WorldWideScience

Sample records for wide size range

  1. The mechanical behavior of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, V. A.; Skripnyak, V. V.; Skripnyak, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses a multiscale simulation approach for the construction of grain structure of metals and alloys, providing high tensile strength with ductility. This work compares the mechanical behavior of light alloys and the influence of the grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates. The influence of the grain size distribution on the inelastic deformation and fracture of aluminium and magnesium alloys is investigated by computer simulations in a wide range of strain rates. It is shown that the yield stress depends on the logarithm of the normalized strain rate for light alloys with a bimodal grain distribution and coarse-grained structure.

  2. Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has...... been that it is not compatible with the observed shape of present-day species range-size distributions (SRDs), a claim that has never been tested. To assess this claim, we used forward simulation of range-size evolution in clades with varying degrees of range-size heritability, and compared the output...

  3. Experimental validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method over a wide range of sizes for cylindrical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramŕez, Pablo, E-mail: rapeitor@ug.uchile.cl; Larroquette, Philippe [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Camilla, S. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The intrinsic spatial efficiency method is a new absolute method to determine the efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy system for any extended source. In the original work the method was experimentally demonstrated and validated for homogeneous cylindrical sources containing {sup 137}Cs, whose sizes varied over a small range (29.5 mm radius and 15.0 to 25.9 mm height). In this work we present an extension of the validation over a wide range of sizes. The dimensions of the cylindrical sources vary between 10 to 40 mm height and 8 to 30 mm radius. The cylindrical sources were prepared using the reference material IAEA-372, which had a specific activity of 11320 Bq/kg at july 2006. The obtained results were better for the sources with 29 mm radius showing relative bias lesser than 5% and for the sources with 10 mm height showing relative bias lesser than 6%. In comparison with the obtained results in the work where we present the method, the majority of these results show an excellent agreement.

  4. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  5. Accuracy of the WatchBP office ABI device for office blood pressure measurement over a wide range of arm sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Gasparotti, Federica

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the WatchBP Office ABI monitor for office blood pressure measurement over a wide range of arm circumferences using the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol. The device accuracy was tested in 88 participants whose mean±SD age was 54.5±17.6 years, whose arm circumference was 30.6±8.3 cm (range: 15-46 cm), and whose entry blood pressure (BP) was 138.3±23.4 mmHg for systolic and 83.7±14.6 mmHg for diastolic BP. Four cuffs (small, standard, large, and extra-large) suitable for arm circumferences ranging from 14.0 to 52.0 cm were used. The mean device-observer difference in the 264 separate BP data pairs was 0.7±3.8 mmHg for systolic BP and was 0.0±3.7 mmHg for diastolic BP. These data were in agreement with criterion 1 of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements (≤5±8 mmHg). Moreover, criterion 2 was satisfied, the mean±SD device-observer difference of the 88 participants being 0.7±3.1 and 0.0±3.2 mmHg, respectively, for systolic and diastolic BP. Good agreement between observer and device was present across the whole range of arm circumferences. These data show that the Microlife WatchBP Office ABI monitor satisfied the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements across a wide range of arm sizes.

  6. Comprehensive Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosols with a Wide Range Aerosol Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, L; Pesch, M; Grimm, H

    2011-01-01

    A wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) was used for comprehensive long term measurements of aerosol size distributions. The system combines the results of an optical aerosol spectrometer with the results of a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to record essentially the full size range (5 nm - 32 μm) of atmospheric particles in 72 channels. Measurements were carried out over one year (2009) at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW)-Station Hohenpeissenberg, Bavaria. Total particle number concentrations obtained from the aerosol size distributions were compared to the total number concentrations measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The comparison showed an excellent agreement of the data. The high time resolution of 5 minutes allows the combination of the measured size distributions with meteorological data and correlations to gaseous pollutants (CO, NOx and SO2). A good correlation of particle number and CO concentrations was found for long distance transported small particles, which were probably mainly soot particles. Correlations to NOx were observed for aerosols from local sources such as traffic emissions. The formation of secondary aerosols from gaseous precursors was also observed. Episodes of relatively high concentration of particles in the range of 2-3 μm were probably caused by pollen.

  7. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  8. Calibration device for wide range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodoku, Masaya; Sato, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration device for a wide range monitor according to the present invention can continuously calibrate the entire counting regions of a wide range monitor. The wide range monitor detect the reactor power in the neutron source region by means of a pulse counting method and detects the reactor power in the intermediate region by means of a cambell method. A calibration signal outputting means is disposed for continuously outputting, as such calibration signals, pulse number varying signals in which the number of pulses per unit time varies depending on the reactor power in the neutron source region to be simulated and amplitude square means varying signal in which the mean square value of amplitude varies depending on the reactor power in the intermediate region to be simulated. By using both of the calibration signals, calibration can be conducted for the nuclear reactor power in the neutron source region and the intermediate region even if the calibration is made over two regions, further, calibration for the period present over the two region can be conducted easily as well. (I.S.)

  9. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Johansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASAs Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but...

  10. Metamemory and memory for a wide range of font sizes: What is the contribution of perceptual fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Monika; Zimdahl, Malte F

    2018-04-26

    Words printed in a larger 48-point font are judged to be more memorable than words printed in a smaller 18-point font, although font size does not affect actual memory. To clarify the basis of this font size effect on metamemory and memory, 4 experiments investigated how presenting words in 48 (Experiment 1) or 4 (Experiments 2 to 4) font sizes between 6 point and 500 point affected judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall performance. Response times in lexical decision tasks were used to measure perceptual fluency. In all experiments, perceptual fluency was lower for words presented in very small and very large font sizes than for words presented in intermediate font sizes. In contrast, JOLs increased monotonically with font size, even beyond the point where a large font impaired perceptual fluency. Assessments of people's metacognitive beliefs about font size revealed that the monotonic increase in JOLs was not due to beliefs masking perceptual fluency effects (Experiment 3). Also, JOLs still increased across the whole range of font sizes when perceptual fluency was made salient at study (Experiment 4). In all experiments but Experiment 4, recall performance increased with increasing font size, although to a lesser extent than JOLs. Overall, the current study supports the idea that metacognitive beliefs underlie font size effects in metamemory. As important, it reveals that people's font size beliefs have some accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  13. Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Hartl, Daniel L; Sackton, Timothy B

    2015-04-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

  14. A Wide Spectral Range Reflectance and Luminescence Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hirvonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a wide spectral range (200–2500 nm imaging system with a 250 μm minimum spatial resolution, which can be freely modified for a wide range of resolutions and measurement geometries. The system has been tested for reflectance and luminescence measurements, but can also be customized for transmittance measurements. This study includes the performance results of the developed system, as well as examples of spectral images. Discussion of the system relates it to existing systems and methods. The wide range spectral imaging system that has been developed is however highly customizable and has great potential in many practical applications.

  15. Modal density of rectangular structures in a wide frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2018-04-01

    A novel approach to investigate the modal density of a rectangular structure in a wide frequency range is presented. First, the modal density is derived, in the whole frequency range of interest, on the basis of sound transmission through the infinite counterpart of the structure; then, it is corrected by means of the low-frequency modal behavior of the structure, taking into account actual size and boundary conditions. A statistical analysis reveals the connection between the modal density of the structure and the transmission of sound through its thickness. A transfer matrix approach is used to compute the required acoustic parameters, making it possible to deal with structures having arbitrary stratifications of different layers. A finite element method is applied on coarse grids to derive the first few eigenfrequencies required to correct the modal density. Both the transfer matrix approach and the coarse grids involved in the finite element analysis grant high efficiency. Comparison with alternative formulations demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  16. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.M.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.; Bilskie, J.R.; van Dyck, O.B.V.

    1985-01-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1

  17. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  18. Thermal barriers constrain microbial elevational range size via climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne

    2017-08-01

    Range size is invariably limited and understanding range size variation is an important objective in ecology. However, microbial range size across geographical gradients remains understudied, especially on mountainsides. Here, the patterns of range size of stream microbes (i.e., bacteria and diatoms) and macroorganisms (i.e., macroinvertebrates) along elevational gradients in Asia and Europe were examined. In bacteria, elevational range size showed non-significant phylogenetic signals. In all taxa, there was a positive relationship between niche breadth and species elevational range size, driven by local environmental and climatic variables. No taxa followed the elevational Rapoport's rule. Climate variability explained the most variation in microbial mean elevational range size, whereas local environmental variables were more important for macroinvertebrates. Seasonal and annual climate variation showed negative effects, while daily climate variation had positive effects on community mean elevational range size for all taxa. The negative correlation between range size and species richness suggests that understanding the drivers of range is key for revealing the processes underlying diversity. The results advance the understanding of microbial species thermal barriers by revealing the importance of seasonal and diurnal climate variation, and highlight that aquatic and terrestrial biota may differ in their response to short- and long-term climate variability. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Interspecific geographic range size-body size relationship and the diversification dynamics of Neotropical furnariid birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Michael, Oscar; Hernández, Cristián E; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Avaria-Llautureo, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2018-05-01

    Among the earliest macroecological patterns documented, is the range and body size relationship, characterized by a minimum geographic range size imposed by the species' body size. This boundary for the geographic range size increases linearly with body size and has been proposed to have implications in lineages evolution and conservation. Nevertheless, the macroevolutionary processes involved in the origin of this boundary and its consequences on lineage diversification have been poorly explored. We evaluate the macroevolutionary consequences of the difference (hereafter the distance) between the observed and the minimum range sizes required by the species' body size, to untangle its role on the diversification of a Neotropical species-rich bird clade using trait-dependent diversification models. We show that speciation rate is a positive hump-shaped function of the distance to the lower boundary. The species with highest and lowest distances to minimum range size had lower speciation rates, while species close to medium distances values had the highest speciation rates. Further, our results suggest that the distance to the minimum range size is a macroevolutionary constraint that affects the diversification process responsible for the origin of this macroecological pattern in a more complex way than previously envisioned. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)

  1. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  2. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low

  3. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  4. High voltage wide range marx generator design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A wide range, long pulse, Marx generator has been designed and constructed for the purpose of exciting a thermionic electron gun utilized for quasi-cw gas laser medium ionization. The Marx generator has been specifically designed to operate over a voltage range variable from 100 kV to 200 kV into a resistive load of between 83 kΩ and open circuit. This wide operating range, both in voltage and load impedance, was obtained using interstage coupling capacitors to assure overvoltage and subsequent breakdown of the three element spark gap switches used. This paper will discuss the motivation and specific application for the Marx generator and will present the relevant design procedure with particular emphasis on the interstage coupling and triggering techniques employed. Experimental data regarding the measured Marx generator performance will also be presented

  5. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  6. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun

    2016-03-03

    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low and high stress levels; all updated models involve four parameters. Compiled consolidation data for remolded and natural clays are used to test the models and to develop correlations between model parameters and index properties. Models can adequately fit soil compression data for a wide range of stresses and soil types; in particular, models that involve the power of the stress σ\\'β display higher flexibility to capture the brittle response of some natural soils. The use of a single continuous function avoids numerical discontinuities or the need for ad hoc procedures to determine the yield stress. The tangent stiffness-readily computed for all models-should not be mistaken for the small-strain constant-fabric stiffness. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  7. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced

  8. Evaluation of the detachment energy of hydrated phosphate anion over a wide range of cluster size and revisiting solvent-berg model: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-12-01

    An explicit analytical expression has been obtained for vertical detachment energy (VDE) that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range (both stable and unstable regions) of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters (n = 16-23). The calculated VDE for the bulk is found to be very good in agreement (within 1%) with the available experimental result and the domain of instability lies between n = 0 and n = 15 for the hydrated clusters, PO3 -4 . nH2O. The minimum number (n0) of water molecules needed to stabilise the phosphate anion is 16. We are able to explain the origin of solvent-berg model and anomalous conductivity from the knowledge of first stable cluster. We have also provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent-berg for phosphate anion. The calculated conductivity using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent-berg is found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  9. Diversification Rates and the Evolution of Species Range Size Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castiglione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic range sizes frequency distribution (RFD within clades is typically right-skewed with untransformed data, and bell-shaped or slightly left-skewed under the log-transformation. This means that most species within clades occupy diminutive ranges, whereas just a few species are truly widespread. A number of ecological and evolutionary explanations have been proposed to account for this pattern. Among the latter, much attention has been given to the issue of how extinction and speciation probabilities influence RFD. Numerous accounts now convincingly demonstrate that extinction rate decreases with range size, both in living and extinct taxa. The relationship between range size and speciation rate, though, is much less obvious, with either small or large ranged species being proposed to originate more daughter taxa. Herein, we used a large fossil database including 21 animal clades and more than 80,000 fossil occurrences distributed over more than 400 million years of marine metazoans (exclusive of vertebrates evolution, to test the relationship between extinction rate, speciation rate, and range size. As expected, we found that extinction rate almost linearly decreases with range size. In contrast, speciation rate peaks at the large (but not the largest end of the range size spectrum. This is consistent with the peripheral isolation mode of allopatric speciation being the main mechanism of species origination. The huge variation in phylogeny, fossilization potential, time of fossilization, and the overarching effect of mass extinctions suggest caution must be posed at generalizing our results, as individual clades may deviate significantly from the general pattern.

  10. A Macrophysiological Analysis of Energetic Constraints on Geographic Range Size in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological processes are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of organisms, and recently, with widespread attention to climate change, physiology has been ushered back to the forefront of ecological thinking. We present a macrophysiological analysis of the energetics of geographic range size using combined data on body size, basal metabolic rate (BMR), phylogeny and range properties for 574 species of mammals. We propose three mechanisms by which interspecific variation in BMR should relate positively to geographic range size: (i) Thermal Plasticity Hypothesis, (ii) Activity Levels/Dispersal Hypothesis, and (iii) Energy Constraint Hypothesis. Although each mechanism predicts a positive correlation between BMR and range size, they can be further distinguished based on the shape of the relationship they predict. We found evidence for the predicted positive relationship in two dimensions of energetics: (i) the absolute, mass-dependent dimension (BMR) and (ii) the relative, mass-independent dimension (MIBMR). The shapes of both relationships were similar and most consistent with that expected from the Energy Constraint Hypothesis, which was proposed previously to explain the classic macroecological relationship between range size and body size in mammals and birds. The fact that this pattern holds in the MIBMR dimension indicates that species with supra-allometric metabolic rates require among the largest ranges, above and beyond the increasing energy demands that accrue as an allometric consequence of large body size. The relationship is most evident at high latitudes north of the Tropics, where large ranges and elevated MIBMR are most common. Our results suggest that species that are most vulnerable to extinction from range size reductions are both large-bodied and have elevated MIBMR, but also, that smaller species with elevated MIBMR are at heightened risk. We also provide insights into the global latitudinal trends in range size and MIBMR

  11. Nonbreeding home‐range size and survival of lesser prairie‐chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    The lesser prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern with uncertain regulatory status, has experienced population declines over the past century. Most research on lesser prairie‐chickens has focused on the breeding season, with little research conducted during the nonbreeding season, a period that exerts a strong influence on demography in other upland game birds. We trapped lesser prairie‐chickens on leks and marked them with either global positioning system (GPS) satellite or very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to estimate survival and home‐range size during the nonbreeding season. We monitored 119 marked lesser prairie‐chickens in 3 study areas in Kansas, USA, from 16 September to 14 March in 2013, 2014, and 2015. We estimated home‐range size using Brownian Bridge movement models (GPS transmitters) and fixed kernel density estimators (VHF transmitters), and female survival using Kaplan–Meier known‐fate models. Average home‐range size did not differ between sexes. Estimated home‐range size was 3 times greater for individuals fitted with GPS satellite transmitters ( = 997 ha) than those with VHF transmitters ( = 286 ha), likely a result of the temporal resolution of the different transmitters. Home‐range size of GPS‐marked birds increased 2.8 times relative to the breeding season and varied by study area and year. Home‐range size was smaller in the 2013–2014 nonbreeding season ( = 495 ha) than the following 2 nonbreeding seasons ( = 1,290 ha and  = 1,158 ha), corresponding with drought conditions of 2013, which were alleviated in following years. Female survival () was high relative to breeding season estimates, and did not differ by study area or year ( = 0.73 ± 0.04 [SE]). Future management could remain focused on the breeding season because nonbreeding survival was 39–44% greater than the previous breeding season; however, considerations of total space

  12. Marine: a new wide range neutron monitoring system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trama, J.C.; Lescop, B.; Lefevre, J.; Nguyen, T.; Sudres, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire; Pasdeloup, P. [Technicatome, 13 - Les Milles (France)

    2001-07-01

    In a Nuclear Power Plant, the developed power is proportional to the emitted neutron flux. The 10 to 11 decades measurement range from source to power generally needs 3 distinct neutron measurement chains to be monitored. A wide range neutron monitoring system may cover this range with only one sensor followed by adequate electronics. In the past this concept has been developed with an analogue technology which was presenting some drawbacks (slow log amplifier, components perenniality). In this paper, we introduce a completely new design, that makes use of a recent technology, including full linear input electronics, and advanced digital signal processing. As far as the sensor is concerned, both a well known commercial fission chamber, or an innovative wide range sensor presenting a high sensitivity may be used. The basic concept is that the single signal is continuously processed by three different electronic stages, each one being dedicated to approximately one third of the full range: pulse, Campbelling and current modes. After amplification, appropriate shaping, this signal is numerically filtered by a Kalman filter algorithm to compute the neutron flux as well as the reactor period. A specifically developed test module allows the surveillance of the sensor and the electronics via stimuli injections and characteristic curves plotting. A computerised simulation of the whole chain is used to validate the signal processing algorithms evolutions. In the paper we will specifically develop the metrological performances of this chain and the general agreement that exists between simulated and measured values. (authors)

  13. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G J

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  14. Wide-Range Probing of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Yun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2017-03-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in magnetic objects is of enormous interest, because it generates built-in chirality of magnetic domain walls (DWs) and topologically protected skyrmions, leading to efficient motion driven by spin-orbit torques. Because of its importance for both potential applications and fundamental research, many experimental efforts have been devoted to DMI investigation. However, current experimental probing techniques cover only limited ranges of the DMI strength and have specific sample requirements. Thus, there are no versatile methods to quantify DMI over a wide range of values. Here, we present such an experimental scheme, which is based on the angular dependence of asymmetric DW motion. This method can be used to determine values of DMI much larger than the maximum strength of the external magnetic field strength, which demonstrates that various DMI strengths can be quantified with a single measurement setup. This scheme may thus prove essential to DMI-related emerging fields in nanotechnology.

  15. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  16. An emittance measurement system for a wide range of bunch charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.; Engwall, D.; Hofler, A.; Keesee, M.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the emittance measurements planned for the FEL injector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the authors have developed an emittance measurement system that covers the wide dynamic range of bunch charges necessary to fully characterize the high-DC-voltage photocathode gun. The measurements are carried out with a variant of the classical two-slit method using a slit to sample the beam in conjunction with a wire scanner to measure the transmitted beam profile. The use of commercial, ultra-low noise picoammeters makes it possible to cover the wide range of desired bunch charges, with the actual measurements made over the range of 0.25 pC to 125 pC. The entire system, including its integration into the EPICS control system, is discussed

  17. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, R.J.; Foster, G.W.; Knickerbocker, K.; Sarraj, M.; Tschirhart, R.; Whitmore, J.; Zimmerman, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Lindgren, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

    1994-06-01

    High energy physics experiments running at high interaction rates frequently require long record lengths for determining a level 1 trigger. The easiest way to provide a long event record is by digital means. In applications requiring wide dynamic range, however, digitization of an analog signal to obtain the digital record has been impossible due to lack of high speed, wide range FADCs. One such application is the readout of thousands of photomultiplier tubes in fixed target and colliding beam experiment calorimeters. A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17--18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Tests of the circuit with a PMT input and a pulsed laser have provided respectable results with little off line correction. Performance of the circuit for demanding applications can be significantly enhanced with additional off line correction. Circuit design, packaging issues, and test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time.

  18. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.; Foster, G.W.; Knickerbocker, K.; Sarraj, M.; Tschirhart, R.; Whitmore, J.; Zimmerman, T.; Lindgren, M.

    1994-06-01

    High energy physics experiments running at high interaction rates frequently require long record lengths for determining a level 1 trigger. The easiest way to provide a long event record is by digital means. In applications requiring wide dynamic range, however, digitization of an analog signal to obtain the digital record has been impossible due to lack of high speed, wide range FADCs. One such application is the readout of thousands of photomultiplier tubes in fixed target and colliding beam experiment calorimeters. A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17--18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Tests of the circuit with a PMT input and a pulsed laser have provided respectable results with little off line correction. Performance of the circuit for demanding applications can be significantly enhanced with additional off line correction. Circuit design, packaging issues, and test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time

  19. Regional deposition of nasal sprays in adults: A wide ranging computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Milad; Wachtel, Herbert; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H

    2018-05-01

    The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of 7 realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on computed tomography images. Deposition in 6 regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location. Penetration of nasal spray particles through the airway geometries represented unintended lung exposure. Penetration was found to be relatively insensitive to injection velocity, but highly sensitive to particle size. Penetration remained at or above 30% for particles exceeding 10 μm in diameter for several airway geometries studied. Deposition in the turbinates, viewed as desirable for both local and systemic nasal drug delivery, was on average maximized for particles ranging from ~20 to 30 μm in diameter, and for low to zero injection velocity. Similar values of particle diameter and injection velocity were found to maximize deposition in the olfactory region, a potential target for nose-to-brain drug delivery. However, olfactory deposition was highly variable between airway geometries, with maximum olfactory deposition ranging over 2 orders of magnitude between geometries. This variability is an obstacle to overcome if consistent dosing between subjects is to be achieved for nose-to-brain drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  1. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E; Caires, Kyle C; Bohannon, Lisa A; Parsons, Elizabeth I; Hilburn, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P ranges as compared to altered cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  2. Wide range optofluidically tunable multimode interference fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2014-01-01

    An optofluidically tunable fiber laser based on multimode interference (MMI) effects with a wide tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on an MMI fiber filter fabricated using a special fiber known as no-core fiber, which is a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding. Therefore, when the MMI filter is covered by liquid the optical properties of the no-core fiber are modified, which allow us to tune the peak wavelength response of the MMI filter. Rather than applying the liquid on the entire no-core fiber, we change the liquid level along the no-core fiber, which provides a highly linear tuning response. In addition, by selecting the adequate refractive index of the liquid we can also choose the tuning range. We demonstrate the versatility of the optofluidically tunable MMI filter by wavelength tuning two different gain media, erbium doped fiber and a semiconductor optical amplifier, achieving tuning ranges of 55 and 90 nm respectively. In both cases, we achieve side-mode suppression ratios (SMSR) better than 50 dBm with output power variations of less than 0.76 dBm over the whole tuning range. (paper)

  3. Free-Ranging Farm Cats: Home Range Size and Predation on a Livestock Unit In Northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E.; Caires, Kyle C.; Bohannon, Lisa A.; Parsons, Elizabeth I.; Hilburn, Katharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife. PMID:25894078

  4. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Walder, J P; Pangaud, P

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  5. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.P.; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented

  6. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.P. E-mail: walder@in2p3.fr; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-03-11

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  7. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  8. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  9. A Wide Lock-Range Referenceless CDR with Automatic Frequency Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Seon-Kyoo Lee; Young-Sang Kim; Hong-June Park; Jae-Yoon Sim

    2011-01-01

    A wide lock-range referenceless CDR circuit is proposed with an automatic tracking of data rate. For efficient frequency acquisition, a DLL-based loop is used with a simple phase/frequency detector to extract 1-bit period of input data stream. The CDR, implemented in a 65 nm CMOS, shows a lock range of 650 Mb/s-to-8 Gb/s and BER of less than 10-12 at 8 Gb/s with low power consumption.

  10. A Wide Lock-Range Referenceless CDR with Automatic Frequency Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Kyoo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide lock-range referenceless CDR circuit is proposed with an automatic tracking of data rate. For efficient frequency acquisition, a DLL-based loop is used with a simple phase/frequency detector to extract 1-bit period of input data stream. The CDR, implemented in a 65 nm CMOS, shows a lock range of 650 Mb/s-to-8 Gb/s and BER of less than 10-12 at 8 Gb/s with low power consumption.

  11. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna E Kitts-Morgan

    Full Text Available This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05 on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE or core home range size (50% KDE. Male cats tended (P = 0.08 to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha compared to female cats (0.64 ha. Reproductively intact cats (n = 2 had larger (P < 0.0001 diurnal and nocturnal home ranges as compared to altered cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  12. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98...... by two the converter input-to-output voltage gain. This allows covering the conditions when the fuel cell stack operates in the activation region (maximum output voltage) and increases the degrees of freedom for converter optimization. The transition between operating modes is studied because represents...

  13. CFD comparison with centrifugal compressor measurements on a wide operating range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnou D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressors are widely used in industrial applications thanks to their high efficiency. They are able to provide a wide operating range before reaching the flow barrier or surge limits. Performances and range are described by compressor maps obtained experimentally. After a description of performance test rig, this article compares measured centrifugal compressor performances with computational fluid dynamics results. These computations are performed at steady conditions with R134a refrigerant as fluid. Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with k-ε turbulence model, are solved by the commercial software ANSYS-CFX by means of volume finite method. Input conditions are varied in order to calculate several speed lines. Theoretical isentropic efficiency and theoretical surge line are finally compared to experimental data.

  14. Causes and consequences of range size variation: the influence of traits, speciation, and extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Vamosi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous variation in species richness observed among related clades across the tree of life has long caught the imagination of biologists. Recently, there has been growing attention paid to the possible contribution of range size variation, either alone or in combination with putative key innovations, to these patterns. Here, we review three related topics relevant to range size evolution, speciation, and extinction. First, we provide a brief overview of the debate surrounding patterns and mechanisms for phylogenetic signal in range size. Second, we discuss some recent findings regarding the joint influence of traits and range size on diversification. Finally, we present the preliminary results of a study investigating whether range size is negatively correlated with contemporary extinction risk in flowering plants.

  15. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  16. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  17. Multi-input wide dynamic range ADC system for use with nuclear detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, R W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Ala. (USA). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    1976-04-15

    A wide dynamic range, eight input analog-to-digital converter system has been developed for use in nuclear experiments. The system consists of eight dual-range sample and hold modules, an eight input multiplexer, a ten-bit analog-to-digital converter, and the associated control logic.

  18. Linking seasonal home range size with habitat selection and movement in a mountain ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Granados, José Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús M; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Burón, Daniel; Fandos, Guillermo; Aguado, María Ángeles Párraga; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2018-01-01

    Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica . We used GPS collars to track ibex across the year in two different geographical areas of Sierra Nevada, Spain, and measured habitat variables related to forage and roost availability. By using integrated step selection analysis (iSSA), we show that habitat selection was important to explain space use by ibex. As a consequence, movement was constrained by habitat selection, as observed displacement rate was shorter than expected under null selection. Selection-independent movement, selection strength and resource availability were important drivers of seasonal home range size. Both displacement rate and directional persistence had a positive relationship with home range size while accounting for habitat selection, suggesting that individual characteristics and state may also affect home range size. Ibex living at higher altitudes, where resource availability shows stronger altitudinal gradients across the year, had larger home ranges. Home range size was larger in spring and autumn, when ibex ascend and descend back, and smaller in summer and winter, when resources are more stable. Therefore, home range size decreased with resource availability. Finally, males had larger home ranges than females, which might be explained by differences in body size and reproductive behaviour. Movement, selection strength, resource availability and intrinsic factors related to sex determined home range size of Iberian ibex. Our results highlight the need to integrate

  19. Mean latitudinal range sizes of bird assemblages in six Neotropical forest chronosequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert R.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund

    2005-01-01

    Aim The geographical range size frequency distributions of animal and plant assemblages are among the most important factors affecting large-scale patterns of diversity. Nonetheless, the relationship between habitat type and the range size distributions of species forming assemblages remains poorly...... towards more small ranged species occurs. Even relatively old secondary forests have bird species with larger average ranges than mature forests. As a consequence, conservation of secondary forests alone will miss many of the species most at risk of extinction and most unlikely to be conserved in other...

