gulf Coast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Jeff P; Kleiss, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    ... as part of the non-structural solutions planned for that area following Hurricane Katrina. Advantages of the SDSS approach include relatively rapid identification and assessment of a large number of restoration sites across a wide area...

  15. Use of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Kuebler, L.; Ahmed, S.; Chang, M.-L.; Engel, V.; Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementation of unprecedented projects for restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem are underway and the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of restoration alternatives has become essential for success of restoration efforts. In view of the complex nature of the South Florida water resources system, regional-scale (system-wide) hydrologic models have been developed and used extensively for the development of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In addition, numerous subregional-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models have been developed and are being used for evaluating project-scale water management plans associated with urban, agricultural, and inland costal ecosystems. The authors provide a comprehensive summary of models of all scales, as well as the next generation models under development to meet the future needs of ecosystem restoration efforts in South Florida. The multiagency efforts to develop and apply models have allowed the agencies to understand the complex hydrologic interactions, quantify appropriate performance measures, and use new technologies in simulation algorithms, software development, and GIS/database techniques to meet the future modeling needs of the ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  17. Macroinvertebrate Taxonomic and Functional Trait Compositions within Lotic Habitats Affected By River Restoration Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Hill, M. J.; Bickerton, M. A.; Wood, P. J.

    2017-09-01

    The widespread degradation of lotic ecosystems has prompted extensive river restoration efforts globally, but many studies have reported modest ecological responses to rehabilitation practices. The functional properties of biotic communities are rarely examined within post-project appraisals, which would provide more ecological information underpinning ecosystem responses to restoration practices and potentially pinpoint project limitations. This study examines macroinvertebrate community responses to three projects which aimed to physically restore channel morphologies. Taxonomic and functional trait compositions supported by widely occurring lotic habitats (biotopes) were examined across paired restored and non-restored (control) reaches. The multivariate location (average community composition) of taxonomic and functional trait compositions differed marginally between control and restored reaches. However, changes in the amount of multivariate dispersion were more robust and indicated greater ecological heterogeneity within restored reaches, particularly when considering functional trait compositions. Organic biotopes (macrophyte stands and macroalgae) occurred widely across all study sites and supported a high alpha (within-habitat) taxonomic diversity compared to mineralogical biotopes (sand and gravel patches), which were characteristic of restored reaches. However, mineralogical biotopes possessed a higher beta (between-habitat) functional diversity, although this was less pronounced for taxonomic compositions. This study demonstrates that examining the functional and structural properties of taxa across distinct biotopes can provide a greater understanding of biotic responses to river restoration works. Such information could be used to better understand the ecological implications of rehabilitation practices and guide more effective management strategies.

  18. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. DVR(Dynamic Voltage Restorer)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. DVR(Dynamic Voltage Restorer). Supply voltage Sag compensation. Supply voltage Swell Compensation. Balancing the Load voltage. Compensation of Supply Voltage Harmonics.

  20. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  1. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  2. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  4. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  5. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Medić Vesna; Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental ...

  6. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  7. Atraumatic restorative treatment versus amalgam restoration longevity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Banerjee, Avijit

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to report on the longevity of restorations placed using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach compared with that of equivalent placed amalgam restorations. Five databases were systematically searched for articles up to 16 March 2009. (1) titles/abstracts relevant to the topic; (2) published in English; (3) reporting on 2-arm longitudinal in vivo trials; (4) minimum follow-up period of 12 months. (1) insufficient random or quasi-random allocation of study subjects; (2) not all entered subjects accounted for at trial conclusion; (3) subjects of both groups not followed up in the same way. Fourteen from the initial search of 164 articles complied with these criteria and were selected for review. From these, seven were rejected and seven articles reporting on 27 separate datasets, accepted. Only identified homogeneous datasets were combined for meta-analysis. From the 27 separate computable dichotomous datasets, four yielded a statistically significant improvement of longevity of ART versus amalgam restorations: posterior class V, 28% over 6.3 years; posterior class I, 6% after 2.3 years and 9% after 4.3 years; posterior class II, 61% after 2.3 years. Studies investigating restorations placed in the primary dentition showed no significant differences between the groups after 12 and 24 months. In the permanent dentition, the longevity of ART restorations is equal to or greater than that of equivalent amalgam restorations for up to 6.3 years and is site-dependent. No difference was observed in primary teeth. More trials are needed in order to confirm these results.

  8. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that ... interview about being fathers of sons who have autism. Watch more Autism videos COMMUNITY REPORT The Community ...

  11. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  12. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  13. Designed natural spaces: Informal gardens are perceived to be more restorative than formal gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa eTwedt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  14. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  15. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  16. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  17. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  18. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  19. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  20. THE RESTORATIVE CLASSROOM: Using Restorative Approaches to Foster Effective Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Martha A. BROWN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The book is divided into three sections. Part One, chapters 1-3, provides the reader with a framework for understanding relational and restorative pedagogy based on the Five Key Restorative Themes: Everyone has their own unique and equally valued perspectives Thoughts influence emotions, emotions influence actions Empathy and consideration Needs and unmet needs Collective responsibility for problem solving and decision making. (Hopkins, 2011, p.32These five themes form the basis for the rest of the book. Part Two, chapters 4-9, describes a range of restorative practices and exercises, such as mixers, circles, and community-building games, as well as the step-by-step instructions on how to implement and conduct them. Part Three, Chapter 10, succinctly discusses the whole-school approach, which is explained in greater detail in Just Schools (Hopkins, 2004. Still, Hopkins would be remiss not to emphasize the need for the whole-school adoption of restorative practices based on current school effectiveness and improvement literature, and again asserts that "developing a restorative staffroom and staff team is likely to be a pre-requisite for a successful, high-achieving school" (Hopkins, 2011, p. 225.

  1. The material science of minimally invasive esthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nový, Brian B; Fuller, Cameron E

    2008-01-01

    The term esthetic dentistry usually conjures up mental images of porcelain crowns and veneers. To some dentists, the term minimally invasive dentistry evokes thoughts of observing early lesions, and postponing treatment until lesions are closer to the pulp. (The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry defines minimally invasive dentistry as those techniques which respect health, function, and esthetics of oral tissue by preventing disease from occurring, or intercepting its progress with minimal tissue loss.) It would seem these two niches within dentistry are on opposite ends of the spectrum; however, composite resin and glass ionomer restorative materials unite these two ideologies. Understanding the limitations, benefits, and science behind each material allows clinicians to produce highly esthetic restorations that can resist future decay, internally remineralize the tooth, and help protect adjacent teeth from cariogenic attack.

  2. Reversing defaunation: restoring species in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Philip J; Griffiths, Christine J; Soorae, Pritpal S; Armstrong, Doug P

    2014-07-25

    The rate of biodiversity loss is not slowing despite global commitments, and the depletion of animal species can reduce the stability of ecological communities. Despite this continued loss, some substantial progress in reversing defaunation is being achieved through the intentional movement of animals to restore populations. We review the full spectrum of conservation translocations, from reinforcement and reintroduction to controversial conservation introductions that seek to restore populations outside their indigenous range or to introduce ecological replacements for extinct forms. We place the popular, but misunderstood, concept of rewilding within this framework and consider the future role of new technical developments such as de-extinction. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage...

  4. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  5. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  6. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  7. Chairside preparation of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Peter K; Parminter, Paul E

    2005-09-01

    Increasing demands are placed on the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to perform early or immediate loading of dental implants due to demands and expectations of the referring doctor and patients. In order to provide the patient with an immediately loaded, functioning implant, the surgeon should consider incorporating the fabrication of the temporary restoration as an additional service for their implant patients. The armamentarium necessary for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to deliver a temporary restoration will be described. The materials and components needed to provide this service will be listed and a sequence of steps to easily accomplish the fabrication of a temporary crown will be presented. Temporary crowns cemented onto temporary or permanent implant abutments are ideal for the management of gingival contours. Initial soft tissue healing around the contours of the temporary crown, even with minimally invasive techniques, provides many advantages for the patient. There is less likelihood of gingival scarring, which minimizes the incidence of gingival recession and the patient is restored to normal form and function immediately. The fabrication of the temporary prosthesis by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon provides benefits for the surgeon, restorative doctor, as well as, the patient. By working closely with his or her restorative colleagues, the surgeon will be able to provide his or her implant patients with immediate return to form and function intraorally with minimum effort.

  8. Restoring DIC microscopy images from multiple shear directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaozheng; Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Kanade, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscopy is a nondestructive imaging modality that has been widely used by biologists to capture microscopy images of live biological specimens. However, as a qualitative technique, DIC microscopy records specimen's physical properties in an indirect way by mapping the gradient of specimen's optical path length (OPL) into the image intensity. In this paper, we propose to restore DIC microscopy images by quantitatively estimating specimen's OPL from a collection of DIC images captured from multiple shear directions. We acquire the DIC images by rotating the specimen dish on the microscope stage and design an Iterative Closest Point algorithm to register the images. The shear directions of the image dataset are automatically estimated by our coarse-to-fine grid search algorithm. We develop a direct solver on a regularized quadratic cost function to restore DIC microscopy images. The restoration from multiple shear directions decreases the ambiguity among different individual restorations. The restored DIC images are directly proportional to specimen's physical measurements, which is very amenable for microscopy image analysis such as cell segmentation.

  9. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  10. Expansion of the ARX spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Sugalski, Rachel; Cohn, Leora; Jawetz, Robert; Friez, Michael

    2008-06-01

    We present four patients with ARX mutations and widely variant clinical presentations. Case 1, a female with a known ARX mutation has refractory infantile spasms and severe mental retardation. Case 2, a male presented with a neurodegenerative disorder and has a known ARX mutation likely de novo as mother is not a carrier. Cases 3 and 4, two siblings with a novel variant in ARX, which is not clearly pathogenic, have developmental delay. One of the siblings had a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, failure to thrive with severe feeding difficulties, intracranial hemorrhage, and seizures. There are very few affected females with ARX related infantile spasms. These cases expand the known phenotype of this emerging condition.

  11. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  12. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, F; Cowie, J

    2014-03-01

    The restoration of endodontically treated teeth has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Most of these changes are associated with the preservation of tooth structure, this has been achieved first of all with the increasing use of operative microscopes, nickel titanium instruments and more recently cone beam computed tomography; these instruments have allowed the clinicians to reduce significantly the amount of coronal and radicular hard tooth tissue removed in the process of cutting access cavities. The use of composites has also allowed the clinicians to restore with adhesive techniques teeth that would otherwise require extensive and destructive mechanical retentions. The use of partial crowns is becoming increasingly popular and this also helps prevent tooth structure loss. This article will focus on the choices available to restore both anterior and posterior teeth and will focus more on these contemporary adhesive techniques.

  13. Large-scale restoration mitigate land degradation and support the establishment of green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthmérész, Béla; Mitchley, Jonathan; Jongepierová, Ivana; Baasch, Annett; Fajmon, Karel; Kirmer, Anita; Prach, Karel; Řehounková, Klára; Tischew, Sabine; Twiston-Davies, Grace; Dutoit, Thierry; Buisson, Elise; Jeunatre, Renaud; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Török, Péter

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining the human well-being and the quality of life, it is essential to develop and support green infrastructure (strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services). For developing and sustaining green infrastructure the conservation and restoration of biodiversity in natural and traditionally managed habitats is essential. Species-rich landscapes in Europe have been maintained over centuries by various kinds of low-intensity use. Recently, they suffered by losses in extent and diversity due to land degradation by intensification or abandonment. Conservation of landscape-scale biodiversity requires the maintenance of species-rich habitats and the restoration of lost grasslands. We are focusing on landscape-level restoration studies including multiple sites in wide geographical scale (including Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, and UK). In a European-wide perspective we aimed at to address four specific questions: (i) What were the aims and objectives of landscape-scale restoration? (ii) What results have been achieved? (iii) What are the costs of large-scale restoration? (iv) What policy tools are available for the restoration of landscape-scale biodiversity? We conclude that landscape-level restoration offers exciting new opportunities to reconnect long-disrupted ecological processes and to restore landscape connectivity. Generally, these measures enable to enhance the biodiversity at the landscape scale. The development of policy tools to achieve restoration at the landscape scale are essential for the achievement of the ambitious targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the European Biodiversity Strategy for ecosystem restoration.

  14. The texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil on cut slopes restored with OSSS - Influence of restoration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jiao; Ai, Xiaoyan; Li, Ruirui; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS). The properties measured including soil particle size distribution (PSD), texture, fractal dimension of PSD (Dm), the bias (CS) and peak convex (CE) coefficients of aggregate size distribution, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate content, Available nitrogen (NA), Available phosphorus (PA), and Available potassium (KA). The results showed that different restoration time resulted in significant differences in soil PSD, Dm, CS, CE, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, NA, and KA. And these properties improved with increasing restoration age. However, there is still a huge disparity in soil texture, structure, and the availability of nutrients and moisture between the cut slopes and NS over a restoration period of up to 17 years, and this is caused by the little fine particles and the lack of slow release fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the artificial soil, resulting in poorer soil structure stability, retention and availability of moisture and nutrients on the cut slopes. Overall, the OSSS technique shows a long-term effectiveness in southwest of China, but there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  16. Treatment planning for restorative implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Klemons, Gary

    2015-04-01

    In this article, current literature on fixed and removable prosthodontics is reviewed along with evidence-based systematic reviews, including advice from those in the dental profession with years of experience, which help restorative dentists manage and treat their cases successfully. Treatment planning for restorative implantology should be looked at in 4 sections: (1) review of past medical history, (2) oral examination and occlusion, (3) dental imaging (ie, cone-beam computed tomography), and (4) fixed versus removable prosthodontics. These 4 concepts of treatment planning, along with proper surgical placements of the implant(s), result in successful cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Restoration of Ecological Interactions: Plant-Pollinator Networks on Ancient and Restored Heathlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Lytzau Forup; Kate S. E. Henson; Paul G. Craze; Jane Memmott; Jane Memmot

    2008-01-01

    ... ecological restoration has taken place. 2. Using an ecological network approach, we compared plant-pollinator interactions on four pairs of restored and ancient heathlands 11 and 14 years following initiation of restoration management...

  18. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  20. A review on anterior teeth restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorations of teeth have been a need of time since very long. As the time have passed, there have been different advances in the field of restorative materials and tooth restorations. Many newer restorative materials are now available to us for the purpose of tooth restorations still some of the older materials are materials of choice for a sector of society. This article focuses on few such restorative materials and also tells us about a few patents granted in such field.

  1. Microshear bond strength between restorative composites and resin cements

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Nazareno GARCIA; Góes,Mário Fernando de; Giannini,Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and objective: The techniques of adhesive cementationhave been widely used in dental restoration. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the microshear bond strength between restorativecomposites and resin cements. Material and methods: Twenty composites blocks were prepared in order to obtain a flat surface, using 600-grid sandpaper. The samples were randomly divided in four groups(n=15) according to the experimental groups: [1] Z250 block + Single Bond + cylinder of RelyX ARC...

  2. On the Extraction of Spread-Spectrum Hidden Data in Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    extracting data embedded over a wide band in a spectrum (transform) domain of a digital medium (image, audio , video). We first develop a multi-signature...embedded over a wide band in a spectrum (transform) domain of a digital medium (image, audio , video). We first develop a multi-signature iterative...hiding, information hiding, spread-spectrum embedding, steganalysis, steganography , watermarking. I. INTRODUCTION Digital data embedding in digital

  3. The conservator-restorer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Licari, James

    2013-01-01

    Cultural Heritage may be tangible or intangible. Industrial Heritage also includes many intangible dimensions embodied in the skills, memories and social life of workers and their communities. Conservator restorers must strive to the best of their ability to study and document cultural assets while clearly identifying their values to better preserve them.

  4. Longevity of resin composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisei Kubo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily practice, an evidence-based approach is becoming more expected of dentist. However, only outcomes obtained from clinical studies are accepted as evidence. Although many clinical trials have been performed, most of them are short-term studies, whereas long-term studies are likely to provide more reliable evidence. In this article, prospective studies and retrospective longitudinal clinical studies on resin composite restorations were systematically searched with PubMed for literature in English and with Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Ichushi Web for articles in Japanese. Finally, 21 long-term (8 years or more prospective studies and nine retrospective studies with survival analysis were selected and reviewed from more than 561 papers. The overall findings suggest that at least 60% of resin composite restorations will last more than 10 years when proper materials are applied correctly. Patient-, operator-, material- and tooth-related factors may have an influence on the survival of resin composite restorations. Appropriate maintenance policies based on MI concepts are claimed to enhance the longevity of resin composite restorations.