  20. Range size heritability and diversification patterns in the liverwort genus Radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Wang, Jian; Renner, Matt A M; Gradstein, S Robbert; Laenen, Benjamin; Devos, Nicolas; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively. The congruence between the divergence time of these lineages and continental split suggests that plate tectonics could have played a major role in their present distribution, suggesting that a strong imprint of vicariance can still be found in extant distribution patterns in these highly mobile organisms. Amentuloradula, Volutoradula and Metaradula species did not appear to exhibit losses of dispersal capacities in terms of dispersal life-history traits, but evidence for significant phylogenetic signal in macroecological niche traits suggests that niche conservatism accounts for their restricted geographic ranges. Despite their greatly restricted distribution to Australasia and Neotropics respectively, Amentuloradula and Volutoradula did not exhibit significantly lower diversification rates than more widespread lineages, in contrast with the hypothesis that the probability of speciation increases with range size by promoting geographic isolation and increasing the rate at which novel habitats are encountered. We suggest that stochastic long-distance dispersal events may balance allele frequencies across large spatial scales, leading to low genetic structure among geographically distant areas or even continents, ultimately decreasing the diversification rates in highly mobile, widespread lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Novel methodology for wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider based on conical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Ding, Feng; Xia, Zhixun

    2017-11-01

    This study proposes the wide-ranged multistage morphing waverider design method. The flow field structure and aerodynamic characteristics of multistage waveriders are also analyzed. In this method, the multistage waverider is generated in the same conical flowfield, which contains a free-stream surface and different compression-stream surfaces. The obtained results show that the introduction of the multistage waverider design method can solve the problem of aerodynamic performance deterioration in the off-design state and allow the vehicle to always maintain the optimal flight state. The multistage waverider design method, combined with transfiguration flight strategy, can lead to greater design flexibility and the optimization of hypersonic wide-ranged waverider vehicles.

  2. Multi-stage LLC resonant converters designed for wide output voltage ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, C.-W.; Bingham, C. M.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D. A.; Leech, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel multi-stage LLC resonant converter topology for facilitating wide output voltage ranges. This is achieved by combining the gain range of a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant converter with that of a traditional LLC resonant converter. A prototype converter is designed and commissioned to illustrate the design procedure and demonstrate resulting operational characteristics. Experimental results are used to show operational characteristics of the proposed conver...

  3. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  4. Abundance-range size relationships in stream vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    thecultivated lowlands of Denmark, we examined the overall relationship betweenlocal abundance and geographical range size of the vascular flora. We found asignificant positive relationship for all species at all stream localities andan even stronger relationship for ecologically similar species...

  5. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-06-17

    The effects of doping on the lattice structure, electronic structure, phonon spectrum, and electron-phonon coupling of low-buckling silicene are studied by first-principles calculations. Although the lattice is found to be very sensitive to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced by doping. This implies that the electron-phonon coupling cannot be neglected in field-effect transistor applications. Copyright © 2011 EPLA.

  6. A wide range and high speed automatic gain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.

    1993-05-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) techniques have been largely used since the beginning of electronics, but in most of the applications the dynamic response is slow compared with the carrier frequency. The problem of developing an automatic gain control with high dynamic response and wide control range simultaneously is analyzed in this work. An ideal gain control law, with the property that the total loop gain remains constant independent of the carrier amplitude, is obtained. The resulting AGC behavior is compared by computer simulations with a linear multiplier AGC. The ideal gain control law can be approximated using a transconductance amplifier. A practical circuit that has been used at CERN in the radio frequency loops of the Booster Synchrotron is presented. The circuit has high speed and 80-dB gain control range

  7. A wide range gamma monitor with digital display for remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1976-01-01

    A wide range gamma monitor designed for remote monitoring in nuclear facilities is described. The instrument consists of two GM detectors and pre-amplifiers connected by a long coaxial cable to the power supply, scalers and timers and display devices. Automatic selection of detectors range of exposure rate and display (nixie) are achieved with this set up, radiation levels in active areas can easily be displayed in the control room. Other advantages are also pointed out. (A.K.)

  8. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...

  9. Cobalt catalyzed hydroesterification of a wide range of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, H.; Hanton, M.; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Petrochemical raw materials are an essential raw material for the production of detergents with a substantial portion of synthetic fatty alcohols being produced via hydroformylation of oil or coal derived olefins. Carbonylation processes other than hydroformylation have to date not been commercially employed for the production of fatty esters or alcohols. In this document we highlight the opportunities of converting olefins to esters using cobalt catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation. This process is highly versatile and applicable to a wide range of olefins, linear or branched, alpha or internal in combination with virtually any chain length primary or secondary alcohol allowing the synthesis of a diverse array of compounds such as ester ethoxylated surfactants, methyl branched detergents, lubricants and alkyl propanoates. Furthermore, alkoxycarbonylation of a broad olefin/paraffin hydrocarbon range could be used to produce the corresponding broad cut detergent alcohols. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  11. SU-F-T-406: Verification of Total Body Irradiation Commissioned MU Lookup Table Accuracy Using Treatment Planning System for Wide Range of Patient Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D; Chi, P; Tailor, R; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the accuracy of total body irradiation (TBI) measurement commissioning data using the treatment planning system (TPS) for a wide range of patient separations. Methods: Our institution conducts TBI treatments with an 18MV photon beam at 380cm extended SSD using an AP/PA technique. Currently, the monitor units (MU) per field for patient treatments are determined using a lookup table generated from TMR measurements in a water phantom (75 × 41 × 30.5 cm3). The dose prescribed to an umbilicus midline point at spine level is determined based on patient separation, dose/ field and dose rate/MU. One-dimensional heterogeneous dose calculations from Pinnacle TPS were validated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) placed in an average adult anthropomorphic phantom and also in-vivo on four patients with large separations. Subsequently, twelve patients with various separations (17–47cm) were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired in the left and right decubitus positions from vertex to knee. A treatment plan for each patient was generated. The ratio of the lookup table MU to the heterogeneous TPS MU was compared. Results: TLD Measurements in the anthropomorphic phantom and large TBI patients agreed with Pinnacle calculated dose within 2.8% and 2%, respectively. The heterogeneous calculation compared to the lookup table agreed within 8.1% (ratio range: 1.014–1.081). A trend of reduced accuracy was observed when patient separation increases. Conclusion: The TPS dose calculation accuracy was confirmed by TLD measurements, showing that Pinnacle can model the extended SSD dose without commissioning a special beam model for the extended SSD geometry. The difference between the lookup table and TPS calculation potentially comes from lack of scatter during commissioning when compared to extreme patient sizes. The observed trend suggests the need for development of a correction factor between the lookup table and TPS dose

  12. An Optimized Control for LLC Resonant Converter with Wide Load Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xia; Qian, Qinsong

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an optimized control which makes LLC resonant converters operate with a wider load range and provides good closed-loop performance. The proposed control employs two paralleled digital compensations to guarantee the good closed-loop performance in a wide load range during the steady state, an optimized trajectory control will take over to change the gate-driving signals immediately at the load transients. Finally, the proposed control has been implemented and tested on a 150W 200kHz 400V/24V LLC resonant converter and the result validates the proposed method.

  13. Simultaneous wide-range stopping power determination for several ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanko, T. E-mail: tommi.alanko@phys.jyu.fi; Trzaska, W.H.; Lyapin, V.; Raeisaenen, J.; Tiourine, G.; Virtanen, A

    2002-05-01

    A new procedure to extract simultaneously continuous stopping power curves for several ions and several absorbers over a wide energy range and with statistical errors reduced to negligible level is presented. The method combines our novel time-of-flight based method with the capability of our K130 cyclotron and ECR ion-source to produce the so-called ion cocktails. The potential of the method is demonstrated with a 6.0 MeV/u cocktail consisting of {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, {sup 28}Si{sup 7+} and {sup 40}Ar{sup 10+} ions. The stopping power in polycarbonate in the energy range of 0.35-5 MeV/u has been determined with absolute uncertainty of less than 2.3% and with relative below 0.2%. The results are compared with literature data and with SRIM2000 parameterisation including cores and bonds corrections.

  14. Development of wide range charge integration application specified integrated circuit for photo-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayose, Yusaku, E-mail: katayose@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Ikeda, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shibata, Makio [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    A front-end application specified integrated circuit (ASIC) is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier (WDAMP) to read-out signals from a photo-sensor like a photodiode. The WDAMP ASIC consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier, four wave-shaping circuits with different amplification factors and Wilkinson-type analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To realize a wider range, the integrating capacitor in the preamplifier can be changed from 4 pF to 16 pF by a two-bit switch. The output of a preamplifier is shared by the four wave-shaping circuits with four gains of 1, 4, 16 and 64 to adapt the input range of ADC. A 0.25-μm CMOS process (of UMC electronics CO., LTD) is used to fabricate the ASIC with four-channels. The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC and the noise performance of 0.46 fC + 6.4×10{sup −4} fC/pF. -- Highlights: ► A front-end ASIC is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier. ► The ASIC consists of a CSA, four wave-shaping circuits and pulse-height-to-time converters. ► The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC.

  15. A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider with a wide dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Pengfei; Luo Ping; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider (CMM/D) with a wide dynamic range is presented. The proposed CMM/D is based on the voltage—current characteristic of the diode, thus wide dynamic range is achieved. In addition, high linearity is achieved because high accuracy current mirrors are adopted and the output current is insensitive to the temperature and device parameters of the fabrication process. Furthermore, no extra bias current for all input signals is required and thus power saving is realized. With proper selection of establishing the input terminal, the proposed circuit can perform as a multifunction circuit to be operated as a multiplier/divider, without changing its topology. The proposed circuit is implemented in a 0.25 μm BCD process and the chip area is 0.26 × 0.24 mm 2 . The simulation and measurement results show that the maximum static linearity error is ±1.8% and the total harmonic distortion is 0.4% while the input current ranges from 0 to 200 μA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  17. Linking home ranges to protected area size: The case study of the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah Grahm; Di Lorenzo, Manfredi

    2018-01-01

    in the Mediterranean Sea, and related this to the size of 184 Mediterranean fully protected areas. We also investigated the influence of fully protected areas size on fish density in contrast to fished areas with respect to home ranges. Home range estimations were available for 11 species (10 fishes and 1 lobster......). The European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas had the smallest home range (0.0039 ± 0.0014 km2; mean ± 1 SE), while the painted comber Serranus scriba (1.1075 ± 0.2040 km2) had the largest. Approximately 25% of Mediterranean fully protected areas are larger than 2 times the size of the largest home range...

  18. Space use of wintering waterbirds in India: Influence of trophic ecology on home-range size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Takekawa, John Y.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between species' home range and their other biological traits remains poorly understood, especially in migratory birds due to the difficulty associated with tracking them. Advances in satellite telemetry and remote sensing techniques have proved instrumental in overcoming such challenges. We studied the space use of migratory ducks through satellite telemetry with an objective of understanding the influence of body mass and feeding habits on their home-range sizes. We marked 26 individuals, representing five species of migratory ducks, with satellite transmitters during two consecutive winters in three Indian states. We used kernel methods to estimate home ranges and core use areas of these waterfowl, and assessed the influence of body mass and feeding habits on home-range size. Feeding habits influenced the home-range size of the migratory ducks. Carnivorous ducks had the largest home ranges, herbivorous ducks the smallest, while omnivorous species had intermediate home-ranges. Body mass did not explain variation in home-range size. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on migratory ducks, and it has important implications for their conservation and management.

  19. Robust wide-range control of nuclear reactors by using the feedforward-feedback concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, C.K.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.

    1994-01-01

    A robust feedforward-feedback controller is proposed for wide-range operations of nuclear reactors. This control structure provides (a) optimized performance over a wide operating range resulting form the feedforward element and (b) guaranteed robust stability and performance resulting from the feedback element. The feedforward control law is synthesized via nonlinear programming, which generates an optimal control sequence over a finite-time horizon under specified constraints. The feedback control is synthesized via the structured singular value μ approach to guarantee robustness in the presence of disturbances and modeling uncertainties. The results of simulation experiments are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the proposed control structure for a large rapid power reduction to avoid unnecessary plant trips

  20. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear with a Wide Torque-Speed Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Matzen, Torben N.; Jahns, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper present a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear with a wide torque-speed range. In the paper a 35 kW permanent magnet motor with a base speed of 4000 rpm and a top speed of 14000 rpm is integrated into a permanent magnetic gear with a gearing ratio of 8.67. The design process...

  1. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.; Foster, G.W.; Knickerbocker, K.; Sarraj, M.; Tschirhart, R.; Whitmore, J.; Zimmerman, T.; Lindgren, M.

    1995-01-01

    A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17-18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time. (orig.)

  2. Lineages that cheat death: surviving the squeeze on range size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Evolutionary lineages differ greatly in their net diversification rates, implying differences in rates of extinction and speciation. Lineages with a large average range size are commonly thought to have reduced extinction risk (although linking low extinction to high diversification has proved elusive). However, climate change cycles can dramatically reduce the geographic range size of even widespread species, and so most species may be periodically reduced to a few populations in small, isolated remnants of their range. This implies a high and synchronous extinction risk for the remaining populations, and so for the species as a whole. Species will only survive through these periods if their individual populations are "threat tolerant," somehow able to persist in spite of the high extinction risk. Threat tolerance is conceptually different from classic extinction resistance, and could theoretically have a stronger relationship with diversification rates than classic resistance. I demonstrate that relationship using primates as a model. I also show that narrowly distributed species have higher threat tolerance than widespread ones, confirming that tolerance is an unusual form of resistance. Extinction resistance may therefore operate by different rules during periods of adverse global environmental change than in more benign periods.

  3. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  4. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm 2 . The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  5. The role of environment and core-margin effects on range-wide phenotypic variation in a montane grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerales, V; García-Navas, V; Cordero, P J; Ortego, J

    2016-11-01

    The integration of genetic information with ecological and phenotypic data constitutes an effective approach to gain insight into the mechanisms determining interpopulation variability and the evolutionary processes underlying local adaptation and incipient speciation. Here, we use the Pyrenean Morales grasshopper (Chorthippus saulcyi moralesi) as study system to (i) analyse the relative role of genetic drift and selection in range-wide patterns of phenotypic differentiation and (ii) identify the potential selective agents (environment, elevation) responsible for variation. We also test the hypothesis that (iii) the development of dispersal-related traits is associated with different parameters related to population persistence/turnover, including habitat suitability stability over the last 120 000 years, distance to the species distribution core and population genetic variability. Our results indicate that selection shaped phenotypic differentiation across all the studied morphological traits (body size, forewing length and shape). Subsequent analyses revealed that among-population differentiation in forewing length was significantly explained by a temperature gradient, suggesting an adaptive response to thermoregulation or flight performance under contrasting temperature regimes. We found support for our hypothesis predicting a positive association between the distance to the species distribution core and the development of dispersal-related morphology, which suggests an increased dispersal capability in populations located at range edges that, in turn, exhibit lower levels of genetic variability. Overall, our results indicate that range-wide patterns of phenotypic variation are partially explained by adaptation in response to local environmental conditions and differences in habitat persistence between core and peripheral populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary

  6. An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Fan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-06-12

    An ultrasensitive strain sensor with a wide strain range based on graphene armour scales is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor shows an ultra-high gauge factor (GF, up to 1054) and a wide strain range (ε = 26%), both of which present an advantage compared to most other flexible sensors. Moreover, the sensor is developed by a simple fabrication process. Due to the excellent performance, this strain sensor can meet the demands of subtle, large and complex human motion monitoring, which indicates its tremendous application potential in health monitoring, mechanical control, real-time motion monitoring and so on.

  7. Wide-Range Adaptive RF-to-DC Power Converter for UHF RFIDs

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2016-07-27

    A wide-range, differential, cross-coupled rectifier is proposed with an extended dynamic range of input RF power that enables wireless powering from varying distances. The proposed architecture mitigates the reverse-leakage problem in conven- tional, cross-coupled rectifiers without degrading sensitivity. A prototype is designed for UHF RFID applications, and is imple- mented using 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. On-chip measurements demonstrate a sensitivity of − 18 dBm for 1 V output over a 100 k Ω load and a peak RF-to-DC power conversion efficiency of 65%. A conventional, fully cross-coupled rectifier is fabricated along- side for comparison and the proposed rectifier shows more than 2 × increase in dynamic range and a 25% boosting in output voltage than the conventional rectifier

  8. Ozone formation in pulsed SDBD in a wide pressure range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Nudnova, Maryia; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    Ozone concentration in surface anode-directed DBD for wide pressure range (150 - 1300 torr) was experimentally measured. Voltage and pressure effect were investigated. Reduced electric field was measured for anode-directed and cathode-directed SDBD. E/n values in cathode-directed SDBD is higher than in cathode-directed on 50 percent at atmospheric pressure. E/n value increase leads to decrease the rate of oxygen dissociation and Ozone formation at lower pressures. Radiating region thickness of sliding discharge was measured. Typical thickness of radiating zone is 0.4-1.0 mm within pressure range 220-740 torr. It was shown that high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge due to high E/n value produces less Ozone with compare to other discharges. Kinetic model was proposed to describe Ozone formation in the pulsed nanosecond SDBD.

  9. Negative range size-abundance relationships in Indo-Pacific bird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart Reeve, Andrew; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    and environmental stability create selection pressures that favor narrowly specialized species, which could drive these non-positive relationships. To test this idea, we measured the range size-abundance relationships of eleven bird communities in mature and degraded forest on four islands in the Indo...

  10. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  11. Wearable Wide-Range Strain Sensors Based on Ionic Liquids and Monitoring of Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hui Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for detection of human activities have encouraged the development of highly elastic sensors. In particular, to capture subtle and large-scale body motion, stretchable and wide-range strain sensors are highly desired, but still a challenge. Herein, a highly stretchable and transparent stain sensor based on ionic liquids and elastic polymer has been developed. The as-obtained sensor exhibits impressive stretchability with wide-range strain (from 0.1% to 400%, good bending properties and high sensitivity, whose gauge factor can reach 7.9. Importantly, the sensors show excellent biological compatibility and succeed in monitoring the diverse human activities ranging from the complex large-scale multidimensional motions to subtle signals, including wrist, finger and elbow joint bending, finger touch, breath, speech, swallow behavior and pulse wave.

  12. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range, IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehland, L.A.; Mason, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper updates three previous papers entitled open-quotes Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.close quotes. These papers referred to as Parts I, II, and III, were by H.W.Ellis, P.Y. Pai, E.W. McDaniel, E.A. Mason, and L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, M.G. Thackston. Part IV contains compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gases in an externally applied electrostatic field, at various gas temperatures; the data are tabulated as a function of the ionic energy parameter E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the number density of the neutral gas. Part IV also contains a locator key to ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients compiled in Parts I-IV. The coverage of the literature extends into 1994. The criteria for selection of the data are; (1) the measurements must cover a reasonably wide range of E/N; (2) the identity of the ions must be well established; and (3) the accuracy of the data must be good. 26 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  14. Subpixel Snow-covered Area Including Differentiated Grain Size from AVIRIS Data Over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area in alpine regions used multiple snow endmembers due to the sensitivity of snow spectral reflectance to grain size. We will present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction and approximate grain size or melt state. The root mean squared error will provide a spectrum-wide assessment of the mixture model's goodness-of-fit. Analysis will compare snow-covered area and snow-cover depletion in the 2016 year, and annual variation from the 2015 year. Field data were also acquired on three days concurrent with the 2016 flights in the Sagehen Experimental Forest and will support ground validation of the airborne data set.

  15. Using dogs to find cats: detection dogs as a survey method for wide-ranging cheetah

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, M. S.; Durant, S. M.; Watson, F. G. R.; Parker, M.; Gottelli, D.; M Soka, J.; Droge, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Schuette, P.; Dunkley, P.; Brummer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid global large carnivore declines make evaluations of remaining populations critical. Yet landscape-scale evaluations of presence, abundance and distribution are difficult, as many species are wide-ranging, occur only at low densities and are elusive. Insufficient information-gathering tools for many large carnivore species compounds these challenges. Specially trained detection dogs have demonstrated effectiveness for carnivore surveys, but are untested on extremely sparse, wide-ranging ...

  16. Boost Half-Bridge DC-DC Converter with Reconfigurable Rectifier for Ultra-Wide Input Voltage Range Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinnikov, Dmitri; Chub, Andrii; Liivik, Elizaveta

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel galvanically isolated boost half-bridge dc-dc converter intended for modern power electronic applications where ultra-wide input voltage regulation range is needed. A reconfigurable output rectifier stage performs a transition between the voltage doubler and the full......-bridge diode rectifiers and, by this means, extends the regulation range significantly. The converter features a low number of components and resonant soft switching of semiconductors, which result in high power conversion efficiency over a wide input voltage and load range. The paper presents the operating...

  17. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Bjornlie

    Full Text Available Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis, an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  18. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  19. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Van Manen, Frank T; Ebinger, Michael R; Haroldson, Mark A; Thompson, Daniel J; Costello, Cecily M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  20. Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; An, Dan Bi; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-04-15

    Although stiffness-controllable substrates have been developed to investigate the effect of stiffness on cell behavior and function, the use of separate substrates with different degrees of stiffness, substrates with a narrow range stiffness gradient, toxicity of residues, different surface composition, complex fabrication procedures/devices, and low cell adhesion are still considered as hurdles of conventional techniques. In this study, a cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel with a wide-range stiffness gradient (between ∼20kPa and ∼200kPa) and cell adhesiveness was prepared by a liquid nitrogen (LN2)-contacting gradual freezing-thawing method that does not use any additives or specific devices to produce the stiffness gradient hydrogel. From an in vitro cell culture using the stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel, it was observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have favorable stiffness ranges for induction of differentiation into specific cell types (∼20kPa for nerve cell, ∼40kPa for muscle cell, ∼80kPa for chondrocyte, and ∼190kPa for osteoblast). The PVA/HA hydrogel with a wide range of stiffness spectrum can be a useful tool for basic studies related with the stem cell differentiation, cell reprogramming, cell migration, and tissue regeneration in terms of substrate stiffness. It is postulated that the stiffness of the extracellular matrix influences cell behavior. To prove this concept, various techniques to prepare substrates with a stiffness gradient have been developed. However, the narrow ranges of stiffness gradient and complex fabrication procedures/devices are still remained as limitations. Herein, we develop a substrate (hydrogel) with a wide-range stiffness gradient using a gradual freezing-thawing method which does not need specific devices to produce a stiffness gradient hydrogel. From cell culture experiments using the hydrogel, it is observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have

  1. Darwin: Dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Satoh, D.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with Wide energy ranges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a Phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and wide response range of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. It was also found from the experiments that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuations of neutron dose rates near the background level because of its high sensitivity. With these properties, DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities. (authors)

  2. A high gain wide dynamic range transimpedance amplifier for optical receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lianxi; Zou Jiao; Liu Shubin; Niu Yue; Zhu Zhangming; Yang Yintang; En Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    As the front-end preamplifiers in optical receivers, transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) are commonly required to have a high gain and low input noise to amplify the weak and susceptible input signal. At the same time, the TIAs should possess a wide dynamic range (DR) to prevent the circuit from becoming saturated by high input currents. Based on the above, this paper presents a CMOS transimpedance amplifier with high gain and a wide DR for 2.5 Gbit/s communications. The TIA proposed consists of a three-stage cascade pull push inverter, an automatic gain control circuit, and a shunt transistor controlled by the resistive divider. The inductive-series peaking technique is used to further extend the bandwidth. The TIA proposed displays a maximum transimpedance gain of 88.3 dBΩ with the −3 dB bandwidth of 1.8 GHz, exhibits an input current dynamic range from 100 nA to 10 mA. The output voltage noise is less than 48.23 nV/√Hz within the −3 dB bandwidth. The circuit is fabricated using an SMIC 0.18 μm 1P6M RFCMOS process and dissipates a dc power of 9.4 mW with 1.8 V supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovskii, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru

  4. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  5. A Bidirectional Resonant DC-DC Converter Suitable for Wide Voltage Gain Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Al-Durra, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional resonant dc-dc converter suitable for wide voltage gain range applications (e.g., energy storage systems). The proposed converter overcomes the narrow voltage gain range of conventional resonant dc-dc converters, and meanwhile achieves high efficiency...... losses. The operation principles and characteristics of the proposed converter are firstly analyzed in this paper. Then the analytical solutions for the voltage gain, soft-switching, and rms currents are derived, which facilitates the parameters design and optimization. Finally, the proposed topology...... and analysis are verified with experimental results obtained from a 1-kW converter prototype....

  6. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  7. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  9. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  10. A digitized wide range channel for new instrumentation and control system of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Roslan Md Dan

    2010-01-01

    Wide Range Channel is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current system is using all analog system. The main functions of the new system are to provide Wide-log power and Multi-range linear power. The other functions are to provide Percent power and Power rate of change. The linear power level range is up to 125 % and the log power system to cover from below source level to 150 %. The main function of digital signal processor is for pulse shaping, pulse counting and root mean square signal processing. The system employs automatic on-line self diagnostics and calibration verification. (author)

  11. Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low...

  12. GaN-based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power...

  13. A Fixed-Frequency Bidirectional Resonant DC-DC Converter Suitable for Wide Voltage Gain Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional resonant dc-dc converter suitable for wide voltage gain range applications (e.g., energy storage systems). The proposed converter overcomes the narrow voltage gain range of conventional resonant DC-DC converters, and meanwhile achieves high efficiency...... and characteristics of the proposed converter are analyzed. Finally, a 1-kW converter prototype is built and the experimental results verify the theoretical analyses....

  14. Wide-band segmented power distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel design of Power Distribution Network (PDN). By physical structuring of the power plane into repetitive symmetrical and asymmetrical segments of varying size, suppression of the propagation of unwanted noise throughout the PDN over a wide frequency range is achieved.

  15. Speciation in little: the role of range and body size in the diversification of Malagasy mantellid frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate and mode of lineage diversification might be shaped by clade-specific traits. In Madagascar, many groups of organisms are characterized by tiny distribution ranges and small body sizes, and this high degree of microendemism and miniaturization parallels a high species diversity in some of these groups. We here investigate the geographic patterns characterizing the radiation of the frog family Mantellidae that is virtually endemic to Madagascar. We integrate a newly reconstructed near-complete species-level timetree of the Mantellidae with georeferenced distribution records and maximum male body size data to infer the influence of these life-history traits on each other and on mantellid diversification. Results We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA for 257 species and candidate species of the mantellid frog radiation. Based on this phylogeny we identified 53 well-supported pairs of sister species that we used for phylogenetic comparative analyses, along with whole tree-based phylogenetic comparative methods. Sister species within the Mantellidae diverged at 0.2-14.4 million years ago and more recently diverged sister species had geographical range centroids more proximate to each other, independently of their current sympatric or allopatric occurrence. The largest number of sister species pairs had non-overlapping ranges, but several examples of young microendemic sister species occurring in full sympatry suggest the possibility of non-allopatric speciation. Range sizes of species included in the sister species comparisons increased with evolutionary age, as did range size differences between sister species, which rejects peripatric speciation. For the majority of mantellid sister species and the whole mantellid radiation, range and body sizes were associated with each other and small body sizes were linked to higher mitochondrial nucleotide substitution rates and higher clade

  16. A sub-circuit MOSFET model with a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Kan; Sun Weifeng; Shi Longxing, E-mail: jiakan.01@gmail.com [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A sub-circuit SPICE model of a MOSFET for low temperature operation is presented. Two resistors are introduced for the freeze-out effect, and the explicit behavioral models are developed for them. The model can be used in a wide temperature range covering both cryogenic temperature and regular temperatures. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Wide Input Range Power Converters Using a Variable Turns Ratio Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    A new integrated transformer with variable turns ratio is proposed to enable dc-dc converters operating over a wide input voltage range. The integrated transformer employs a new geometry of magnetic core with “four legs”, two primary windings with orthogonal arrangement, and “8” shape connection...... of diagonal secondary windings, in order to make the transformer turns ratio adjustable by controlling the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the two primary windings. Full-bridge boost dc-dc converter is employed with the proposed transformer to demonstrate the feasibility of the variable...

  18. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  19. Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.

  20. An Empirical Bayes Mixture Model for Effect Size Distributions in Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Thompson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the distribution of effects from genome-wide genotyping data is crucial for understanding important aspects of the genetic architecture of complex traits, such as number or proportion of non-null loci, average proportion of phenotypic variance explained per non-null effect, power for discovery, and polygenic risk prediction. To this end, previous work has used effect-size models based on various distributions, including the normal and normal mixture distributions, among others. In this paper we propose a scale mixture of two normals model for effect size distributions of genome-wide association study (GWAS test statistics. Test statistics corresponding to null associations are modeled as random draws from a normal distribution with zero mean; test statistics corresponding to non-null associations are also modeled as normal with zero mean, but with larger variance. The model is fit via minimizing discrepancies between the parametric mixture model and resampling-based nonparametric estimates of replication effect sizes and variances. We describe in detail the implications of this model for estimation of the non-null proportion, the probability of replication in de novo samples, the local false discovery rate, and power for discovery of a specified proportion of phenotypic variance explained from additive effects of loci surpassing a given significance threshold. We also examine the crucial issue of the impact of linkage disequilibrium (LD on effect sizes and parameter estimates, both analytically and in simulations. We apply this approach to meta-analysis test statistics from two large GWAS, one for Crohn's disease (CD and the other for schizophrenia (SZ. A scale mixture of two normals distribution provides an excellent fit to the SZ nonparametric replication effect size estimates. While capturing the general behavior of the data, this mixture model underestimates the tails of the CD effect size distribution. We discuss the

  1. An Empirical Bayes Mixture Model for Effect Size Distributions in Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K; Wang, Yunpeng; Schork, Andrew J; Witoelar, Aree; Zuber, Verena; Xu, Shujing; Werge, Thomas; Holland, Dominic; Andreassen, Ole A; Dale, Anders M

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the distribution of effects from genome-wide genotyping data is crucial for understanding important aspects of the genetic architecture of complex traits, such as number or proportion of non-null loci, average proportion of phenotypic variance explained per non-null effect, power for discovery, and polygenic risk prediction. To this end, previous work has used effect-size models based on various distributions, including the normal and normal mixture distributions, among others. In this paper we propose a scale mixture of two normals model for effect size distributions of genome-wide association study (GWAS) test statistics. Test statistics corresponding to null associations are modeled as random draws from a normal distribution with zero mean; test statistics corresponding to non-null associations are also modeled as normal with zero mean, but with larger variance. The model is fit via minimizing discrepancies between the parametric mixture model and resampling-based nonparametric estimates of replication effect sizes and variances. We describe in detail the implications of this model for estimation of the non-null proportion, the probability of replication in de novo samples, the local false discovery rate, and power for discovery of a specified proportion of phenotypic variance explained from additive effects of loci surpassing a given significance threshold. We also examine the crucial issue of the impact of linkage disequilibrium (LD) on effect sizes and parameter estimates, both analytically and in simulations. We apply this approach to meta-analysis test statistics from two large GWAS, one for Crohn's disease (CD) and the other for schizophrenia (SZ). A scale mixture of two normals distribution provides an excellent fit to the SZ nonparametric replication effect size estimates. While capturing the general behavior of the data, this mixture model underestimates the tails of the CD effect size distribution. We discuss the implications of

  2. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal's pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R² is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors.

  3. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal’s pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R2 is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors. PMID:27834865

  4. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  5. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  6. Approach for measuring the chemistry of individual particles in the size range critical for cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Moore, Meagan J K; Lewis, Gregory S; Hering, Susanne V; Prather, Kimberly A

    2011-03-15

    Aerosol particles, especially those ranging from 50 to 200 nm, strongly impact climate by serving as nuclei upon which water condenses and cloud droplets form. However, the small number of analytical methods capable of measuring the composition of particles in this size range, particularly at the individual particle level, has limited our knowledge of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition and hence our understanding of aerosols effect on climate. To obtain more insight into particles in this size range, we developed a method which couples a growth tube (GT) to an ultrafine aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS), a combination that allows in situ measurements of the composition of individual particles as small as 38 nm. The growth tube uses water to grow particles to larger sizes so they can be optically detected by the UF-ATOFMS, extending the size range to below 100 nm with no discernible changes in particle composition. To gain further insight into the temporal variability of aerosol chemistry and sources, the GT-UF-ATOFMS was used for online continuous measurements over a period of 3 days.

  7. Modifications to JLab 12 GeV Refrigerator and Wide Range Mix Mode Performance Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Hasan, N.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of data obtained during the spring 2013 commissioning of the new 4.5 K refrigeration system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade indicated a wide capacity range with good efficiency and minimal operator interaction. Testing also showed that the refrigerator required higher liquid nitrogen (LN) consumption for its pre-cooler than anticipated by the design. This does not affect the capacity of the refrigerator, but it does result in an increased LN utility cost. During the summer of 2015 the modifications were implemented by the cold box manufacturer, according to a design similar to the JLab 12 GeV cold box specification. Subsequently, JLab recommissioned the cold box and performed extensive performance testing, ranging from 20% to 100% of the design maximum capacity, and in various modes of operation, ranging from pure refrigeration, pure liquefaction, half-and-half mix mode and at selected design modes using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle. The testing demonstrated that the refrigerator system has a good and fairly constant performance over a wide capacity range and different modes of operation. It also demonstrated the modifications resulted in a LN consumption that met the design for the pure refrigeration mode (which is the most demanding) and was lower than the design for the nominal and maximum capacity modes. In addition, a pulsed-load test, similar to what is expected for cryogenic systems supporting fusion experiments, was conducted to observe the response using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle, which was stable and robust. This paper will discuss the results and analysis of this testing pertaining to the LN consumption, the system efficiency over a wide range of capacity and different modes and the behaviour of the system to a pulsed load.

  8. Clustering of quasars in a wide luminosity range at redshift 4 with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Wide-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanqiu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bosch, James; Enoki, Motohiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nagashima, Masahiro; Niida, Mana; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Onoue, Masafusa; Oogi, Taira; Ouchi, Masami; Schulze, Andreas; Shirasaki, Yuji; Silverman, John D.; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Toba, Yoshiki; Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We examine the clustering of quasars over a wide luminosity range, by utilizing 901 quasars at \\overline{z}_phot˜ 3.8 with -24.73 Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) S16A Wide2 date release and 342 more luminous quasars at 3.4 Digital Sky Survey that fall in the HSC survey fields. We measure the bias factors of two quasar samples by evaluating the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) between the quasar samples and 25790 bright z ˜ 4 Lyman break galaxies in M1450 < -21.25 photometrically selected from the HSC dataset. Over an angular scale of 10.0" to 1000.0", the bias factors are 5.93+1.34-1.43 and 2.73+2.44-2.55 for the low- and high-luminosity quasars, respectively, indicating no significant luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ˜ 4. It is noted that the bias factor of the luminous quasars estimated by the CCF is smaller than that estimated by the auto-correlation function over a similar redshift range, especially on scales below 40.0". Moreover, the bias factor of the less-luminous quasars implies the minimal mass of their host dark matter halos is 0.3-2 × 1012 h-1 M⊙, corresponding to a quasar duty cycle of 0.001-0.06.

  9. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  10. Diffuse radiation models and monthly-average, daily, diffuse data for a wide latitude range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan, K.K.; Soler, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several years of measured data on global and diffuse radiation and sunshine duration for 40 widely spread locations in the latitude range 36° S to 60° N are used to develop and test models for estimating monthly-mean, daily, diffuse radiation on horizontal surfaces. Applicability of the clearness-index (K) and sunshine fraction (SSO) models for diffuse estimation and the effect of combining several variables into a single multilinear equation are tested. Correlations connecting the diffuse to global fraction (HdH) with K and SSO predict Hd values more accurately than their separate use. Among clearness-index and sunshine-fraction models, SSO models are found to have better accuracy if correlations are developed for wide latitude ranges. By including a term for declinations in the correlation, the accuracy of the estimated data can be marginally improved. The addition of latitude to the equation does not help to improve the accuracy further. (author)

  11. Predictable variation of range-sizes across an extreme environmental gradient in a lizard adaptive radiation: evolutionary and ecological inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pincheira-Donoso

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of current species geographic range-size variation reflect historical dynamics of dispersal and provide insights into future consequences under changing environments. Evidence suggests that climate warming exerts major damage on high latitude and elevation organisms, where changes are more severe and available space to disperse tracking historical niches is more limited. Species with longer generations (slower adaptive responses, such as vertebrates, and with restricted distributions (lower genetic diversity, higher inbreeding in these environments are expected to be particularly threatened by warming crises. However, a well-known macroecological generalization (Rapoport's rule predicts that species range-sizes increase with increasing latitude-elevation, thus counterbalancing the impact of climate change. Here, I investigate geographic range-size variation across an extreme environmental gradient and as a function of body size, in the prominent Liolaemus lizard adaptive radiation. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses revealed that latitudinal (but not elevational ranges significantly decrease with increasing latitude-elevation, while body size was unrelated to range-size. Evolutionarily, these results are insightful as they suggest a link between spatial environmental gradients and range-size evolution. However, ecologically, these results suggest that Liolaemus might be increasingly threatened if, as predicted by theory, ranges retract and contract continuously under persisting climate warming, potentially increasing extinction risks at high latitudes and elevations.

  12. X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Debo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a concept about circuit designing of X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software, and gives several methods for solving the design procedure of hardware and software with emphasis. (authors)

  13. A wide temperature range irradiation cryostat for reasearch on solid state targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Scott; Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Runkel, Stefan; Voge, Thomas [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To qualitatively improve the data obtained in asymmetry measurements of scattering experiments the figure of merit (FOM) plays a major role and can reduce the data acquisition time when a certain precision in the measurement is needed. One of the defining factors for the improvement of the polarised experiment lies in the target choice and preparation, in particular the method employed to introduce the paramagnetic defects for the use of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP). To this end the Polarized Target Group in Bonn has developed a wide range temperature cryostat for the irradiation of potential target materials in which materials can be irradiated to varying doses at specified temperatures. The stable irradiation temperature of the materials can be controlled to within {+-}1 K over a range of 90 K

  14. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G Froese

    Full Text Available Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  15. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  16. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  17. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  18. Automatic Generation of Wide Dynamic Range Image without Pseudo-Edge Using Integration of Multi-Steps Exposure Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migiyama, Go; Sugimura, Atsuhiko; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    Recently, digital cameras are offering technical advantages rapidly. However, the shot image is different from the sight image generated when that scenery is seen with the naked eye. There are blown-out highlights and crushed blacks in the image that photographed the scenery of wide dynamic range. The problems are hardly generated in the sight image. These are contributory cause of difference between the shot image and the sight image. Blown-out highlights and crushed blacks are caused by the difference of dynamic range between the image sensor installed in a digital camera such as CCD and CMOS and the human visual system. Dynamic range of the shot image is narrower than dynamic range of the sight image. In order to solve the problem, we propose an automatic method to decide an effective exposure range in superposition of edges. We integrate multi-step exposure images using the method. In addition, we try to erase pseudo-edges using the process to blend exposure values. Afterwards, we get a pseudo wide dynamic range image automatically.

  19. Thermotaxis of human sperm cells in extraordinarily shallow temperature gradients over a wide range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Bahat

    Full Text Available On the basis of the finding that capacitated (ready to fertilize rabbit and human spermatozoa swim towards warmer temperatures by directing their movement along a temperature gradient, sperm thermotaxis has been proposed to be one of the processes guiding these spermatozoa to the fertilization site. Although the molecular mechanism underlying sperm thermotaxis is gradually being revealed, basic questions related to this process are still open. Here, employing human spermatozoa, we addressed the questions of how wide the temperature range of thermotaxis is, whether this range includes an optimal temperature or whether spermatozoa generally prefer swimming towards warmer temperatures, whether or not they can sense and respond to descending temperature gradients, and what the minimal temperature gradient is to which they can thermotactically respond. We found that human spermatozoa can respond thermotactically within a wide temperature range (at least 29-41°C, that within this range they preferentially accumulate in warmer temperatures rather than at a single specific, preferred temperature, that they can respond to both ascending and descending temperature gradients, and that they can sense and thermotactically respond to temperature gradients as low as <0.014°C/mm. This temperature gradient is astonishingly low because it means that as a spermatozoon swims through its entire body length (46 µm it can sense and respond to a temperature difference of <0.0006°C. The significance of this surprisingly high temperature sensitivity is discussed.

  20. The French 35-hour workweek: a wide-ranging social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier-Poulmaire, S; Gadbois, C

    2001-12-01

    The reduction of the legal working week to 35 hours in France has generated wide-ranging social change. We examine the resulting changes in working-time patterns as well as their repercussions on the use of the time gained and on the quality of life and health. To compensate the reduction in the length of the working week, companies have modified the working-time patterns, by extending operation time (shiftwork, atypical schedules) and by matching the on-site workforce to production requirements (flexible working hours). They have sought to make more efficient use of working time: job intensification or job compression. The effects on the off-the-job life and health are linked to the shiftwork and atypical schedules designed to increase the company's operating time, and adjustments to the company's need for flexibilization impose working time/free time patterns that are at odds with biological rhythms and social life patterns. Changes to working-time patterns have unexpected consequences for work organization: heightened difficulties for the individual and the crew. These changes may generate a range of health problems related to overwork and stress. The way some companies have adapted may call into question the usefulness of work done by employees, thus damaging their social identity and mental well-being.

  1. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  2. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  3. Properties of Wide-dose-range GafChromic Films for Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, Nobuteru

    2007-01-01

    GafChromic films have been used at SPring-8 to detect the intensively irradiated parts and protect them from damage by being covered with shield or moved. To extend the usable dose range more widely, a new type of sensitive film EBT was investigated for the introduction. Calibration curves were obtained irradiated with 60Co γ rays and compared with those of other GafChromic films. For the application, these films were set in the white x-ray hutch and the dose distribution was measured. Ratio of doses given by EBT and XT-R indicated the degree of the photon spectrum hardness, which depended on the positions. As a result, dose range from 50 mGy to 300 kGy became available for dose distribution measurements, and a set of films having different energy responses was found to give information of photon spectra

  4. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  5. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotubes in a wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The differential conductance of armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a wide energy range has been numerically calculated by using the tight-binding model and the Green’s function method. The effects of the contact coupling between CNTs and electrodes on conductance have been explored. The ballistic conductance is proportional to the band numbers and has a ladder-like feature. As the increase of the contact coupling, the conductance oscillations appear and they are robust against the coupling. More importantly, on the first step of the conductance ladder, the armchair CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations, i.e. a rapid conductance oscillation superimposed on a slow fluctuation background; while the zigzag CNTs have only one conductance oscillation. But on the second conductance step, all CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations. The physical origin of the conductance oscillations has been revealed

  6. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  7. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A new inventive radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for monitoring doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. Scintillations from the detector induced by thermal and fast neutrons, photons and muons were discriminated by analyzing their waveforms, and their light outputs were directly converted into the corresponding doses by applying the G-function method. Characteristics of DARWIN were studied by both calculation and experiment. The calculated results indicate that DARWIN gives reasonable estimations of doses in most radiation fields. It was found from the experiment that DARWIN has an excellent property of measuring doses from all particles that significantly contribute to the doses in surrounding environments of accelerator facilities - neutron, photon and muon with wide energy ranges. The experimental results also suggested that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuation of neutron dose rates near the background-level owing to its high sensitivity. (author)

  8. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  9. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukonte, L.; Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10 15 Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T m , resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures

  10. Development of GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Weng Puyu; Chen Mingjun; Hu Zunsu; Huang Chenguang; Lei Jindian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the main design features and basic properties of a GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes. the dosimeter can display dose-rate or accumulative dose or the maximum dose-rate, record accumulative dose and the maximum dose-rate as well as the time of its appearance and at most 160 historical dose values within 8 h. All recorded data can directly be sent to PC by the infrared communication

  11. Plasticity in reproduction and growth among 52 range-wide populations of a Mediterranean conifer: adaptive responses to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Del-Blanco, L; Bonser, S P; Valladares, F; Chambel, M R; Climent, J

    2013-09-01

    A plastic response towards enhanced reproduction is expected in stressful environments, but it is assumed to trade off against vegetative growth and efficiency in the use of available resources deployed in reproduction [reproductive efficiency (RE)]. Evidence supporting this expectation is scarce for plants, particularly for long-lived species. Forest trees such as Mediterranean pines provide ideal models to study the adaptive value of allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth given their among-population differentiation for adaptive traits and their remarkable capacity to cope with dry and low-fertility environments. We studied 52 range-wide Pinus halepensis populations planted into two environmentally contrasting sites during their initial reproductive stage. We investigated the effect of site, population and their interaction on vegetative growth, threshold size for female reproduction, reproductive-vegetative size relationships and RE. We quantified correlations among traits and environmental variables to identify allocation trade-offs and ecotypic trends. Genetic variation for plasticity was high for vegetative growth, whereas it was nonsignificant for reproduction. Size-corrected reproduction was enhanced in the more stressful site supporting the expectation for adverse conditions to elicit plastic responses in reproductive allometry. However, RE was unrelated with early reproductive investment. Our results followed theoretical predictions and support that phenotypic plasticity for reproduction is adaptive under stressful environments. Considering expectations of increased drought in the Mediterranean, we hypothesize that phenotypic plasticity together with natural selection on reproductive traits will play a relevant role in the future adaptation of forest tree species. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Sciuridae, Rapoport’s effect and the mismatch between range size, conservation needs, and scientific productivity: an approach at the genus level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Amori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapoport’s rule states that species at high latitudes have broader ranges than species at low latitudes. This rule has been strongly disputed over the years, and the majority of current scientists think that this is mostly a local phenomenon. However, if Rapoport’s rule applies, it should be a priori expected that taxa occurring in equatorial and tropical regions should be more threatened than those at temperate regions. In this paper, we test 1 whether Rapoport’s rule applies to Sciuridae genera (Mammalia, Rodentia and, if so, 2 whether the research efforts by scientists have been concentrated on those taxa that, because of their range size, may be predicted to be more threatened (i.e. equatorial and tropical taxa. Distribution data on Sciuridae came from literature and were transformed as maps according to World Map Program, and data about number of papers published by genus and by latitude were collected from the ISI Web of Knowledge. Our analysis verified the occurrence of a Rapoport’s effect in Sciuridae in both the hemispheres: mean range size increased significantly with latitude increases in both hemispheres. However, literature data inspection revealed that only a few genera accounted for the great majority of studies, and these genera were widely distributed and found at high latitudes. Thus, there is a potentially serious gap between current knowledge and threat expectations for Sciuridae worldwide. We therefore strongly urge scientists to give priority attention towards field studies of tropical Sciuridae genera.

  13. Gene flow analysis method, the D-statistic, is robust in a wide parameter space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yichen; Janke, Axel

    2018-01-08

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the D-statistic, a parsimony-like method widely used to detect gene flow between closely related species. This method has been applied to a variety of taxa with a wide range of divergence times. However, its parameter space and thus its applicability to a wide taxonomic range has not been systematically studied. Divergence time, population size, time of gene flow, distance of outgroup and number of loci were examined in a sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity study shows that the primary determinant of the D-statistic is the relative population size, i.e. the population size scaled by the number of generations since divergence. This is consistent with the fact that the main confounding factor in gene flow detection is incomplete lineage sorting by diluting the signal. The sensitivity of the D-statistic is also affected by the direction of gene flow, size and number of loci. In addition, we examined the ability of the f-statistics, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], to estimate the fraction of a genome affected by gene flow; while these statistics are difficult to implement to practical questions in biology due to lack of knowledge of when the gene flow happened, they can be used to compare datasets with identical or similar demographic background. The D-statistic, as a method to detect gene flow, is robust against a wide range of genetic distances (divergence times) but it is sensitive to population size. The D-statistic should only be applied with critical reservation to taxa where population sizes are large relative to branch lengths in generations.

  14. Interactions between vegetation, atmospheric turbulence and clouds under a wide range of background wind conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikma, M.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, X.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of plant responses to cumulus (Cu) cloud shading are studied from free convective to shear-driven boundary-layer conditions. By using a large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a plant physiology embedded land-surface submodel, we study the vegetation-cloud feedbacks for a wide range (44)

  15. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderski, L; Marcinkowski, R; Moszynski, M; Czarnacki, W; Szawlowski, M; Szczesniak, T; Pausch, G; Plettner, C; Roemer, K

    2012-01-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF 2 :Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF 2 :Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  16. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Szawlowski, M.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-06-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF2:Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF2:Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  17. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  18. Threatened species richness along a Himalayan elevational gradient: quantifying the influences of human population density, range size, and geometric constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Sipos, Jan; Brodie, Jedediah F

    2018-02-07

    A crucial step in conserving biodiversity is to identify the distributions of threatened species and the factors associated with species threat status. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Himalaya, very little is known about which locations harbour the highest diversity of threatened species and whether diversity of such species is related to area, mid-domain effects (MDE), range size, or human density. In this study, we assessed the drivers of variation in richness of threatened birds, mammals, reptiles, actinopterygii, and amphibians along an elevational gradient in Nepal Himalaya. Although geometric constraints (MDE), species range size, and human population density were significantly related to threatened species richness, the interaction between range size and human population density was of greater importance. Threatened species richness was positively associated with human population density and negatively associated with range size. In areas with high richness of threatened species, species ranges tend to be small. The preponderance of species at risk of extinction at low elevations in the subtropical biodiversity hotspot could be due to the double impact of smaller range sizes and higher human density.

  19. Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; James P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between the home-range size of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and proportion of their range in old-growth forest have been reported, but there are few data on the relationship between their home-range size and prey. The primary prey of spotted owls are wood rats and northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). Wood...

  20. Wide wavelength range tunable one-dimensional silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance filter based on azimuthal rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yukino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe wavelength tuning in a one dimensional (1D silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance (GMR structure under conical mounting configuration of the device. When the GMR structure is rotated about the axis perpendicular to the surface of the device (azimuthal rotation for light incident at oblique angles, the conditions for resonance are different than for conventional GMR structures under classical mounting. These resonance conditions enable tuning of the GMR peak position over a wide range of wavelengths. We experimental demonstrate tuning over a range of 375 nm between 500 nm˜875 nm. We present a theoretical model to explain the resonance conditions observed in our experiments and predict the peak positions with show excellent agreement with experiments. Our method for tuning wavelengths is simpler and more efficient than conventional procedures that employ variations in the design parameters of structures or conical mounting of two-dimensional (2D GMR structures and enables a single 1D GMR device to function as a high efficiency wavelength filter over a wide range of wavelengths. We expect tunable filters based on this technique to be applicable in a wide range of fields including astronomy and biomedical imaging.

  1. A simple algorithm for measuring particle size distributions on an uneven background from TEM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Ozkaya, Dogan; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of a...... application to images of heterogeneous catalysts is presented.......Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence...

  2. Low-Voltage, Low-Power, and Wide-Tuning-Range Ring-VCO for Frequency ΔΣ Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A low-voltage, low-power, and wide-tuning-range VCO which converts an analog input voltage to phase information for a frequency ΔΣ modulator is proposed in this paper. The VCO is based on a differential ring oscillator, which is improved with modified symmetric load and a positive feedback...

  3. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Half-size ABCG Genes in Malus × domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Half-size adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subgroup G (ABCG genes play crucial roles in regulating the movements of a variety of substrates and have been well studied in several plants. However, half-size ABCGs have not been characterized in detail in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Here, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the half-size ABCG gene family in apple. A total of 46 apple half-size ABCGs were identified and divided into six clusters according to the phylogenetic analysis. A gene structural analysis showed that most half-size ABCGs in the same cluster shared a similar exon–intron organization. A gene duplication analysis showed that segmental, tandem and whole-genome duplications could account for the expansion of half-size ABCG transporters in M. domestica. Moreover, a promoter scan, digital expression analysis and RNA-seq revealed that MdABCG21 may be involved in root's cytokinin transport and that ABCG17 may be involved in the lateral bud development of M. spectabilis ‘Bly114’ by mediating cytokinin transport. The data presented here lay the foundation for further investigations into the biological and physiological processes and functions of half-size ABCG genes in apple. Keywords: apple, ABCG gene, duplication, gene expression

  4. An Empirical Bayes Mixture Model for Effect Size Distributions in Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Wang, Yunpeng; Schork, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    -wide association study (GWAS) test statistics. Test statistics corresponding to null associations are modeled as random draws from a normal distribution with zero mean; test statistics corresponding to non-null associations are also modeled as normal with zero mean, but with larger variance. The model is fit via...... analytically and in simulations. We apply this approach to meta-analysis test statistics from two large GWAS, one for Crohn’s disease (CD) and the other for schizophrenia (SZ). A scale mixture of two normals distribution provides an excellent fit to the SZ nonparametric replication effect size estimates. While...... minimizing discrepancies between the parametric mixture model and resampling-based nonparametric estimates of replication effect sizes and variances. We describe in detail the implications of this model for estimation of the non-null proportion, the probability of replication in de novo samples, the local...

  5. An operating principle of the turtle utricle to detect wide dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong-Hoon

    2018-03-01

    The utricle encodes both static information such as head orientation, and dynamic information such as vibrations. It is not well understood how the utricle can encode both static and dynamic information for a wide dynamic range (from 2 times the gravitational acceleration; from DC to > 1000 Hz vibrations). Using computational models of the hair cells in the turtle utricle, this study presents an explanation on how the turtle utricle encodes stimulations over such a wide dynamic range. Two hair bundles were modeled using the finite element method-one representing the striolar hair cell (Cell S), and the other representing the medial extrastriolar hair cell (Cell E). A mechano-transduction (MET) channel model was incorporated to compute MET current (i MET ) due to hair bundle deflection. A macro-mechanical model of the utricle was used to compute otoconial motions from head accelerations (a Head ). According to known anatomical data, Cell E has a long kinocilium that is embedded into the stiff otoconial layer. Unlike Cell E, the hair bundle of Cell S falls short of the otoconial layer. Considering such difference in the mechanical connectivity between the hair cell bundle and the otoconial layer, three cases were simulated: Cell E displacement-clamped, Cell S viscously-coupled, and Cell S displacement-clamped. Head accelerations at different amplitude levels and different frequencies were simulated for the three cases. When a realistic head motion was simulated, Cell E was responsive to head orientation, while the viscously-coupled Cell S was responsive to fast head motion imitating the feeding strike of a turtle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  7. Tribological behavior and self-healing functionality of TiNbCN-Ag coatings in wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarev, A.V., E-mail: abondarev88@gmail.com; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V.; Levashov, E.A.; Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • TiNbCN–Ag coatings for wide temperature range tribological applications. • Alloying with Nb and Ag improve tribological properties and oxidation resistance. • Ag-rich TiNbCN coatings show friction coefficient below 0.45 in range of 25–700 °C. • Ag-doped coatings show active oxidation protection and self-healing functionality. - Abstract: Ag- and Nb-doped TiCN coatings with about 2 at.% of Nb and Ag contents varied between 4.0 and 15.1 at.% were designed as promising materials for tribological applications in a wide temperature range. We report on the structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of TiNbCN-Ag coatings fabricated by simultaneous co-sputtering of TiC{sub 0.5} + 10%Nb{sub 2}C and Ag targets in comparison with those of Ag-free coating. The tribological characteristics were evaluated during constant-temperature tests both at room temperature and 300 °C, as well as during dynamic temperature ramp tests in the range of 25–700 °C. The coating structure and elemental composition were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The coating microstructures and elemental compositions inside wear tracks, as well as the wear products, were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that simultaneous alloying with Nb and Ag permits to overcome the main drawbacks of TiCN coatings such as their relatively high values of friction coefficient at elevated temperatures and low oxidation resistance. It is shown that a relatively high amount of Ag (15 at.%) is required to provide enhanced tribological behavior in a wide temperature range of 25–700 °C. In addition, the prepared Ag-doped coatings demonstrated active oxidation protection and self-healing functionality due to the segregation of Ag metallic particles in damage areas such as cracks, pin-holes, or oxidation sites.