  5. Origins of the Restoration Playhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis D.

    Contrary to the popular theory that the proscenium type of playhouse was imported from France by the Court of Charles II in 1660, the Restoration playhouse in fact developed from Elizabethan theatres and court masques. These Elizabethan theatres were the private theatres, and were generally small, rectangular, roofed structures where aristocratic…

  6. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  7. Zirconia-reinforced dental restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density

  8. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  9. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  10. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  11. Hydrodynamical Description of the QCD Dirac Spectrum at Finite Chemical Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizhuang; Warchol, Piotr; Zahed, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamical description of the QCD Dirac spectrum at finite chemical potential as an uncompressible droplet in the complex eigenvalue space. For a large droplet, the fluctuation spectrum around the hydrostatic solution is gapped by a longitudinal Coulomb plasmon, and exhibits a frictionless odd viscosity. The stochastic relaxation time for the restoration/breaking of chiral symmetry is set by twice the plasmon frequency. The leading droplet size correction to the relaxation ti...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  13. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  14. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  15. Adaptive Image Restoration and Segmentation Method Using Different Neighborhood Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The image restoration methods based on the Bayesian's framework and Markov random fields (MRF have been widely used in the image-processing field. The basic idea of all these methods is to use calculus of variation and mathematical statistics to average or estimate a pixel value by the values of its neighbors. After applying this averaging process to the whole image a number of times, the noisy pixels, which are abnormal values, are filtered out. Based on the Tea-trade model, which states that the closer the neighbor, more contribution it makes, almost all of these methods use only the nearest four neighbors for calculation. In our previous research [1, 2], we extended the research on CLRS (image restoration and segmentation by using competitive learning algorithm to enlarge the neighborhood size. The results showed that the longer neighborhood range could improve or worsen the restoration results. We also found that the autocorrelation coefficient was an important factor to determine the proper neighborhood size. We then further realized that the computational complexity increased dramatically along with the enlargement of the neighborhood size. This paper is to further the previous research and to discuss the tradeoff between the computational complexity and the restoration improvement by using longer neighborhood range. We used a couple of methods to construct the synthetic images with the exact correlation coefficients we want and to determine the corresponding neighborhood size. We constructed an image with a range of correlation coefficients by blending some synthetic images. Then an adaptive method to find the correlation coefficients of this image was constructed. We restored the image by applying different neighborhood CLRS algorithm to different parts of the image according to its correlation coefficient. Finally, we applied this adaptive method to some real-world images to get improved restoration results than by using single

  16. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  17. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in Pediatric Dentistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafi Ahmad Togoo

    2011-01-01

    Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) is an alternative treatment for dental caries and is an easy, low cost and painless restorative technique where soft infected dentin is removed with sharp hand instruments retaining the reversible...

  18. Factors affecting biological recovery of wetland restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This report describes a long-term study to monitor and evaluate the ecosystem recovery of seven wetland restorations in south central Minnesota. The study looks at the impact of planting on wetland restoration success in inland wetlands and develops ...

  19. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  20. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Paknahad, Maryam; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Mortazavi, Ghazal; Haghani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental amalgam is composed?of approximately?50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations. Methods Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non...

  1. Adaptive spectrum decision framework for heterogeneous dynamic spectrum access networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) system to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy dynamic spectrum access network (DSAN) users¿ quality of service (QoS) requirements without causing harmful interference...

  2. Digital color restoration of old paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2000-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained.

  3. Soil inoculation steers restoration of terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, E.R.J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bosch, M.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Many natural ecosystems have been degraded because of
    human activities1,2 and need to be restored so that biodiversity
    is protected. However, restoration can take decades and restoration
    activities are often unsuccessful3 because of abiotic
    constraints (for example, eutrophication,

  4. Soil inoculation steers restoration of terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, E.R.J.; van der Putten, W.H.; Bosch, M.; Bezemer, T.M. Bezemer

    2016-01-01

    Many natural ecosystems have been degraded because of human activities1,2 and need to be restored so that biodiversity is protected. However, restoration can take decades and restoration activities are often unsuccessful3 because of abiotic constraints (for example, eutrophication, acidification)

  5. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  6. "Re-story-ing" Our Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Frida

    2007-01-01

    A metaphor for crossing a frontier into a new territory is explored. The restorative justice principles as used by the United Nations and the International Institute for Restorative Practices (IIRP) help to translate into restorative practice principles. An action research project in South Africa provides the background to an evaluation process.…

  7. The subjective experience of music in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rory; Hill, Elisabeth; Heaton, Pamela

    2009-07-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. The analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the cognitive, emotional and social domains, but the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) group's descriptions of mood states reflected a greater reliance on internally focused (arousal) rather than externally focused (emotive) language, when compared with studies of typically developing individuals.

  8. Ceramic optimized polymer: the next generation of esthetic restorations--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkowsky, R D

    1997-11-01

    An abundance of new materials and techniques that challenge the clinician to recommend and provide the appropriate restoration for each clinical situation have been developed in the last decade. A new generation of materials, described by manufacturers as ceramic optimized polymers, have been recommended for a wide variety of restorations including inlays/onlays, crowns and bridges, and direct restorations. In this article, the appropriate preparation and luting technique for inlays/onlays are delineated. The use of ceromer inlays/onlays for teeth exhibiting symptoms of the partially fractured tooth is demonstrated.

  9. A minimally invasive restorative approach for treatment of interproximal root caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin; Gilboa, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    As the population ages, an increased prevalence of gingival recessions and root surfaces exposed to the oral environment has been reported. This in turn causes an increased risk for caries; it is estimated that the incidence of root caries in those older than 65 years of age is 23.7%. Published data support the use of glass ionomer as a restorative material that seems particularly suitable for restoring root lesions; the material has good esthetic and anticariogenic properties and has gained wide acceptance among practitioners. A minimally invasive approach for restoring interproximal root caries lesions with glass ionomer is described.

  10. 76 FR 46149 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety; Final Rule #0;#0... Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and Safety... Enhanced Hunter Education and Safety program; and (d) receive financial assistance from the Sport Fish...

  11. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.

    2012-11-05

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Radio frequency spectrum management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  13. Mile wide, inch deep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Compared to their counterparts in other nations, American grade school students learn a lot less about a lot more. According to a new report entitled A Splintered Vision: An Investigation of U.S. Science and Mathematics Education, a student in the United States is expected to absorb information about a wide array of topics in a school year, yet he or she is seldom given the opportunity to explore any one topic in depth. The report was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), a five-year project to compare teaching and student achievement in 45 countries.Before they reach high school, American students will have covered more topics than 75% of the students in other countries; yet in many cases, they will have been taught some of the same topics several years in a row. Researchers also criticized conventional U.S. education standards for being unfocused and aimed at the lowest common denominator. They noted that most American textbooks make minimal demands on students and they represent “a limited notion” of what should be discussed in “basic” texts.

  14. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2017-09-16

    analysis (log-rank post hoc test at α=.05 for pairwise comparisons). None of the tested specimen withstood all 140 000 cycles. All specimens without a ferrule were affected by an initial failure phenomenon (wide gap at the lingual margin between the core foundation restoration/crown assembly and the root). NfPfP, NfPt, and NfPtB had similar survival (29649 to 30987 mean cycles until initial failure). NfPfB outperformed NfPt and NfPtB. None of the post-and-core foundation restoration materials were able to match the performance of the ferrule group FPf (72667 cycles). In all groups, 100% of failures were catastrophic. The survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule was slightly improved by the use of a fiber post with a bulk-fill composite resin core foundation restoration. However, none of the post-and-core techniques was able to compensate for the absence of a ferrule. The presence of the posts always adversely affected the failure mode. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Restoration of wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skabo, R.R. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) has always been a problem. As systems increase in size, corrosion of materials in certain areas of the plant can become more serious. Concrete is the primary material used in RWPS, and it can be severely corroded by the environment in a WWTP. This paper discusses some of the more common types of HWP corrosion, which occur in both concrete and metallic structures. Corrosion caused by poor design will be discussed also. Examples of corrosion will be described and practical solutions for restoration of corroded surfaces will be presented The advantages and disadvantages of various restoration methods will be compared and alternative construction methods and design changes will be offered. These alternatives will improve the corrosion performance of common construction materials.

  16. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  17. Spectrum Utilization Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    bands and space services since it accounts for carrier types , modulation and multiple access techniques, and regenerative repeaters that are not... TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yeaw, Mont, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Final FROM Dec87 TO Nov 88 1988 November 30 240 16. SUPPLEMENTARY...MILSATCOM, WARC, Spectrum Use 19,ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse it necessary and Identify by blod number) The objective of this task was to provide

  18. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  19. The bionic man: restoring mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craelius, William

    2002-02-08

    Bionics engineers are making increasingly bold and successful use of their tools to restore mobility to persons with missing or nonfunctional limbs. These tools include the latest materials, minielectronics and megacomputers, advanced robotic mechanisms, and algorithms. With crucial help from their pioneering users, they are learning how and where the residual sensorimotor system can be tapped in order to transmit its intents to replacement or reactivated body parts.

  20. Metric Selection for Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    1-11. Kiker, G .A., T. S. Bridges, A. Varghese, T. P. Seager, and I. Linkov. 2005. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in environmental...Presents two metric evaluation methods, screening and multi-criteria decision analysis . 5. Discusses metric application to ecosystem restoration...characterize project success. Metrics used in plan formulation can be quantified by modeling and analysis , or can be qualitative in nature, while

  1. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  3. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Katona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two parameters were examined on esthetic evaluation, which were the anatomical shape and the optical appearance. The time required to prepare the restorations were also measured. After the evaluation of the results, the bulk-fill technique was demonstrated to require the shortest time to be performed. This was followed by the oblique (Z technique, whereas the horizontal incremental technique appeared to be the most time-consuming method. Based on the esthetic evaluation, a remarkable difference can be observed between the bulk-fill technique and the other two incremental techniques, while the mean scores for the oblique and the horizontal techniques were comparable. Based on the results of the visual inspection and instrumental examination, there were no differences in terms of marginal sealing between the three applied methods. Based on these, the use of the appropriate incremental technique can reduce the development of secondary caries and increasing the longevity of composite restorations.

  4. Towards Socially Restorative Urbanism: Exploring Social and Spatial Implications for Urban Restorative Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Thwaites

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores ideas that might help to stimulate new avenues of inquiry into how those involved in shaping the urban environment might begin to restore a better balance of human benefit and urban form in approaches to urban regeneration and design. At present, growing evidence suggests that our capability to create socially sustainable urban regeneration and design may be compromised by over-privileging economic interests and rapid delivery over social relevance. Particularly in mixed-use residential development, an important consequence may be that people experience less of a sense of control over their homes and neighbourhoods, which diminishes opportunities for territorial expressions important to life quality and social cohesion. The paper begins by discussing the concept of restorative environments and asserts that there are important social dimensions to human restorative experience, not yet widely investigated, that can be related to the form of towns and cities. We suggest that a better understanding of these environments can be found in phenomenological perspectives on human–environment relations. These perspectives provide foundations for more evolutionary approaches to urban morphology that raise questions around the balance of control between professional processes and user-modification in urban place making. Specifically identified and discussed are social processes that connect territorial expression with opportunities people have to develop and sustain self-esteem.The paper concludes by suggesting that new research directions in urbanism might productively explore the interface where the need to establish structurally stable infrastructure may gradually give way to more indeterminate and evolutionary processes of occupation and territorial negotiation.

  5. Observation of Phillips' spectrum in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of the Phillips' spectrum of gravity surface waves driven by a horizontally moving wave maker interacting with Faraday waves. We measure the temporal fluctuations of the surface wave amplitude at a given location and we show that, for a wide range of forcing parameters, they display a power-law spectrum that greatly differs from the one predicted by the WT theory but coincides with Phillips' spectrum for gravity waves. We compute the probability density function of the local surface height increments, which show that they change strongly across time scales. The structure functions of these increments are shown to display power-laws as a function of the time lag, with exponents that are not linear with the order of the structure function, thus showing that the wave field is intermittent. We argue that the origin of this scale-invariant intermittent spectrum is the Faraday wave pattern breakup due to its advection by the propagating gravity waves, which can be related directly to the P...

  6. Spectrum Services 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Csabai, I.; Szalay, A. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present the Filter and Spectrum Services consisting of easy-to-use web applications and web services for searching, plotting and managing large collections of spectral energy distribution data and filter profiles as well as for performing various scientific operations on spectra in a unified framework. The services provide keyword search, advanced query forms and SQL query possibilities for selecting spectra or bandpass curves which may be retrieved in a variety of file formats including XML, VOTable and ASCII. All SDSS DR1-DR5 spectra had been loaded into a database as well as the entire 2dF catalog that adds up to more than 2.5 million SEDs of about a million spatial objects, but registered users can upload their own data making it available for the rest of the community and are free to modify or delete them at any time. Theoretical catalogs, such as the Bruzual-Charlot stochastic burst model spectrum library (100k spectra) and the BaSeL stellar library are also available. Scientific services allow building rest-frame composite spectra out of selected spectra; calculating synthetic magnitudes by convolving spectra with an arbitrary set of bandpass curves of optical instrument filters to generate simulated photometric catalogs on-the-fly; galactic extinction correction, fitting of the continuum using different set of templates (Bruzual-Charlot '03 templates, SDSS eigenspectra), line fitting. All scientific functionalities are available from the web user interface and via the SOAP web services for programmers. MySpectrum is a cross-platform version of the spectrum web service for setting up your own spectrum repository. It integrates into the main service allowing easy access to your data for the whole VO community. The main idea behind our web services is to move scientific functionalities physically close to the database in order to spare network bandwidth. This way scientists may do research without setting up expensive hardware, downloading large datasets

  7. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TWTC) hybrids involved different combinations of restorers, maintainers and partial restorers of rice. Pollen and spikelet fertility of 16 TWTC hybrids were studied. Six TWTC involving restorer/restorer combinations as male parents produced ...

  8. Assessing floodplain restoration success using soil morphology indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenat, Claire; Fournier, Bertrand; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Grin, Karin; Pfund, Simona; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are complex ecological systems that fulfil different ecological, economic and social functions related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. The fluvial dynamics of most rivers in industrialized countries have been altered to such an extent that floodplains are now one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. This adverse impact has been widely recognized and, nowadays, extensive attempts are underway to return rivers to more natural conditions and restore their ecological quality and essential ecosystem functions. As a consequence, the number of restoration projects worldwide is rapidly increasing. However, despite an estimated global cost of more than 1 billion dollars annually, there is a crucial lack of monitoring and quantitative evaluations. Indeed, most projects are never monitored post-restoration (NRC 1992). In Switzerland, only 35% of the projects include a monitoring program mainly based on flora and fauna (BAFU). The design, selection and optimization of indicators for project monitoring are of major importance for sustainable management of riverine ecosystems. However, despite the growing body of literature on potential indicators and criteria for assessing the success of restoration projects no standardised or generally applicable method exists. Furthermore, soils are rarely considered among the possible indicators despite their crucial roles in ecosystems such as decomposition, supplying resources (habitats, gene pool, biomass, and raw materials), and environmental interactions (storage, filtering, transformation). We therefore hypothesized that soils may constitute an appropriate synthetic and functional indicator for the evaluation of river restoration success, especially in the framework of river widening aiming to increase the terrestrial biodiversity. In agreement with the current concepts of river restoration, we propose an assessment tool for floodplain restoration based on three soil morphology criteria (soil

  9. Rubber dam isolation for restorative treatment in dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Chunjie; Yuan, He; Wong, May Cm; Zou, Jing; Shi, Zongdao; Zhou, Xuedong

    2016-09-20

    Successful restorations in dental patients depend largely on the effective control of moisture and microbes during the procedure. The rubber dam technique has been one of the most widely used isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity of dental restorations is conflicting. Therefore, it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine the effects of this method. To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation compared with other types of isolation used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental patients. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 17 August 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 17 August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 August 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 August 2016), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 17 August 2016), SciELO BIREME Virtual Health Library (1998 to 17 August 2016), Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM, in Chinese) (1978 to 30 August 2016), VIP (in Chinese) (1989 to 30 August 2016), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, in Chinese) (1994 to 30 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese) for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth trials) assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. We included four studies

  10. Long-term evaluation of extensive restorations in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuysen, J.-P. van; D'hoore, W.D.; Carvalho, J.

    2003-01-01

    Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry......Biostatistics, cast crowns, complex restorations, composite resins, decision making, dental amalgam, metal ceramic crowns, multi-surfaced restorations, prosthodontics, restorative dentistry...

  11. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  12. SALIVARY PH CHANGES AFTER GIC RESTORATION ON DECIDUOUS TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nila Sukma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC is the most widely used material in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of this study was to analyze pH changes of saliva after GIC restoration on primary teeth. For this purpose, 20 primary canines which were restored with GIC 24 hours previously were plunged into 20 tubes containing each 1,5 ml pH 6,8 Fusayama artificial saliva and then stored in incubator at the temperature of 37°C. The pH changes were measured at 30, 60, and 90 minutes later with digital pH meter PH-201. It was revealed that the highest pH acceleration was at 30 minutes exposure an decrease thereafter and the lowest pH acceleration was at 90 minutes exposure. Statistical analysis was performed by Anova and Tukey HSD.

  13. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, R.F. [Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Lootens, R.J.; Becker, M.K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Successional Restoration is the method being used to restore the prairie at Fermilab on the former agricultural fields. This involves an initial planting, using aggressive species that have wide ecological tolerances which will grow well on abandoned agricultural fields. Collectively, these species are designated as the prairie matrix. The species used for this prairie matrix compete with and eventually eliminate most weedy species. They also provide an adequate fuel load capable of sustaining a fire within a few years after a site has been initially planted. Associated changes in the biological and physical structure of the soil help prepare the way for the successful introduction of plants of the later successional species. Only after the species of the prairie matrix are well established, is the species diversity increased by introducing species with narrower ecological tolerances. These species are thus characteristic of the later successional stages.