  8. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-31

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ∼3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  9. Wide-range nuclear reactor temperature control using automatically tuned fuzzy logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, P.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller design for optimal reactor temperature control is presented. Since fuzzy logic controllers rely on an expert's knowledge of the process, they are hard to optimize. An optimal controller is used in this paper as a reference model, and a Kalman filter is used to automatically determine the rules for the fuzzy logic controller. To demonstrate the robustness of this design, a nonlinear six-delayed-neutron-group plant is controlled using a fuzzy logic controller that utilizes estimated reactor temperatures from a one-delayed-neutron-group observer. The fuzzy logic controller displayed good stability and performance robustness characteristics for a wide range of operation

  10. Dosimetric properties of the 'Pille' portable, wide dose range TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, P.P.; Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetric properties of a portable TLD reader are described. The TLD system named 'Pille' or 'moth' consists of a lightweight battery-operated portable TLD reader and its CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters. The reproducibility of the TLD system at constant temperature was found to be better than + -2%, and the mean time between failures exceeded 5 years. The dose range of the system is wide, covering more than 6 orders of magnitude, from 5 μGy to 10 Gy. The energy dependence of the CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters is less than + - 20% above 100 keV in the energy compensation capsules. Without additional annealing, the bulb dosemeters can be re-used at least 100 times, which is an important aspect during in situ measurements. (author)

  11. The effects of size and period of administration of gold nanoparticles on rheological parameters of blood plasma of rats over a wide range of shear rates: In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood viscosity appears to be independent predictor of stroke, carotid intima-media thickening, atherosclerosis and most cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to understand the toxicity and the potential threat of GNPs therapeutic and diagnostic use, an array of rheological parameters were performed to quantify the blood plasma response to different sizes and administration periods of GNPs over a wide range of shear rates. Methods Healthy, thirty male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 8-12 weeks old (approximately 250 g body weight were divided into control group (NG: n = 10, group 1 (G1A: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G1B: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5, group 2 (G2A: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G2B: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5. Dose of 100 μl of GNPs was administered to the animals via intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples of nearly 1 ml were obtained from each rat. Various rheological parameters such as torque, shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, plastic velocity, yield stress, consistency index (k and flow index (n were measured in the blood plasma of rats after the intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 50 nm GNP for 3 and 7 days using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. Results The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for control, G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B was linearly related. The plastic viscosity and the yield stress values for G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B significantly (p Conclusions At these particular shear rates, the estimated rheological parameters are not influenced by GNPs size and shape, number of NPs, surface area and administration period of GNPs. This study demonstrates that the highly decrease in blood plasma viscosity was accompanied with the smaller 10 nm GNPs compared with the 50 nm GNPs. The decrease in blood plasma viscosity induced with 10 and 50 nm GNPs may be attributed to

  12. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A; Reeve, Nigel; Conkey, April A T; Macdonald, David W; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀). Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g) in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g). Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE) for males and 42 ha (±11SE) for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE) for males and 150 ha (±29 SE) for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters) influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats), whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle East where

  13. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Abu Baker

    Full Text Available Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀. Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g. Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE for males and 42 ha (±11SE for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE for males and 150 ha (±29 SE for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats, whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle

  14. Home Range Size and Resource Use of Breeding and Non-breeding White Storks Along a Land Use Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Zurell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry is increasingly used to study animal movement at high spatial and temporal resolution and guide conservation and resource management. Yet, limited sample sizes and variation in space and habitat use across regions and life stages may compromise robustness of behavioral analyses and subsequent conservation plans. Here, we assessed variation in (i home range sizes, (ii home range selection, and (iii fine-scale resource selection of white storks across breeding status and regions and test model transferability. Three study areas were chosen within the Central German breeding grounds ranging from agricultural to fluvial and marshland. We monitored GPS-locations of 62 adult white storks equipped with solar-charged GPS/3D-acceleration (ACC transmitters in 2013–2014. Home range sizes were estimated using minimum convex polygons. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess home range selection and fine-scale resource selection by relating the home ranges and foraging sites to Corine habitat variables and normalized difference vegetation index in a presence/pseudo-absence design. We found strong variation in home range sizes across breeding stages with significantly larger home ranges in non-breeding compared to breeding white storks, but no variation between regions. Home range selection models had high explanatory power and well predicted overall density of Central German white stork breeding pairs. Also, they showed good transferability across regions and breeding status although variable importance varied considerably. Fine-scale resource selection models showed low explanatory power. Resource preferences differed both across breeding status and across regions, and model transferability was poor. Our results indicate that habitat selection of wild animals may vary considerably within and between populations, and is highly scale dependent. Thereby, home range scale analyses show higher robustness whereas fine-scale resource

  15. Size-Related Differences in the Thermoregulatory Habits of Free-Ranging Komodo Dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Harlow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory processes were compared among three-size groups of free-ranging Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis comprising small (5–20 kg, medium (20–40 gm and large (40–70 kg lizards. While all size groups maintained a similar preferred body temperature of ≈35∘C, they achieved this end point differently. Small dragons appeared to engage in sun shuttling behavior more vigorously than large dragons as represented by their greater frequency of daily ambient temperature and light intensity changes as well as a greater activity and overall exposure to the sun. Large dragons were more sedentary and sun shuttled less. Further, they appear to rely to a greater extent on microhabitat selection and employed mouth gaping evaporative cooling to maintain their preferred operational temperature and prevent overheating. A potential ecological consequence of size-specific thermoregulatory habits for dragons is separation of foraging areas. In part, differences in thermoregulation could contribute to inducing shifts in predatory strategies from active foraging in small dragons to more sedentary sit-and-wait ambush predators in adults.

  16. Neural network for adapting nuclear power plant control for wide-range operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, C.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Edwards, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept of using neural networks has been evaluated for optimal control of a nuclear reactor. The neural network uses the architecture of a standard backpropagation network; however, a new dynamic learning algorithm has been developed to capture the underlying system dynamics. The learning algorithm is based on parameter estimation for dynamic systems. The approach is demonstrated on an optimal reactor temperature controller by adjusting the feedback gains for wide-range operation. Application of optimal control to a reactor has been considered for improving temperature response using a robust fifth-order reactor power controller. Conventional gain scheduling can be employed to extend the range of good performance to accommodate large changes in power where nonlinear characteristics significantly modify the dynamics of the power plant. Gain scheduling is developed based on expected parameter variations, and it may be advantageous to further adapt feedback gains on-line to better match actual plant performance. A neural network approach is used here to adapt the gains to better accommodate plant uncertainties and thereby achieve improved robustness characteristics

  17. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  18. Online purchases of an expanded range of condom sizes in comparison to current dimensional requirements allowable by US national standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Michael; Warner, Lee; Siegler, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Across studies, 35-50% of men describe condoms as fitting poorly. Rates of condom use may be inhibited in part due to the inaccessibility of appropriately sized condoms. As regulated medical devices, condom sizes conform to national standards such as those developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) or international standards such as those developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). We describe the initial online sales experience of an expanded range of condom sizes and assess uptake in relation to the current required standard dimensions of condoms. Data regarding the initial 1000 sales of an expanded range of condom sizes in the United Kingdom were collected from late 2011 through to early 2012. Ninety-five condom sizes, comprising 14 lengths (83-238mm) and 12 widths (41-69mm), were available. For the first 1000 condom six-pack units that were sold, a total of 83 of the 95 unique sizes were purchased, including all 14 lengths and 12 widths, and both the smallest and largest condoms. Initial condom purchases were made by 572 individuals from 26 countries. Only 13.4% of consumer sales were in the ASTM's allowable range of sizes. These initial sales data suggest consumer interest in an expanded choice of condom sizes that fall outside the range currently allowable by national and international standards organisations.

  19. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen catalyzed by a wide range of bacteria including Gram-positive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Roques, Christine; Berge, Mathieu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2010-04-15

    Most bacteria known to be electrochemically active have been harvested in the anodic compartments of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and are able to use electrodes as electron acceptors. The reverse phenomenon, i.e. using solid electrodes as electron donors, is not so widely studied. To our knowledge, most of the electrochemically active bacteria are Gram-negative. The present study implements a transitory electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry) to study the microbial catalysis of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. It is demonstrated that a wide range of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are able to catalyze oxygen reduction. Among these electroactive bacteria, several were Gram-positive. The transfer of electrons was direct since no activity was obtained with the filtrate. These findings, showing a widespread property among bacteria including Gram-positive ones, open new and interesting routes in the field of electroactive bacteria research. (author)

  20. Experimental Investigation of Muon-Catalyzed $dt$ Fusion in Wide Ranges of $D/T$ Mixture Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bom, V R; Demin, D L; van Eijk, C W E; Faifman, M P; Filchenkov, V V; Golubkov, A N; Grafov, N N; Grishenchkin, S K; Gritsaj, K I; Klevtsov, V G; Konin, A D; Kuryakin, A V; Medved', S V; Musyaev, R K; Perevozchikov, V V; Rudenko, A I; Sadetsky, S M; Vinogradov, Yu I; Yukhimchuk, A A; Yukhimchuk, S A; Zinov, V G; Zlatoustovskii, S V

    2004-01-01

    A vast program of the experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed $dt$ fusion was performed at the JINR Phasotron. Parameters of the $dt$ cycle were obtained in a wide range of $D/T$ mixture conditions: temperatures of $20\\div 800$ K, densities of $0.2\\div1.2$ LHD and tritium concentrations of $15\\div 86\\%$. The results obtained are summarized.

  1. Wide range tuning of the size and emission color of CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots by surface ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbX3 (X= I, Br, Cl quantum dots (QDs possess the characters of easy solution-process, high luminescence yield, and unique size-dependent optical properties. In this work, we have improved the nonaqueous emulsion method to synthesize halide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs with tunable sizes. Their sizes have been tailored from 5.29 to 2.81 nm in diameter simply by varying the additive amount of surfactant, n-octylamine from 5 to 120 μL. Correspondingly, the photoluminescence (PL peaks shift markedly from 520 nm to very deep blue, 436 nm due to quantum confinement effect. The PL quantum yields exceed 90% except for the smallest QDs. These high-quality QDs have potential to build high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  2. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlipinar, H.; Akdeniz, Z.; Pastore, G.

    1992-08-01

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size R M across the range from LaCl 3 (R M approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl 3 (R M approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl 3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al 2 Cl 6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  3. Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, R.J.; Volpe, C.

    2003-01-01

    Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing ''universal'' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (orig.)

  4. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morellet, N.; Bonenfant, Ch.; Börger, L.; Ossi, F.; Cagnacci, F.; Heurich, M.; Kjellander, P.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Nicoloso, S.; Šustr, Pavel; Urbano, F.; Mysterud, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 6 (2013), s. 1326-1339 ISSN 0021-8790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : animal movements * day length * large herbivore * ranging behaviour * spatiotemporal variation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.726, year: 2013

  5. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  6. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  7. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  8. Efficient Wide Range Converters (EWiRaC): A new family of high efficient AC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    The performance in terms of efficiency of the existing power supplies used for PFC is very dependent on the input voltage range. The boost converter is the most commonly used PFC converter because of its simplicity and high efficiency. But, the boost converter as well as other known converters...... suffers a major penalty in efficiency when used at the low end of the voltage range (90VAC) in a universal voltage range application (90-270VAC). This paper addresses this problem by suggesting a new family of converters that effectively reduces the apparent voltage range with a factor of 2 by changing...... the converter topology according to the input voltage. This new converter type has been named: efficient wide range converter (EWiRaC). The performance of the EWiRaC is experimental verified in a universal input range (90-270VAC) application with an output voltage of 185VDC capable of 500W output power. The EWi...

  9. Modelling plastic deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates using irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingxin; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E J; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of irreversible thermodynamics, the present work proposes a dislocation-based model to describe the plastic deformation of FCC metals over wide ranges of strain rates. The stress-strain behaviour and the evolution of the average dislocation density are derived. It is found that there is a transitional strain rate (∼ 10 4 s -1 ) over which the phonon drag effects appear, resulting in a significant increase in the flow stress and the average dislocation density. The model is applied to pure Cu deformed at room temperature and at strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 6 s -1 showing good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Design and operation of the wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Loguillo, M. J.; Lucas, M. S.; Delaire, O.; Tang, X.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Fultz, B.

    2012-01-01

    The wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is optimized to provide a high neutron flux at the sample position with a large solid angle of detector coverage. The instrument incorporates modern neutron instrumentation, such as an elliptically focused neutron guide, high speed magnetic bearing choppers, and a massive array of 3 He linear position sensitive detectors. Novel features of the spectrometer include the use of a large gate valve between the sample and detector vacuum chambers and the placement of the detectors within the vacuum, both of which provide a window-free final flight path to minimize background scattering while allowing rapid changing of the sample and sample environment equipment. ARCS views the SNS decoupled ambient temperature water moderator, using neutrons with incident energy typically in the range from 15 to 1500 meV. This range, coupled with the large detector coverage, allows a wide variety of studies of excitations in condensed matter, such as lattice dynamics and magnetism, in both powder and single-crystal samples. Comparisons of early results to both analytical and Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument performance demonstrate that the instrument is operating as expected and its neutronic performance is understood. ARCS is currently in the SNS user program and continues to improve its scientific productivity by incorporating new instrumentation to increase the range of science covered and improve its effectiveness in data collection.

  11. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  12. 3He(α, γ7Be cross section in a wide energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szücs Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction rate of the 3He(α,γ7 Be reaction is important both in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN and in the Solar hydrogen burning. There have been a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to determine this reaction rate with high precision. Some long standing issues have been solved by the more precise investigations, like the different S(0 values predicted by the activation and in-beam measurement. However, the recent, more detailed astrophysical model predictions require the reaction rate with even higher precision to unravel new issues like the Solar composition. One way to increase the precision is to provide a comprehensive dataset in a wide energy range, extending the experimental cross section database of this reaction. This paper presents a new cross section measurement between Ecm = 2.5 − 4.4 MeV, in an energy range which extends above the 7Be proton separation threshold.

  13. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  14. WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1, which encodes an otubain-like protease with deubiquitination activity, influences grain size and shape in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Wang, Dekai; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Baolan; Xu, Ran; Li, Na; Li, Yunhai

    2017-09-01

    Grain size and shape are two crucial traits that influence grain yield and grain appearance in rice. Although several factors that affect grain size have been described in rice, the molecular mechanisms underlying the determination of grain size and shape are still elusive. In this study we report that WIDE AND THICK GRAIN 1 (WTG1) functions as an important factor determining grain size and shape in rice. The wtg1-1 mutant exhibits wide, thick, short and heavy grains and also shows an increased number of grains per panicle. WTG1 determines grain size and shape mainly by influencing cell expansion. WTG1 encodes an otubain-like protease, which shares similarity with human OTUB1. Biochemical analyses indicate that WTG1 is a functional deubiquitinating enzyme, and the mutant protein (wtg1-1) loses this deubiquitinating activity. WTG1 is expressed in developing grains and panicles, and the GFP-WTG1 fusion protein is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of WTG1 results in narrow, thin, long grains due to narrow and long cells, further supporting the role of WTG1 in determining grain size and shape. Thus, our findings identify the otubain-like protease WTG1 to be an important factor that determines grain size and shape, suggesting that WTG1 has the potential to improve grain size and shape in rice. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Continuous fast focusing in trapezoidal void channel based on bidirectional isotachophoresis in wide pH range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Šlais, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 20 (2015), s. 2579-2586 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bidirectional isotachophoresis * trapezoidal void channel * wide pH range * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0250164

  16. A Design of Wide Band and Wide Beam Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Array with Slant Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of antenna array under the limitation of restricted size is a challenging problem. Cavity-backed slot antenna is widely used because of its advantages of small size, wide band, and wide beam. In this paper, a design of wide band and wide beam cavity-backed slot antenna array with the slant polarization is proposed. To obtain wide band and wide beam with limited size, the inverted microstrip-fed cavity-backed slot antenna (IMF-CBSA is adopted as the element of 1 × 4 antenna array. The slant polarized antennas and their feeding networks are adopted because of their simple structures. The performance of the proposed antenna array is verified by the simulations and experiments. The measured VSWR < 2 bandwidth is 55% at the center frequency 21.8 GHz, and the gain is larger than 12.2 dB. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves wide band and beam with the size of 68 mm × 56 mm × 14.5 mm.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baku Takahara

    Full Text Available Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10(-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation.

  18. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180ºC to...

  19. An automated method to morph finite element whole-body human models with a wide range of stature and body shape for both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Fanta, Abeselom; Reed, Matthew P; Neal, Mark; Wang, Jenne-Tai; Lin, Chin-Hsu; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-07-26

    Field data analyses have shown that small female, obese, and/or older occupants are at increased risks of death and serious injury in motor-vehicle crashes compared with mid-size young men. The current adult finite element (FE) human models represent occupants in the same three body sizes (large male, mid-size male, and small female) as those for the contemporary adult crash dummies. Further, the time needed to develop an FE human model using the traditional method is measured in months or even years. In the current study, an improved regional mesh morphing method based on landmark-based radial basis function (RBF) interpolation was developed to rapidly morph a mid-size male FE human model into different geometry targets. A total of 100 human models with a wide range of human attributes were generated. A pendulum chest impact condition was applied to each model as an initial assessment of the resulting variability in response. The morphed models demonstrated mesh quality similar to the baseline model. The peak impact forces and chest deflections in the chest pendulum impacts varied substantially with different models, supportive of consideration of population variation in evaluating the occupant injury risks. The method developed in this study will enable future safety design optimizations targeting at various vulnerable populations that cannot be considered with the current models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability diagrams for continuous wide-range control of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, Leandro; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of two mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers has been frequently studied experimentally, numerically, and analytically either for weak or strong detuning between the lasers. Here, we present a systematic numerical investigation spanning all detuning ranges. We report high-resolution stability diagrams for wide ranges of the main control parameters of the laser, as described by the Lang–Kobayashi model. In particular, we detail the parameter influence on dynamical performance and map the distribution of chaotic pulsations and self-generated periodic spiking with arbitrary periodicity. Special attention is given to the unfolding of regular pulse packages for both symmetric and non-symmetric configurations with respect to detuning. The influence of the delay –time on the self-organization of periodic and chaotic laser phases as a function of the coupling and detuning is also described in detail. (paper)

  1. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); A.E. Justice (Anne); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); Barata, L. (Llilda); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Chu, S. (Su); J. Czajkowski (Jacek); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Y. Lu (Yingchang); R. Mägi (Reedik); E. Mihailov (Evelin); T.H. Pers (Tune); Rüeger, S. (Sina); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J. Karjalainen (Juha); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Neinast, M.D. (Michael D.); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Simino (Jeannette); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); R. Jansen; H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); C.C. White (Charles); D. Absher (Devin); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S. Ahmad (Shafqat); E. Albrecht (Eva); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); Bragg-Gresham, J.L. (Jennifer L.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); G. Cadby (Gemma); Y.-C. Cheng (Yu-Ching); Chiang, C.W. (Charleston W K); G. Delgado; A. Demirkan (Ayşe); N. Dueker (Nicole); N. Eklund (Niina); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); J. Eriksson (Joel); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); K. Fischer (Krista); F. Frau (Francesca); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); F. Geller (Frank); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Gorski (Mathias); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lehne, B. (Benjamin); Liu, Y. (Youfang); K.S. Lo; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); J. Luan (Jian'An); P.A. Madden (Pamela); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K.L. Monda (Keri); M.E. Montasser (May E.); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); Rizzi, F. (Federica); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Ryan, K.A. (Kathy A.); P. Salo (Perttu); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); Shi, J. (Jianxin); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); L. Southam (Lorraine); A. Stancáková (Alena); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S. Trompet (Stella); N. Pervjakova (Natalia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); J. van Setten (Jessica); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); N. Verweij (Niek); E. Vlachopoulou (Efthymia); L. Waite (Lindsay); S.R. Wang (Sophie); Z. Wang (Zhaoming); S.H. Wild (Sarah); C. Willenborg (Christina); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Wong (Andrew); Yang, J. (Jian); L. Yengo (Loic); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); Yu, L. (Lei); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); E.A. Andersson (Ehm Astrid); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); Banasik, K. (Karina); Barcella, M. (Matteo); Barlassina, C. (Cristina); C. Bellis (Claire); P. Benaglio (Paola); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); Bonnet, F. (Fabrice); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); H.A. Boyd (Heather); M. Bruinenberg (M.); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); H. Campbell (Harry); Y.D. Chen (Y.); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); J.W. Cole (John W.); F.S. Collins (Francis); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); M. Dimitriou (Maria); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Eury (Elodie); A.-E. Farmaki (Aliki-Eleni); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); N. Friedrich (Nele); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); B. Gigante (Bruna); N. Glorioso (Nicola); A. Go (Attie); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Grarup (Niels); Gu, Y.-M. (Yu-Mei); L. Broer (Linda); A.C. Ham (Annelies); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.A. Hartman (Catharina A.); Hassinen, M. (Maija); N. Hastie (Nick); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A.C. Heath (Andrew); A.K. Henders (Anjali); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J. Hui (Jennie); Husemoen, L.L. (Lise L.); Hutri-Kähönen, N. (Nina); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); T. Illig (Thomas); P.L. de Jager (Philip); S. Jalilzadeh (Shapour); T. Jorgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Juonala, M. (Markus); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); M. Karaleftheri (Maria); K.T. Khaw; L. Kinnunen (Leena); T. Kittner (Thomas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Kovacs (Peter); Krarup, N.T. (Nikolaj T.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krüger, J. (Janine); Kuh, D. (Diana); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Kyriakou (Theodosios); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Lannfelt (Lars); C. Lanzani (Chiara); V. Lotay (Vaneet); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K. Leander (Karin); J. Lindström (Jaana); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, Y.-P. (Yan-Ping); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); R.N. Luben (Robert); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); L. Milani (Lili); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); A.P. Morris (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); M. Nelis (Mari); K.K. Ong (Ken); A. Palotie (Aarno); L. Perusse (Louis); I. Pichler (Irene); M.G. Pilia (Maria Grazia); A. Pouta (Anneli); Rheinberger, M. (Myriam); Ribel-Madsen, R. (Rasmus); Richards, M. (Marcus); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); C. Rivolta (Carlo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); S. Scholtens (Salome); R.A. Scott (Robert); W.R. Scott (William R.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); S. Sengupta (Sebanti); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); A. Silveira (Angela); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.H. Smit (Jan); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Stirrups (Kathy); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Swertz, M.A. (Morris A.); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); B. Thorand (Barbara); A. Tönjes (Anke); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); E. Tsafantakis (Emmanouil); P.J. van der Most (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); R. Wennauer (Roman); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S. Van Dijk (Suzanne); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); C.A. Böger (Carsten); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Bouchard (Claude); J.C. Chambers (John); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Cucca (Francesco); D. Cusi (Daniele); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); K. Hagen (Knut); D. Evans; U. de Faire (Ulf); M. Farrall (Martin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); I. Ford (Ian); L. Franke (Lude); P.W. Franks (Paul); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); P. Hall (Per); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. van der Harst (Pim); C. Hayward (Caroline); M. Heliovaara (Markku); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. James (Alan); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Knekt; H. Koistinen (Heikki); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); S. Koskinen (Seppo); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); W. Maerz (Winfried); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Laakso (Markku); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M.L. Lokki; Mäntyselkä, P. (Pekka); M. Melbye (Mads); A. Metspalu (Andres); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); I. Njølstad (Inger); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Pankow (James); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); Psaty, B.M. (Bruce M.); Qi, L. (Lu); T. Quertermous (Thomas); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); I. Rudan (Igor); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); J. Saltevo (Juha); N. Sattar (Naveed); Schunkert, H. (Heribert); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Sinisalo (Juha); H. Snieder (Harold); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Staessen, J.A. (Jan A.); Stefania, B. (Bandinelli); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); E. Tremoli (Elena); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A.L.M. Verbeek; S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); M. Walker (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Clegg, D.J. (Deborah J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); P. Gordon-Larsen (Penny); C.E. Jaquish (Cashell); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); Abecasis, G.R. (Goncalo R.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); E. Ingelsson (Erik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O´Connell; Schlessinger, D. (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); I.M. Heid (Iris); K.E. North (Kari); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ

  2. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  3. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, H.W.; Thackston, M.G.; McDaniel, E.W.; Mason, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper updates and extends in scope our two previous papers entitled ''Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.'' The references to the earlier publications (referred to as ''Part I'' and ''Part II'') are I, H. W. Ellis, R. Y. Pai, E. W. McDonald, E. A. Mason, and L. A. Viehland, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 17, 177--210 (19876); and II, H. W. Ellis, E. W. McDaniel, D. L. Albritton, L. A. Veihland, S. L. Lin, and E. A. Mason, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 22, 179--217 (1978). Parts I and II contained compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gase (almost exclusively at room temperature) in an externally applied electric field

  4. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV, and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision, and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and rapid response of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. With these properties, we conclude that DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high energy accelerator facilities. (author)

  5. Wide-Area Haptic Guidance: Taking the User by the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Arias, Antonia; Hanebeck, Uwe D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel use of haptic information in extended range telepresence, the wide-area haptic guidance. It consists of force and position signals applied to the user's hand in order to improve safety, accuracy, and speed in some telepresent tasks. Wide-area haptic guidance assists the user in reaching a desired position in a remote environment of arbitrary size without degrading the feeling of presence. Several methods for haptic guidance are analyzed. With active haptic gu...

  6. Lead particle size and its association with firing conditions and range maintenance: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Chrysochoou, Maria

    2007-08-01

    Six firing range soils were analyzed, representing different environments, firing conditions, and maintenance practices. The particle size distribution and lead (Pb) concentration in each soil fraction were determined for samples obtained from the backstop berms. The main factors that were found to influence Pb fragment size were the type of soil used to construct the berms and the type of weapon fired. The firing of high velocity weapons, i.e., rifles, onto highly angular soils induced significant fragmentation of the bullets and/or pulverization of the soil itself. This resulted in the accumulation of Pb in the finer soil fractions and the spread of Pb contamination beyond the vicinity of the backstop berm. Conversely, the use of clay as backstop and the use of low velocity pistols proved to be favorable for soil clean-up and range maintenance, since Pb was mainly present as large metallic fragments that can be recovered by a simple screening process. Other factors that played important roles in Pb particle size distribution were soil chemistry, firing distance, and maintenance practices, such as the use of water spray for dust suppression and deflectors prior to impact. Overall, coarse Pb particles provide much easier and more cost-effective maintenance, soil clean-up, and remediation via physical separation. Fine Pb particles release Pb more easily, pose an airborne Pb hazard, and require the application of stabilization/solidification treatment methods. Thus, to ensure sustainable firing range operations by means of cost-effective design, maintenance, and clean-up, especially when high velocity weapons are used, the above mentioned factors should be carefully considered.

  7. Genome Size Dynamics and Evolution in Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia J. Leitch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocot genomic diversity includes striking variation at many levels. This paper compares various genomic characters (e.g., range of chromosome numbers and ploidy levels, occurrence of endopolyploidy, GC content, chromosome packaging and organization, genome size between monocots and the remaining angiosperms to discern just how distinctive monocot genomes are. One of the most notable features of monocots is their wide range and diversity of genome sizes, including the species with the largest genome so far reported in plants. This genomic character is analysed in greater detail, within a phylogenetic context. By surveying available genome size and chromosome data it is apparent that different monocot orders follow distinctive modes of genome size and chromosome evolution. Further insights into genome size-evolution and dynamics were obtained using statistical modelling approaches to reconstruct the ancestral genome size at key nodes across the monocot phylogenetic tree. Such approaches reveal that while the ancestral genome size of all monocots was small (1C=1.9 pg, there have been several major increases and decreases during monocot evolution. In addition, notable increases in the rates of genome size-evolution were found in Asparagales and Poales compared with other monocot lineages.

  8. Influence of anchor block size on the thickness of adsorbed block copolymer layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, G.F; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    We present surface force data on three different polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymers (PS/P2VP) with a fixed size of the nonadsorbing PS block but widely varying sizes of the adsorbing P2VP block. With respect to the sizes of the two blocks, they range from moderately to highly

  9. Influences of landscape heterogeneity on home-range sizes of brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Hiller, Tim L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Gustine, David; Mangipane, Buck A.; Hilderbrand, Grant V.

    2018-01-01

    Animal space use is influenced by many factors and can affect individual survival and fitness. Under optimal foraging theory, individuals use landscapes to optimize high-quality resources while minimizing the amount of energy used to acquire them. The spatial resource variability hypothesis states that as patchiness of resources increases, individuals use larger areas to obtain the resources necessary to meet energetic requirements. Additionally, under the temporal resource variability hypothesis, seasonal variation in available resources can reduce distances moved while providing a variety of food sources. Our objective was to determine if seasonal home ranges of brown bears (Ursus arctos) were influenced by temporal availability and spatial distribution of resources and whether individual reproductive status, sex, or size (i.e., body mass) mediated space use. To test our hypotheses, we radio collared brown bears (n = 32 [9 male, 23 female]) in 2014–2016 and used 18 a prioriselected linear models to evaluate seasonal utilization distributions (UD) in relation to our hypotheses. Our top-ranked model by AICc, supported the spatial resource variability hypothesis and included percentage of like adjacency (PLADJ) of all cover types (P  0.17 for males, solitary females, and females with dependent young), and body mass (kg; P = 0.66). Based on this model, for every percentage increase in PLADJ, UD area was predicted to increase 1.16 times for all sex and reproductive classes. Our results suggest that landscape heterogeneity influences brown bear space use; however, we found that bears used larger areas when landscape homogeneity increased, presumably to gain a diversity of food resources. Our results did not support the temporal resource variability hypothesis, suggesting that the spatial distribution of food was more important than seasonal availability in relation to brown bear home range size.

  10. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage.

  11. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  12. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibriya, Nabil; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed

  13. A Wide Range of 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) Mutation Loads May Segregate in Offspring through the Female Germline Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotti, Francesco; Binelli, Giorgio; Fabbri, Raffaella; Valentino, Maria L.; Vicenti, Rossella; Macciocca, Maria; Cevoli, Sabina; Baruzzi, Agostino; DiMauro, Salvatore; Carelli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of mutant mtDNA in human tissues and through the germline is debated, with no consensus about the nature and size of the bottleneck hypothesized to explain rapid generational shifts in mutant loads. We investigated two maternal lineages with an apparently different inheritance pattern of the same pathogenic mtDNA 3243A>G/tRNALeu(UUR) (MELAS) mutation. We collected blood cells, muscle biopsies, urinary epithelium and hair follicles from 20 individuals, as well as oocytes and an ovarian biopsy from one female mutation carrier, all belonging to the two maternal lineages to assess mutant mtDNA load, and calculated the theoretical germline bottleneck size (number of segregating units). We also evaluated “mother-to-offspring” segregations from the literature, for which heteroplasmy assessment was available in at least three siblings besides the proband. Our results showed that mutation load was prevalent in skeletal muscle and urinary epithelium, whereas in blood cells there was an inverse correlation with age, as previously reported. The histoenzymatic staining of the ovarian biopsy failed to show any cytochrome-c-oxidase defective oocyte. Analysis of four oocytes and one offspring from the same unaffected mother of the first family showed intermediate heteroplasmic mutant loads (10% to 75%), whereas very skewed loads of mutant mtDNA (0% or 81%) were detected in five offspring of another unaffected mother from the second family. Bottleneck size was 89 segregating units for the first mother and 84 for the second. This was remarkably close to 88, the number of “segregating units” in the “mother-to-offspring” segregations retrieved from literature. In conclusion, a wide range of mutant loads may be found in offspring tissues and oocytes, resulting from a similar theoretical bottleneck size. PMID:24805791

  14. Logistic regression accuracy across different spatial and temporal scales for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The scale at which habitat variables are measured affects the accuracy of resource selection functions in predicting animal use of sites. We used logistic regression models for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet, (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in a large region in California to address how much changing the spatial or temporal scale of...

  15. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  16. Taylor's law and body size in exploited marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Plank, Michael J; Law, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Taylor's law (TL), which states that variance in population density is related to mean density via a power law, and density-mass allometry, which states that mean density is related to body mass via a power law, are two of the most widely observed patterns in ecology. Combining these two laws predicts that the variance in density is related to body mass via a power law (variance-mass allometry). Marine size spectra are known to exhibit density-mass allometry, but variance-mass allometry has not been investigated. We show that variance and body mass in unexploited size spectrum models are related by a power law, and that this leads to TL with an exponent slightly <2. These simulated relationships are disrupted less by balanced harvesting, in which fishing effort is spread across a wide range of body sizes, than by size-at-entry fishing, in which only fish above a certain size may legally be caught.

  17. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range of plasma conditions considered in this work. -- Highlights: ► We compute the average ionization, cooling rates and emissivities of carbon plasmas. ► We compare LTE and NLTE calculations of these magnitudes. ► We perform a parametrization of these magnitudes in a wide range of plasma conditions. ► We provide information about where LTE regime assumption is accurate

  18. Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Stanojevic, S; Stocks, J; Coates, A L; Hankinson, J L; Wade, A M

    2009-02-28

    Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by exploiting the flexibility of the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) technique. GAMLSS offers general linear predictors for each moment parameter and a choice of error distributions, which can handle kurtosis as well as skewness. A key question with such references is the nature of the age-size adjustment, additive or multiplicative, which is explored by comparing the identity link and log link for the median predictor.There are several measurements whose reference ranges depend on both body size and age. As an example, models are developed here for the first four moments of the lung function variables forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC in terms of height and age, in a data set of 3598 children and adults aged 4 to 80 years. The results show a strong multiplicative association between spirometry, height and age, with a large and nonlinear age effect across the age range. Variability also depends nonlinearly on age and to a lesser extent on height. FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  20. Hysteresis losses of magnetic nanoparticle powders in the single domain size range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutz, S.; Hergt, R.; Muerbe, J.; Mueller, R.; Zeisberger, M.; Andrae, W.; Toepfer, J.; Bellemann, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle powders were investigated in order to optimise the specific hysteresis losses for biomedical heating applications. Different samples with a mean particle size in the transition range from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behaviour (i.e. 10-100 nm) were prepared by two different chemical precipitation routes. Additionally, the influence of milling and annealing on hysteresis losses of the nanoparticles was investigated. Structural investigations of the samples were carried out by X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of hysteresis losses of minor loops on the field amplitude was determined using vibrating sample magnetometry and caloric measurements. For small field amplitudes, a power law was found which changes into saturation at amplitudes well above the coercive field. Maximum hysteresis losses of 6.6 J/kg per cycle were observed for milled powder. For field amplitudes below about 10 kA/m, which are especially interesting for medical and technical applications, hysteresis losses of all investigated powders were at least by one order of magnitude lower than reported for magnetosomes of comparable size

  1. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  2. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  3. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10 3 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  4. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  5. Effects of sample size and sampling frequency on studies of brown bear home ranges and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Steve M.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    1999-01-01

    We equipped 9 brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, with collars containing both conventional very-high-frequency (VHF) transmitters and global positioning system (GPS) receivers programmed to determine an animal's position at 5.75-hr intervals. We calculated minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed and adaptive kernel home ranges for randomly-selected subsets of the GPS data to examine the effects of sample size on accuracy and precision of home range estimates. We also compared results obtained by weekly aerial radiotracking versus more frequent GPS locations to test for biases in conventional radiotracking data. Home ranges based on the MCP were 20-606 km2 (x = 201) for aerial radiotracking data (n = 12-16 locations/bear) and 116-1,505 km2 (x = 522) for the complete GPS data sets (n = 245-466 locations/bear). Fixed kernel home ranges were 34-955 km2 (x = 224) for radiotracking data and 16-130 km2 (x = 60) for the GPS data. Differences between means for radiotracking and GPS data were due primarily to the larger samples provided by the GPS data. Means did not differ between radiotracking data and equivalent-sized subsets of GPS data (P > 0.10). For the MCP, home range area increased and variability decreased asymptotically with number of locations. For the kernel models, both area and variability decreased with increasing sample size. Simulations suggested that the MCP and kernel models required >60 and >80 locations, respectively, for estimates to be both accurate (change in area bears. Our results suggest that the usefulness of conventional radiotracking data may be limited by potential biases and variability due to small samples. Investigators that use home range estimates in statistical tests should consider the effects of variability of those estimates. Use of GPS-equipped collars can facilitate obtaining larger samples of unbiased data and improve accuracy and precision of home range estimates.

  6. Practical Wide-speed-range Sensorless Control System for Permanent Magnet Reluctance Synchronous Motor Drives via Active Flux Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancuti, Mihaela Codruta; Tutelea, Lucian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a control strategy to obtain near-maximum available torque in a wide speed range with sensorless operation via the active flux concept for permanent magnet-reluctance synchronous motor drives. A new torque dq current reference calculator is proposed, with reference torque...

  7. A wide-range embrittlement trend curve for western RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Embrittlement trend curves (ETCs) are used to estimate neutron irradiation embrittlement as a function of both exposure (fluence, flux, temperature, ...) and composition variables. ETCs provide information needed to assess the structural integrity of operating nuclear reactors, and to determine their suitability for continued safe operation. Past efforts on ETC development in the United States have used data drawn from domestic licensees. While this approach has addressed past needs well, future needs such as power up-rates, license extensions to 60 years and beyond, and the use of low copper materials in new reactors produce future operating conditions for the US reactor fleet that may differ from past experience, suggesting that data from sources other than licensee surveillance programs may be needed. In this paper we draw together embrittlement data expressed in terms of ΔT41J and ΔYS from a wide variety of data sources as a first step in examining future embrittlement trends. We develop a 'wide range' ETC based on a collection of over 2500 data. We assess how well this ETC models the whole database, as well as significant data subsets. Comparisons presented herein indicate that a single algebraic model, denoted WR-C(5), represents reasonably well both the trends evident in the data overall as well as trends exhibited by four special data subsets. The WR-C(5) model indicates the existence of trends in high fluence data (Φ > 2-3*10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV) that are not as apparent in the US surveillance data due to the limited quantity of ΔT30 data measured at high fluence in this dataset. Additionally, WR-C(5) models well the trends in both test and power reactor data despite the fact it has not term to account for flux. It is suggested that one appropriate use of the WR-C(5) trend curve may include the design irradiation studies to validate or refute the findings presented herein. Additionally, WR-C(5) could be used, along with other information (e.g., other

  8. A wide dynamic range BF3 neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarini, M.; Varoli, V.; Favalli, A.; Caresana, M.; Pedersen, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF 3 neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10 6 s -1 . It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  9. Dynamic mechanical behaviour and dislocation substructure evolution of Inconel 718 over wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan, E-mail: wslee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Feng [National Center for High-Performance Computing, Hsin-Shi Tainan County 744, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tao-Hsing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hong-Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-25

    A compressive split-Hopkinson pressure bar and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are used to investigate the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of Inconel 718 at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 5000 s{sup -1} and temperatures between -150 and 550 deg. C. The results show that the flow stress increases with an increasing strain rate or a reducing temperature. The strain rate effect is particularly pronounced at strain rates greater than 3000 s{sup -1} and a deformation temperature of -150 deg. C. A significant thermal softening effect occurs at temperatures between -150 and 25 deg. C. The microstructural observations reveal that the strengthening effect in deformed Inconel 718 alloy is a result primarily of dislocation multiplication. The dislocation density increases with increasing strain rate, but decreases with increasing temperature. By contrast, the dislocation cell size decreases with increasing strain rate, but increases with increasing temperature. It is shown that the correlation between the flow stress, the dislocation density and the dislocation cell size is well described by the Bailey-Hirsch constitutive equations.

  10. Fast negative feedback enables mammalian auditory nerve fibers to encode a wide dynamic range of sound intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ospeck

    Full Text Available Mammalian auditory nerve fibers (ANF are remarkable for being able to encode a 40 dB, or hundred fold, range of sound pressure levels into their firing rate. Most of the fibers are very sensitive and raise their quiescent spike rate by a small amount for a faint sound at auditory threshold. Then as the sound intensity is increased, they slowly increase their spike rate, with some fibers going up as high as ∼300 Hz. In this way mammals are able to combine sensitivity and wide dynamic range. They are also able to discern sounds embedded within background noise. ANF receive efferent feedback, which suggests that the fibers are readjusted according to the background noise in order to maximize the information content of their auditory spike trains. Inner hair cells activate currents in the unmyelinated distal dendrites of ANF where sound intensity is rate-coded into action potentials. We model this spike generator compartment as an attenuator that employs fast negative feedback. Input current induces rapid and proportional leak currents. This way ANF are able to have a linear frequency to input current (f-I curve that has a wide dynamic range. The ANF spike generator remains very sensitive to threshold currents, but efferent feedback is able to lower its gain in response to noise.

  11. The rapid size- and shape-controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter W.; Starkey, Chris L.; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Lester, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control.Continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis offers a cheap, green and highly scalable route for the preparation of inorganic nanomaterials which has predominantly been applied to metal oxide based materials. In this work we report the first continuous flow hydrothermal synthesis of metal sulphide nanomaterials. A wide range of binary metal sulphides, ZnS, CdS, PbS, CuS, Fe(1-x)S and Bi2S3, have been synthesised. By varying the reaction conditions two different mechanisms may be invoked; a growth dominated route which permits the formation of nanostructured sulphide materials, and a nucleation driven process which produces nanoparticles with temperature dependent size control. This offers a new and industrially viable route to a wide range of metal sulphide nanoparticles with facile size and shape control. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, refinement procedure, fluorescence spectra of ZnS samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05749f

  12. Tribological behavior and self-healing functionality of TiNbCN-Ag coatings in wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, A. V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Levashov, E. A.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2017-02-01

    Ag- and Nb-doped TiCN coatings with about 2 at.% of Nb and Ag contents varied between 4.0 and 15.1 at.% were designed as promising materials for tribological applications in a wide temperature range. We report on the structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of TiNbCN-Ag coatings fabricated by simultaneous co-sputtering of TiC0.5 + 10%Nb2C and Ag targets in comparison with those of Ag-free coating. The tribological characteristics were evaluated during constant-temperature tests both at room temperature and 300 °C, as well as during dynamic temperature ramp tests in the range of 25-700 °C. The coating structure and elemental composition were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The coating microstructures and elemental compositions inside wear tracks, as well as the wear products, were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that simultaneous alloying with Nb and Ag permits to overcome the main drawbacks of TiCN coatings such as their relatively high values of friction coefficient at elevated temperatures and low oxidation resistance. It is shown that a relatively high amount of Ag (15 at.%) is required to provide enhanced tribological behavior in a wide temperature range of 25-700 °C. In addition, the prepared Ag-doped coatings demonstrated active oxidation protection and self-healing functionality due to the segregation of Ag metallic particles in damage areas such as cracks, pin-holes, or oxidation sites.

  13. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  14. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, pmovements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management and conservation strategies for this endangered granivore.

  15. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  16. Novel Cross-Type Network for Wide-Tuning-Range Reconfigurable Multiband Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Sen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-type network design with a novel reconfigurable functionality to realize a tunable multiband antenna. By attaching a reconfigurable network at the feeding port of a broadband antenna, multi-input impedance adjustment enables the production of multimatching operating bands. Each band can be independently controlled by a single component with a considerably wide tuning range and high selectivity. The experiments in this study involved using an ultra-wideband (UWB antenna connected to the proposed cross-type network. The tunable antenna operates in a dual band of fL (1.39 to 2.34 GHz and fH (2.1 to 3.6 GHz with tunable frequency ratios of 168% and 132%, respectively. The average bandwidths at fL and fH are approximately 50 MHz and 148 MHz, respectively, implying narrowband operation. The measured radiation pattern revealed that the tunable antenna exhibits a nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern at both 1.8 and 3.5 GHz. The network circuit architecture can be extended to the multiband function type by adopting this matching approach. The amount of shunt matches determines the number of operation bands.

  17. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  18. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF NECK MUSCULAR SIZE AND RANGE OF MOTION IN RUGBY PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelryck, Walter; Calistri, Josselin; Papadopoulou, Virginie; Theunissen, Sigrid; Dugardeyn, Christian; Balestra, Costantino

    2018-02-01

    World Rugby Union laws are constantly evolving towards stringent injury-prevention, particularly for contested scrums, since front row players are most at risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, some countries have also introduced tailored training programs and minimum performance requirements for playing in the front row. Nevertheless, these approaches lack an objective assessment of each cervical muscle that would provide protective support. Since front row players are the most at risk for cervical spine injuries due to the specific type of contact during scrums, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether significant differences exist in neck muscle size and range of motion between front row players and players of other positions, across playing categories. Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. 129 sub-elite male subjects from various first-team squads of Belgian Rugby clubs were recruited. Subjects were grouped according to age: Junior (J)  35 years old; as well as playing position: Front row players (J = 10, S = 12, V = 11 subjects), (Rest of the) pack (J = 12, S = 12, V = 10), backs (J = 10, S = 11, V = 11). An age-matched control group of non-rugby players was also recruited (J = 10, S = 10, V = 10).For each subject, the total neck circumference (NC) and the cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured. In addition, the thickness of the trapezius (T), splenius capitis (SCa), semispinalis capitis (SCb), semispinalis cervicis (SPC), sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM), and the total thickness of all four structures (TT), were measured using ultrasonography. In each age category, compared to controls, rugby players were found to have decreased CROM, an increase in neck circumference (NC), and increased total thickness (TT), trapezius (T), semispinalis capitis (SCb) and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM) sizes. For junior players, the thickness of the semispinalis cervicis (SPC) was also increased compared to controls. The CROM was decreased

  19. A Matrix-Based Structure for Vario-Scale Vector Representation over a Wide Range of Map Scales : The Case of River Network Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; Ai, Tinghua; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Yan, Xiongfeng; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    The representation of vector data at variable scales has been widely applied in geographic information systems and map-based services. When the scale changes across a wide range, a complex generalization that involves multiple operations is required to transform the data. To present such complex

  20. A Wide-Range Tunable Level-Keeper Using Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for Current-Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoi, Satoru; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    A wide-range tunable level-keeper using vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed for current-reuse analog systems. The design keys for widening tunable range of the operation are a two-path feed-back and a vertical MOSFET with back-bias-effect free. The proposed circuit with the vertical MOSFETs shows the 1.23-V tunable-range of the input level with the 2.4-V internal-supply voltage (VDD) in the simulation. This tunable-range of the proposed circuit is 4.7 times wider than that of the conventional. The achieved current efficiency of the proposed level-keeper is 66% at the 1.2-V output with the 2.4-V VDD. This efficiency of the proposed circuit is twice higher than that of the traditional voltage down converter.

  1. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  3. Surrogate runner model for draft tube losses computation within a wide range of operating points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan-Resiga, R; Ciocan, T; Muntean, S; De Colombel, T; Leroy, P

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) methodology for assessing the swirling flow exiting the runner of hydraulic turbines at arbitrary operating points, within a wide operating range. The Q2D model does not need actual runner computations, and as a result it represents a surrogate runner model for a-priori assessment of the swirling flow ingested by the draft tube. The axial, radial and circumferential velocity components are computed on a conical section located immediately downstream the runner blades trailing edge, then used as inlet conditions for regular draft tube computations. The main advantage of our model is that it allows the determination of the draft tube losses within the intended turbine operating range in the early design stages of a new or refurbished runner, thus providing a robust and systematic methodology to meet the optimal requirements for the flow at the runner outlet

  4. Particle identification in a wide dynamic range based on pulse-shape analysis with solid-state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hilscher, D.; Ortlepp, H.G.

    1994-04-01

    Heavy ions detected in a planar silicon detector were identified by exploiting a recently proposed combination of the pulse-shape and the time-of-flight techniques. We were able to resolve charge numbers up to Z = 16 within a wide dynamic range of ∼ 1:5, and to identify even isotopes for the elements up to Magnesium. The simple scheme of signal processing is based on conventional electronics and cheap enough to be exploited in large multidetector arrays. (orig.)

  5. Multicore Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Oligomeric Micelles: Characterization and Potential for the Extraction of Contaminants over a Wide Polarity Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naous, Mohamed; García-Gómez, Diego; López-Jiménez, Francisco José; Bouanani, Farida; Lunar, María Loreto; Rubio, Soledad

    2017-01-17

    Oligomeric micelles from sodium undecylenate (oSUD) were chemisorbed to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) through a single-step synthetic route involving the simultaneous nanoparticle formation and functionalization in an aqueous medium. The resulting spherical nanoparticles (MNPs-oSUD) consisted of a concatenation of iron oxide cores, with an average size of 7.7 nm, bound by oSUD micelles (particle average diameter of ca. 200 nm). Micellar coverage was ∼50% of the MNP-oSUD (by weight) and offered multiple retention mechanisms (e.g., dispersion, hydrogen bonding, polar, and ionic) for solute solubilization while keeping it intact during analyte elution. The high density of micelles and variety of interactions provided by this sorbent rendered it highly efficient for the extraction of aromatic amines in a wide polarity range (log K ow values from -0.80 to 4.05) from textiles, urine, and wastewater. Extraction took 5 min, no cleanup or evaporation of the extracts was needed and the method, based on LC-MS/MS quantitation, proved matrix-independent. Recoveries for 17 aromatic amines in samples were in the range of 93%-123% while those with negative log K ow values were in the range of 69%-87%. Detection limits for aromatic amines in textiles (0.007-2 mg kg -1 ) were well below the limits legislated by the European Union (EU) (30 mg kg -1 ) and those in urine and wastewater (0.004-1.5 μg L -1 ) were at the level usually found in real-world applications. All the analyzed samples were positive in aromatic amines. The easy synthesis and excellent extraction properties of MNPs-oSUD anticipate their high potential not only for multiresidue analysis but also in other fields such as water remediation.

  6. Radiation-Hardening of Best-In-Class SiGe Mixed-Signal and RF Electronics for Ultra-Wide Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, reliable, low-power, and low-noise electronics that can operate over a wide temperature range and high radiation are critical for future NASA missions....

  7. Fluctuating survival selection explains variation in avian group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Roche, Erin A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Page, Catherine E

    2016-05-03

    Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark-recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be favored in cooler and wetter years, and birds in smaller colonies in hotter and drier years. Oscillating selection on colony size likely reflected annual differences in food availability and the consequent importance of information transfer, and/or the level of ectoparasitism, with the net benefit of sociality varying under these different conditions. Averaged across years, there was no net directional change in selection on colony size. The wide range in cliff swallow group size is probably maintained by fluctuating survival selection and represents the first case, to our knowledge, in which fitness advantages of different group sizes regularly oscillate over time in a natural vertebrate population.

  8. Wide-spectral/dynamic-range skin-compatible phototransistors enabled by floated heterojunction structures with surface functionalized SWCNTs and amorphous oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insik; Kim, Jaehyun; Lee, Minkyung; Lee, Min-Wook; Kim, Hee-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Hwang, Do Kyung; Kim, Myunggil; Yoon, Haeyoung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2017-11-09

    Purified semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) have been researched for optoelectronic applications due to their high absorption coefficient from the visible to even the near-infrared (NIR) region. Nevertheless, the insufficient electrical characteristics and incompatibility with conventional CMOS processing have limited their wide utilization in this emerging field. Here, we demonstrate highly detective and wide spectral/dynamic range phototransistors incorporating floated heterojunction active layers which are composed of low-temperature sol-gel processed n-type amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) stacked with a purified p-type sc-SWCNT layer. To achieve a high and broad spectral/dynamic range photo-response of the heterogeneous transistors, photochemically functionalized sc-SWCNT layers were carefully implemented onto the a-IGZO channel area with a floating p-n heterojunction active layer, resulting in the suppression of parasitic charge leakage and good bias driven opto-electrical properties. The highest photosensitivity (R) of 9.6 × 10 2 A W -1 and a photodetectivity (D*) of 4 × 10 14 Jones along with a dynamic range of 100-180 dB were achieved for our phototransistor in the spectral range of 400-780 nm including continuous and minimal frequency independent behaviors. More importantly, to demonstrate the diverse application of the ultra-flexible hybrid photosensor platform as skin compatible electronics, the sc-SWCNT/a-IGZO phototransistors were fabricated on an ultra-thin (∼1 μm) polyimide film along with a severe static and dynamic electro-mechanical test. The skin-like phototransistors showed excellent mechanical stability such as sustainable good electrical performance and high photosensitivity in a wide dynamic range without any visible cracks or damage and little noise interference after being rolled-up on the 150 μm-thick optical fiber as well as more than 1000 times cycling.

  9. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tserendorj Munkhzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Min [Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hyun [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bonghwan, E-mail: bhkim@cu.ac.kr [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica particles were easily prepared by an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. • The particle size was controlled by the ammonium hydroxide/water molar ratio. • The size-controlled diameter of silica particles ranged from 40 to 400 nm. • The particles were formed in a relatively short reaction time. - Abstract: Using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  11. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  12. Model Study of Wave Overtopping of Marine Structure for a Wide Range of Geometric Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to enable estimation of wave overtopping rates for slopes/ramps given by a wide range of geometric parameters when subjected to varying wave conditions. To achieve this a great number of model tests are carried out in a wave tank using irregul...... 2-D waves. On the basis of the first part of these tests an exponential overtopping expression for a linear slope, including the effect of limited draught and varying slope angle, is presented. The plans for further tests with other slope geometries are described....

  13. Wide-range scintillation spectrometer of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Saidgareev, V.M.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer of fast neutrons developed on the base of stilbene crystas and permitting to detect neutrons simultaneously by time-of-flight and recoil protons with analysis of pulse shape in the 0.5-50 MeV energy range is described. The detecting part is performed in the CAMAC standard. The ''Minsk-32'' computer was used for data storage and preliminary processing

  14. The Effective Dynamic Ranges for Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression With Standard Automated Perimetry and Stimulus Sizes III and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael; Zamba, Gideon K D; Artes, Paul H

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that threshold estimates below approximately 20 dB have little effect on the ability to detect visual field progression in glaucoma. We aimed to compare stimulus size V to stimulus size III, in areas of visual damage, to confirm these findings by using (1) a different dataset, (2) different techniques of progression analysis, and (3) an analysis to evaluate the effect of censoring on mean deviation (MD). In the Iowa Variability in Perimetry Study, 120 glaucoma subjects were tested every 6 months for 4 years with size III SITA Standard and size V Full Threshold. Progression was determined with three complementary techniques: pointwise linear regression (PLR), permutation of PLR, and linear regression of the MD index. All analyses were repeated on "censored'' datasets in which threshold estimates below a given criterion value were set to equal the criterion value. Our analyses confirmed previous observations that threshold estimates below 20 dB contribute much less to visual field progression than estimates above this range. These findings were broadly similar with stimulus sizes III and V. Censoring of threshold values < 20 dB has relatively little impact on the rates of visual field progression in patients with mild to moderate glaucoma. Size V, which has lower retest variability, performs at least as well as size III for longitudinal glaucoma progression analysis and appears to have a larger useful dynamic range owing to the upper sensitivity limit being higher.

  15. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  16. Wide-range frequency selectivity in an acoustic sensor fabricated using a microbeam array with non-uniform thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Zusho, Kazuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a microbeam array (MBA) with various thicknesses and investigated the suitability it for an acoustic sensor with wide-range frequency selectivity. For this, an MBA composed of 64 beams, with thicknesses varying from 2.99–142 µm, was fabricated by using single gray-scale lithography and a thick negative photoresist. The vibration of the beams in air was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer; the resonant frequencies of the beams were measured to be from 11.5 to 290 kHz. Lastly, the frequency range of the MBA with non-uniform thickness was 10.9 times that of the MBA with uniform thickness. (paper)

  17. Universal dispersion model for characterization of optical thin films over wide spectral range: Application to magnesium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Giglia, Angelo; Franta, Pavel; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Optical characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films is performed in a wide spectral range from far infrared to extreme ultraviolet (0.01-45 eV) utilizing the universal dispersion model. Two film defects, i.e. random roughness of the upper boundaries and defect transition layer at lower boundary are taken into account. An extension of universal dispersion model consisting in expressing the excitonic contributions as linear combinations of Gaussian and truncated Lorentzian terms is introduced. The spectral dependencies of the optical constants are presented in a graphical form and by the complete set of dispersion parameters that allows generating tabulated optical constants with required range and step using a simple utility in the newAD2 software package.

  18. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  19. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  20. A Facile Approach to Preparing Molecularly Imprinted Chitosan for Detecting 2,4,6-Tribromophenol with a Widely Linear Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental pollution of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP has attracted attention. Based on an urgent need for the better provision of clean water, in situ determination of TBP is of great importance. Here, a facile and effective approach for detecting TBP is developed, based on coupling molecular imprinting technique with electrodeposition of chitosan (CS on the gold electrode. The TBP imprinting CS film was fabricated by using CS as functional material and TBP as template molecule. The experiments show that the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the imprinted film sensor was different from non-imprinted film electrode. The current of the imprinted film was linearly proportional to the TBP concentration, with a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10−7 mol•L−1 to 1.0 × 10−3 mol•L−1. By selecting drop-coating method as a reference for controlled trials with the same functional material, the results illustrated that the electrodeposition enjoyed a widely linear range advantage.

  1. Impedance Based Analysis and Design of Harmonic Resonant Controller for a Wide Range of Grid Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers...... in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed...

  2. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  3. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong, E-mail: fchen1@me.com

    2016-12-15

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  4. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  6. Characterization of a wide dynamic-range, radiation-tolerant charge-digitizer asic for monitoring of Beam losses

    CERN Document Server

    Guido Venturini, G G; Dehning, B; Kayal, M

    2012-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been designed and fabricated to provide a compact solution to digitize current signals from ionization chambers and diamond detectors, employed as beam loss monitors at CERN and several other high energy physics facilities. The circuit topology has been devised to accept positive and negative currents, to have a wide dynamic range (above 120 dB), withstand radiation levels over 10 Mrad and offer different modes of operation, covering a broad range of applications. Furthermore, an internal conversion reference is employed in the digitization, to provide an accurate absolute measurement. This paper discusses the detailed characterization of the first prototype: linearity, radiation tolerance and temperature dependence of the conversion, as well as implications and system-level considerations regarding its use for beam instrumentation applications in a high energy physics facility.

  7. Wide range noble gas radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, H.S. III; Wyvill, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention contemplates providing a sample system for effluent from a nuclear process wherein the effluent in a first mode passes through a sample chamber whose noble gases are quantitatively detected. The sample of the first mode is continued until the detector count rate reaches a predetermined maximum. The detector establishes a control signal which is applied to terminate the first mode effluent flow to the chamber, evacuate the chamber to a predetermined value of vacuum and connect the effluent into the sample chamber with a predetermined mode of flow rate different from the rate of the first mode to establish a sample concentration in the chamber within the range of the detector. A subsequent predetermined minimum rate will generate a signal to reconnect the sample chamber to the first mode connection and thereby cycle the system back to its first mode of operation

  8. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  9. Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedensohler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer.

    We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data.

    Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the

  10. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de la Fe, Juan Miguel; Rodriguez Perez, Rafael; Florido, Ricardo; Garcia Rubiano, Jesus; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel Escobar, Carlos; Mínguez Torres, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range...

  11. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  12. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan; Shin-Won Kang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal?s pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The...