  14. Evaluating restorative materials and procedures in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J T

    2005-12-01

    A wide variety of research methods are appropriate to general dental practice, including clinical trials of materials, assessment of materials and techniques, treatment trends, and assessment of behavior and attitudes, of dentists as well as patients. This paper will describe the use of practice-based networks to evaluate the effectiveness of materials and techniques in dental practice. Several practice-based research groups are presently in operation in the UK and the USA, generally carrying out evaluations of the handling of materials, but with increasing emphasis on the clinical evaluation of restorations. Use of the Dental Practice Board (of England and Wales) database has proved to be a fruitful source of data on the long-term outcome of restorations. Dental practice can provide the large pool of patients available for research. To utilize this pool of patients, dental practitioners and their support staff require training in collecting data.

  15. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  16. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-12-01

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration, including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving species richness and diversity. Although models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, few researchers have attempted to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We developed a combined state-and-transition, species-distribution model to predict the effects of restoration actions on vegetation condition and extent, bird diversity, and the distribution of several bird species in southeastern Australian woodlands. The actions reflected several management objectives. We then validated the models against an independent data set and investigated how the best management decision might change when objectives were valued differently. We also used model results to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. In the examples we evaluated, no one action (improving vegetation condition and extent, increasing bird diversity, or increasing the probability of occurrence for threatened species) provided the best outcome across all objectives. In agricultural lands, the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus), an iconic threatened species, resulted in little improvement in the extent of the vegetation and a high probability of decreased vegetation condition. This result highlights that the best management action in any situation depends on how much the different objectives are valued. In our example scenario, no management or weed control were most likely to be the best management options to satisfy multiple restoration objectives. Our approach to exploring trade-offs in management outcomes through integrated modeling and structured decision-support approaches has wide application for situations in which trade-offs exist between competing

  17. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  18. [Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medić, Vesna; Obradović-Djuricić, Kosovka

    2008-01-01

    Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 600 to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p different taper (p 0.05) differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p < 0.01) and diameter (p < 0.05). In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  19. Minimally invasive direct restorations: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, L; Banerjee, A

    2017-08-11

    The primary objectives of minimum intervention dentistry (MID) are to prevent or arrest active disease using non-operative management techniques. However, patients commonly present with cavitated caries lesions or failed restorations that are in need of operative intervention. Although much of clinical practice is devoted to preventing and managing the effects of caries and subsequent failure of the tooth-restoration complex, the clinical survival of restorations is often poor and becomes significantly worse as they increase in size and complexity. Minimally invasive (MI) restorative techniques present a range of well-documented advantages over more tissue-destructive traditional restorations by minimising unnecessary tooth tissue loss, insult to the dentine-pulp complex and reducing the risk of iatrogenic damage to adjacent hard and soft tissues. They also maximise the strength of the residual tooth structure by use of optimal adhesive restorative materials designed to restore function and aesthetics with durable, long-lasting restorations that are easy for the patient to maintain. In contemporary oral healthcare practice, if patients are to give valid consent for operative interventions, minimally invasive options must be offered, and may be expected to be the first choice of fully informed patients. This paper describes concepts of MID and provides an update of the latest materials, equipment and clinical techniques that are available for the minimally invasive restoration of anterior and posterior teeth with direct restorations.

  20. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  2. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystems Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-04-30

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this quarter we worked on methodologies for analyzing carbon in mine soils. A unique property of mine soils is the presence of coal and carboniferous rock particles that are present in mine soils in various sizes, quantities, and qualities. There is no existing method in the literature that may be of use for quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in mine soils that can successfully differentiate between pedogenic and geogenic carbon forms. In this report we present a detailed description of a 16-step method for measuring SOC in mine soils designed for and tested on a total of 30 different mine soil mixtures representing a wide spectrum of mine soils in the hard-rock region of the Appalachian coalfield. The proposed method is a combination of chemical procedure for carbonates removal, a thermal procedure for pedogenic C removal, and elemental C analysis procedure at 900 C. Our methodology provides a means to correct for the carbon loss from the more volatile constituents of coal fragments in the mine soil samples and another correction factor for the protected organic matter that can also remain unoxidized following thermal pretreatment. The correction factors for coal and soil material-specific SOM were based on carbon content loss from coal and SOM determined by a parallel thermal oxidation analysis of pure ground coal fragments retrieved from the same mined site as the soil samples and of coal-free soil rock fragments of sandstone and siltstone origin.

  3. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  4. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-05-14

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  5. Family as a Total Package: Restoring and Enhancing Psychological Health for Citizen Soldiers and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Alcohol dependence GAD Antisocial personality disorder Female Depression GAD GAD Depression Alcohol abuse Alcohol dependence PTSD: Vietnam...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 3 | P a g e Family as a Total Package: Restoring and Enhancing...Conceptualization of trauma spectrum disorders . Building upon the premise of combat trauma leading (or precipitating) a variety of pathologies, Price et al

  6. Storied experiences of school-based habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne C.

    ethical commitment to broader discussions about environmental issues and concerns. Although this potential was realized to widely varying degrees, at its best school-based habitat restoration offered a tangible means of living out stories about humanity's interdependence with and responsibilities within the larger web of life. 1I borrow the expression "more-than-human" from David Abram's The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World (New York: Pantheon Books, 1996).

  7. How to make complexity look simple? Conveying ecosystems restoration complexity for socio-economic research and public engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Glenk, Klaus; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people's livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem's information in a way that is accessible to the wider public. In this paper we take up this challenge with the ultimate aim of contributing to making a step change in science's contribution to ecosystems restoration practice. Using peatlands as a paradigmatically complex ecosystem, we put in place a transdisciplinary process to articulate a description of the processes and outcomes of restoration that can be understood widely by the public. We provide evidence of the usefulness of the process and tools in addressing four key challenges relevant to restoration of any complex ecosystem: (1) how to represent restoration outcomes; (2) how to establish a restoration reference; (3) how to cope with varying restoration time-lags and (4) how to define spatial units for restoration. This evidence includes the way the process resulted in the creation of materials that are now being used by restoration practitioners for communication with the public and in other research contexts. Our main contribution is of an epistemological nature: while ecosystem services-based approaches have enhanced the integration of academic disciplines and non-specialist knowledge, this has so far only followed one direction (from the biophysical underpinning to the description of ecosystem services and their appreciation by the public). We propose that it is the mix of approaches and epistemological directions (including from the public to the

  8. The broad spectrum of signaling pathways regulated by unfolded protein response in neuronal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2017-06-28

    The protein folding capabilities in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are disturbed by alternations in the cellular homeostasis such as the disruption of calcium ion homeostasis, the expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to these ER dysfunctions, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades to restore the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible damages, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged ER dysfunctions and the downregulation of UPR signaling pathways have been accepted as a crucial trigger for the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the UPR has a wide spectrum of signaling pathways for unique physiological roles in the diverse developmental, differential and lipidomic processes. A developed and intricate ER network exists in the neurites of neurons. Neuronal ER functions and ER-derived signaling mediate efficient communication between cell soma and distal sites through local protein synthesis, sorting and lipogenesis. However, relevant of ER-derived UPR signaling pathways in the elaborate mechanisms regulating neuronal activities, synaptic functions and protective responses against injury is not fully elucidated. In this review, we summarized our current understanding of how the UPR functions provide the appropriate signals for neuronal capabilities. We also reviewed how UPR dysfunctions lead to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possibilities ameliorating their toxic effects by targeting UPR components. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  10. Restoration of thermoregulation after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; McGinn, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Performing exercise, especially in hot conditions, can heat the body, causing significant increases in internal body temperature. To offset this increase, powerful and highly developed autonomic thermoregulatory responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweating) are activated to enhance whole body heat loss; a response mediated by temperature-sensitive receptors in both the skin and the internal core regions of the body. Independent of thermal control of heat loss, nonthermal factors can have profound consequences on the body's ability to dissipate heat during exercise. These include the activation of the body's sensory receptors (i.e., baroreceptors, metaboreceptors, mechanoreceptors, etc.) as well as phenotypic factors such as age, sex, acclimation, fitness, and chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes). The influence of these factors extends into recovery such that marked impairments in thermoregulatory function occur, leading to prolonged and sustained elevations in body core temperature. Irrespective of the level of hyperthermia, there is a time-dependent suppression of the body's physiological ability to dissipate heat. This delay in the restoration of postexercise thermoregulation has been associated with disturbances in cardiovascular function which manifest most commonly as postexercise hypotension. This review examines the current knowledge regarding the restoration of thermoregulation postexercise. In addition, the factors that are thought to accelerate or delay the return of body core temperature to resting levels are highlighted with a particular emphasis on strategies to manage heat stress in athletic and/or occupational settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Evaluating the process of ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating the process of ecological restoration and applied it to 10 examples of restoration projects in the northern hemisphere. We identified three major phases, planning, implementation, and monitoring, in the restoration process. We found that evaluation occurred both within and between the three phases, that it included both formal and informal components, and that it often had an impact on the performance of the projects. Most evaluations were short-term and only some parts of them were properly documented. Poor or short-term evaluation of the restoration process creates a risk that inefficient methods will continue to be used, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of restoration. To improve the restoration process and to transfer the knowledge to future projects, we argue for more formal, sustained evaluation procedures, involving all relevant stakeholders, and increased and improved documentation and dissemination of the results.

  12. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  14. Observation of Phillips's spectrum in Faraday waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Gustavo; Falcon, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    We consider the problem of wave turbulence generated by singularities from an experimental point of view. We study a system of Faraday waves interacting with waves generated by a wave-maker driven with a random forcing. We measure the temporal fluctuations of the surface wave amplitude at a given location and we show that for a wide range of forcing parameters the surface height displays a power-law spectra that greatly differs from the one predicted by the WT theory. In the capillary region the power spectrum turns out to be proportional to f-5, which we believe is due to singularities moving across the system. Proyecto Postdoctorado Fondecyt Nro 3160032.

  15. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose PT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, hair transplant, surgical procedure

  16. Conservation and restoration of ornamental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rallo Gruss

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention on a building as complex and rich in ornamentation as the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas requires special attention as regards the restoration of all the singular elements, both inside and outside, and the different finishes and furnishings. Within this methodology of integral restoration, it is worth pointing out especially the consolidation and cleaning of the emblematic alabaster portal, the restoration of the paintings and the treatment of the different collections of tiles.

  17. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  18. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  19. The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbold, Bruce; Baltz, Donald; Brown, Larry R.; Grossinger, Robin; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Moyle, Peter B.; Nobriga, Matthew L.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011). Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha) and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha). In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012). In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta), one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013). The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010). This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium.

  20. Ecological Feasibility Studies in Restoration Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N.; Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.; Seagle, Steven W.

    2007-06-01

    The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

  1. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  2. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  3. Applications of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Lasers) for Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ajlal, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) has been used widely in a range of biomedical and dental applications in recent years. In the field of restorative dentistry, various kinds of lasers have been developed for diagnostic (e.g. caries detection) and operative applications (e.g. tooth ablation, cavity preparation, restorations, bleaching). The main benefits for laser applications are patient comfort, pain relief and better results for specific applications. Major concerns for using dental lasers frequently are high cost, need for specialized training and sensitivity of the technique, thereby compromising its usefulness particularly in developing countries. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and summarize the applications of lasers in restorative dentistry, including a comparison of the applications of lasers for major restorative dental procedures and conventional clinical approaches. A remarkable increase in the use of lasers for dental application is expected in the near future. PMID:26642047

  4. Applications of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Lasers) for Restorative Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ajlal, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) has been used widely in a range of biomedical and dental applications in recent years. In the field of restorative dentistry, various kinds of lasers have been developed for diagnostic (e.g. caries detection) and operative applications (e.g. tooth ablation, cavity preparation, restorations, bleaching). The main benefits for laser applications are patient comfort, pain relief and better results for specific applications. Major concerns for using dental lasers frequently are high cost, need for specialized training and sensitivity of the technique, thereby compromising its usefulness particularly in developing countries. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and summarize the applications of lasers in restorative dentistry, including a comparison of the applications of lasers for major restorative dental procedures and conventional clinical approaches. A remarkable increase in the use of lasers for dental application is expected in the near future. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  6. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  7. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  9. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-10-17

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  10. Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apostol, D; Sinclair, M

    2006-01-01

    Restoring the Pacific Northwest is a handbook that brings together in a single volume a vast array of information on the science and practice of restoration in a broadly defined Pacific Northwest region...

  11. Clínica ampliada em saúde mental: cuidar e suposição de saber no acompanhamento terapêutico Wide-spectrum clinical interventions in mental health: " care" and " subject supposed to know" in therapeutic assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estellita-Lins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o acompanhamento terapêutico, entendido como intervenção em saúde mental baseada em cuidados domiciliares. Destacamos a importância de intervenções comunitárias privilegiando formas de lidar com o sofrimento, seja através de uma concepção médica dos sintomas, fundada na visibilidade, seja valorizando uma leitura psicanalítica que recorre à escuta. Carecendo de teorização independente que fundamente sua prática, o AT (acompanhamento terapêutico apropria-se de teorias provenientes de outros campos do saber que guardam afinidades. Neste sentido, abordamos a influência da psicanálise e sua participação na clínica ampliada em saúde mental através da prática clínica do AT, utilizando dois conceitos operatórios de amplo alcance, que são: sujeito suposto saber, proveniente da obra de Lacan, e cuidado, derivado de Winnicott. Ambos respondem a questões do campo teórico e orientam a atuação clínica. Concluímos que o AT realiza exigências do manejo transferencial sob a forma do cuidar exercido no cotidiano do sujeito, no qual desejo e subjetividade são necessariamente reconhecidos, sem que se configure como tecnologia psicoterápica, situando-se mais propriamente como sentinela clínica no campo da psiquiatria comunitária e saúde coletiva.This paper discusses the theme therapeutic assistance (TA, understood as homecare-based mental health intervention. We emphasize the importance of community interventions for dealing with psychic suffering, either through reading the symptoms based on visibility, or through a psychoanalytic approach mainly concerned with listening. Lacking an independent theoretical background to support this practice, therapeutic assistance makes use of theories coming from other related fields of knowledge. Therefore, we discuss the influence of psychoanalysis and its role among broad spectrum mental health practice through clinical interventions belonging to the field of TA

  12. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  14. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  15. AKAPs integrate genetic findings for autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, G.J.; Franke, B.; Pauls, D.L.; Glennon, J.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable, and six genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of ASDs have been published to date. In this study, we have integrated the findings from these GWASs with other genetic data to identify enriched genetic networks that are associated with ASDs. We

  16. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  17. 75 FR 32877 - Financial Assistance: Wildlife Restoration, Sport Fish Restoration, Hunter Education and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ..., Sport Fish Restoration, and Hunter Education and Safety (Enhanced Hunter Education and Safety) financial... Hunter Education and Safety program; and (d) receive financial assistance from the Sport Fish Restoration... wildlife agencies to: (a) Restore or manage wildlife and sport fish; (b) provide hunter- education, hunter...

  18. Six-year follow up of atraumatic restorative treatment restorations placed in Chinese school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, E.C.; Holmgren, C.J.; Hu, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in school children in China over a 6-year period. METHODS: This study was implemented in 1996 and 294 ART restorations were placed in 197 children aged 12-13 years by five

  19. How Do Biota Respond to Additional Physical Restoration of Restored Streams?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Christer; Sarneel, Judith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836923; Palm, Daniel; Gardeström, Johanna; Pilotto, Francesca; Polvi, Lina E.; Lind, L.; Holmqvist, D.; Lundqvist, H.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of channelized streams by returning coarse sediment from stream edges to the wetted channel has become a common practice in Sweden. Yet, restoration activities do not always result in the return of desired biota. This study evaluated a restoration project in the Vindel River in northern

  20. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  1. International Documents on Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pouperová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theory and practice of cultural monuments protection, including garden art monuments and landscape protection, it has been often referred to international conventions and other international documents relating to this protection. Necessary condition for these documents to be adequately used in the practice is the precise understanding of their legal nature and a question arising therefrom, if and to what extent and to whom are those documents binding.The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the international documents relating to the landscape restoration. Following the analysis, the authors explore the scope and way of transposition of these documents and obligation arising therefrom into the Czech legal order. In the general part the authors analyse knowledge of the current jurisprudence on treaties and other international documents. They focus on the issue of the legal force of such documents, both on the international and national level. In the following part the authors deal with international documents on landscape restoration, explain legal nature of those documents and explicate whether the documents are formally legally binding or whether they may have other practical effects. The legally binding international treaties on the landscape protection include in particular the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 1972 and the European Landscape Convention (Florence, 2000. As regard legally non-binding acts of international non-governmental organizations, the paper discusses the charters of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS, the Venice Charter of 1964 and the Florence Charter of 1981. Mentioned is also the Athens Charter (1933, respectively the New Athens Charter of 1998 dealing with the landscape in terms of the principles of urban planning.

  2. Restored thermoluminescence in oxide crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, A.F., E-mail: afrakov@hotmail.co [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, 700132 (Uzbekistan); Salikhbaev, U.S.; Islamov, A.K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, 700132 (Uzbekistan); Bartram, R.H. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Melcher, C.L. [Scintillation Materials Research Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2000 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, we present the results of a thermoluminescence study on several oxide crystals, including Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG), Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Nd (YAG:Nd), Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LSO:Ce), Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (YSO:Ce), Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (GSO:Ce), PbWO (PWO), and PbWO:La (PWO:La). A phenomenon involving restoration of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks is found to occur in some of the crystals investigated; crystals {gamma}-irradiated at room temperature and subsequently stored for some time in the dark at 77 K exhibit TL glow peaks in the range below room temperature. This phenomenon is caused not by a thermally or optically stimulated process, but rather as a by-product of a tunneling process. The intensity of the restored TL glow peaks measured in LSO:Ce crystals is found to be proportional both to the radiation dose and to the storage-time at low temperature. A phenomenological theoretical model is proposed, in which tunneling recombination occurs between deep electron and hole traps accompanied by the simultaneous ejection of an electron to the conduction band; some of these conduction electrons then repopulate shallow traps. An oxygen vacancy with two trapped electrons is assumed to be the deep electron trap in this model. The role of oxygen vacancies is confirmed by heating in air at 1000 {sup o}C. This model is applied specifically to LSO:Ce, and several possible candidates are suggested for shallow traps in that material.

  3. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Golet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to characterize the status of terrestrial and floodplain resources (e.g., flora and fauna, channel dynamics (e.g., planform, geomorphology, and the flow regime. Indicators were also associated with specific goal statements of the CALFED Ecosystem Restoration Program. A collective weight of evidence approach was used to assess restoration success. Our synthesis demonstrates good progress in the restoration of riparian habitats, birds and other wildlife, but not in restoration of streamflows and geomorphic processes. For example, from 1999 to 2007, there was a > 600% increase in forest patch core size, and a 43% increase in the area of the river bordered by natural habitat > 500 m wide. Species richness of landbirds and beetles increased at restoration sites, as did detections of bats. However, degraded post-Shasta Dam streamflow conditions continued. Relative to pre-dam conditions, the average number of years that pass between flows that are sufficient to mobilize the bed, and those that are of sufficient magnitude to inundate the floodplain, increased by over 100%. Trends in geomorphic processes were strongly negative, with increases in the amount of bank hardened with riprap, and decreases in the area of floodplain reworked. Overall the channel simplified, becoming less sinuous with reduced overall channel length. Our progress assessment presents a compelling case for what needs to be done to further advance the ecological restoration of the river. The most

  4. Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1991-01-01

    The fidelity and resolution of the traditional Wiener restorations given in the prevalent digital processing literature can be significantly improved when the transformations between the continuous and discrete representations in image gathering and display are accounted for. However, the visual quality of these improved restorations also is more sensitive to the defects caused by aliasing artifacts, colored noise, and ringing near sharp edges. In this paper, these visual defects are characterized, and methods for suppressing them are presented. It is demonstrated how the visual quality of fidelity-maximized images can be improved when (1) the image-gathering system is specifically designed to enhance the performance of the image-restoration algorithm, and (2) the Wiener filter is combined with interactive Gaussian smoothing, synthetic high edge enhancement, and nonlinear tone-scale transformation. The nonlinear transformation is used primarily to enhance the spatial details that are often obscurred when the normally wide dynamic range of natural radiance fields is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of film and other displays.

  5. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  6. Genome-wide detection of selection and other evolutionary forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhuofei; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, pathogenic microbes evolve rapidly to escape from the host immune system and antibiotics. Genetic variations among microbial populations occur frequently during the long-term pathogen–host evolutionary arms race, and individual mutation beneficial for the fitness can be fixed...... of an animal pathogen. The evolutionary analysis of the protein-coding part of the genomes will provide a wide spectrum oof genetic variations that play potential roles in adaptive evolution of bacteria....

  7. Dynamic Spectrum Sharing among Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The ever-growing demand for mobile broadband is leading to an imminent spectrum scarcity. In order to cope with such situation dynamic spectrum sharing and the widespread deployment of small cells (femtocells) are promising solutions. Delivering such a view is not short of challenges. Massive...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Autism Spectrum Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  9. Indecomposable polynomials and their spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Arnaud; Debes, Pierre; Najib, Salah

    We address some questions concerning indecomposable polynomials and their spectrum. How does the spectrum behave via reduction or specialization, or via a more general ring morphism? Are the indecomposability properties equivalent over a field and over its algebraic closure? How many polynomials are decomposable over a finite field?

  10. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2017-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to too...

  11. Households' Willingness to Pay For Restoring Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probit and Tobit models were applied to determine the mean and factors affecting willingness to pay for forest restoration, respectively. A sample of 393 households was ... also significant variables needs to consider. Keywords: Willingness to Pay, Contingent Valuation Method, Forest Restoration, Probit Model, Tobit Model ...

  12. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  13. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  14. WoonyBird Restoration Plant Selector Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modifying greenspaces to enhance habitat value has been proposed as a means towards protecting or restoring biodiversity in urban landscapes. As part of a framework for developing low-cost, low-impact enhancements that can be incorporated during the restoration of greenspaces to ...

  15. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  16. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  17. Native plant containers for restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David E. Steinfeld; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The choice of container is one of the most important considerations when growing or ordering native plants for a restoration project. Container characteristics affect not only growth and production efficiencies in the nursery, they can also have important consequences after outplanting. The challenging conditions on restoration sites require containers with...

  18. 76 FR 47055 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... 7 CFR Part 1730 RIN 0572-AC16 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP) AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... maintain an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that details how the borrower will restore its system in the... ERP requirement was not entirely new to the borrowers, as RUS had recommended similar ``plans'' in the...

  19. Restoration of Endodontically-Treated Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Andrew

    2017-02-28

    Detailed consideration of a case involving the restoration of an endodontically-treated maxillary canine tooth provides opportunity to review the many different considerations and treatment options in such situations. The restoration of endodontically-treated anterior teeth must be patient-centred, applying materials and techniques best suited to achieve a successful clinical outcome.

  20. Integrating soil ecological knowledge into restoration management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam Heneghan; Susan P. Miller; Sara Baer; Mac A. Callaham; James Montgomery; Mitchell Pavao-Zuckerman; Charles C. Rhoades; Sarah Richardson

    2008-01-01

    The variability in the type of ecosystem degradation and the specificity of restoration goals can challenge restorationists' ability to generalize about approaches that lead to restoration success. The discipline of soil ecology, which emphasizes both soil organisms and ecosystem processes, has generated a body of knowledge that can be generally useful in...

  1. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  2. The restoration lines; Les chaines de restauration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference allowed the restoration sector to discover the advantages of the gas energy for cooking: a cheaper cost, a adequate technology for a maximum of efficiency and safety. Gaz De France presents a great interest in this restoration sector and will continue to invest on this market in the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. Dealing with public concerns in restoring fire to the forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. C. Weldon

    1996-01-01

    Public support is important to all restoration efforts on public lands. Some types of restoration activities are easier for the public to support than others. Restoring wetlands, habitat restoration for salmon or burrowing owls, and vegetative rehabilitation are generally acceptable practices. Most restoration projects and activities such as these do not have much...

  4. A Review of Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Kozeneski, Nicole; Skinner-Foster, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of widely used measures for assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised," "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule," "Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition," "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition," and "Childhood Autism…

  5. Abnormal wiring of the connectome in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Tani, Pekka; Leppamaki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent brain imaging findings suggest that there are widely distributed abnormalities affecting the brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using graph theoretical analysis, it is possible to investigate both global and local properties of brain's wiring

  6. Restoring Functional Areas of Continuously Casted Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinová, Janette; Balog, Peter; Viňáš, Ján

    2012-12-01

    the paper proposes the fourth restoration of a roller in continuous casting production lines which can enhance production efficiency and lowers costs. The roller was forged from the material 24CrMoV55 - DIN 17240. The roller has been restored three times and is chosen for further restoration. The roller was restored by submerged arc welding (SAW) where the first layer was made from UP-5-200-CZ wire and the covering layers made from UP-5-45-CZ wire. Quality of the weld deposits were evaluated by measuring the hardness, mixing the weld with basic material and by setting the basic mechanical properties in the critical under-weld deposit area. Structures of the weld deposits were evaluated by light microscopy and their chemical composition was determined by EDX analysis. Based on experiments it can be concluded that rollers can be restored for the fourth time, but the limiting factor is the extent of damage.

  7. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  8. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  11. The Cu II Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kramida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New wavelength measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, ultraviolet and visible spectral regions have been combined with available literature data to refine and extend the description of the spectrum of singly ionized copper (Cu II. In the VUV region, we measured 401 lines using a concave grating spectrograph and photographic plates. In the UV and visible regions, we measured 276 lines using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These new measurements were combined with previously unpublished data from the thesis of Ross, with accurate VUV grating measurements of Kaufman and Ward, and with less accurate older measurements of Shenstone to construct a comprehensive list of ≈2440 observed lines, from which we derived a revised set of 379 optimized energy levels, complemented with 89 additional levels obtained using series formulas. Among the 379 experimental levels, 29 are new. Intensities of all lines observed in different experiments have been reduced to the same uniform scale by using newly calculated transition probabilities (A-values. We combined our calculations with published measured and calculated A-values to provide a set of 555 critically evaluated transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties, 162 of which are less than 20%.

  12. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  13. Questions of Authenticity after Six Re-restorations of the Wall Paintings in Fjenneslev Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Haslund, Ida

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a case involving particularly difficult decisions pertaining to the aesthetic presentation of the Romanesque wall paintings in Fjenneslev Church (Denmark), which have undergone six major re-restorations in the past hundred years. The application of widely acknowledged modern...... authenticity is dubious, in order to stress other aspects of authenticity relating to a painting’s social and cultural setting....

  14. Turbary restoration meets variable success: does landscape structure force colonization success of wetland plants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, B.G.H.J.; Omtzigt, A.Q.A.; Vermaat, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Peat ponds have been restored widely in the Netherlands to enhance the available habitat for species-rich plant communities that characterize the early succession stages toward land. Colonization success of 33 target aquatic species has been quantified in eight complexes of new ponds. It has been

  15. Vegetative and adaptive traits predict different outcomes for restoration using hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Crystal; Nathanael I. Lichti; Keith E. Woeste; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental...

  16. Chebyshev-based technique for automated restoration of digital copies of faded photographic prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaev, Dmitry V.; Uchaev, Denis V.; Malinnikov, Vasiliy A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a technique for automated restoration of digital images obtained from faded photographic prints. The proposed defading technique uses our early proposed image contrast enhancement algorithm based on a contrast measure of images in the Chebyshev moment transform domain. Obtained experimental results demonstrate some advantages of the technique as compared to other widely used image enhancement methods.

  17. [Spectral reflectance characteristics of dominant plant species at different eco-restoring stages in the semi-arid grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Mi, Kai; Qin, Ya; Qing, Feng-Ting; Liu, Wei-Chen; Xue, Da-Yuan; Liu, Xue-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the research is to apply hyperspectral technique into eco-restoring monitoring. Through the ASD Fields HH portable field spectrometer, the hyperspectral data of dominant plant species in vegetation at different eco-restoring stages in semi-arid grassland in Helin County, Inner Mongolia were collected. The original spectrum reflected data were pretreated by wavelet threshold denoising through ViewSpecPro software before analysis. Using the first derivative spectra between 660 and 800 nm, and the methods of detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) by Canoco 4. 5 software, the canopy hyperspectral datum of 6 dominant plant species was calculated. The results indicated that the dominant plant species at early succession stage were Setaria viridis and Caragana microphylia, at 5 years eco-restoring stage they were Salsola collina and Caragana microphylia and at late succession stage they were Pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica and Salsola collina, same as field survey. The graph of DCCA indicated that the influential bands of dominant species canopy at early eco-succession stage were short bands, with a large variation among species, the influential bands at 5 years eco-restoring stage were near infrared bands between 1 000 and 1 050 nm, and that at late stage were near infrared bands of 1 040-1 075 nm. The DCCA also showed obviously differences in canopy spectrum among 6 dominant species, and obviously differences among 3 eco-restoring stages.

  18. Public perceptions of the attractiveness of restored nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marwijk, van R.B.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Kampen, J.K.; Terlouw, S.; Pitt, D.G.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts often encounter public resistance. Recreational visitors resist imposition of restoration efforts they fear may result in a visually unattractive area. Public support is, however, essential for restoration efforts on public lands. This study seeks insight into hiker

  19. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  20. Error image aware content restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  1. RESTORATION INDUCED BY CATALASE IN IRRADIATED MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Raymond; Caldas, Luis Renato

    1952-01-01

    1. E. coli, strain K-12, and B. megatherium 899, irradiated in strict but still undefined physiological conditions with certain heavy doses of ultraviolet light, are efficiently restored by catalase, which acts on or fixes itself upon the bacteria in a few minutes. This restoration (C. R.), different from photorestoration, is aided by a little visible light. 2. At 37° the restorability lasts for about 2 hours after UV irradiation; the restored cells begin to divide at the same time as the normal survivors. 3. C. R. is not produced after x-irradiation. 4. B. megatherium Mox and E. coli, strain B/r show little C. R.; E. coli strain B shows none. None of these three strains is lysogenic, whereas the two preceding catalase-restorable strains are. 5. Phage production in the system "K-12 infected with T2 phage" is restored by catalase after UV irradiation, whereas phage production in the system "infected B" is not. 6. With K-12, catalase does not prevent the growth of phage and the lysis induced by UV irradiation (Lwoff's phenomenon). 7. Hypotheses are discussed concerning: (a) the chemical nature of this action of catalase; (b) a possible relation between C. R. and lysogenicity of the sensitive bacteria; (c) the consequences of such chemical restorations on the general problem of cell radiosensitivity. PMID:14898028

  2. Overhanging amalgam restorations by undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Fauzia; Ali Abidi, S Yawar; Ahmed, Shahbaz

    2014-07-01

    To determine the frequency of overhanging margins in amalgam restorations done by undergraduate students at Fatima Jinnah Dental College Hospital, Karachi. Observational study. Department of Operative Dentistry, Fatima Jinnah Dental Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2009. Patients aged 20 - 45 years attending the Department of Operative Dentistry requiring class-II restorations were included in the study. Whereas, third molars, overlapped proximal surfaces, teeth adjacent to edentulous spaces and pregnant females were excluded. One hundred and fifty patients were selected randomly aged between 20 - 45 years requiring class-II restorations. Posterior Bitewing radiographs were taken and 1600 surfaces were examined. Restorations were done by undergraduate students at Fatima Jinnah Dental College Hospital, Karachi. Chi-square test was utilized to analyze the relationship between location and surface of overhang. Overhanging amalgam restorations were common in the restorations done by undergraduate students (58%). The occurrence of overhangs was more frequent on the distal surfaces (56%) Although the association of amalgam overhangs with the surfaces of the teeth was significant (p amalgam restorations done by undergraduate students.

  3. Restoring forest landscapes: important lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Stephanie; Vallauri, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Forest restoration at large scales, or landscapes, is an approach that is increasingly relevant to the practice of environmental conservation. However, implementation remains a challenge; poor monitoring and lesson learning lead to similar mistakes being repeated. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conservation organization, recently took stock of its 10 years of implementation of forest landscape restoration. A significant body of knowledge has emerged from the work of the WWF and its partners in the different countries, which can be of use to the wider conservation community, but for this to happen, lessons need to be systematically collected and disseminated in a coherent manner to the broader conservation and development communities and, importantly, to policy makers. We use this review of the WWF's experiences and compare and contrast it with other relevant and recent literature to highlight 11 important lessons for future large-scale forest restoration interventions. These lessons are presented using a stepwise approach to the restoration of forested landscapes. We identify the need for long-term commitment and funding, and a concerted and collaborative effort for successful forest landscape restoration. Our review highlights that monitoring impact within landscape-scale forest restoration remains inadequate. We conclude that forest restoration within landscapes is a challenging yet important proposition that has a real but undervalued place in environmental conservation in the twenty-first century.

  4. Community Resilience: Workshops on Private Sector and Property Owner Requirements for Recovery and Restoration from a Diasaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-12-22

    This report summarizes the results of a proejct sponsored by DTRA to 1) Assess the readiness of private-sector businesses, building owners, and service providers to restore property and recover operations in the aftermath of a wide-area dispersal of anthrax; and 2) Understand what private property owners and businesses "want and need" from federal, state, and local government to support recovery and restoration from such an incident.

  5. Visible spectrum of stable sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joseph T.

    1992-12-01

    Synchronous emissions of picosecond pulses of light are observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field. The spectrum has been measured using a single slit spectrometer equipped with a linear array CCD detector. Spectra from differing solutions of water and glycerin are compared to the visible blackbody spectrum distribution. Assuming a blackbody model, apparent temperatures of 18,900 Kelvins are observed in pure water. Increasing glycerin concentration appears to correlate with cooler blackbody temperatures. The spectrum is also found to continually change with time, independent of input parameters.

  6. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  7. Compressed wideband spectrum sensing based on discrete cosine transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin

    2014-01-01

    Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a special type of transform which is widely used for compression of speech and image. However, its use for spectrum sensing has not yet received widespread attention. This paper aims to alleviate the sampling requirements of wideband spectrum sensing by utilizing the compressive sampling (CS) principle and exploiting the unique sparsity structure in the DCT domain. Compared with discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wideband communication signal has much sparser representation and easier implementation in DCT domain. Simulation result shows that the proposed DCT-CSS scheme outperforms the conventional DFT-CSS scheme in terms of MSE of reconstruction signal, detection probability, and computational complexity.