  13. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H.; O'Connell, R. W.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Crockett, R. M.; Disney, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z ∼ 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z ∼> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in ∼40 arcmin 2 to H obs ∼ * ∼ 10 11 M ☉ ) undergo the strongest evolution from z ∼ 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z) –α , we find a tentative scaling of α ≈ (– 0.6 ± 0.7) + (0.9 ± 0.4)log (M * /10 9 M ☉ ), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M * -R e relation for red galaxies.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  15. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species

  17. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  18. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  19. Changes in home range sizes and population densities of carnivore species along the natural to urban habitat gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Drahníková, L.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * home range size * natural–urban gradient * population density * review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2015

  20. Simple Wide Frequency Range Impedance Meter Based on AD5933 Integrated Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabowski Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As it contains elements of complete digital impedance meter, the AD5933 integrated circuit is an interesting solution for impedance measurements. However, its use for measurements in a wide range of impedances and frequencies requires an additional digital and analogue circuitry. This paper presents the design and performance of a simple impedance meter based on the AD5933 IC. Apart from the AD5933 IC it consists of a clock generator with a programmable prescaler, a novel DC offset canceller for the excitation signal based on peak detectors and a current to voltage converter with switchable conversion ratios. The authors proposed a simple method for choosing the measurement frequency to minimalize errors resulting from the spectral leakage and distortion caused by a lack of an anti-aliasing filter in the DDS generator. Additionally, a novel method for the AD5933 IC calibration was proposed. It consists in a mathematical compensation of the systematic error occurring in the argument of the value returned from the AD5933 IC as a result. The performance of the whole system is demonstrated in an exemplary measurement.

  1. Home ranges of lions in the Kalahari, Botswana exhibit vast sizes and high temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, André; Henley, Stephen; Weibel, Robert

    2018-06-01

    The central Kalahari region in Botswana is one of the few remaining ecosystems with a stable lion population. Yet, relatively little is known about the ecology of the lions there. As an entry point, home range estimations provide information about the space utilization of the studied animals. The home ranges of eight lions in this region were determined to investigate their spatial overlaps and spatiotemporal variations. We found that, except for MCP, all home range estimators yielded comparable results regarding size and shape. The home ranges of all individuals were located predominantly inside the protected reserves. Their areas were among the largest known for lions with 1131 - 4314km 2 (95%), with no significant differences between males and females. Numerous overlaps between lions of different sexes were detected, although these originate from different groups. A distance chart confirmed that most of these lions directly encountered each other once or several times. Strong temporal variations of the home ranges were observed that did not match a seasonal pattern. The exceptionally large home ranges are likely to be caused by the sparse and dynamic prey populations. Since the ungulates in the study area move in an opportunistic way, too, strong spatiotemporal home range variations emerge. This can lead to misleading home ranges. We therefore recommend clarifying the stability of the home ranges by applying several levels of temporal aggregation. The lack of strict territoriality is likely an adaptation to the variable prey base and the high energetic costs associated with defending a large area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  3. Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide range of temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2014-01-01

    The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide range of temperature (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and temperature; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the temperature decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, temperature, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.

  4. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  5. Performance of a 100V Half-Bridge MOSFET Driver, Type MIC4103, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The operation of a high frequency, high voltage MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors) driver was investigated over a wide temperature regime that extended beyond its specified range. The Micrel MIC4103 is a 100V, non-inverting, dual driver that is designed to independently drive both high-side and low-side N-channel MOSFETs. It features fast propagation delay times and can drive 1000 pF load with 10ns rise times and 6 ns fall times [1]. The device consumes very little power, has supply under-voltage protection, and is rated for a -40 C to +125 C junction temperature range. The floating high-side driver of the chip can sustain boost voltages up to 100 V. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specification.

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEA-SALT EMISSIONS AS A FUNCTION OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This note presents a straightforward method to correct sea-salt-emission particle-size distributions according to local relative humidity. The proposed method covers a wide range of relative humidity (0.45 to 0.99) and its derivation incorporates recent laboratory results on sea-...

  7. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  8. The size distribution of dissolved uranium in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.K.; Wong, G.T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The size distribution of dissolved uranium in natural waters is poorly known. Some fraction of dissolved uranium is known to associate with organic matter which had a wide range of molecular weights. The presence of inorganic colloidal uranium has not been reported. Ultrafiltration has been used to quantify the size distribution of a number of elements, such as dissolved organic carbon, selenium, and some trace metals, in both the organic and/or the inorganic forms. The authors have applied this technique to dissolved uranium and the data are reported here

  9. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  10. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  11. Impact Response Comparison Between Parametric Human Models and Postmortem Human Subjects with a Wide Range of Obesity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Wang, Yulong; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Forman, Jason; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-10-01

    Field data analyses have shown that obesity significantly increases the occupant injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the injury assessment tools for people with obesity are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to use a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate parametric finite element models with a wide range of obesity levels and to evaluate their biofidelity against impact tests using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Frontal crash tests using three PMHS seated in a vehicle rear seat compartment with body mass index (BMI) from 24 to 40 kg/m 2 were selected. To develop the human models matching the PMHS geometry, statistical models of external body shape, rib cage, pelvis, and femur were applied to predict the target geometry using age, sex, stature, and BMI. A mesh morphing method based on radial basis functions was used to rapidly morph a baseline human model into the target geometry. The model-predicted body excursions and injury measures were compared to the PMHS tests. Comparisons of occupant kinematics and injury measures between the tests and simulations showed reasonable correlations across the wide range of BMI levels. The parametric human models have the capability to account for the obesity effects on the occupant impact responses and injury risks. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. Assessment of ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites generally focuses on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area. While appropriate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination, this approach is not adequate for sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites. These species may therefore be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a site (and therefore exposure and risk) by wildlife is dependent upon the availability of habitat. Availability and distribution of habitat on the ORR was determined using satellite imagery. The proportion of habitat within contaminated areas was then determined by overlaying boundaries of contaminated areas (Operable Units or OUs) on the ORR habitat map. The likelihood of contaminant exposure was estimated by comparing the habitat requirements for wildlife species to the proportion of suitable habitat within OUs. OU-specific contaminant concentrations in surface water, soil, or biota were used to estimate the magnitude of risk presented by each DU. The proportion of ORR-wide population likely to be exposed was estimated using literature-derived population density data for each endpoint. At present, due to major data gaps (i.e., lack of data for all OUs, site-specific population density or habitat use data, etc.) uncertainty associated with conclusions is high. Results of this assessment must therefore be considered to be preliminary

  13. Experimental determination of the steady-state charging probabilities and particle size conservation in non-radioactive and radioactive bipolar aerosol chargers in the size range of 5–40 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinger, Peter, E-mail: peter.kallinger@univie.ac.at; Szymanski, Wladyslaw W. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Three bipolar aerosol chargers, an AC-corona (Electrical Ionizer 1090, MSP Corp.), a soft X-ray (Advanced Aerosol Neutralizer 3087, TSI Inc.), and an α-radiation-based {sup 241}Am charger (tapcon & analysesysteme), were investigated on their charging performance of airborne nanoparticles. The charging probabilities for negatively and positively charged particles and the particle size conservation were measured in the diameter range of 5–40 nm using sucrose nanoparticles. Chargers were operated under various flow conditions in the range of 0.6–5.0 liters per minute. For particular experimental conditions, some deviations from the chosen theoretical model were found for all chargers. For very small particle sizes, the AC-corona charger showed particle losses at low flow rates and did not reach steady-state charge equilibrium at high flow rates. However, for all chargers, operating conditions were identified where the bipolar charge equilibrium was achieved. Practically, excellent particle size conservation was found for all three chargers.

  14. Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redelbach, Martin; Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2014-01-01

    There are ambitious greenhouse gas emission (GHG) targets for the manufacturers of light duty vehicles. To reduce the GHG emissions, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and extended range electric vehicle (EREV) are promising powertrain technologies. However, the battery is still a very critical component due to the high production cost and heavy weight. This paper introduces a holistic approach for the optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. The assessment focuses on the heterogeneity across drivers, by analyzing the impact of different driving profiles on the optimal battery setup from total cost of ownership (TCO) perspective. The results show that the battery size has a significant effect on the TCO. For an average German driver (15,000 km/a), battery capacities of 4 kWh (PHEV) and 6 kWh (EREV) would be cost optimal by 2020. However, these values vary strongly with the driving profile of the user. Moreover, the optimal battery size is also affected by external factors, e.g. electricity and fuel prices or battery production cost. Therefore, car manufacturers should develop a modular design for their batteries, which allows adapting the storage capacity to meet the individual customer requirements instead of “one size fits all”. - Highlights: • Optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. • Focus on heterogeneity across drivers (e.g. mileage, trip distribution, speed). • Optimal battery size strongly depends on the driving profile and energy prices. • OEMs require a modular design for their batteries to meet individual requirements

  15. Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus: A range-wide synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T Hileman

    Full Text Available Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range. We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size-fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change.

  16. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.

  17. A novel chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite composite bone scaffold platform with tunable mechanical strength in a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jiabing; Hu, Jingxiao; Sun, Guanglin; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, great efforts have been made to enhance the mechanical strength of bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds, which are composed of biopolymeric matrices and inorganic nano-fillers. But the tunability of mechanical strength in a wide range for BTE scaffolds has seldom been investigated in spite of the great importance of this performance. In this work, a chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CS-TSF/HAp) hydrogel was synthesized by using a novel in situ precipitation method. Through in situ inducing the conformation transition of TSF in the CS-TSF/HAp hydrogel, which could be monitored by XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA, the elastic modulus and fracture strength of the final CS-TSF/HAp composite could be tailored in a wide range without changing its composition, morphology, roughness, and crystal structures. The elastic modulus of the CS-TSF/HAp composite ranged from ∼250 to ∼400MPa while its fracture strength ranged from ∼45 to ∼100MPa. In order to clarify the rationale behind this process, a speculative explanation was provided. In vitro cell culture indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the CS-TSF/HAp composite had positive adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation potential. We believed that the CS-TSF/HAp composite could be used as an ideal scaffold platform for cell culture and implantation of bone reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  19. Complexity and wide range of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: more than typical manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinming; Yang, Meng-ge; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term “NMO spectrum disorders” (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity. Moreover, cumulative findings have indicated that NMOSD are frequently associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, thereby presenting complex clinical symptoms that make this disease more difficult to recognize. Notably, most neurologists do not heed these symptoms or comorbid conditions in patients with NMOSD. Whereas previous reviews have focused on pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis in NMOSD, we summarize the present knowledge with particular emphasis on atypical manifestations and autoimmune comorbidities in patients with NMOSD. Furthermore, we emphasized the identification of these atypical characteristics to enable a broader and better understanding of NMOSD, and improve early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:29118581

  20. Size Effect Studies on Tensile Tests for Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodu; Li, Yuanyuan; Han, Xianhong; Zhang, Junbo

    2018-02-01

    Tensile tests have been widely used to determine basic mechanical properties of materials. However, the properties measured may be related to geometrical factors of the tested samples especially for high-strength steels; this makes the properties' definitions and comparisons difficult. In this study, a series of tensile tests of ultra-high-strength hot-stamped steel were performed; the geometric shapes and sizes as well as the cutting direction were modified. The results demonstrate that the hot-stamped parts were isotropic and the cutting direction had no effect; the measured strengths were practically unrelated to the specimen geometries, including both size and shape. The elongations were slightly related to sample sizes within the studied range but highly depended on the sample shape, represented by the coefficient K. Such phenomena were analyzed and discussed based on microstructural observations and fracture morphologies. Moreover, two widely used elongation conversion equations, the Oliver formula and Barba's law, were introduced to verify their applicability, and a new interpolating function was developed and compared.

  1. Towards traceable size determination of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Varga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs have clinical importance due to their roles in a wide range of biological processes. The detection and characterization of EVs are challenging because of their small size, low refractive index, and heterogeneity. Methods: In this manuscript, the size distribution of an erythrocyte-derived EV sample is determined using state-of-the-art techniques such as nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, and electron microscopy, and novel techniques in the field, such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and size exclusion chromatography coupled with dynamic light scattering detection. Results: The mode values of the size distributions of the studied erythrocyte EVs reported by the different methods show only small deviations around 130 nm, but there are differences in the widths of the size distributions. Conclusion: SAXS is a promising technique with respect to traceability, as this technique was already applied for traceable size determination of solid nanoparticles in suspension. To reach the traceable measurement of EVs, monodisperse and highly concentrated samples are required.

  2. Trophodynamics of inorganic pollutants in a wide-range feeder: The relevance of dietary inputs and biomagnification in the Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of sentinel species to monitor environmental pollution is often hampered by an insufficient knowledge on pollutant trophodynamics. We simultaneously evaluated the influence of individuals' trophic position (as revealed by δ 15 N values) and dietary exploitation of particular systems (using δ 13 C and δ 34 S as proxies) on inorganic pollutant concentrations measured on fledglings' feathers of a wide-range feeder, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis), sampled at four locations throughout the Western Mediterranean. Concentrations of total Hg and Se in fledgling feathers (2.43 ± 1.30 and 1.16 ± 0.43 μg/g, respectively) were under the threshold points for deleterious effects on seabirds. On the contrary, alarming Pb concentrations were found in one colony (mean: 1.57 ± 2.46 μg/g, range: 0.16–12.13). With the exception of Pb, pollutant concentrations were positively influenced by consumption of marine resources (as suggested by the positive relationship with δ 34 S values), whereas trophic position played a minor role in determining pollutant body burdens. - Graphical abstract: Individual feeding behaviours in wide-range feeders may represent unavoidable knowledge for an appropriate understanding of contaminant acquisition, adding complexity to the study of the dynamic of contaminants throughout food chains. In this case study, pollutant body burden of Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) chicks was highly influenced by dietary exposure, whereas the influence of trophic position was relatively low. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Diet origin (δ 34 S) and trophic position (δ 15 N) were tested relative to Hg, Se, and Pb levels. ► Hg and Se concentrations in gull feathers were highly influenced by δ 34 S signatures. ► Exploited habitat influenced pollutant levels to a greater extent than trophic position. ► Biomagnification processes contribute less to contamination exposure in wide-range feeders. - Pollutant body burden of a wide-range

  3. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  4. Avalanching Systems with Longer Range Connectivity: Occurrence of a Crossover Phenomenon and Multifractal Finite Size Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many out-of-equilibrium systems respond to external driving with nonlinear and self-similar dynamics. This near scale-invariant behavior of relaxation events has been modeled through sand pile cellular automata. However, a common feature of these models is the assumption of a local connectivity, while in many real systems, we have evidence for longer range connectivity and a complex topology of the interacting structures. Here, we investigate the role that longer range connectivity might play in near scale-invariant systems, by analyzing the results of a sand pile cellular automaton model on a Newman–Watts network. The analysis clearly indicates the occurrence of a crossover phenomenon in the statistics of the relaxation events as a function of the percentage of longer range links and the breaking of the simple Finite Size Scaling (FSS. The more complex nature of the dynamics in the presence of long-range connectivity is investigated in terms of multi-scaling features and analyzed by the Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H2O2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1-5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l-1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l-1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor.

  6. A low-cost, high-magnification imaging system for particle sizing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipnis, Tanmay J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Tatam, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost imaging system for high magnification and high resolution was developed as an alternative to long-working-distance microscope-based systems, primarily for particle sizing applications. The imaging optics, comprising an inverted fixed focus lens coupled to a microscope objective, were able to provide a working distance of approximately 50 mm. The system magnification could be changed by using an appropriate microscope objective. Particle sizing was achieved using shadow-based techniques with the backlight illumination provided by a pulsed light-emitting diode light source. The images were analysed using commercial sizing software which gave the particle sizes and their distribution. A range of particles, from 6 to 8 µm to over 100 µm, was successfully measured with a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 µm. This system allowed measurement of a wide range of particles at a lower cost and improved operator safety without disturbing the flow. (technical design note)

  7. Equal Susceptibility and Size-selective Mobility in Aeolian Saltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.; Kok, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Natural wind-eroded soils generally contain a mixture of particle sizes. However, models for aeolian saltation are typically derived for sediment bed surfaces containing only a single particle size. To treat natural mixed beds, models for saltation and associated dust aerosol emission have typically simplified aeolian transport either as a series of non-interacting single particle size beds or as a bed containing only the median or mean particle size. Here, we test these common assumptions underpinning aeolian transport models using measurements of size-resolved saltation fluxes at three natural field sites. We find that a wide range of sand size classes experience "equal susceptibility" to saltation at a single common threshold wind shear stress, contrary to the "selective susceptibility" expected for treatment of a mixed bed as multiple single particle size beds. Furthermore, we observe strong size-selectivity in the mobility of different particle sizes, which is not adequately accounted for in current models. At all field sites, mobility is enhanced for particles that are 0.4-0.8 times the median bed particle diameter, while mobility declines rapidly with increasing particle size above this range. We further observe that the most mobile particles also experience the largest saltation heights, which helps to explain variations in size-selective mobility. These observations refute the common simplification of saltation as a series of non-interacting single particle sizes. Sand transport and dust emission models that use this incorrect assumption can be both simplified and improved by instead using a single particle size representative of the mixed bed.

  8. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  9. Finite-size scaling in two-dimensional superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultka, N.; Manousakis, E.

    1994-01-01

    Using the x-y model and a nonlocal updating scheme called cluster Monte Carlo, we calculate the superfluid density of a two-dimensional superfluid on large-size square lattices LxL up to 400x400. This technique allows us to approach temperatures close to the critical point, and by studying a wide range of L values and applying finite-size scaling theory we are able to extract the critical properties of the system. We calculate the superfluid density and from that we extract the renormalization-group beta function. We derive finite-size scaling expressions using the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson renormalization group equations and show that they are in very good agreement with our numerical results. This allows us to extrapolate our results to the infinite-size limit. We also find that the universal discontinuity of the superfluid density at the critical temperature is in very good agreement with the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson calculation and experiments

  10. Theory of mass-discrimination effects in ion extraction from a plasma of wide pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-S.; Kodera, K.

    1979-01-01

    Mass-discrimination effects in stagnation-point ion extraction are treated for a plasma with a wide range of Knudsen number, i.e. when the charged particle's mean free path 3 , ion Schmidt numbers, from 0 to 10 4 , the effective Knudsen number K from 0 to infinity, and the Debye ratio Rsub(p)/lambdasub(D) from 0 to 10 -1 . Numerical results show that: (1) for a non-flowing plasma, mass-discrimination effects increase with increasing effective Knudsen number (or gas pressure) and decreasing sampling potential; (2) for a non-flowing plasma, no significant effect of the Debye ratio on mass-discrimination was found; (3) for a flowing plasma, mass-discrimination effects decrease with increasing Reynolds number (or flow velocity) and ion Schmidt number, and with decreasing sampling potential and effective Knudsen number. (Auth.)

  11. GWAMA: software for genome-wide association meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi Reedik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies in identifying novel loci contributing effects to complex human traits, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, much of the genetic component of variation in these phenotypes remains unexplained. One way to improving power to detect further novel loci is through meta-analysis of studies from the same population, increasing the sample size over any individual study. Although statistical software analysis packages incorporate routines for meta-analysis, they are ill equipped to meet the challenges of the scale and complexity of data generated in genome-wide association studies. Results We have developed flexible, open-source software for the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. The software incorporates a variety of error trapping facilities, and provides a range of meta-analysis summary statistics. The software is distributed with scripts that allow simple formatting of files containing the results of each association study and generate graphical summaries of genome-wide meta-analysis results. Conclusions The GWAMA (Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis software has been developed to perform meta-analysis of summary statistics generated from genome-wide association studies of dichotomous phenotypes or quantitative traits. Software with source files, documentation and example data files are freely available online at http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/GWAMA.

  12. A computer code simulating multistage chemical exchange column under wide range of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1996-09-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate a multistage CECE(Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) column. The solution of basic equations can be found out by the Newton-Raphson method. The independent variables are the atom fractions of D and T in each stage for the case where H is dominant within the column. These variables are replaced by those of H and T under the condition that D is dominant. Some effective techniques have also been developed to get a set of solutions of the basic equations: a setting procedure of initial values of the independent variables; and a procedure for the convergence of the Newton-Raphson method. The computer code allows us to simulate the column behavior under a wide range of the operating conditions. Even for a severe case, where the dominant species changes along the column height, the code can give a set of solutions of the basic equations. (author)

  13. A study on the excore neutron flux monitoring system for the wide range measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jeong, Dae Won; Baek, Kwang Il; Lee, Jeong Yang; Ha, Jae Hong

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a study in which only one kind of neutron detector were used in the advanced ENFMS. The conceptual design was performed for overall system with unified fission chamber. The system consists of detector, junction box, wide-range amplifier and signal processing device. Also the requirements of 10CFR50 App. R were considered in design. On the other hand, through computer simulation, the characteristics of pulse-count mode and MSV mode was scrutinized and each noise withstanding capability was analyzed. The results say that 3rd moment has the more stable characteristics to background noise than MSV method. Also, to remain the integrity of information against noise, during installation and operation, the overall system of KSNP was analyzed from a view of noise. By administration for the cause of noise and noise-coupling paths, through the full understanding of noise characteristics, the transfer of the noise source can be minimized. (Author)

  14. Practice of building production planning system of company with a wide range of products - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Hadaś

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complexity of the manufacturing environments of today's mechanical engineering companies and the number of both internal and external restrictions affecting to need of building tailored production planning and control systems. This statement is particularly important in conditions of companies with a wide range of products and different customer service strategies (different locations of the logistics decoupling point otherwise called "order penetration point". Streams of materials in these conditions require different management what is the main reason for carrying out research in business conditions by the authors. Material and methods: The research was carried out in industrial engineering in complex environmental conditions of production. This was a specializing in technology, multi-departments environment, with multiple streams of values and a wide range of products (about 500 items. The work was carried out under the transformation of the production system from the "push" logic of flow to "pull" logic of flow and building a dedicated system based on the best practice approach. Results: The paper describes the process of building tailored hybrid systems in the area of planning and shop flow control of production. The authors present the theoretical considerations on the issue and practical experiences. The authors present factors of selection of the transformation path and its road map. The article describes the part of the authors' own experience in the work on the methodology of transformation of Polish companies in the running business condition. Conclusions: Establishing the methodology of transformation of the production system is not a simple task. This paper presents only selected aspects of complex decision-making process. However, the authors presented work shows the important aspect of the transformation of production systems for these organizational conditions.

  15. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  16. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle.

  17. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.

  18. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  19. Plasmonic Nanowires for Wide Wavelength Range Molecular Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2018-05-17

    In this paper, we propose the use of a standing nanowires array, constituted by plasmonic active gold wires grown on iron disks, and partially immersed in a supporting alumina matrix, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications. The galvanic process was used to fabricate nanowires in pores of anodized alumina template, making this device cost-effective. This fabrication method allows for the selection of size, diameter, and spatial arrangement of nanowires. The proposed device, thanks to a detailed design analysis, demonstrates a broadband plasmonic enhancement effect useful for many standard excitation wavelengths in the visible and NIR. The trigonal pores arrangement gives an efficiency weakly dependent on polarization. The devices, tested with 633 and 830 nm laser lines, show a significant Raman enhancement factor, up to around 6 × 10⁴, with respect to the flat gold surface, used as a reference for the measurements of the investigated molecules.

  20. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  1. Ultra-fast Sensor for Single-photon Detection in a Wide Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astghik KUZANYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of computer simulation of heat distribution processes taking place after absorption of single photons of 1 eV-1 keV energy in three-layer sensor of the thermoelectric detector are being analyzed. Different geometries of the sensor with tungsten absorber, thermoelectric layer of cerium hexaboride and tungsten heat sink are considered. It is shown that by changing the sizes of the sensor layers it is possible to obtain transducers for registration of photons within the given spectral range with required energy resolution and count rate. It is concluded that, as compared to the single layer sensor, the thee-layer sensor has a number of advantages and demonstrate characteristics that make possible to consider the thermoelectric detector as a real alternative to superconducting single photon detectors.

  2. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Iida, Toshiyuki; Wakayama, Naoaki.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  3. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  4. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (−90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range

  5. Experimental investigation about attachment processes of atoms and ions in the size range < 0.1 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Mercer, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the attachment process of atoms and ion in the size range between 0.009 to 4 μm on a particle or droplet surface are presented. It is again shown that the experimental values are adequately predicted by the diffusion attachment theory under gas kinetic consideration, if the sticking probability of Rn and Tn decay products is S = 1. 12 references

  6. Validity of Dynamic Light Scattering Method to Analyze a Range of Gold and Copper Nanoparticle Sizes Attained by Solids Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Golubenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of metals possess a whole series of features, concerned with it’s sizes, this leads to appearing or unusual electromagnetic and optical properties, which are untypical for particulates.An extended method of receiving nanoparticles by means of laser radiation is pulse laser ablation of hard targets in liquid medium.Varying the parameters of laser radiation, such as wavelength of laser radiation, energy density, etc., we can operate the size and shape of the resultant particles.The greatest trend of application in medicine have the nanoparticles of iron, copper, silver, silicon, magnesium, gold and zinc.The subject matter in this work is nanoparticles of copper and gold, received by means of laser ablation of hard targets in liquid medium.The aim of exploration, represented in the article, is the estimation of application of the dynamic light scattering method for determination of the range of nanoparticles sizes in the colloidal solution.For studying of the laser ablation process was chosen the second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 532 nm. Special attention was spared for the description of the experiment technique of receiving of nanoparticles.As the liquid medium ethanol and distillation water were used.For exploration of the received colloidal system have been used the next methods: DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.The results of measuring by DLS method showed that colloidal solution of the copper in the ethanol is the steady system. Copper nanoparticle’s size reaches 200 nm and is staying in the same size for some time.Received system from the gold’s nanoparticles is polydisperse, unsteady and has a big range of the nanoparticle’s sizes. This fact was confirmed by means of photos, got from the TEM FEI Tecnai G2F20 + GIF and SEM Helios NanoLab 660. The range of the gold nanoparticle’s sizes is from 5 to 60 nm. So, it has been proved that the DLS method is

  7. Both life-history plasticity and local adaptation will shape range-wide responses to climate warming in the tundra plant Silene acaulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan L; Doak, Daniel F; Morris, William F

    2018-04-01

    Many predictions of how climate change will impact biodiversity have focused on range shifts using species-wide climate tolerances, an approach that ignores the demographic mechanisms that enable species to attain broad geographic distributions. But these mechanisms matter, as responses to climate change could fundamentally differ depending on the contributions of life-history plasticity vs. local adaptation to species-wide climate tolerances. In particular, if local adaptation to climate is strong, populations across a species' range-not only those at the trailing range edge-could decline sharply with global climate change. Indeed, faster rates of climate change in many high latitude regions could combine with local adaptation to generate sharper declines well away from trailing edges. Combining 15 years of demographic data from field populations across North America with growth chamber warming experiments, we show that growth and survival in a widespread tundra plant show compensatory responses to warming throughout the species' latitudinal range, buffering overall performance across a range of temperatures. However, populations also differ in their temperature responses, consistent with adaptation to local climate, especially growing season temperature. In particular, warming begins to negatively impact plant growth at cooler temperatures for plants from colder, northern populations than for those from warmer, southern populations, both in the field and in growth chambers. Furthermore, the individuals and maternal families with the fastest growth also have the lowest water use efficiency at all temperatures, suggesting that a trade-off between growth and water use efficiency could further constrain responses to forecasted warming and drying. Taken together, these results suggest that populations throughout species' ranges could be at risk of decline with continued climate change, and that the focus on trailing edge populations risks overlooking the largest

  8. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio; Benedetti, Stefania; Bona, Alessandro di; Lollobrigida, Valerio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Torelli, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general

  9. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.benedetti@unimore.it; Bona, Alessandro di [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola [INSTM Udr Trieste-ST and Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Lupi, Stefano [CNR-IOM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Torelli, Piero [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  10. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gel derived from phosphonium borate can absorb a wide range of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Sokuro; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-01-24

    Herein, we demonstrate a polyelectrolyte gel which can absorb a wide range of organic solvents from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, permittivity: ε = 47.0) to tetrahydrofuran (ε = 5.6). The gel consists of polystyrene chains with small amounts (∼5 mol%) of lipophilic electrolytes derived from triphenylphosphonium tetraaryl borate. The swelling ability of the polyelectrolyte gel was higher than that of the alkyl ammonium tetraaryl borate previously reported by us, and this is attributed to the higher compatibility with organic solvents, as well as the higher dissociating ability, of the triphenyl phosphonium salt. The role of the ionic moieties was additionally confirmed by post modification of the polyelectrolyte gel via a conventional Wittig reaction, resulting in a nonionic gel. Our findings introduced here will lead to a clear-cut molecular design for polyelectrolyte gels which absorb all solvents.