  8. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a ...

  10. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Soong, Keryea; Zvuloni, Assaf; Rinkevich, Baruch; Alino, Porfirio

    2015-04-01

    The 8th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (ICCB 8) was held in Eilat, Israel from December 1st to 5th 2013. The conference included 15 sessions, one of which discussed the latest information on the conservation, management, and restoration of Coelenterata in different parts of the world. A total of 16 oral presentations and 5 posters were presented in this session. Of these 21 papers, 11 were related to conservation issues, 7 described management, and 3 discussed restoration. This session provided insights on the current conservation, management, and restoration of coelenterates in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [Direct and indirect restorations of primary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakass, I A; Lakass, O S

    2013-01-01

    In the development of dental and facial system primary teeth undergo a series of topographic and morphological changes. Regular alignment of upper and lower dental arches temporary occlusion depends mostly on genetic factors although type of feeding may also play a significant role. According to the results of the study, conducted in 150 children aged 3 to 8 years we can conclude that the purpose of the modern restoration of deciduous teeth is to restore the aesthetic and functional architectonics of the crown, taking into account its value in the occlusion and articulation, as well as indirect influence of restoration on the growth and development of dental system.

  12. Restoration of degraded images using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Beltrán, José Enrique; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Trujillo, Leonardo; Legrand, Pierrick

    2016-09-01

    In image restoration problems it is commonly assumed that image degradations are linear. In real-life this assumption is not always satisfied causing linear restoration methods fail. In this work, we present the design of an image restoration filtering based on genetic programming. The proposed filtering is given by a secuence of basic mathematical operators that allows to retrieve an undegraded image from an image degraded with noise. Computer simulations results obtained with the proposed algorithm in terms of objective metrics are analyzed and discussed by processing images degraded with noise. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with existing linear filters.

  13. The effect of atraumatic restorative treatment on adhesive restorations for dental caries in deciduous molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Batista de Medeiros Serpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. Objective: To evaluate clinically and radiographically the effect of ART on restorations using restorative cement and glass ionomer cement (GIC for dental caries in the deciduous molars of children aged between 4 and 8 years. Settings and Design: The study design was a split-mouth, randomized, blind clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients had 108 restorations placed with GIC (Ketac Molar Easy Mix – 3M ESPE and 108 restorations placed with composite resin (CR (Filtek Z250 – 3M ESPE. The restorations were assessed by means of images obtained with a digital camera and periapical radiographs at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Statistical Analysis: The Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-squared test, and Bonferroni paired comparison test were used to evaluate the differences in proportions and correlations between the variables. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, the restorations were considered clinically successful in 89.3% of cases and radiographically successful in 80.5% of cases. There was statistical difference neither between the two restorative materials used nor between the numbers of restored surfaces. Conclusions: GIC and CR can be used successfully for restorations of one or two dental surfaces after ART.

  14. Upper respiratory impairment in restorers of cultural heritage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varnai, V M; Macan, J; Ljubicić Calusić, A; Prester, Lj; Kanceljak Macan, B

    2011-01-01

    ... mixture of various respiratory hazards. To evaluate atopy and respiratory health parameters, including bronchial and nasal non-specific reactivity, in restorers and conservators of cultural heritage (restorers...

  15. Evaluating visual and auditory contributions to the cognitive restoration effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emfield, Adam G; Neider, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    .... Much of this research builds on Attention Restoration Theory (ART), which suggests that environments that have certain characteristics induce cognitive restoration via variations in attentional demands...

  16. Is restoring an ecosystem good for your health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, P C; Slaney, D; Weinstein, P

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the degradation of ecosystems can have serious impacts on human health. There is currently a knowledge gap on what impact restoring ecosystems has on human health. In restoring ecosystems there is a drive to restore the functionality of ecosystems rather than restoring ecosystems to 'pristine' condition. Even so, the complete restoration of all ecosystem functions is not necessarily possible. Given the uncertain trajectory of the ecosystem during the ecosystem restoration process the impact of the restoration on human health is also uncertain. Even with this uncertainty, the restoration of ecosystems for human health is still a necessity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained functional composition of pollinators in restored pastures despite slow functional restoration of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsa, Marie; Öckinger, Erik; Bommarco, Riccardo; Lindborg, Regina; Roberts, Stuart P M; Wärnsberg, Johanna; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2017-06-01

    Habitat restoration is a key measure to counteract negative impacts on biodiversity from habitat loss and fragmentation. To assess success in restoring not only biodiversity, but also functionality of communities, we should take into account the re-assembly of species trait composition across taxa. Attaining such functional restoration would depend on the landscape context, vegetation structure, and time since restoration. We assessed how trait composition of plant and pollinator (bee and hoverfly) communities differ between abandoned, restored (formerly abandoned) or continuously grazed (intact) semi-natural pastures. In restored pastures, we also explored trait composition in relation to landscape context, vegetation structure, and pasture management history. Abandoned pastures differed from intact and restored pastures in trait composition of plant communities, and as expected, had lower abundances of species with traits associated with grazing adaptations. Further, plant trait composition in restored pastures became increasingly similar to that in intact pastures with increasing time since restoration. On the contrary, the trait composition of pollinator communities in both abandoned and restored pastures remained similar to intact pastures. The trait composition for both bees and hoverflies was influenced by flower abundance and, for bees, by connectivity to other intact grasslands in the landscape. The divergent responses across organism groups appeared to be mainly related to the limited dispersal ability and long individual life span in plants, the high mobility of pollinators, and the dependency of semi-natural habitat for bees. Our results, encompassing restoration effects on trait composition for multiple taxa along a gradient in both time (time since restoration) and space (connectivity), reveal how interacting communities of plants and pollinators are shaped by different trait-environmental relationships. Complete functional restoration of pastures

  18. Effect of occlusal restoration on stresses around class V restoration interface: A finite-element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Vasudeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Causes of failures in class V restorations have always been controversial until now, since the biomechanical aspects of these restorations have been understood. Aims and Objective: This study was aimed to verify the hypothesis that eccentric forces are the cause of cuspal flexure, which lead to excessive stresses at the periphery of a class V restoration, further it identifies the amount of the stress and the flexure increase in the presence of an occlusal restoration using different restorative materials to restore (both cervical and occlusal along with their comparison with respect to amount of stresses around the cervical restorations. Materials and Methods : The study was done by modeling a mandibular first premolar which was sectioned bucco-lingually, in the NISA, EMRC II finite element software. A 100N eccentric load was applied on the tooth structure and stresses were observed at the peripheries of the class V restoration when it was restored with composite and with glass ionomer cement. The stresses were further analyzed in the presence of occlusal restorations with different materials and configurations. Results: It was seen that the stresses at the gingival wall interface in case of class V glass ionomer cement was more than that for composite. In the presence of an occlusal amalgam restoration, the cuspal flexure was more than that of occlusal composite and the stresses at the class V peripheries were also statistically significant. Conclusion: It was suggested that lower modulus composites can flex with the tooth structure decreasing the bond failure and that the stresses are much lesser when there is absence of an occlusal restoration. Occlusal composite restorations reinforce the tooth structure and reduce the cuspal flexure as compared to silver amalgam.

  19. Effect of occlusal restoration on stresses around class V restoration interface: a finite-element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Gaurav; Bogra, Poonam; Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Causes of failures in class V restorations have always been controversial until now, since the biomechanical aspects of these restorations have been understood. This study was aimed to verify the hypothesis that eccentric forces are the cause of cuspal flexure, which lead to excessive stresses at the periphery of a class V restoration, further it identifies the amount of the stress and the flexure increase in the presence of an occlusal restoration using different restorative materials to restore (both cervical and occlusal) along with their comparison with respect to amount of stresses around the cervical restorations. The study was done by modeling a mandibular first premolar which was sectioned bucco-lingually, in the NISA, EMRC II finite element software. A 100N eccentric load was applied on the tooth structure and stresses were observed at the peripheries of the class V restoration when it was restored with composite and with glass ionomer cement. The stresses were further analyzed in the presence of occlusal restorations with different materials and configurations. It was seen that the stresses at the gingival wall interface in case of class V glass ionomer cement was more than that for composite. In the presence of an occlusal amalgam restoration, the cuspal flexure was more than that of occlusal composite and the stresses at the class V peripheries were also statistically significant. It was suggested that lower modulus composites can flex with the tooth structure decreasing the bond failure and that the stresses are much lesser when there is absence of an occlusal restoration. Occlusal composite restorations reinforce the tooth structure and reduce the cuspal flexure as compared to silver amalgam.

  20. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    and negative effects of human presence on the local and global water supply. Student research scientifically tested ways to slow down the effects of run-off contaminants. Students also revisit water analysis and plant trees as buffers as part of their stream preservation efforts in a culminating activity. Oyster Reef Restoration Project: As a result of changes in climate, pollution and human consumption, the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay had previously been on a rapid decline. The Oyster Reef Restoration Project allows students to understand the creatures of the bay and the cause of this decline. They explore the domino effect this has had on the quality of the water in the bay and future implications on the environment when the oyster population fluctuates significantly. Students construct concrete reefs and study the components of its contents and the reef's impact on the bay. Students are responsible for mixing, pouring and preparing the reef for its eventual drop in the bay. Wetlands Recovery: Following the elimination of a substantial amount of the natural wetlands behind the elementary and middle schools, a wetlands area was erected on the school grounds. This pond has been used to learn about habitats and the role humans, plants and organisms play in the preservation of the earth soil and water supply. This wetland is used by both the elementary and middle schools as a place for hands-on inquiry based learning. Students maintain the upkeep of the pond and teach other students at lower grades.

  2. The digital restoration of film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catanese, Rossella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article tracta sobre la conservació i la restauració de pel·lícules amb tecnologies digitals. Les pel·lícules, com a expressió de la memòria col·lectiva, formen part del patrimoni comú de la humanitat, i mereixen ser preservades i difoses. Per això, la qüestió de la preservació dels materials cinematogràfics està guanyant pes, sobretot si tenim en compte la fragilitat estructural i la curta durada de l'estoc de pel·lícules. L'estat actual del mitjà audiovisual és de transició: a poc a poc l'element analògic i fotoquímic és substituït pel sistema digital. I això influeix molt en les pràctiques de producció i distribució del cinema, i també en els debats teòrics sobre el mitjà: els criteris d'arxivament i els processos de restauració no són una excepció a aquesta lògica.Este artículo trata sobre la conservación y la restauración de películas con tecnologías digitales. Las películas, como expresión de la memoria colectiva, forman parte del patrimonio común de la humanidad, y merecen ser preservadas y difundidas. Por eso, la cuestión de la preservación de los materiales cinematográficos está ganando peso, sobre todo si tenemos en cuenta la fragilidad estructural y la corta duración del stock de películas. El estado actual del medio audiovisual es de transición: poco a poco el elemento analógico y fotoquímico es sustituido por el sistema digital. Lo cual influye mucho en las prácticas de producción y distribución del cine, y también en los debates teóricos sobre el medio: los criterios de archivo y los procesos de restauración no son una excepción a esta lógica.This article focuses on the issues of conservation and restoration of films through digital technologies. Films, as an expression of collective memory, become part of the common heritage of humankind, which deserves to be safeguarded and disseminated. As a consequence of this awareness, the issue of preserving cinematic

  3. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  4. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. ...

  5. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  6. Western Lake Erie Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Western Lale Erie Restoration Assessment (WLERA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and...

  7. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  8. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  9. Restoring BRCA1 Function With Antibiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    .... We proposed to restore BRCAl function using antibiotics. In eukaryotic cells, aminoglycosides interact with ribosomal RNA and relaxes codon recognition allowing normal tRNAs to insert an amino acid at a codon specifying a stop...

  10. Restoration of degraded images using stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Beltrán, José Enrique; Díaz-Ramírez, Victor H.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration consists in retrieving an original image by processing captured images of a scene which are degraded by noise, blurring or optical scattering. Commonly restoration algorithms utilize a single monocular image of the observed scene by assuming a known degradation model. In this approach, valuable information of the three dimensional scene is discarded. This work presents a locally-adaptive algorithm for image restoration by employing stereo vision. The proposed algorithm utilizes information of a three-dimensional scene as well as local image statistics to improve the quality of a single restored image by processing pairs of stereo images. Computer simulations results obtained with the proposed algorithm are analyzed and discussed in terms of objective metrics by processing stereo images degraded by optical scattering.

  11. Microleakage in different primary tooth restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Shih

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Restorations using GI and GI+B indicated that these materials performed better than the other materials in this study overall. However, none of the materials were entirely devoid of leakage.

  12. Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. (the Company) is located in St. Louis, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  13. EFFICIENT RESTORATION OF VARIABLE AREA SOUNDTRACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelâali Hassaïne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of motion picture films using digital image processing has been an active research field for many years. The restoration of the soundtrack however, has mainly been performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, in spite of the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. In this paper a restoration method for variable area soundtrack restoration at the image level is presented. First, a novel method is proposed for the detection of the symmetry axis of the scanned soundtrack. Then, a comparison between the watershed and the region growing segmentation of the soundtrack is developed. Another algorithm aiming to enforce the symmetry and to correct the edges of the segmented image is presented. A last step aiming to smooth the edges of the obtained image is performed. Finally, experimental results are reported and possible future improvements are discussed.

  14. ROV based underwater blurred image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhishen, Liu; Tianfu, Ding; Gang, Wang

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV’s detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  15. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    -stream habitats were compared through analysis of the measured physical parameters and by applying a habitat model. We found that re-meandering is a more effective way of re-creating near-natural physical conditions in small streams compared to passive restoration. This is probably due to the limited energy...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  16. Connecting River Systems Restoration Assessment Composite Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Well-established conservation planning principles and techniques framed by geodesign were used to assess the restorability of areas that historically supported...

  17. Rainbow Waterproofing and Restoration Co. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow Waterproofing and Restoration Co. (the Company) is located in San Francisco, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in San Francisco, California.

  18. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Sagina Bay Restoration Assessment (SBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and the...

  19. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2017-03-27

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  20. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  1. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  2. White Lake AOC Habitat Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Muskegon Conservation District and the White Lake Public Advisory Council in 2012 completed the White Lake AOC Shoreline Habitat Restoration Project to address the loss of shoreline and nearshore habitat.

  3. Fisheries Restoration Grant Program Projects [ds168

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile (FRGP_All_020209.shp) represents the locations of all ongoing and completed salmonid restoration projects in California with existing records in the...

  4. Western Lake Erie Restoration Assessment Composite Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Well-established conservation planning principles and techniques framed by geodesign were used to assess the restorability of areas that historically supported...

  5. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a guide for the restorative dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C T; Schuman, N

    1997-07-01

    This article provides a decision flow chart that can serve as a guide to selecting the optimum restorations for endodontically treated teeth. The process begins with an assessment of the endodontically treated tooth to determine its restorability. The restorable tooth is then evaluated for the amount of remaining coronal tooth structure. Anterior teeth with minimal or moderate coronal damage do not require complete coverage or a post and core. However, anterior teeth with significant coronal damage will require complete coverage plus a post and core. Posterior teeth with minimal coronal damage may be treated conservatively with partial-coverage restorations. For posterior teeth with moderate damage and those with curved roots, amalgam or resin composite foundations are used to support complete-coverage restorations. Posterior teeth with significant coronal damage require a post and core and a complete-coverage restoration.

  6. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  7. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-11-24

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  8. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  9. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues; Fernando Morais Rodrigues; Sérgio Luis Melo Viroli

    2016-01-01

    Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a li...

  10. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  11. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  12. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the key factors of the restoration in the posterior endodontically treated teeth, through a literature review and clinical cases presentation. To focus on the clinical advantages of the adhesive indirect restorations, describing the basic principles for long-term success. Materials and methods: The biomechanical changes due to the root canal therapy and the degree of healthy dental tissue lost because of pathology and iatrogenic factors are the critical points leadin...

  13. Systems with Symmetry Breaking and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical systems, in which spontaneous symmetry breaking can be accompanied by spontaneous local symmetry restoration, are considered. A general approach to describing such systems is formulated, based on the notion of weighted Hilbert spaces and configuration averaging. The approach is illustrated by the example of a ferroelectric with mesoscopic fluctuations of paraelectric phase. The influence of the local symmetry restoration on the system characteristics, such as sound velocity and Debye-Waller factor, is discussed.

  14. Wide-Field Plate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Strategies for integrating new restorative materials with digital technology and sound restorative principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Restorative dental materials have experienced a significant evolution over the past 40 years. The pace of change has especially accelerated in the past decade, while, concurrently, advances in implant technology and digital dentistry have paralleled this rapid growth. This article outlines the strengths and weaknesses of various popular ceramic restorative materials and how today's technology can be effectively utilized to fabricate these materials into exceptional restorations.

  16. Attrition and erosion: restorative planning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Michael F

    2012-04-01

    The number of patients presenting with severe attrition and associated erosion is increasing in frequency. Treatment of this patient group is very challenging as it is simply not just a case of replacing lost tooth tissue, but also trying to identify and then eliminate the aetiological factors responsible for the loss of tooth structure. In most cases restorative treatment involves extensive rehabilitation of the dentition to restore the aesthetics and function and also to prevent further tooth loss. Such treatment often involves a multidisciplinary approach to eliminate and/or reduce causative factors prior to definitive restoration of teeth. Treatment needs to focus on quick intervention when the problem has been identified and diagnosed. Restorative treatment involves careful if not complex planning culminating in the establishment of a well defined and ongoing maintenance plan. Long-term success of treatment is centred on the maintenance phase. Current restorative options include the use of extensive resin composite build-ups. This is often the best initial starting point as it allows for adjustments, as well as being a reversible and more conservative procedure. The use of indirect restorations is likely to provide a longer lasting outcome after initial stabilization, whether it is metal- or ceramic-based or a combination.

  17. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  18. Restoring natural geomorphic process to river environments influenced by practical design constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    The process restoration philosophy promotes the reinstatement of natural process (particularly the continuum of sediment transport processes) at the catchment scale. Associated with this approach is the concept that river biological communities, having evolved under natural/ un-impacted conditions, will respond positively to the reinstatement of natural physical function. The application of this 'let-the-river-do-the-work' approach is regarded as providing a sustainable alternative to traditional more 'hard engineering' approaches. However, often the reality is that full restoration of the controlling physical processes at the catchment scale is not feasible due to a variety of constraints (e.g. altered geomorphic regime, agriculture, infrastructure/ services, urban development, costs, etc.) and less ambitious objectives have to be set. Thus, under these typical constrained circumstances, can process restoration still be applied and, given the fundamental assumption of biophysical linkage, can ecology still be expected to respond positively? To elucidate these issues, we present four case studies from Scotland which represent the spectrum of process restoration application relating to almost no design constraints to very significant limitations (culvert daylighting within a housing development). We highlight that, despite significant constraints, physical river processes can (and should) always be considered in restoration design. The case studies demonstrate that natural physical processes (evidenced through indicators of sediment transport) quickly reinstate following construction; this was despite significant local constraints but reliant on physical/ geomorphic process being explicitly incorporated into to the design approach. Furthermore, evidence of associated improvements to the ecological/ habitat/ biotic condition of the restored sections of river were observed.

  19. Survival of ART restorations assessed using selected FDI and modified ART restoration criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Abeer; van der Sanden, Wil J M; Abdelwahab, Hisran; Frencken, Jo E

    2011-06-01

    A new set of criteria for assessing the quality of restorations using modern restorative materials, named FDI criteria, was recently introduced. This study tested the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in survival estimate percentages of ART restorations assessed using selected FDI and modified ART criteria after 1 and 5 years. One operator placed a total of 60 class I and 30 Class II high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations in ninety 14- to 15-year-olds. Two calibrated and independent evaluators using both criteria evaluated restorations on diestone replicas at baseline and after 1 and 5 years. Statistical analyses were done using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The survival results of ART restorations assessed using both sets of criteria after 1 and 5 years (p = 0.27) did not differ significantly. Three ART restorations were assessed as failures according to the ART criteria, while they were assessed as survived using the FDI criteria. We conclude that the modified ART criteria enable reliable assessment of ART restorations in permanent teeth from diestone replicas and that there was no significant difference in survival estimates of ART restorations assessed using both sets of criteria. The null hypothesis was accepted.

  20. Restoring proximal integrity in posterior composite resin restorations: innovations using Ceromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W H

    1998-03-01

    Clinicians are increasingly being called upon to satisfy the restorative demands of patients requesting tooth coloured restorations but unable to afford an optimum indirect restorative option. Consequently, in clinical practice the envelope of what was hitherto considered the limit of appropriate application of the direct posterior composite resin technique is increasingly being stretched. Although our aesthetic endeavours are fairly easily accomplished in the posterior dentition, interproximal integrity is in many instances wanting and a major cause of restorative failure. This report highlights some of the authors innovations using Ceromers which satisfy the complex variables of clinical practice optimizing proximal contour, allowing for the successful utilization of posterior composite resin in the posterior dentition.

  1. Human enamel veneer restoration: an alternative technique to restore anterior primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Tamay, Tereza Keiko; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Rodrigues, Célia Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2006-01-01

    Restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is a clinical challenge in Pediatric Dentistry. Among the restorative treatment options, the use of prefabricated crowns and resin composite restorations, either by means of direct or indirect techniques is mentioned in the literature. The purpose of this article is to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a 5-year-old patient. Dental treatment consisted on an anterior space maintainer prosthesis made with natural primary teeth, plus human dental enamel veneer (facet) restorations. The advantages of this technique are better esthetics and the natural enamel has physiologic wear and offers superficial smoothness and cervical adaptation compatible with those of the surrounding teeth.

  2. Spectrum optimization for computed radiography mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-08-01

    Technical quality assurance is a key issue in breast screening protocols. While full-field digital mammography systems produce excellent image quality at low dose, it appears difficult with computed radiography (CR) systems to fulfill the requirements for image quality, and to keep the dose below the limits. However, powder plate CR systems are still widely used, e.g., they represent ∼30% of the devices in the Austrian breast cancer screening program. For these systems the selection of an optimal spectrum is a key issue. We investigated different anode/filter (A/F) combinations over the clinical range of tube voltages. The figure-of-merit (FOM) to be optimized was squared signal-difference-to-noise ratio divided by glandular dose. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat 3000 with a Fuji Profect reader (SiFu) and on a GE Senograph DMR with a Carestream reader (GECa). For 50mm PMMA the maximum FOM was found with a Mo/Rh spectrum between 27kVp and 29kVp, while with 60mm Mo/Rh at 28kVp (GECa) and W/Rh 25kVp (SiFu) were superior. For 70mm PMMA the Rh/Rh spectrum had a peak at about 31kVp (GECa). FOM increases from 10% to >100% are demonstrated. Optimization as proposed in this paper can either lead to dose reduction with comparable image quality or image quality improvement if necessary. For systems with limited A/F combinations the choice of tube voltage is of considerable importance. In this work, optimization of AEC parameters such as anode-filter combination and tube potential was demonstrated for mammographic CR systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. RYR1-related myopathies : A wide spectrum of phenotypes throughout life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, M.; van Engelen, B. G. M.; Kusters, B.; Lammens, M.; Meijer, R.; Molenaar, J. P. F.; Raaphorst, J.; Verschuuren - Bemelmans, Cornelia; Straathof, C. S. M.; Sie, L. T. L.; de Coo, I. F.; van der Pol, W. L.; de Visser, M.; Scheffer, H.; Treves, S.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N. C.; Kamsteeg, E. -J.

    Background and purposeAlthough several recent studies have implicated RYR1 mutations as a common cause of various myopathies and the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait, many of these studies have been limited to certain age groups, confined geographical regions or specific conditions.

  4. Ursolic Acid—A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid with a Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Woźniak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA is a natural terpene compound exhibiting many pharmaceutical properties. In this review the current state of knowledge about the health-promoting properties of this widespread, biologically active compound, as well as information about its occurrence and biosynthesis are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the application of ursolic acid as an anti-cancer agent; it is worth noticing that clinical tests suggesting the possibility of practical use of UA have already been conducted. Amongst other pharmacological properties of UA one can mention protective effect on lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, anti-inflammatory properties, anabolic effects on skeletal muscles and the ability to suppress bone density loss leading to osteoporosis. Ursolic acid also exhibits anti-microbial features against numerous strains of bacteria, HIV and HCV viruses and Plasmodium protozoa causing malaria.

  5. Chromolaena odorata: A neglected weed with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Kavitha; Rajkumar, Johanna; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Al-Sayed, Badr; Seyed, Mohammed Ali

    2017-03-01

    The study of wound‑healing plants has acquired an interdisciplinary nature with a systematic investigational approach. Several biochemicals are involved in the healing process of the body, including antioxidants and cytokines. Although several pharmaceutical preparations and formulations are available for wound care and management, it remains necessary to search for efficacious treatments, as certain current formulations cause adverse effects or lack efficacy. Phytochemicals or biomarkers from numerous plants suggest they have positive effects on different stages of the wound healing process via various mechanisms. Several herbal medicines have displayed marked activity in the management of wounds and various natural compounds have verified in vivo wound healing potential, and can, therefore, be considered as potential drugs of natural origin. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and H. Robinson is considered a tropical weed. However, it exhibits anti‑inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and numerous other relevant medicinal properties on an appreciable scale, and is known in some parts of the world as a traditional medicine used to treat various ailments. To understand its specific role as nature's gift for healing wounds and its contribution to affordable healthcare, this plant must be scientifically assessed based on the available literature. This review aims to summarize the role of C. odorata and its biomarkers in the wound healing activities of biological systems, which are crucial to its potential future drug design, development and application for the treatment of wounds.

  6. Gait dynamics in the wide spectrum of children with arthrogryposis: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Marie; Bartonek, Åsa; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2015-12-09

    Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita (AMC) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by multiple joint contractures at birth. Greater movements in the trunk and pelvis during walking have been observed in children with AMC using orthoses compared to those wearing only shoes. This study investigated gait dynamics in children with AMC and identified compensatory mechanisms that accommodate walking. Twenty-six children with AMC who walked with orthoses or shoes and a control group consisting of 37 typically-developing children were evaluated in 3D gait analysis. Children with AMC were divided into subgroups based on which joints needed to be stabilized in the sagittal plane; AMC1 used knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) with locked knee joints, AMC2 used KAFOs with open knee joints or ankle-foot orthoses, and AMC3 used shoes. The Gait Deviation Index was lower in AMC groups than in the control group, with the lowest in AMC1. Excessive trunk movements in frontal and transverse planes were observed in AMC2 and especially in AMC1. Lower hip flexion moment was found in AMC1, while AMC2 and AMC3 showed similar hip flexion moments as the control group. Knee extension moments were similar between the groups. In the frontal plane there were only small differences between the groups in hip abduction moment. A joint work analysis indicated greater contribution from the hip muscles to overall positive work in AMC groups, particularly in AMC1, than in the control group. All AMC groups showed less hip extension than the control group, but hip flexion moment was significantly lower only in AMC1, which can be attributed to their gait strategy with bilateral locked KAFOs. AMC1, who had weak knee extensors, were helped by their locked KAFOs and therefore showed similar knee extension moment as the other groups. This finding, together with their gait patterns, demonstrates the children's high reliance on hip muscles and presumably trunk muscles to provide propulsion. Our study shows that with adequate orthotic support, children with AMC and even with severe weakness and contractures can achieve walking.

  7. A Wide Spectrum of Axial Mesodermal Dysplasia Complex With Rhombencephalic Anomaly: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kang-Won; Seo, Jeoung-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Won, Yu-Hui; Park, Sung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Axial mesodermal dysplasia complex (AMDC) arises in variable combinations of craniocaudal anomalies such as musculoskeletal deformities, neuroschisis, or rhombencephalic developmental disorders. To the best of our knowledge, the co-existence of AMDC with associated musculoskeletal anomalies, medullary neuroschisis with mirror movements, and cranial nerve anomalies has not yet been reported. Here, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical features were suggestive of Goldenhar syndr...

  8. Expanding sialidosis spectrum by genome-wide screening: NEU1 mutations in adult-onset myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canafoglia, Laura; Robbiano, Angela; Pareyson, Davide; Panzica, Ferruccio; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Venerando, Anna; Gellera, Cinzia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Zara, Federico

    2014-06-03

    To identify the genetic cause of a familial form of late-onset action myoclonus in 2 unrelated patients. Both probands had 2 siblings displaying a similar disorder. Extensive laboratory examinations, including biochemical assessment for urine sialic acid in the 2 probands, were negative. Exome sequencing was performed in the probands using an Illumina platform. Segregation analysis of putative mutations was performed in all family members by standard Sanger sequencing protocols. NEU1 mutations were detected in 3 siblings of each family with prominent cortical myoclonus presenting in the third decade of life and having a mild and slowly progressive course. They did not have macular cherry-red spot and their urinary sialic acid excretion was within normal values. Genetic analysis demonstrated a homozygous mutation in family 1 (c.200G>T, p.S67I) and 2 compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.679G>A, p.G227R; c.913C>T, p.R305C). Our observation indicates that sialidosis should be suspected and the NEU1 gene analyzed in patients with isolated action myoclonus presenting in adulthood in the absence of other typical clinical and laboratory findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Stabilities of trityl-protected substrates: the wide mechanistic spectrum of trityl ester hydrolyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Markus; Mayr, Herbert

    2010-07-05

    Ionization rates of para-substituted triphenylmethyl (trityl) acetates, benzoates, and para-nitrobenzoates have been determined in aqueous acetonitrile and aqueous acetone at 25 degrees C. Conventional and stopped-flow techniques have been used to evaluate rate constants ranging from 1.38 x 10(-5) to 2.15 x 10(2) s(-1) by conductimetry and photospectrometry methods. The varying stabilities of the differently substituted tritylium ions account for a gradual change of reaction mechanism. Poorly stabilized carbocations are generated slowly by the ionization of their covalent precursors and trapped fast by water. Better stabilized carbocations are generated more rapidly and accumulate, so that ionization and trapping by water can be observed as separate steps in a single experiment. Finally, highly stabilized tritylium ions do not react with water, and only the rates of their formation could be measured. The ionization rate constants correlate linearly with Winstein's ionizing powers Y; the low slopes (0.17

  10. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  11. The wide spectrum high biocidal potency of Bioxy formulation when dissolved in water at different concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Dagher

    Full Text Available Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats" are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans. Aldehydes may be carcinogenic to both human and animals upon repeated exposures, are corrosive, cross-link living tissues and many synthetic materials, and may lose efficacy when pathogens enzymatically adapt to them. Alcohols are flammable and volatile and can be enzymatically degraded by certain bacterial pathogens. Quats are highly irritating to mucous membranes and over time can induce pathogen resistance, especially if they are not alternated with functionally different disinfectants. In contrast, peracetic acid (PAA, a potent oxidizer, liberates hydrogen peroxide (itself a disinfectant, biodegrades to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen, and is at least as efficacious as contact biocides e.g., halogens and aldehydes. Nevertheless, the standard form of liquid PAA is highly corrosive, is neutralized by metals and organic matter, gives off noxious odours and must be stored in vented containers. For the reasons stated above, Bioxy formulations were developed, a series of powder forms of PAA, which are odourless, stable in storage and safe to transport and handle. They generate up to 10% PAA in situ when dissolved in water. A 0.2% aqueous solution of Bioxy (equivalent to 200 ppm PAA effected a 6.76 log reduction in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA within 2 minutes after application. A 5% aqueous solution of Bioxy achieved a 3.93 log reduction in the bovine tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis, within 10 minutes after contact. A 1% solution of Bioxy reduced vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 6.31 and 7.18 logs, respectively, within 3 minutes after application. A 0.5% solution of Bioxy inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV within 15 minutes of contact, and a 5% solution of Bioxy realized a 5.36 log reduction in the spores of Clostridium difficile within 10 minutes of application. In summary, Bioxy is safe and easy to transport and store, poses negligible human, animal and environmental health risks, shows high levels of pathogen control efficacy and does not induce microbial resistance. Further investigations are recommended to explore its use as an industrial biocide.

  12. Wide spectrum of desmosomal mutations in Danish patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Benn, M; Bundgaard, H

    2010-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a lethal condition characterised by ventricular tachyarrhythmias, right and/or left ventricular involvement and fibrofatty infiltrations in the myocardium. The disease has been associated with mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins....

  13. Effect of preparation conditions in sol-gel method on yellow phosphor with wide spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenchen Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among several methods to obtain white light in light emitting diodes (LEDs, mixing blue light with yellow light excited by blue light is the most effective and economical method. However, the quality of white light achieved by this method is poor, making it essential to develop high-quality yellow phosphors. In this study, we synthesized yellow phosphors with broad spectral width by the sol-gel method and studied the effect of various synthetic conditions on their photoluminescence spectra. Consequently, we optimized synthesis conditions for a series of yellow phosphors and found that excess europium doping caused quenching and reduced the quantum yield.