  11. Size-dependent pull-in instability of electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Binglei; Zhou, Shenjie; Zhao, Junfeng; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    We present a size-dependent model for electrostatically actuated microbeam-based MEMS using strain gradient elasticity theory. The normalized pull-in voltage is shown to increase nonlinearly with the decrease of the beam height, and the size effect becomes prominent if the beam thickness is on the order of microns or smaller (i.e. when the beam dimension is comparable to the material length scale parameter). Very good agreement is found between the present model and available experimental data. The study may be helpful to characterize the mechanical properties of small size MEMS, or guide the design of microbeam-based devices for a wide range of potential applications. (technical note)

  12. Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Parker, D.J.; Green, S.; Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P.; Taylor, J.; Manolopoulos, S.; Anaxagoras, T.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of certain cancers. Accurate measurements of the proton stopping powers in body tissues are required in order to fully optimise the delivery of such treaments. The PRaVDA Consortium is developing a novel, fully solid state device to measure these stopping powers. The PRaVDA Range Telescope (RT), uses a stack of 24 CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) to measure the residual proton energy after the patient. We present here the ability of the CMOS sensors to detect changes in the signal sizes as the proton traverses the RT, compare the results with theory, and discuss the implications of these results on the reconstruction of proton tracks

  13. Positional dependence of scale size and shape in butterfly wings: wing-wide phenotypic coordination of color-pattern elements and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Kiseki; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-02-01

    Butterfly wing color-patterns are a phenotypically coordinated array of scales whose color is determined as cellular interpretation outputs for morphogenic signals. Here we investigated distribution patterns of scale shape and size in relation to position and coloration on the hindwings of a nymphalid butterfly Junonia orithya. Most scales had a smooth edge but scales at and near the natural and ectopic eyespot foci and in the postbasal area were jagged. Scale size decreased regularly from the postbasal to distal areas, and eyespots occasionally had larger scales than the background. Reasonable correlations were obtained between the eyespot size and focal scale size in females. Histological and real-time individual observations of the color-pattern developmental sequence showed that the background brown and blue colors expanded from the postbasal to distal areas independently from the color-pattern elements such as eyespots. These data suggest that morphogenic signals for coloration directly or indirectly influence the scale shape and size and that the blue "background" is organized by a long-range signal from an unidentified organizing center in J. orithya.

  14. Determination of Matrix Pore Size Distribution in Fractured Clayey Till and Assessment of Matrix Migration of Dechlorinationg Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Lu; Broholm, Mette Martina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    The pore structure and pore size distribution (PSD) in the clayey till matrix from three Danish field sites were investigated by image analysis to assess the matrix migration of dechlorinating bacteria in clayey till. Clayey till samples had a wide range of pore sizes, with diameters of 0.1–100 μ...

  15. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  16. Lack of parental rule-setting on eating is associated with a wide range of adolescent unhealthy eating behaviour both for boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Unhealthy eating habits in adolescence lead to a wide variety of health problems and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of absence of parental rules on eating and unhealthy eating behaviour and to explore the relationships between parental rules on eating and a wide range of unhealthy eating habits of boys and girls. We also explored the association of sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, family affluence or parental education with ea...

  17. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  18. Characterization of advanced piezoelectric materials in the wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burianova, L.; Kopal, A.; Nosek, J

    2003-05-25

    We report about methods and results of our measurements of piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties of piezoelectric materials like crystals, ceramics, composites, polymers and thin layer composites. Among the methods, used in our laboratories are: the resonance method working in the temperature range 208-358 K, hydrostatic methods, both static and dynamic in the range 273-333 K, laser interferometric methods, using single and double-beam interferometer, working at room temperature, single and double-beam micro-interferometers, working inside of optical cryostat in the range 150-330 K, and pulse echo method for measurements of elastic coefficients, using ultrasonic set, working at room temperature. In our earlier papers we reported about some of our results of piezoelectric measurements of PZT ceramics using resonance method and laser interferometric method. The results of both methods were in good agreement. Now, the measurements are realized on 0-3 ceramic-polymer composites and thin layer composites. It is well known, that both intrinsic (material) and extrinsic (domain structure) contributions to properties of ferroelectric samples have characteristic, sometimes rather strong, temperature dependence. Therefore, any extension of temperature range of the above mentioned methods is welcomed.

  19. Combined Flux Observer With Signal Injection Enhancement for Wide Speed Range Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Andreescu, G.-D.; Pitic, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    voltage-current model with PI compensator for low-speed operations. As speed increases, the observer switches gradually to a PI compensated closed-loop voltage model, which is solely used at high speeds. High-frequency rotating-voltage injection with a single D-module bandpass vector filter and a phase......This paper proposes a motion-sensorless control system using direct torque control with space vector modulation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives, for wide speed range operation, including standstill. A novel stator flux observer with variable structure uses a combined...

  20. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  1. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Yohai [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel); Showman, Adam P., E-mail: yohai.kaspi@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  2. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate

  3. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hainan; Zhao, Ziguang; Cai, Yudong; Zhou, Jiajia; Hua, Wenda; Chen, Lie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianqi; Han, Dong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Many biological organisms with exceptional freezing tolerance can resist the damages to cells from extra-/intracellular ice crystals and thus maintain their mechanical stability at subzero temperatures. Inspired by the freezing tolerance mechanisms found in nature, here we report a strategy of combining hydrophilic/oleophilic heteronetworks to produce self-adaptive, freeze-tolerant and mechanically stable organohydrogels. The organohydrogels can simultaneously use water and oil as a dispersion medium, and quickly switch between hydrogel- and organogel-like behaviours in response to the nature of the surrounding phase. Accordingly, their surfaces display unusual adaptive dual superlyophobic in oil/water system (that is, they are superhydrophobic under oil and superoleophobic under water). Moreover, the organogel component can inhibit the ice crystallization of the hydrogel component, thus enhancing the mechanical stability of organohydrogel over a wide temperature range (-78 to 80 °C). The organohydrogels may have promising applications in complex and harsh environments.

  5. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  6. Wide-range screening of psychoactive substances by FIA-HRMS: identification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Recreational drugs (illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines, legal highs, etc.) often contain lacing agents and adulterants which are not related to the main active ingredient. Serious side effects and even the death of the consumer have been related to the consumption of mixtures of psychoactive substances and/or adulterants, so it is important to know the actual composition of recreational drugs. In this work, a method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is proposed for the fast identification of psychoactive substances in recreational drugs and legal highs. The FIA and HRMS working conditions were optimized in order to detect a wide range of psychoactive compounds. As most of the psychoactive substances are acid-base compounds, methanol-0.1 % aqueous formic acid (1:1 v/v) as a carrier solvent and electrospray in both positive ion mode and negative ion mode were used. Two data acquisition modes, full scan at high mass resolution (HRMS) and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (ddMS/HRMS) with a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer were used, resulting in sufficient selectivity for identification of the components of the samples. A custom-made database containing over 450 substances, including psychoactive compounds and common adulterants, was built to perform a high-throughput target and suspect screening. Moreover, online accurate mass databases and mass fragmenter software were used to identify unknowns. Some examples, selected among the analyzed samples of recreational drugs and legal highs using the FIA-HRMS(ddMS/HRMS) method developed, are discussed to illustrate the screening strategy used in this study. The results showed that many of the analyzed samples were adulterated, and in some cases the sample composition did not match that of the supposed marketed substance.

  7. Liquid-liquid interface assisted synthesis of size- and thickness-controlled Ag nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Mingshang; Kuang Qin; Han Xiguang; Xie Shuifen; Xie Zhaoxiong; Zheng Lansun

    2010-01-01

    Here we proposed a synthetic method of high-purity Ag nanoplates by the reduction of aqueous Ag + ions at the aqueous-organic interface with the reductant ferrocene. We demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag nanoplates can be widely tunable from 600 nm to 7 μm in size and from 10 to 35 nm in thickness, simply by adjusting the component of organic phase. To our knowledge, there are few methods to tailor the size and the thickness of metal nanoplates in such a large range although many efforts have been made aiming to realize it. Our proposed synthetic strategy is rapid, template-free, seed-less, and high-yield, and could be applied to synthesize analogous two-dimensional nanostructures of other noble metals, such as Pt, Au, and Pd. - Graphical abstract: High-purity Ag nanoplates were synthesized by the reduction of aqueous Ag + ions at the aqueous-organic interface with the reductant ferrocene, the size and thickness of which were widely tunable.

  8. Free-ranging male koalas use size-related variation in formant frequencies to assess rival males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals.

  9. Small-size biofuel cell on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.

  11. Re-evaluating the link between brain size and behavioural ecology in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lauren E; Isler, Karin; Barton, Robert A

    2017-10-25

    Comparative studies have identified a wide range of behavioural and ecological correlates of relative brain size, with results differing between taxonomic groups, and even within them. In primates for example, recent studies contradict one another over whether social or ecological factors are critical. A basic assumption of such studies is that with sufficiently large samples and appropriate analysis, robust correlations indicative of selection pressures on cognition will emerge. We carried out a comprehensive re-examination of correlates of primate brain size using two large comparative datasets and phylogenetic comparative methods. We found evidence in both datasets for associations between brain size and ecological variables (home range size, diet and activity period), but little evidence for an effect of social group size, a correlation which has previously formed the empirical basis of the Social Brain Hypothesis. However, reflecting divergent results in the literature, our results exhibited instability across datasets, even when they were matched for species composition and predictor variables. We identify several potential empirical and theoretical difficulties underlying this instability and suggest that these issues raise doubts about inferring cognitive selection pressures from behavioural correlates of brain size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  13. Scaling range sizes to threats for robust predictions of risks to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David A; Akçakaya, H Resit; Murray, Nicholas J

    2018-04-01

    Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range-size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as area of occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales or at different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in red-list assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species' extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious. There are no quantitative evaluations of the scale-sensitivity of AOO as a predictor of risks, the relationship between optimal AOO scale and threat scale, or the effect of grid uncertainty. We used stochastic simulation models to explore risks to ecosystems and species with clustered, dispersed, and linear distribution patterns subject to regimes of threat events with different frequency and spatial extent. Area of occupancy was an accurate predictor of risk (0.81<|r|<0.98) and performed optimally when measured with grid cells 0.1-1.0 times the largest plausible area threatened by an event. Contrary to previous assertions, estimates of AOO at these relatively coarse scales were better predictors of risk than finer-scale estimates of AOO (e.g., when measurement cells are <1% of the area of the largest threat). The optimal scale depended on the spatial scales of threats more than the shape or size of biotic distributions. Although we found appreciable potential for grid-measurement errors, current IUCN guidelines for estimating AOO neutralize geometric uncertainty and incorporate effective scaling procedures for assessing risks posed by landscape-scale threats to species and ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. A fully integrated, wide-load-range, high-power-conversion-efficiency switched capacitor DC-DC converter with adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Hirose, Tetsuya; Kojima, Yuta; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-load-range switched-capacitor DC-DC buck converter with an adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit. The proposed converter is based on a conventional one and modified to operate in a wide load range by developing a load current monitor used in an adaptive bias comparator. Measurement results demonstrated that our proposed converter generates a 1.0 V output voltage from a 3.0 V input voltage at a load of up to 100 µA, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional one. The power conversion efficiency was higher than 60% in the load range from 0.8 to 100 µA.

  15. Low acclimation capacity of narrow-ranging thermal specialists exposes susceptibility to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Tricia M; Kozak, Kenneth H

    2018-05-01

    Thermal acclimation is hypothesized to offer a selective advantage in seasonal habitats and may underlie disparities in geographic range size among closely-related species with similar ecologies. Understanding this relationship is also critical for identifying species that are more sensitive to warming climates. Here, we study North American plethodontid salamanders to investigate whether acclimation ability is associated with species' latitudinal extents and the thermal range of the environments they inhabit. We quantified variation in thermal physiology by measuring standard metabolic rate (SMR) at different test and acclimation temperatures for 16 species of salamanders with varying latitudinal extents. A phylogenetically-controlled Markov chain Monte Carlo generalized linear mixed model (MCMCglmm) was then employed to determine whether there are differences in SMR between wide- and narrow-ranging species at different acclimation temperatures. In addition, we tested for a relationship between the acclimation ability of species and the environmental temperature ranges they inhabit. Further, we investigated if there is a trade-off between critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and thermal acclimation ability. MCMCglmm results show a significant difference in acclimation ability between wide and narrow-ranging temperate salamanders. Salamanders with wide latitudinal distributions maintain or slightly increase SMR when subjected to higher test and acclimation temperatures, whereas several narrow-ranging species show significant metabolic depression. We also found significant, positive relationships between acclimation ability and environmental thermal range, and between acclimation ability and CTMax. Wide-ranging salamander species exhibit a greater capacity for thermal acclimation than narrow-ranging species, suggesting that selection for acclimation ability may have been a key factor enabling geographic expansion into areas with greater thermal variability. Further

  16. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  17. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: rryan@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  18. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  19. An ultra-wide bandwidth-based range/GPS tight integration approach for relative positioning in vehicular ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Feng; Cheong, Joon Wayn; Dempster, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning. However, commercial global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP) techniques, through sharing the GNSS measurements between vehicles, can improve the performance of relative positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In this paper, while assuming there are no obstacles between vehicles, a new enhanced tightly coupled CP technique is presented by adding ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB)-based inter-vehicular range measurements. In the proposed CP method, each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and the inter-vehicular range measurements. Based on analytical and experimental results, in the full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP method outperforms the INS-aided tight CP method, tight CP method, and DGPS by 11%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; in the GPS outage scenario, the performance improvement achieves 60%, 65%, and 73%, respectively. (paper)

  20. Effective dose range for dental cone beam computed tomography scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, Ruben; Beinsberger, Jilke; Collaert, Bruno; Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Rogers, Jessica; Walker, Anne; Cockmartin, Lesley; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Horner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the absorbed organ dose and effective dose for a wide range of cone beam computed tomography scanners, using different exposure protocols and geometries. Materials and methods: Two Alderson Radiation Therapy anthropomorphic phantoms were loaded with LiF detectors (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) which were evenly distributed throughout the head and neck, covering all radiosensitive organs. Measurements were performed on 14 CBCT devices: 3D Accuitomo 170, Galileos Comfort, i-CAT Next Generation, Iluma Elite, Kodak 9000 3D, Kodak 9500, NewTom VG, NewTom VGi, Pax-Uni3D, Picasso Trio, ProMax 3D, Scanora 3D, SkyView, Veraviewepocs 3D. Effective dose was calculated using the ICRP 103 (2007) tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective dose ranged between 19 and 368 μSv. The largest contributions to the effective dose were from the remainder tissues (37%), salivary glands (24%), and thyroid gland (21%). For all organs, there was a wide range of measured values apparent, due to differences in exposure factors, diameter and height of the primary beam, and positioning of the beam relative to the radiosensitive organs. Conclusions: The effective dose for different CBCT devices showed a 20-fold range. The results show that a distinction is needed between small-, medium-, and large-field CBCT scanners and protocols, as they are applied to different indication groups, the dose received being strongly related to field size. Furthermore, the dose should always be considered relative to technical and diagnostic image quality, seeing that image quality requirements also differ for patient groups. The results from the current study indicate that the optimisation of dose should be performed by an appropriate selection of exposure parameters and field size, depending on the diagnostic requirements.

  1. Average size of random polygons with fixed knot topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yao, Akihisa; Tsukahara, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Tetsuo; Furuta, Ko; Inami, Takeo

    2003-07-01

    We have evaluated by numerical simulation the average size R(K) of random polygons of fixed knot topology K=,3(1),3(1) musical sharp 4(1), and we have confirmed the scaling law R(2)(K) approximately N(2nu(K)) for the number N of polygonal nodes in a wide range; N=100-2200. The best fit gives 2nu(K) approximately 1.11-1.16 with good fitting curves in the whole range of N. The estimate of 2nu(K) is consistent with the exponent of self-avoiding polygons. In a limited range of N (N greater, similar 600), however, we have another fit with 2nu(K) approximately 1.01-1.07, which is close to the exponent of random polygons.

  2. Non-sticky translocation of bio-molecules through Tween 20-coated solid-state nanopores in a wide pH range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Ji; Tong, Xin; Diao, J. J.; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Nanopore-based sensing technology is considered high-throughput and low-cost for single molecule detection, but solid-state nanopores have suffered from pore clogging issues. A simple Tween 20 coating method is applied to ensure long-term (several hours) non-sticky translocation of various types of bio-molecules through SiN nanopores in a wide pH range (4.0-13.0). We also emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate concentration of Tween 20 coating buffer for desired effect. By coating nanopores with a Tween 20 layer, we are able to differentiate between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, to identify drift-dominated domain for single-stranded DNA, to estimate BSA volume and to observe the shape of individual nucleosome translocation event without non-specific adsorption. The wide pH endurance from 4.0 to 13.0 and the broad types of detection analytes including nucleic acids, proteins, and biological complexes highlight the great application potential of Tween 20-coated solid-state nanopores.

  3. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  4. Trends in Solidification Grain Size and Morphology for Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Joy; Sheridan, Luke; Narra, Sneha P.; Klingbeil, Nathan W.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is used for both prototyping and production of final parts. Therefore, there is a need to predict and control the microstructural size and morphology. Process mapping is an approach that represents AM process outcomes in terms of input variables. In this work, analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches are combined to provide a holistic view of trends in the solidification grain structure of Ti-6Al-4V across a wide range of AM process input variables. The thermal gradient is shown to vary significantly through the depth of the melt pool, which precludes development of fully equiaxed microstructure throughout the depth of the deposit within any practical range of AM process variables. A strategy for grain size control is demonstrated based on the relationship between melt pool size and grain size across multiple deposit geometries, and additional factors affecting grain size are discussed.

  5. Heuristics for the Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem Using a Hybrid P-System and CUDA Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    AlEnezi, Qadha'a; AboElFotoh, Hosam; AlBdaiwi, Bader; AlMulla, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem has a wide range of application areas including packing, scheduling, and manufacturing. Given a list of items and variable sized bin types, the objective is to minimize the total size of the used bins. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this article, we present two new heuristics for solving the problem using a new variation of P systems with active membranes, which we call a hybrid P system, implemented in CUDA. Our hybrid P-system model allows usi...

  6. A Wide Linearity Range Method for the Determination of Lenalidomide in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglieri-López, Beatriz; Pérez-Pitarch, Alejandro; Martinez-Gómez, Maria Amparo; Porta-Oltra, Begoña; Climente-Martí, Mónica; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde

    2016-12-01

    A wide linearity range analytical method for the determination of lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma for pharmacokinetic studies is required. Plasma samples were ultrasonicated for protein precipitation. A solid-phase extraction was performed. The eluted samples were evaporated to dryness under vacuum, and the solid obtained was diluted and injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Separation of lenalidomide was performed on an Xterra RP C18 (250 mm length × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (85:15, v/v, pH 3.2) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL · min -1 The samples were monitored at a wavelength of 311 nm. A linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (r = 0.997, n = 9) was found between the peak area and lenalidomide concentrations in the range of 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 The limits of detection and quantitation were 28 and 100 ng · mL -1 , respectively. The intra- and interassay precisions were satisfactory, and the accuracy of the method was proved. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for the accurate quantification of lenalidomide in human plasma with a wide linear range, from 100 to 950 ng · mL -1 This is a valuable method for pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide in human subjects. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years, and fell in the size 6/10 to size 14/38 size range. The findings of the study suggest that young South African women of African descent with a triangular body shape may experience loose fit in the upper body of garments sized according to the size specifications currently used in the South African apparel industry.

  8. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  9. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) on the hydrothermal synthesis of YVO4:Eu3+ crystals in a wide pH range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Xu Yunhua; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Zhu Gangqiang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a facile hydrothermal route has been proposed for the morphology-controllable preparation of Eu-doped yttrium orthovanadate (YVO 4 :Eu 3+ ) powders in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as a template in a wide pH range. The structure, composition, morphology, and optical properties of the final products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. It was found that single phase YVO 4 :Eu 3+ micro- and nanocrystals with different shapes can be fabricated at 180 deg. C for 24 h with suitable amount of SDS in a wide pH range. The formation mechanism and the influence of SDS on the morphology of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ micro- and nanocrystals were investigated as a function of pH value. The PL measurement revealed that the samples with different morphologies exhibited different values for optical properties, especially soybean-like nanopowders showed a higher intensity compared to other samples with different morphologies due mainly to their high packing densities and low scattering of light.

  10. Genome wide analysis of drug-induced torsades de pointes: lack of common variants with large effect sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah R Behr

    Full Text Available Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP, treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10(-7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5-2.6. The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10(-9. Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs.

  11. Effect of severe plastic deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium and aluminium alloys in wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir; Skripnyak, Evgeniya; Skripnyak, Vladimir; Vaganova, Irina; Skripnyak, Nataliya

    2013-06-01

    Results of researches testify that a grain size have a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of metals and alloys. Ultrafine grained HCP and FCC metal alloys present higher values of the spall strength than a corresponding coarse grained counterparts. In the present study we investigate the effect of grain size distribution on the flow stress and strength under dynamic compression and tension of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Microstructure and grain size distribution in alloys were varied by carrying out severe plastic deformation during the multiple-pass equal channel angular pressing, cyclic constrained groove pressing, and surface mechanical attrition treatment. Tests were performed using a VHS-Instron servo-hydraulic machine. Ultra high speed camera Phantom V710 was used for photo registration of deformation and fracture of specimens in range of strain rates from 0,01 to 1000 1/s. In dynamic regime UFG alloys exhibit a stronger decrease in ductility compared to the coarse grained material. The plastic flow of UFG alloys with a bimodal grain size distribution was highly localized. Shear bands and shear crack nucleation and growth were recorded using high speed photography.

  12. Wide angular range study of the reaction /sup 16/O( pi /sup -/, 2n) /sup 14/N with stopped pions

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalleck, B; Furic, M; Klotz, W D; Lewis, C W; Takeutchi, F; Ullrich, H

    1980-01-01

    A first kinematically complete investigation of the reaction /sup 16/O ( pi /sup -/, 2n)/sup 14/N with stopped pions has been performed at the CERN SC over a wide angular range. Measured distributions in excitation energy of the residual nucleus, recoil momentum, and angle between the two neutrons are presented. They are compared with theoretical predictions on two-hole states and with detailed calculations on the quasi-free two-nucleon absorption process. (34 refs).

  13. Particle size distributions of radioactive aerosols measured in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorrian, M.-D.; Bailey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of published values of Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) measured in working environments was conducted to assist in the selection of a realistic default AMAD for occupational exposures. Results were compiled from 52 publications covering a wide variety of industries and workplaces. Reported values of AMAD from all studies ranged from 0.12 μm to 25 μm, and most were well fitted by a log-normal distribution with a median value of 4.4 μm. This supports the choice of a 5 μm default AMAD, as a realistic rounded value for occupational exposures, by the ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection and its acceptance by ICRP. Both the nuclear power and nuclear fuel handling industries gave median values of approximately 4 μm. Uranium mills gave a median value of 6.8 μm with AMADs frequently greater than 10 μm. High temperature and arc saw cutting operations generated submicron particles and occasionally, biomodal log-normal particle size distributions. It is concluded that in view of the wide range of AMADs found in the surveyed literature, greater emphasis should be placed on air sampling to characterise aerosol particle size distributions for individual work practices, especially as doses estimated with the new 5 μm default AMAD will not always be conservative. (author)

  14. Linear and nonlinear surface spectroscopy of supported size selected metal clusters and organic adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaemer, Martin Georg

    2012-03-08

    The spectroscopic investigation of supported size selected metal clusters over a wide wavelength range plays an important role for understanding their outstanding catalytic properties. The challenge which must be overcome to perform such measurements is the difficult detection of the weak spectroscopic signals from these samples. As a consequence, highly sensitive spectroscopic methods are applied, such as surface Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic apparatus developed is shown to have a sensitivity which is high enough to detect sub-monolayer coverages of adsorbates on surfaces. In the measured spectra of small supported silver clusters of the sizes Ag{sub 4}2, Ag{sub 2}1, Ag{sub 9}, and Ag atoms a stepwise transition from particles with purely metallic character to particles with molecule-like properties can be observed within this size range.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO 3 ). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H 2 O 2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l −1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l −1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor.

  16. Ab initio calculation of the shear viscosity of neon in the liquid and hypercritical state over a wide pressure and temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Rolf; Gerber, Stefan; Huber, Hanspeter; Searles, Debra; Welker, Marc

    1992-08-01

    The shear viscosity is calculated ab initio for the liquid and hypercritical state, i.e. a previously published potential for Ne 2, obtained from ab initio calculations including electron correlation, is used in classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the shear viscosity from a Green-Kubo integral. The quality of the results is quite uniform over a large pressure range up to 1000 MPa and a wide temperature range from 26 to 600 K. In most cases the calculated shear viscosity deviates by less than 10% from the experimental value, in general the error being only a few percent.

  17. Improving small RNA-seq by using a synthetic spike-in set for size-range quality control together with a set for data normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Terpstra, Inez; de Leeuw, Wim C; Kuzak, Mateusz; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Spaink, Herman P; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; Dekker, Rob J

    2015-08-18

    There is an increasing interest in complementing RNA-seq experiments with small-RNA (sRNA) expression data to obtain a comprehensive view of a transcriptome. Currently, two main experimental challenges concerning sRNA-seq exist: how to check the size distribution of isolated sRNAs, given the sensitive size-selection steps in the protocol; and how to normalize data between samples, given the low complexity of sRNA types. We here present two separate sets of synthetic RNA spike-ins for monitoring size-selection and for performing data normalization in sRNA-seq. The size-range quality control (SRQC) spike-in set, consisting of 11 oligoribonucleotides (10-70 nucleotides), was tested by intentionally altering the size-selection protocol and verified via several comparative experiments. We demonstrate that the SRQC set is useful to reproducibly track down biases in the size-selection in sRNA-seq. The external reference for data-normalization (ERDN) spike-in set, consisting of 19 oligoribonucleotides, was developed for sample-to-sample normalization in differential-expression analysis of sRNA-seq data. Testing and applying the ERDN set showed that it can reproducibly detect differential expression over a dynamic range of 2(18). Hence, biological variation in sRNA composition and content between samples is preserved while technical variation is effectively minimized. Together, both spike-in sets can significantly improve the technical reproducibility of sRNA-seq. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Post-glacial phylogeography and evolution of a wide-ranging highly-exploited keystone forest tree, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in North America: single refugium, multiple routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinck, John W R; Rajora, Om P

    2016-03-02

    Knowledge of the historical distribution and postglacial phylogeography and evolution of a species is important to better understand its current distribution and population structure and potential fate in the future, especially under climate change conditions, and conservation of its genetic resources. We have addressed this issue in a wide-ranging and heavily exploited keystone forest tree species of eastern North America, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). We examined the range-wide population genetic structure, tested various hypothetical population history and evolutionary scenarios and inferred the location of glacial refugium and post-glacial recolonization routes. Our hypothesis was that eastern white pine survived in a single glacial refugium and expanded through multiple post-glacial recolonization routes. We studied the range-wide genetic diversity and population structure of 33 eastern white pine populations using 12 nuclear and 3 chloroplast microsatellite DNA markers. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation approach to test various evolutionary scenarios. We observed high levels of genetic diversity, and significant genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.104) and population structure among eastern white pine populations across its range. A south to north trend of declining genetic diversity existed, consistent with repeated founder effects during post-glaciation migration northwards. We observed broad consensus from nuclear and chloroplast genetic markers supporting the presence of two main post-glacial recolonization routes that originated from a single southern refugium in the mid-Atlantic plain. One route gave rise to populations at the western margin of the species' range in Minnesota and western Ontario. The second route gave rise to central-eastern populations, which branched into two subgroups: central and eastern. We observed minimal sharing of chloroplast haplotypes between recolonization routes but there was evidence of admixture between the

  19. Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, C; Neimark, H; Ragozzino, A; Lauer, U; Seemüller, E

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome sizes of 71 phytoplasmas belonging to 12 major phylogenetic groups including several of the aster yellows subgroups were estimated from electrophoretic mobilities of full-length chromosomes in pulsed-field gels. Considerable variation in genome size, from 660 to 1,130 kilobases (kb), was observed among aster yellows phytoplasmas. Chromosome size heterogeneity was also observed in the stolbur phytoplasma group (range 860 to 1,350 kb); in this group, isolate STOLF contains the largest chromosome found in a phytoplasma to date. A wide range of chromosome sizes, from 670 to 1,075 kb, was also identified in the X-disease group. The other phytoplasmas examined, which included members of the apple proliferation, Italian alfalfa witches' broom, faba bean phyllody, pigeon pea witches' broom, sugarcane white leaf, Bermuda grass white leaf, ash yellows, clover proliferation, and elm yellows groups, all have chromosomes smaller than 1 megabase, and the size ranges within each of these groups is narrower than in the aster yellows, stolbur, and X-disease groups. The smallest chromosome, approximately 530 kb, was found in two Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma isolates. This not only is the smallest mollicute chromosome found to date, but also is the smallest chromosome known for any cell. More than one large DNA band was observed in several phytoplasma preparations. Possible explanations for the occurrence of more than one band may be infection of the host plant by different phytoplasmas, the presence of more than one chromosome in the same organism, or the presence of large extrachromosomal DNA elements.