  14. The wide spectrum of multidrug resistance 3 deficiency: from neonatal cholestasis to cirrhosis of adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemin, E.; de Vree, J. M.; Cresteil, D.; Sokal, E. M.; Sturm, E.; Dumont, M.; Scheffer, G. L.; Paul, M.; Burdelski, M.; Bosma, P. J.; Bernard, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Elferink, R. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have specified the features of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 and investigated in 31 patients whether a defect of the multidrug resistance 3 gene (MDR3) underlies this phenotype. METHODS: MDR3 sequencing, liver MDR3 immunohistochemistry, and biliary

  15. The wide spectrum of multidrug resistance 3 deficiency : From neonatal cholestasis to cirrhosis of adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemin, E; de Vree, JML; Cresteil, D; Sokal, EM; Sturm, E; Dumont, M; Scheffer, GL; Paul, M; Burdelski, M; Bernard, O; Hadchouel, M; Elferink, RPJO

    Background & Aims: We have specified the features of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 and investigated in 31 patients whether a defect of the multidrug resistance 3 gene (MDR3) underlies this phenotype. Methods: MDR3 sequencing liver MDR3 immunohistochemistry, and biliary

  16. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Neuropsychological and Behavioral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Sarah N.; Crocker, Nicole; Nguyen, Tanya T.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can cause alterations to the developing brain. The resulting neurobehavioral deficits seen following this exposure are wide-ranging and potentially devastating and, therefore, are of significant concern to individuals, families, communities, and society. These effects occur on a continuum, and qualitatively similar neuropsychological and behavioral features are seen across the spectrum of effect. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has been used to emphasize the continuous nature of the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) representing one point on the spectrum. This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the neuropsychological and behavioral effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, including a discussion of the emerging neurobehavioral profile. Supporting studies of lower levels of exposure, brain-behavior associations, and animal model systems will be included when appropriate. PMID:21503685

  18. Autism spectrum disorders: an update on oral health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Roopa P; Klein, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    Dental professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will need to provide oral health care based on a family-centered approach that involves a comprehensive understanding of parental concerns and preferences, as well as the unique medical management, behaviors, and needs of the individual patient. With the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), oral health providers will find themselves increasingly likely to care for these patients in their daily practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive update on the medical and oral health management of patients with autism spectrum disorders. The authors conducted a literature review by searching for relevant articles written in English in the PubMed database pertaining to the medical and oral health management of autism, including caries status, preventive, behavioral, trauma, and restorative considerations. A detailed family centered approach based on parental preferences and concerns, the patient's challenging behaviors, and related comorbidities can serve to improve the treatment planning and oral health management of dental patients with ASD. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Borderline personality disorder and mood spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Carmen; Ruiz Moreno, Modesto A; Rando, Miguel A; Benvenuti, Antonella; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2008-06-30

    Several lines of evidence have raised the question of whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an independent disease entity or it might be better conceptualized as belonging to the spectrum of mood disorders. This study explores a wide array of lifetime mood features (mood, cognitions, energy, and rhythmicity and vegetative functions) in patients with BP and mood disorders. The sample consisted of 25 BPD patients who did not meet the criteria for bipolar disorders, 16 bipolar disorders patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, 19 unipolar patients who did not meet the criteria for BPD, and 30 non-clinical subjects. Clinical diagnoses were determined by administering the structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV disorders. The Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) was used for measuring lifetime mood phenomenology. Clinical subjects displayed higher mean scores than normal subjects in all domains of the MOODS-SR, and BPD patients displayed higher scores than unipolar patients in the Mood and Cognition depressive subdomains. Differences between patients with BP and bipolar disorders on MOODS psychopathology did not attain statistical significance for any (sub)domain considered. The results of this study are consistent with previous findings suggesting the importance of mood dysregulations in patients with BPD.

  20. Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewertsen, Caitlin M; French, Emma D; Teramoto, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of social and mental afflictions that are difficult to treat. Due to a lack of established treatments for ASD, alternative therapies have been the primary form of intervention. One of these alternatives is pet therapy, a field that has experienced growing interest and has recently accumulated studies that investigate its efficacy. This article reviews and summarizes that effectiveness as well as the findings and limitations associated with pet therapy for ASD. The majority of research on ASD and pet therapy has examined children and has primarily used dogs and horses for therapy. Studies have shown positive effects for the therapy, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families. Major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes. Future research should incorporate better study designs and large samples to validate pet therapy as an appropriate treatment for ASD.

  1. Autism spectrum disorders: from genes to neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; State, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Advances in genome-wide technology, coupled with the availability of large cohorts, are finally yielding a steady stream of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes carrying mutations of large effect. These findings represent important molecular clues, but at the same time present notable challenges to traditional strategies for moving from genes to neurobiology. A remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, the biological pleiotropy of ASD genes, and the tremendous complexity of the human brain are prompting the development of new strategies for translating genetic discoveries into therapeutic targets. Recent developments in systems biology approaches that 'contextualize' these genetic findings along spatial, temporal, and cellular axes of human brain development are beginning to bridge the gap between high-throughput gene discovery and testable pathophysiological hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Restoration of clipped seismic waveforms using projection onto convex sets method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhai; Hao, Jinlai; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Shuqin; Zhao, Lianfeng; Wang, Weimin; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-12-14

    The seismic waveforms would be clipped when the amplitude exceeds the upper-limit dynamic range of seismometer. Clipped waveforms are typically assumed not useful and seldom used in waveform-based research. Here, we assume the clipped components of the waveform share the same frequency content with the un-clipped components. We leverage this similarity to convert clipped waveforms to true waveforms by iteratively reconstructing the frequency spectrum using the projection onto convex sets method. Using artificially clipped data we find that statistically the restoration error is ~1% and ~5% when clipped at 70% and 40% peak amplitude, respectively. We verify our method using real data recorded at co-located seismometers that have different gain controls, one set to record large amplitudes on scale and the other set to record low amplitudes on scale. Using our restoration method we recover 87 out of 93 clipped broadband records from the 2013 Mw6.6 Lushan earthquake. Estimating that we recover 20 clipped waveforms for each M5.0+ earthquake, so for the ~1,500 M5.0+ events that occur each year we could restore ~30,000 clipped waveforms each year, which would greatly enhance useable waveform data archives. These restored waveform data would also improve the azimuthal station coverage and spatial footprint.

  3. Sheldon Spectrum and the Plankton Paradox: Two Sides of the Same Coin. A trait-based plankton size-spectrum model

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Law, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Sheldon spectrum describes a remarkable regularity in aquatic ecosystems: the biomass density as a function of logarithmic body mass is approximately constant over many orders of magnitude. While size-spectrum models have explained this phenomenon for assemblages of multicellular organisms, this paper introduces a species-resolved size-spectrum model to explain the phenomenon in unicellular plankton. A Sheldon spectrum spanning the cell-size range of unicellular plankton necessarily consists of a large number of coexisting species covering a wide range of characteristic sizes. The coexistence of many phytoplankton species feeding on a small number of resources is known as the Paradox of the Plankton. Our model resolves the paradox by showing that coexistence is facilitated by the allometric scaling of four physiological rates. Two of the allometries have empirical support, the remaining two emerge from predator-prey interactions exactly when the abundances follow a Sheldon spectrum. Our plankton model is ...

  4. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  5. Effective River Restoration in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friberg, N.; Angelopoulos, N.V.; Buijse, A.D.; Cowx, I.G.; Kail, J.; Moe, T.F.; Moir, H.; O'Hare, M.T.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Wolter, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive and updated overview of river restoration and covers all relevant aspects from drivers of restoration, linkages between hydromorphology and biota, the current restoration paradigm, effects of restorations to future directions and ways forward in the way we conduct

  6. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  7. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  8. Medication-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Ryan (Patrick); D. Madigan (David); P.E. Stang (Paul); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); G. Hripcsak (G.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUndiscovered side effects of drugs can have a profound effect on the health of the nation, and electronic health-care databases offer opportunities to speed up the discovery of these side effects. We applied a "medication-wide association study" approach that combined multivariate

  9. The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 1. The Ooty Wide Field Array. C. R. Subrahmanya P. K. Manoharan Jayaram N. Chengalur. Review Article Volume 38 Issue 1 March 2017 Article ID ... Keywords. Cosmology: large scale structure of Universe; intergalactic medium; diffuse radiation.

  10. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A.; Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes. PMID:27088362

  11. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  12. Caries risk and number of restored surfaces have impact on the survival of posterior composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Web of Science (ISI) and Scopus. Longitudinal studies of direct class II or classes I and II restorations in permanent dentition of at least five years duration, a minimum of 20 restorations at final recall and the original datasets available were considered. Only English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened titles independently. Multivariate Cox regression method to analyse the variables of interest and hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined. The annual failure rate (AFR) of the investigated restorations and subgroups was calculated. Twelve studies, nine prospective and three retrospective were included. A total of 2,816 restorations (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I restorations) were included in the analysis. Five hundred and sixty-nine restorations failed during the observation period, and the main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. Regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. The overall annual failure rate at five years and ten years was 1.8% and 2.4% respectively. The rates were higher in high-caries-rate individuals at 3.2% and 4.6% respectively. The conclusion of the present meta-analysis of 12 clinical studies based on raw data is that caries risk and number of restored surfaces play a significant role in restoration survival, and that, on average, posterior resin composite restorations show a good survival, with annual failure rates of 1.8% at five years and 2.4% after ten years of service.

  13. Statistical Shape Modelling and Markov Random Field Restoration (invited tutorial and exercise)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This tutorial focuses on statistical shape analysis using point distribution models (PDM) which is widely used in modelling biological shape variability over a set of annotated training data. Furthermore, Active Shape Models (ASM) and Active Appearance Models (AAM) are based on PDMs and have proven...... themselves a generic holistic tool in various segmentation and simulation studies. Finding a basis of homologous points is a fundamental issue in PDMs which effects both alignment and decomposition of the training data, and may be aided by Markov Random Field Restoration (MRF) of the correspondence...... deformation field between shapes. The tutorial demonstrates both generative active shape and appearance models, and MRF restoration on 3D polygonized surfaces. ''Exercise: Spectral-Spatial classification of multivariate images'' From annotated training data this exercise applies spatial image restoration...

  14. Can the tinnitus spectrum identify tinnitus subgroups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijneman, Karin M.; de Kleine, Emile; Wiersinga-Post, Esther; van Dijk, Pim

    2013-01-01

    The tinnitus spectrum is a psycho-acoustic metric of tinnitus. Previous work found a tight relation between the spectrum and the tone audiogram. This suggests that the spectrum and the audiogram provide essentially the same information, and the added value of the spectrum is limited. In order to

  15. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. River restoration: separating myths from reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, N.; Woodward, G.

    2015-12-01

    River restorations are a social construct where degraded systems are physically modified to obtain a pre-disturbance set of attributes. These can be purely esthetic but are often linked to some kind of biotic recovery or the provision of important ecosystem services such as flood control or self-purification. The social setting of restoration projects, with a range of potential conflicts, significantly reduces scale of most interventions to a size with little room, or wish, for natural processes. We show that projects sizes are still very small and that the restoration target is not to recover natural geomorphic processes but rather to fulfil human perception of what a nice stream looks like. One case from Danish lowland streams, using a space-for-time substitution approach, shows excess use of pebble and gravel when restoring channelized sandy bottom streams, de-coupling the link between energy and substrate characteristics that are found in natural lowland systems. This has implication for both the biological structure and functioning of these systems as a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity was not found in restored streams, while the density of grazer increased indicating an increased use of periphyton as a basal resource. Another case of adding woody debris to UK lowland streams, using a BACI study design, showed very little effect on the macroinvertebrate community even after a 100-year flood, which indicate that added tree trunks did not provide additional flow refugia. We suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers.

  17. Image restoration in cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penczek, Pawel A

    2010-01-01

    Image restoration techniques are used to obtain, given experimental measurements, the best possible approximation of the original object within the limits imposed by instrumental conditions and noise level in the data. In molecular electron microscopy (EM), we are mainly interested in linear methods that preserve the respective relationships between mass densities within the restored map. Here, we describe the methodology of image restoration in structural EM, and more specifically, we will focus on the problem of the optimum recovery of Fourier amplitudes given electron microscope data collected under various defocus settings. We discuss in detail two classes of commonly used linear methods, the first of which consists of methods based on pseudoinverse restoration, and which is further subdivided into mean-square error, chi-square error, and constrained based restorations, where the methods in the latter two subclasses explicitly incorporates non-white distribution of noise in the data. The second class of methods is based on the Wiener filtration approach. We show that the Wiener filter-based methodology can be used to obtain a solution to the problem of amplitude correction (or "sharpening") of the EM map that makes it visually comparable to maps determined by X-ray crystallography, and thus amenable to comparative interpretation. Finally, we present a semiheuristic Wiener filter-based solution to the problem of image restoration given sets of heterogeneous solutions. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of image restoration protocols implemented in commonly used single particle software packages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, L Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scottrr M; Mitchell, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    tool for statistically defining reference sites and for measuring restoration success in continually changing conditions that should be widely applicable to other ecosystems and restoration goals.

  19. Polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin-based restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavridakis, Minos M; Dietschi, Didier; Krejci, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces induced by polymerization shrinkage of a series of flowable resin-based restorative materials. The materials tested were 22 flowable resin-based restorative materials (Admira Flow, Aelite Flow, Aeliteflow LV, Aria, Crystal Essence, Definite Flow, Dyract Flow, Filtek Flow, FloRestore, Flow-it, Flow-Line, Freedom, Glacier, OmegaFlo, PermaFlo, Photo SC, Revolution 2, Star Flow, Synergy Flow, Tetric Flow, Ultraseal XT and Wave). Measurements for linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces were performed using custom made measuring devices. Polymerization of the test materials was carried out for 60 seconds by means of a light curing unit, and each property was measured for 180 seconds from the start of curing in eight specimens for each material. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) test (p=0.05) and simple linear regression. A wide range of values was recorded for linear polymerization displacement (26.61 to 80.74 microns) and polymerization forces (3.23 to 7.48 kilograms). Statistically significant differences among materials were found for both properties studied. Very few materials (Freedom, Glacier, and Photo SC) presented low values of linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces (similar to hybrid resin composites), while the majority of materials presented very high values in both properties studied. Study of the shrinkage kinetics revealed the exponential growth process of both properties. The polymerization forces development exhibited a few seconds delay over linear polymerization displacement. Simple linear regression showed that the two polymerization shrinkage properties that were studied were not highly correlated (r2=0.59).

  20. Luminosity Spectrum Reconstruction at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Poss, Stéphane

    2014-04-11

    A good knowledge of the luminosity spectrum is mandatory for many measurements at future e+e- colliders. As the beam-parameters determining the luminosity spectrum cannot be measured precisely, the luminosity spectrum has to be measured through a gauge process with the detector. The measured distributions, used to reconstruct the spectrum, depend on Initial State Radiation, cross-section, and Final State Radiation. To extract the basic luminosity spectrum, a parametric model of the luminosity spectrum is created, in this case the spectrum at the 3 TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The model is used within a reweighting technique to extract the luminosity spectrum from measured Bhabha event observables, taking all relevant effects into account. The centre-of-mass energy spectrum is reconstructed within 5% over the full validity range of the model. The reconstructed spectrum does not result in a significant bias or systematic uncertainty in the exemplary physics benchmark process of smuon pair production.

  1. Dynamic spectrum auction in wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    This brief explores current research on dynamic spectrum auctions, focusing on fundamental auction theory, characteristics of the spectrum market, spectrum auction architecture and possible auction mechanisms. The brief explains how dynamic spectrum auctions, which enable new users to gain spectrum access and existing spectrum owners to obtain financial benefits, can greatly improve spectrum efficiency by resolving the artificial spectrum shortage. It examines why operators and users face significant challenges due to specialty of the spectrum market and the related requirements imposed on the auction mechanism design. Concise and up-to-date, Dynamic Spectrum Auction in Wireless Communication is designed for researchers and professionals in computer science or electrical engineering. Students studying networking will also find this brief a valuable resource.

  2. Kinetic Damping in the Spectrum of the Spherical Impedance Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberrath, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2015-09-01

    Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a widely used diagnostic method and several probes in different designs have been invented. One of them is the Spherical Impedance Probe. Its resonance behavior and the influence of kinetic effects on it can be described by a general kinetic model presented by the authors. It was theoretically shown that kinetic effects are responsible for a broadening of the resonance peak in the spectrum. However, the broadening of the resonance peak in a kinetically determined spectrum in the geometry of an existing probe is not evaluated, yet. We present such a spectrum of the Spherical Impedance Probe. Therefore, the general solution of the model is expanded in an orthonormal system of basis-functions. This expansion is truncated to determine an approximated spectrum. Its resonance peak shows clearly a broadening compared to a peak in a spectrum, which is determined by a fluiddynamical model. The authors acknowledge the support by the Research Service of Leuphana University Lueneburg, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via the Ruhr University Research School and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in frame of the PluTO+ projekt.

  3. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  4. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes...

  5. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... demonstrable factors. Trustees must, at a minimum, determine what criteria will: (i) Constitute success, such... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990.55 Section 990.55 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and...

  6. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  7. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  8. Determination of path length difference by low coherence interference spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui-Kang; Chang, Chia-Nan; Lang, Kuo-Chen

    2004-10-01

    Path length difference is the key parameter in two-beam interferometer, especially in low coherence interferometer. It determines the visibility of the interference fringes. In this study, we present a method to determine the path length difference between two arms of a fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer by evaluating the peaks of power distribution of the interference spectrum with a wide band light source. The experimental results are in close agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder and High Confidence Gene Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, MOCHIZUKI

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological developmental disorder whose mechanism isyet unclear. However, recent ASD studies, which employ exome- and genome-wide sequencing,have identified some high-confidence ASD genes. Those ASD studies have revealed that CHD8is likely associated with ASD. In this article, we highlight that CHD8 may regulate othercandidate ASD risk genes. Current research indicates that there exist some thousand autismsusceptibility candidate genes. Moreover, we sugge...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; AKHONDZADEH, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  11. Can stream and riparian restoration offset climate change impacts to salmon populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Casey; White, Seth M; McCullough, Dale A; Graves, David S; Blanchard, Monica R

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how stream temperature responds to restoration of riparian vegetation and channel morphology in context of future climate change is critical for prioritizing restoration actions and recovering imperiled salmon populations. We used a deterministic water temperature model to investigate potential thermal benefits of riparian reforestation and channel narrowing to Chinook Salmon populations in the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek basins in Northeast Oregon, USA. A legacy of intensive land use practices in these basins has significantly reduced streamside vegetation and increased channel width across most of the stream network, resulting in water temperatures that far exceed the optimal range for salmon growth and survival. By combining restoration scenarios with climate change projections, we were able to evaluate whether future climate impacts could be offset by restoration actions. A combination of riparian restoration and channel narrowing was predicted to reduce peak summer water temperatures by 6.5 °C on average in the Upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0 °C in Catherine Creek in the absence of other perturbations. These results translated to increases in Chinook Salmon parr abundance of 590% and 67% respectively. Although projected climate change impacts on water temperature for the 2080s time period were substantial (i.e., median increase of 2.7 °C in the Upper Grande Ronde and 1.5 °C in Catherine Creek), we predicted that basin-wide restoration of riparian vegetation and channel width could offset these impacts, reducing peak summer water temperatures by about 3.5 °C in the Upper Grande Ronde and 1.8 °C in Catherine Creek. These results underscore the potential for riparian and stream channel restoration to mitigate climate change impacts to threatened salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report, [February 12, 1992--April 30, 1994]- Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Costanza, R.

    1994-07-11

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  14. What constitutes an ideal dental restorative material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekow, E D; Bayne, S C; Carvalho, R M; Steele, J G

    2013-11-01

    Intense environmental concerns recently have prompted dentistry to evaluate the performance and environmental impact of existing restoration materials. Doing so entices us to explore the 'what if?' innovation in materials science to create more ideal restorative materials. Articulating a specification for our design and evaluation methods is proving to be more complicated than originally anticipated. Challenges exist not only in specifying how the material should be manipulated and perform clinically but also in understanding and incorporating implications of the skill of the operator placing the restoration, economic considerations, expectations patients have for their investment, cost-effectiveness, influences of the health care system on how and for whom restorations are to be placed, and global challenges that limit the types of materials available in different areas of the world. The quandary is to find ways to actively engage multiple stakeholders to agree on priorities and future actions to focus future directions on the creation of more ideal restorative materials that can be available throughout the world.

  15. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  16. Hydromorphological restoration stimulates river ecosystem metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupilas, Benjamin; Hering, Daniel; Lorenz, Armin W.; Knuth, Christoph; Gücker, Björn

    2017-04-01

    Both ecosystem structure and functioning determine ecosystem status and are important for the provision of goods and services to society. However, there is a paucity of research that couples functional measures with assessments of ecosystem structure. In mid-sized and large rivers, effects of restoration on key ecosystem processes, such as ecosystem metabolism, have rarely been addressed and remain poorly understood. We compared three reaches of the third-order, gravel-bed river Ruhr in Germany: two reaches restored with moderate (R1) and substantial effort (R2) and one upstream degraded reach (D). Hydromorphology, habitat composition, and hydrodynamics were assessed. We estimated gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) using the one-station open-channel diel dissolved oxygen change method over a 50-day period at the end of each reach. Moreover, we estimated metabolic rates of the combined restored reaches (R1 + R2) using the two-station open-channel method. Values for hydromorphological variables increased with restoration intensity (D patterns of ER closely mirrored those of GPP, pointing to the importance of autochthonous production for ecosystem functioning. In conclusion, high reach-scale restoration effort had considerable effects on river hydrodynamics and ecosystem functioning, which were mainly related to massive stands of macrophytes. High rates of metabolism and the occurrence of dense macrophyte stands may increase the assimilation of dissolved nutrients and the sedimentation of particulate nutrients, thereby positively affecting water quality.

  17. Diagnosis of dental secondary caries in composite restoration by changing vertical angulation in bitewing radiography (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nokhostin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiography plays an important role in the detection of secondary caries.These caries are most important cause of changing restorations .The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy on diagnosis of secondary caries on esthetic restorations of different materials, changing the incidence vertical angle (IVA of the x-ray beam. Material and Methods: 40 carious extracted human molars received MOD inlay preparations in vitro study. All teeth were restored with 2 composite resins (Filtek-Z250 and TPH-Spectrum at 2 moments. Two radiographic images were acquired with 0º and 15º IVA. Four observers evaluated the images using a 5-point confidence scale. Inter, intra-observer reliability was analyzed with the Interclass Correlation Coefficient and the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (Az, Friedman test and Wilcoxon test (α=0.05. Results: Higher accuracy values were obtained with 15º IVA (Az=0.65, Filtek-Z250>Az=0.56, TPH-Spectrum compared to 0º (Az=0.50, Filtek-Z250>Az=0.37, TPH-Spectrum, though without statistically significant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: Changing the IVA of the x-ray beam has no negative influence on the diagnosis of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on ethetic restraction of different materials.

  18. Diagnosis of secondary caries in esthetic restorations: influence of the incidence vertical angle of the X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Lima; Messora, Michel Reis; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Cruz, Adriana Dibo da

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy on the diagnosis of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials, changing the incidence vertical angle (IVA) of the x-ray beam. Twenty human teeth received MOD inlay preparations. In the experimental group (n=10), a round cavity was made in the floor of the proximal box to simulate the caries-like lesion. All teeth were restored with 3 composite resins (Charisma, Filtek-Z250 and TPH-Spectrum) at 3 moments. Two radiographic images were acquired with 0º and 10º IVA. Ten observers evaluated the images using a 5-point confidence scale. Intra- and interobserver reliability was analyzed with the Interclass Correlation Coefficient and the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (A(z)), Friedman test and Wilcoxon test (α=0.05). Higher accuracy values were obtained with 10º IVA (A(z)=0.66, Filtek-Z250>A(z)=0.56, TPH-Spectrum) compared to 0º (A(z)=0.55, Charisma>A(z)=0.37, TPH-Spectrum), though without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The detection of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials suffered no negative influence by changing the IVA of the x-ray beam.

  19. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  20. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; Farag, Aïda M.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Clements, William H.; Smith, James R.; Ulrich, Cheryl P.; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.

  1. Wilson Creek Valley Restoration: Transformation of a Bedrock Channel to an Alluvial Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, A. C.; Vesely, W. S.

    2005-05-01

    Wilson Creek Valley Restoration: Transformation of a Bedrock Channel to an Alluvial Stream The historically high economic value of alluvial valleys associated with agriculture, transportation infrastructure and habitation in the eastern US has resulted in the modification of virtually all alluvial stream valleys sufficiently suitable for subsistence agriculture. In stream valleys with thin alluvial veneers over bedrock, anthropogenic modification that includes increases in channel cross sectional dimensions, reduction in channel sinuosity, flood flow confinement, removal of form drag elements, and relocation of streams may transform alluvial stream reaches into bedrock reaches through channel incision processes. The effects of channel incision on infrastructure adjacent to deep alluvial systems are well known; however, exposure, flow quarrying, transport and deposition of broken bedrock pieces in valleys adjusted for transport of gravels represent serious fluvial hazards not widely recognized. In addition, the transformation from alluvial regimes to one dominated by bedrock involves changes of several important stream and wetland habitat features including substrate modification, reduction in bed topographic variation, reduced frequency of floodplain inundation, and a general groundwater lowering that adversely affects hyporheic zones. The restoration of Wilson Creek valley in central Kentucky transformed the stream channel from its anthropogenically imposed low sinuosity, confined, and relocated bedrock regime to a sinuous alluvial stream position near the valley center. The restoration demonstrates the ecological effectiveness of restoring valleys to accommodate streams to a form similar to their historic alluvial form. In addition to sediment transport, many other important aspects of stream design were considered to restore riverine habitat to a valley modified for agricultural purchases more than 80 years ago. An important restoration design component was the

  2. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Tarighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: "gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent" were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

  3. Identity Restored: Nesmin's Forensic Facial Reconstruction in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Anđelković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of archaeological human remains stay, for the most part, anonymous and are consequently treated as objects of analysis; not as dead people. With the growing availability of medical imaging and rapidly developing computer technology, 3D digital facial reconstruction, as a noninvasive form of study, offers a successful method of recreating faces from mummified human remains. Forensic facial reconstruction has been utilized for various purposes in scientific investigation, including restoring the physical appearance of the people of ancient civilizations which is an important aspect of their individual identity. Restoring the identity of the Belgrade mummy started in 1991. Along with the absolute dating, gender, age, name, rank and provenance, we also established his genealogy. The owner of Cairo stela 22053 discovered at Akhmim in 1885, and the Belgrade coffin purchased in Luxor in 1888, in which the mummy rests, have been identified as the very same person. Forensic facial reconstruction was used to reproduce, with the highest possible degree of accuracy, the facial appearance of the mummy Nesmin, ca. 300 B.C., a priest from Akhmim, when he was alive.

  4. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  5. Dynamics of bacterial communities in soils of rainforest fragments under restoration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael; Zucchi, Tiago; Taketani, Rodrigo; Andreote, Fernando; Cardoso, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10% of its original area still remains. Many projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different ages of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant diversity highly influenced the bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, one with the youngest (10 years) and the other with the oldest (native) site suggests their use as bioindicators of soil quality and soil recovery of forest fragments under restoration.

  6. A national riparian restoration programme in New Zealand: Is it value for money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam J; Eppink, Florian V; Lee, William G

    2017-02-01

    National scale initiatives are being attempted in New Zealand (NZ) to meet important environmental goals following land-use intensification over recent decades. Riparian restoration to filter agricultural spillover effects is currently the most widely practised mitigation measure but few studies have investigated the cumulative value of these practices at a national level. We use an applied economic land use model the benefits (GHG emissions, N leaching, P loss, sedimentation and biodiversity gain) and relevant costs (fencing, alternative stock water supplies, restoration planting and opportunity costs) of restoring riparian margins (5-50 m) on all streams in NZ flowing through current primary sector land. Extensive sensitivity analysis reveals that depending on margin width and cost assumptions, riparian margin restoration generates net benefits of between NZ$1.7 billion - $5.2 billion/yr and benefit-cost ratios ranging between 1.4 and 22.4. This suggests that even when not monetising the increase in biodiversity or components of stream ecosystem health and other benefits from planting riparian strips, the benefits to climate and freshwater are significantly greater than the implementation costs of riparian restoration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  8. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy L; Holmes, S Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  9. Remote Sensing Measures Restoration Successes, but Canopy Heights Lag in Restoring Floodplain Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K. Dawson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands worldwide are becoming increasingly degraded, and this has motivated many attempts to manage and restore wetland ecosystems. Restoration actions require a large resource investment, so it is critical to measure the outcomes of these management actions. We evaluated the restoration of floodplain wetland vegetation across a chronosequence of land uses, using remote sensing analyses. We compared the Landsat-based fractional cover of restoration areas with river red gum and lignum reference communities, which functioned as a fixed target for restoration, over three time periods: (i before agricultural land use (1987–1997; (ii during the peak of agricultural development (2004–2007; and (iii post-restoration of flooding (2010–2015. We also developed LiDAR-derived canopy height models (CHMs for comparison over the second and third time periods. Inundation was crucial for restoration, with many fields showing little sign of similarity to target vegetation until after inundation, even if agricultural land uses had ceased. Fields cleared or cultivated for only one year had greater restoration success compared to areas cultivated for three or more years. Canopy height increased most in the fields that were cleared and cultivated for a short duration, in contrast to those cultivated for >12 years, which showed few signs of recovery. Restoration was most successful in fields with a short development duration after the intervention, but resulting dense monotypic stands of river cooba require future monitoring and possibly intervention to prevent sustained dominance. Fields with intensive land use histories may need to be managed as alternative, drier flood-dependent vegetation communities, such as black box (Eucalyptus largiflorens grasslands. Remotely-sensed data provided a powerful measurement technique for tracking restoration success over a large floodplain.

  10. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  11. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  12. Restorative culture in school. Continuation of discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pentin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the lack of effective ways of building relationships, parenting responsibility and conflict solving in the school community. It is addressed to the whole school community – to the administration, psychologists and social workers, to the faculty, parents and students. We discuss the key concepts and principles of “restorative culture” and the reasons for its introduction in educational institutions. The restorative culture refers to activities on formation and spread of interpersonal relations value in the aspect of its understanding, trust, acceptance of active responsibility, separation of problems and subjects, and focus on the successful experience. We briefly discuss the theory of restorative justice and narrative practice. Particular attention is paid to the typical methods of school response to conflicts, and to zero-tolerance policy. We propose that the school community needs a number of specific technologies that would optimally suit for different types of situations and would constitute a part of the system

  13. Design for Restoration: beyond the survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbonara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  This new issue, that we can define special, marks an important change for DISEGNARECON (its transfer from the University of Bologna to the University of L’Aquila facing the topic of the Design for the Restoration in a way that is special too. Treated in fact - beside the outgoing editor in chief, Roberto Mingucci - by Mario Centofanti, who now assumes the responsibility for the magazine, and Giovanni Carbonara, which is definitely authoritative reference in the field. Sharing a strong interest for communicating the Restoration Project, they intended to indicate the substantial union of methods and objectives between the disciplines of architectural survey and of restoration, which makes the meaning of an aggregation now also institutionally formalized and particularly significant for the project on the existing architecture. 

  14. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-06-17

    The effects of doping on the lattice structure, electronic structure, phonon spectrum, and electron-phonon coupling of low-buckling silicene are studied by first-principles calculations. Although the lattice is found to be very sensitive to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced by doping. This implies that the electron-phonon coupling cannot be neglected in field-effect transistor applications. Copyright © 2011 EPLA.

  15. RESTORATIVE ASPECT OF CASTOR PLANT ON MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The castor plant (Ricinus communis L. is a robust perennial shrub of Euphorbiaceae family and different parts of the plant are widely used by various communities and forest dwellers in many regions of the world for treating a variety of ailments. About 80% of world population is still dependent on traditional herbal medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as anti-oxidant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, anti diabetic, insecticidal and larvicidal and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the available literature related to the restorative activity of the castor plant as a herbal medicine on mammalian physiology and to accumulate those scientifically valid data in a nut shell in the form of a mini review.

  16. THERMO-CURED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS IN RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina GORSETA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous positive properties of glass ionomer cements including biocompatibility, bioactivity, releasing of fluoride and good adhesion to hard dental tissue even under wet conditions and easy of handling are reasons for their wide use in paediatric and restorative dentistry. Their biggest drawbacks are the weaker mechanical properties. An important step forward in improving GIC’s features is thermo-curing with the dental polymerization unit during setting of the material. Due to their slow setting characteristics the GIC is vulnerable to early exposure to moisture. After thermo curing, cements retain all the benefits of GIC with developed better mechanical properties, improved marginal adaptation, increased microhardness and shear bond strength. Adding external energy through thermocuring or ultrasound during the setting of conventional GIC is crucial to achieve faster and better initial mechanical properties. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Impacts from restoration strategies. Assessment through valuation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Farizo, Begona [IPP-CSIC, Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Gil, Jose M. [CREDA-UPC-IRTA, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Recent decades have seen a wide range of pollutant spills affecting natural, industrial, urban and rural areas (Exxon Valdez, Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Prestige, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, and the Aznalcollar mines in Spain, to name a few). The extent of damage covers both time and space. Therefore, in order to mitigate the effects of pollution, it is necessary to adopt integrated management of both productive and natural areas. However, to be effective it is necessary to consider not only the health or biophysical effects of the countermeasures, but also the response of individuals to these changes. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential social and environmental impacts derived from the implementation of restoration strategies resulting from spills. Our approach is based on a choice experiment applied within the context of a citizens' valuation workshop or market stall in Cumbria (UK) and Zaragoza (Spain). The results highlight the advantages of this participatory technique versus traditional surveys. (author)

  18. Regional restoration benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopmeyer, Stephanie A.; Lirman, Diego; Bartels, Erich; Gilliam, David S.; Goergen, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Sean P.; Johnson, Meaghan E.; Lustic, Caitlin; Maxwell, Kerry; Walter, Cory S.

    2017-12-01

    Coral gardening plays an important role in the recovery of depleted populations of threatened Acropora cervicornis in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, high survival coupled with fast growth of in situ nursery corals have allowed practitioners to create healthy and genotypically diverse nursery stocks. Currently, thousands of corals are propagated and outplanted onto degraded reefs on a yearly basis, representing a substantial increase in the abundance, biomass, and overall footprint of A. cervicornis. Here, we combined an extensive dataset collected by restoration practitioners to document early (1-2 yr) restoration success metrics in Florida and Puerto Rico, USA. By reporting region-specific data on the impacts of fragment collection on donor colonies, survivorship and productivity of nursery corals, and survivorship and productivity of outplanted corals during normal conditions, we provide the basis for a stop-light indicator framework for new or existing restoration programs to evaluate their performance. We show that current restoration methods are very effective, that no excess damage is caused to donor colonies, and that once outplanted, corals behave just as wild colonies. We also provide science-based benchmarks that can be used by programs to evaluate successes and challenges of their efforts, and to make modifications where needed. We propose that up to 10% of the biomass can be collected from healthy, large A. cervicornis donor colonies for nursery propagation. We also propose the following benchmarks for the first year of activities for A. cervicornis restoration: (1) >75% live tissue cover on donor colonies; (2) >80% survivorship of nursery corals; and (3) >70% survivorship of outplanted corals. Finally, we report productivity means of 4.4 cm yr-1 for nursery corals and 4.8 cm yr-1 for outplants as a frame of reference for ranking performance within programs. Such benchmarks, and potential subsequent adaptive actions, are needed to fully assess the

  19. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  20. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…