  20. Wide-Field Imaging Using Nitrogen Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk Robert (Inventor); Trusheim, Matthew Edwin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancies in bulk diamonds and nanodiamonds can be used to sense temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH. Unfortunately, conventional sensing techniques use gated detection and confocal imaging, limiting the measurement sensitivity and precluding wide-field imaging. Conversely, the present sensing techniques do not require gated detection or confocal imaging and can therefore be used to image temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH over wide fields of view. In some cases, wide-field imaging supports spatial localization of the NVs to precisions at or below the diffraction limit. Moreover, the measurement range can extend over extremely wide dynamic range at very high sensitivity.

  1. Giant elastocaloric effect covering wide temperature range in columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The elastocaloric effect in a columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy fabricated by directional solidification was investigated. A large entropy change of 25.0 J/kg K generated by the reversible martensitic transformation was demonstrated. The adiabatic temperature change of 12-13 K was directly measured, covering a wide temperature range of more than 100 K. The low applied stress with a specific elastocaloric ability of 100.8 K/GPa was identified and the potentially attainable operational temperature window as wide as more than 215 K was also discussed. The outstanding elastocaloric refrigeration capability, together with the low applying stress and uniform phase transformation, makes the columnar-grained Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloy a promising material for solid-state refrigeration.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of size-selected CoPt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournus, F.; Blanc, N.; Tamion, A.; Hillenkamp, M.; Dupuis, V.

    2011-01-01

    CoPt nanoparticles are widely studied, in particular for their potentially very high magnetic anisotropy. However, their magnetic properties can differ from the bulk ones and they are expected to vary with the particle size. In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of well-defined CoPt nanoparticle samples produced in ultrahigh vacuum conditions following a physical route: the mass-selected low energy cluster beam deposition technique. This approach relies on an electrostatic deviation of ionized clusters which allows us to easily adjust the particle size, independently from the deposited equivalent thickness (i.e. the surface or volume particle density in a sample). Diluted samples made of CoPt particles, with different diameters, embedded in amorphous carbon are studied by transmission electron microscopy and superconducting interference device magnetometry, which gives access to the magnetic anisotropy energy distribution. We then compare the magnetic properties of two different particle sizes. The results are found to be consistent with an anisotropy constant (including its distribution) which does not evolve with the particle size in the range considered. - Highlights: → Samples of mass-selected CoPt nanoparticles are synthesized by an original physical method. → The magnetic properties of two different particle sizes are compared. → The anisotropy constant (including its dispersion) does not evolve in the range considered. → These results illustrate some invariance properties of ZFC curves.

  3. A wide range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop with automatic frequency setting in 130 nm CMOS technology for data serialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moroń, J.; Świentek, K.

    2015-01-01

    The design and measurements results of a wide frequency range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) for applications in readout systems of particle physics detectors are presented. The PLL was fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. To allow the implementation of different data serialisation schemes multiple division factors (6, 8, 10, 16) were implemented in the PLL feedback loop. The main PLL block—VCO works in 16 frequency ranges/modes, switched either manually or automatically. A dedicated automatic frequency mode switching circuit was developed to allow simple frequency tuning. Although the PLL was designed and simulated for a frequency range of 30 MHz–3 GHz, due to the SLVS interface limits, the measurements were done only up to 1.3 GHz. The full PLL functionality was experimentally verified, confirming a very low and frequency scalable power consumption (0.7 mW at 1 GHz)

  4. A wide range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop with automatic frequency setting in 130 nm CMOS technology for data serialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moroń, J.; Świentek, K.

    2015-12-01

    The design and measurements results of a wide frequency range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) for applications in readout systems of particle physics detectors are presented. The PLL was fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. To allow the implementation of different data serialisation schemes multiple division factors (6, 8, 10, 16) were implemented in the PLL feedback loop. The main PLL block—VCO works in 16 frequency ranges/modes, switched either manually or automatically. A dedicated automatic frequency mode switching circuit was developed to allow simple frequency tuning. Although the PLL was designed and simulated for a frequency range of 30 MHz-3 GHz, due to the SLVS interface limits, the measurements were done only up to 1.3 GHz. The full PLL functionality was experimentally verified, confirming a very low and frequency scalable power consumption (0.7 mW at 1 GHz).

  5. A CMOS frontend chip for implantable neural recording with wide voltage supply range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jialin; Zhang Xu; Hu Xiaohui; Li Peng; Liu Ming; Chen Hongda; Guo Yatao; Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    A design for a CMOS frontend integrated circuit (chip) for neural signal acquisition working at wide voltage supply range is presented in this paper. The chip consists of a preamplifier, a serial instrumental amplifier (IA) and a cyclic analog-to-digital converter (CADC). The capacitive-coupled and capacitive-feedback topology combined with MOS-bipolar pseudo-resistor element is adopted in the preamplifier to create a −3 dB upper cut-off frequency less than 1 Hz without using a ponderous discrete device. A dual-amplifier instrumental amplifier is used to provide a low output impedance interface for ADC as well as to boost the gain. The preamplifier and the serial instrumental amplifier together provide a midband gain of 45.8 dB and have an input-referred noise of 6.7 μV rms integrated from 1 Hz to 5 kHz. The ADC digitizes the amplified signal at 12-bits precision with a highest sampling rate of 130 kS/s. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC is 8.7 bits. The entire circuit draws 165 to 216 μA current from the supply voltage varied from 1.34 to 3.3 V. The prototype chip is fabricated in the 0.18-μm CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.23 mm 2 (including pads). In-vitro recording was successfully carried out by the proposed frontend chip. (paper)

  6. Linearity improvement on wide-range log signal of neutron measurement system for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Tuetken, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses engineering activities for improving the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal from the neutron measurement system for HANARO. This neutron measurement system uses a fission chamber based detector which covers 10.3 decade-wide range from 10 -8 % full power(FP) up to 200%FP, The Log Power signal is designed to control the reactor at low power levels where most of the reactor physics tests are carried out. Therefore, the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal is the major factor for accurate reactor power control. During the commissioning of the neutron measurement system, it was found that the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal, especially near 10 -2 %FP, were not accurate enough for controlling the reactor during physics testing. Analysis of the system linearity data directly measured with reactor operating determined that the system was not operating per the design characteristics established from previous installations. The linearity data, which were taken as the reactor was increased in power, were sent to manufacturer's engineering group and a follow-up measures based on the analysis were then fed back to the field. Through step by step trouble-shooting activities, which included minor circuit modifications and alignment procedure changes, the linearity characteristics have been successfully improved and now exceed minimum performance requirements. This paper discusses the trouble-shooting techniques applied, the changes in the linearity characteristics, special circumstances in the HANARO application and the final resolution. (author)

  7. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at root s=0.9, 7, and 8 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; AglieriRinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Alba, J. L. B.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; AlfaroMolina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves GarciaPrado, C.; Janssen, M M; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C. D.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.C.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnafoldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, Sukhee; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; DeCaro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Conti, C.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. Derradi; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diakonov, I.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Doenigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. V.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; FernandezTellez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; De Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glaessel, P.; GomezCoral, D. M.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L. C.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hasan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbaer, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; HerreraCorral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.W.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jeric, M.; Bustamante, R. T Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, P.M.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C; Klein, J.; Klein-Boeing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.L.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, Seema; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leon Monzon, I.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal'kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Montes, E.; De Godoy, D. A Moreira; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muehlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Muenning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Naik, B.; Nair, Rajiv; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; daLuz, H. Natal; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; De Oliveira, R. A. Negrao; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; Peresunko, D.; Lezama, E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Sefcik, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q. Y.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, J. S.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, Linda; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Van der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limon, S.; Vernet, R.; Vertesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voelkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C S; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, Shui

    2017-01-01

    We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range ( −3.4<η<5.0 ) for pp collisions at s√=0.9,7 , and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the

  8. Photopolarimetric properties of leaf and vegetation covers over a wide range of measurement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Peng, Zhiyan; Wu, Di; Lv, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    The optical scattering property of the target is the essential signal for passive remote sensing applications. To deepen our understanding of the light reflected from vegetation, we present results of photopolarimetric laboratory measurements from single leaf and two vegetation covers (planophile and erectophile) over a wide range of viewing directions. The bidirectional polarized reflectance factor (BPRF) was used to characterize the polarization property of our samples. We observed positive and negative polarization (-BPRFQ) of all samples in the forward scattering and backward scattering directions, respectively. Based on the comparison of the BPRF among single leaf, planophile vegetation and erectophile vegetation, our measurements demonstrate that the orientation of the leaf is a key factor in describing the amount of polarization in the forward scattering direction. Our measurements also validated certain model results stating that (1) specular reflection generates a portion of polarization in the forward scattering direction and diffuses scattering of polarized light in all hemisphere directions, (2) BPRFU is anti-symmetric in the principal plane from a recent study in which the authors simulated the polarized reflectance of vegetation cover using the vector radiative transfer theory. These photopolarimetric measurement results, which can be completely explained by the theoretical results, are useful in remote sensing applications to vegetation.

  9. A wide-range model of two-group gross sections in the dynamics code HEXTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloinen, E.; Peltonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    In dynamic analyses the thermal hydraulic conditions within the reactor core may have a large variation, which sets a special requirement on the modeling of cross sections. The standard model in the dynamics code HEXTRAN is the same as in the static design code HEXBU-3D/MODS. It is based on a linear and second order fitting of two-group cross sections on fuel and moderator temperature, moderator density and boron density. A new, wide-range model of cross sections developed in Fortum Nuclear Services for HEXBU-3D/MOD6 has been included as an option into HEXTRAN. In this model the nodal cross sections are constructed from seven state variables in a polynomial of more than 40 terms. Coefficients of the polynomial are created by a least squares fitting to the results of a large number of fuel assembly calculations. Depending on the choice of state variables for the spectrum calculations, the new cross section model is capable to cover local conditions from cold zero power to boiling at full power. The 5. dynamic benchmark problem of AER is analyzed with the new option and results are compared to calculations with the standard model of cross sections in HEXTRAN (Authors)

  10. Multibloc system electronic equipment: D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter and wide range (pulses, fluctuations and direct current) measuring set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, J.; Plaige, Y.; Vaux, C.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements which have led to the design of a specific equipment for reactor neutron control (Multibloc system) are briefly recalled. It is shown how, for reasons of saving the cost of installation, the development tended towards a multifunction performance from signals delivered by one detector. Two major achievments in accordance with the above trend are described: the D.C. linear - logarithmic amplifier and periodmeter, and the wide dynamics range measuring set [fr

  11. A low-power wide range transimpedance amplifier for biochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low voltage and low power transimpedance amplifier for amperometric potentiostats. The power is optimized by having three different gain settings for different current ranges, which can be programmed with a biasing current. The voltage ranges have been optimized by using FGMOS transistors in a second voltage amplification stage that simultaneously allow for offset calibration as well as independent biasing of the gates. The circuit operates with input currents from 1 pA to 1 microA, with a maximum power supply voltage of 1.5 V and consumes 82.5 nW, 9.825 microW, 47.325 microW for currents varying from (1 pA, 0.25 nA), (0.25 nA, 62.5 nA) and (62.5 nA, 1 microA) respectively.

  12. Size Polymorphism in Alleles of the Myoglobin Gene from Biomphalaria Mollusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Santoro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported in several eukaryotic globin genes. Globin genes in invertebrates show considerable variation in the positions of introns; globins can be found without introns, with only one intron or with three introns in different positions. In this work we analyzed the introns in the myoglobin gene from Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila. In the Biomphalaria genus, the myoglobin gene has three introns; these were amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results showed that the size (number or nucleotides and the nucleotide sequence of the coding gene of the myoglobin are variable in the three species. We observed the presence of size polymorphisms in intron 2 and 3; this characterizes a homozygous/heterozygous profile and it indicates the existence of two alleles which are different in size in each species of Biomphalaria. This polymorphism could be explored for specific identification of Biomphalaria individuals.

  13. Food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Mutanen, Marja

    2013-09-01

    To assess the validity of food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent girls in Mozambique. The study was carried out in preparation for the larger ZANE study, which used the 24 h dietary recall method. Life-sized photographs of three portion sizes of two staple foods and three sauces were produced. Participants ate weighed portions of one staple food and one sauce. After the meal, they were asked to estimate the amount of food with the aid of the food photographs. Zambezia Province, Mozambique. Ninety-nine girls aged 13–18 years. The mean differences between estimated and actual portion sizes relative to the actual portion size ranged from 219% to 8% for different foods. The respective mean difference for all foods combined was 25% (95% CI 212, 2 %). Especially larger portions of the staple foods were often underestimated. For the staple foods, between 62% and 64% of the participants were classified into the same thirds of the distribution of estimated and actual food consumption and for sauces, the percentages ranged from 38% to 63%. Bland–Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement. Using life-sized food photographs among adolescent Mozambican girls resulted in a rather large variation in the accuracy of individuals’ estimates. The ability to rank individuals according to their consumption was, however, satisfactory for most foods. There seems to be a need to further develop and test food photographs used in different populations in Sub-Saharan Africa to improve the accuracy of portion size estimates.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm, E-mail: pooriamn@yahoo.com; Meng, Woi Pei, E-mail: pmwoi@um.edu.my; Alias, Y., E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO{sub 3}). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l{sup −1} and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l{sup −1} (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor.

  15. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Khalilian, Alireza; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt's dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance.

  16. Dielectric relaxation in solid collagen over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Abdullah; Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Janjua, Khalid Mehmood; Zaheer, Muhammad Yar

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric constant ε' and loss factor ε'' have been measured in bovine tendon collagen in the frequency range 30 Hz - 3 MHz and temperature range 30 deg. C to 200 deg. C. Frequency dependence curve of ε'' shows a low frequency strong α-dispersion attributed to phonon assisted proton hopping between localized sites and a weak high frequency. α 2 - dispersion attributed to reorientation of polar components of collagen molecules. Temperature dependence of the dielectric data show release of bound moisture as a three step process with discrete peaks at 50 deg. C, 90 deg. C and 125 deg. C. These peaks have been attributed to release of adsorbed surface water, water bound to exposed polar sites and strongly bound internal moisture respectively. A peak observed at 160 deg. C has been attributed to thermally induced helix-coil transition of collagen molecules. (author)

  17. Insights Gained from the Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195’s Transcriptome Responding to a Wide Range of Respiration Rates and Substrate Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    fermented yeast , pure hydrogen, or endogenous biomass decay). When similarly respiring (~120 ?eeq PCE/(L-hr)) batch and PSS cultures were contrasted, the...REPORT Insights gained from the “Dehalococcoides ethenogenes” strain 195?s transcriptome responding to a wide range of respiration rates and substrate...types. 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Bacteria of the group “Dehalococcoides” display the ability to respire recalcitrant chlorinated

  18. Precise predictions of H2O line shapes over a wide pressure range using simulations corrected by a single measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N. H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Tran, H.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we show that precise predictions of the shapes of H2O rovibrational lines broadened by N2, over a wide pressure range, can be made using simulations corrected by a single measurement. For that, we use the partially-correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer (pcsdKS) model whose parameters are deduced from molecular dynamics simulations and semi-classical calculations. This model takes into account the collision-induced velocity-changes effects, the speed dependences of the collisional line width and shift as well as the correlation between velocity and internal-state changes. For each considered transition, the model is corrected by using a parameter deduced from its broadening coefficient measured for a single pressure. The corrected-pcsdKS model is then used to simulate spectra for a wide pressure range. Direct comparisons of the corrected-pcsdKS calculated and measured spectra of 5 rovibrational lines of H2O for various pressures, from 0.1 to 1.2 atm, show very good agreements. Their maximum differences are in most cases well below 1%, much smaller than residuals obtained when fitting the measurements with the Voigt line shape. This shows that the present procedure can be used to predict H2O line shapes for various pressure conditions and thus the simulated spectra can be used to deduce the refined line-shape parameters to complete spectroscopic databases, in the absence of relevant experimental values.

  19. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  1. Wide-range neutron dose determination with CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneja, A.R.; Waker, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Optical density measurements of CR-30 irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons and chemically etched with 6.5 N KOH solution have been used to determine neutron absorbed doses between 0.1 and 10 Gy. Optimum etching conditions will depend upon the absorbed dose. Since it is not always possible to know the range of absorbed dose on a CR-39 dosemeter collected from personnel and area monitor stations in a criticality accident situation, a three-step two-hour chemical etch at 60 o C has been found to be appropriate. If after a total of six hours of chemical etching the optical density is found to be below 0.04 for 500 nm light (transmission > 90%) then further treatment in the form of electrochemical etching can be carried out to determine the lower absorbed dose. In this manner, absorbed doses below 0.1 Gy can be determined by counting tracks over a unit area. (author)

  2. Are men better than women at acoustic size judgements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Taylor, Anna M; Reby, David

    2013-08-23

    Formants are important phonetic elements of human speech that are also used by humans and non-human mammals to assess the body size of potential mates and rivals. As a consequence, it has been suggested that formant perception, which is crucial for speech perception, may have evolved through sexual selection. Somewhat surprisingly, though, no previous studies have examined whether sexes differ in their ability to use formants for size evaluation. Here, we investigated whether men and women differ in their ability to use the formant frequency spacing of synthetic vocal stimuli to make auditory size judgements over a wide range of fundamental frequencies (the main determinant of vocal pitch). Our results reveal that men are significantly better than women at comparing the apparent size of stimuli, and that lower pitch improves the ability of both men and women to perform these acoustic size judgements. These findings constitute the first demonstration of a sex difference in formant perception, and lend support to the idea that acoustic size normalization, a crucial prerequisite for speech perception, may have been sexually selected through male competition. We also provide the first evidence that vocalizations with relatively low pitch improve the perception of size-related formant information.

  3. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-07

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-accuracy defect sizing for CRDM penetration adapters using the ultrasonic TOFD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is the preferred technique for critical sizing of throughwall orientated defects in a wide range of components, primarily because it is intrinsically more accurate than amplitude-based techniques. For the same reason, TOFD is the preferred technique for sizing the cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration adapters, which have been the subject of much recent attention. Once the considerable problem of restricted access for the UT probes has been overcome, this inspection lends itself to very high accuracy defect sizing using TOFD. In qualification trials under industrial conditions, depth sizing to an accuracy of ≤ 0.5 mm has been routinely achieved throughout the full wall thickness (16 mm) of the penetration adapters, using only a single probe pair and without recourse to signal processing. (author)

  5. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  6. Perylene Diimide Based Fluorescent Dyes for Selective Sensing of Nitroaromatic Compounds: Selective Sensing in Aqueous Medium Across Wide pH Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P S; Pitchaimani, J; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    Water soluble perylenediimide based fluorophore salt, N,N'-bis(ethelenetrimethyl ammoniumiodide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylicbisimide (PDI-1), has been used for selective fluorescence sensing of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) in organic as well as aqueous medium across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). PDI-1 showed strong fluorescence in dimethylformamide (DMF) (Φf = 0.26 (DMF) and moderate fluorescence in water. Addition of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) into PDI-1 in DMF/aqueous solution selectively quenches the fluorescence. The concentration dependent studies showed decrease of fluorescence linearly with increase of PA and 4-NA concentration. The interference studies demonstrate high selectivity for PA and 4-NA. Interestingly, PDI-1 showed selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). Selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA has also been observed with trifluoroacetate (PDI-2), sulfate (PDI-3) salt of PDI-1 as well as octyl chain substituted PDI (PDI-4) without amine functionality. These studies suggest that PA and 4-NA might be having preferential interaction with PDI aromatic core and quenches the fluorescence. Thus PDI based dyes have been used for selective fluorescent sensing of explosive NACs for the first time to the best our knowledge.

  7. The wide range in-core neutron measurement system used in the Windscale AGR concluding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.; Budd, J.; Wilson, I.

    1982-06-01

    The Windscale AGR Concluding Experiments included a comparison of theoretical and experimental power transients and required measurements of neutron flux as a function of position and time within the reactor core. These measurements were specified to cover as wide as possible working range and had to be made against the in-core gamma background of up to 4 x 10 7 R(hr) - 1 . The detectors were required to operate in special, channels cooled by reactor inlet carbon dioxide and the overall system needed a response time such that it could follow transients with doubling times down to 2s with an accuracy of 2 or 3%. These problems were solved by the use of gas ion fission chambers operating in the current fluctuation or Campbelling mode with unusually low filling pressures and fitted with special trilaminax mineral insulated cables. Ten detectors were built and nine were installed in the reactor, three in each of three special stringers at different radial positions. The paper describes the specification against which this system was built, the design process for the detectors, and commissioning experiments together with some of the problems which were encountered. (U.K.)

  8. The effect of kauri (Agathis australis) on grain size distribution and clay mineralogy of andesitic soils in the Waitakere Ranges, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, A.G.; Buurman, P.

    2006-01-01

    Kauri (Agathis australis) is generally associated with intense podzolisation, but little research has been carried out to substantiate this. We studied soil profiles, grain size distribution patterns and clay mineralogy under kauri and broadleaf/tree fern vegetation in the Waitakere Ranges, North

  9. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Verena E; Lecomte, Nicolas; Janke, Axel; Selva, Nuria; Sokolov, Alexander A; Haun, Timm; Steyer, Katharina; Nowak, Carsten; Hailer, Frank

    2013-06-05

    Many boreo-temperate mammals have a Pleistocene fossil record throughout Eurasia and North America, but only few have a contemporary distribution that spans this large area. Examples of Holarctic-distributed carnivores are the brown bear, grey wolf, and red fox, all three ecological generalists with large dispersal capacity and a high adaptive flexibility. While the two former have been examined extensively across their ranges, no phylogeographic study of the red fox has been conducted across its entire Holarctic range. Moreover, no study included samples from central Asia, leaving a large sampling gap in the middle of the Eurasian landmass. Here we provide the first mitochondrial DNA sequence data of red foxes from central Asia (Siberia), and new sequences from several European populations. In a range-wide synthesis of 729 red fox mitochondrial control region sequences, including 677 previously published and 52 newly obtained sequences, this manuscript describes the pattern and timing of major phylogeographic events in red foxes, using a Bayesian coalescence approach with multiple fossil tip and root calibration points. In a 335 bp alignment we found in total 175 unique haplotypes. All newly sequenced individuals belonged to the previously described Holarctic lineage. Our analyses confirmed the presence of three Nearctic- and two Japan-restricted lineages that were formed since the Mid/Late Pleistocene. The phylogeographic history of red foxes is highly similar to that previously described for grey wolves and brown bears, indicating that climatic fluctuations and habitat changes since the Pleistocene had similar effects on these highly mobile generalist species. All three species originally diversified in Eurasia and later colonized North America and Japan. North American lineages persisted through the last glacial maximum south of the ice sheets, meeting more recent colonizers from Beringia during postglacial expansion into the northern Nearctic. Both brown

  10. ZnO core spike particles and nano-networks and their wide range of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, S.; Mishra, Y. K.; Gedamu, D.; Kaps, S.; Jin, X.; Koschine, T.; Bathnagar, A.; Adelung, R.

    2011-05-01

    In our approach we are producing a polymer composite material with ZnO core spike particles as concave fillers. The core spike particles are synthesized by a high throughput method. Using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a matrix material the core spike particles achieve not only a high mechanical reinforcement but also influence other material properties in a very interesting way, making such a composite very interesting for a wide range of applications. In a very similar synthesis route a nanoscopic ZnO-network is produced. As a ceramic this network can withstand high temperatures like 1300 K. In addition this material is quite elastic. To find a material with these two properties is a really difficult task, as polymers tend to decompose already at lower temperatures and metals melt. Especially under ambient conditions, often oxygen creates a problem for metals at these temperatures. If this material is at the same time a semiconductor, it has a high potential as a multifunctional material. Ceramic or classical semiconductors like III-V or IIVI type are high temperature stable, but typically brittle. This is different on the nanoscale. Even semiconductor wires like silicon with a very small diameter do not easily built up enough stress that leads to a failure while being bent, because in a first order approximation the maximum stress of a fiber scales with its diameter.

  11. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-06-27

    This paper proposes a new “twisted” 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices.

  12. Short-range order in Fe-based metallic glasses: Wide-angle X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babilas, Rafał; Hawełek, Łukasz; Burian, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The local atomic structure of the Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 glasses prepared in the form of ribbons has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. Structural information about the amorphous ribbons has been derived from analysis of the radial distribution functions using the least-squares curve-fitting method. The obtained structural parameters indicate that Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb and Nb–B contributions are involved in the near-neighbor coordination spheres. The possible similarities of the local atomic arrangement in the investigated glasses and the crystalline Fe 3 B, Fe 23 B 6 and bcc Fe structures are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Pair distribution functions (a) and best-fit model and experimental radial distribution functions for Fe 80 B 20 (b), Fe 70 Nb 10 B 20 (c) and Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 (d) metallic glasses. - Highlights: • The short-range ordering in the Fe-based metallic glasses is presented. • The results of RDF function have been analyzed using the least-squares method. • The Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb or Nb–B contributions are involved in coordination spheres. • The structural unit is distorted triangular prism containing B, Fe or Nb atoms. • Similarities of atomic arrangement in glassy and crystalline structures are discussed

  13. Performance of diethylene glycol-based particle counters in the sub-3 nm size range

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Franchin, A; Kangasluoma, J; Kreissl, F; Kürten, A; Kupc, A; Metzger, A; Mikkilä, J; Petäjä, J; Riccobono, F; Vanhanen, J; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J

    2013-01-01

    When studying new particle formation, the uncertainty in determining the "true" nucleation rate is considerably reduced when using condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring concentrations of aerosol particles at sizes close to or even at the critical cluster size (1–2 nm). Recently, CPCs able to reliably detect particles below 2 nm in size and even close to 1 nm became available. Using these instruments, the corrections needed for calculating nucleation rates are substantially reduced compared to scaling the observed formation rate to the nucleation rate at the critical cluster size. However, this improved instrumentation requires a careful characterization of their cut-off size and the shape of the detection efficiency curve because relatively small shifts in the cut-off size can translate into larger relative errors when measuring particles close to the cut-off size. Here we describe the development of two continuous-flow CPCs using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid. The desig...

  14. Genome-wide signatures of flowering adaptation to climate temperature: Regional analyses in a highly diverse native range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Arteaga, Noelia; Marcer, Arnald; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Weigel, Detlef; Xavier Picó, F; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2018-03-08

    Current global change is fueling an interest to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to climate. In particular, altered flowering time is a common strategy for escape from unfavourable climate temperature. In order to determine the genomic bases underlying flowering time adaptation to this climatic factor, we have systematically analysed a collection of 174 highly diverse Arabidopsis thaliana accessions from the Iberian Peninsula. Analyses of 1.88 million single nucleotide polymorphisms provide evidence for a spatially heterogeneous contribution of demographic and adaptive processes to geographic patterns of genetic variation. Mountains appear to be allele dispersal barriers, whereas the relationship between flowering time and temperature depended on the precise temperature range. Environmental genome-wide associations supported an overall genome adaptation to temperature, with 9.4% of the genes showing significant associations. Furthermore, phenotypic genome-wide associations provided a catalogue of candidate genes underlying flowering time variation. Finally, comparison of environmental and phenotypic genome-wide associations identified known (Twin Sister of FT, FRIGIDA-like 1, and Casein Kinase II Beta chain 1) and new (Epithiospecifer Modifier 1 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 5) genes as candidates for adaptation to climate temperature by altered flowering time. Thus, this regional collection provides an excellent resource to address the spatial complexity of climate adaptation in annual plants. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Wide range of metallic and organic contaminants in various tissues of the Antarctic prion, a planktonophagous seabird from the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromant, Aymeric; Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Churlaud, Carine; Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Trace elements (n = 14) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n = 30) were measured in blood, liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 10 Antarctic prions (Pachyptila desolata) from Kerguelen Islands, southern Indian Ocean, in order to assess their concentrations, tissue distribution, and inter-tissue and inter-contaminant relationships. Liver, kidney and feathers presented the highest burdens of arsenic, cadmium and mercury, respectively. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc correlated in liver and muscle, suggesting that uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage were similar for these elements. The major POPs were 4,4′-DDE, mirex, PCB-153 and PCB-138. The concentrations and tissue distribution patterns of environmental contaminants were overall in accordance with previous results in other seabirds. Conversely, some Antarctic prions showed surprisingly high concentrations of BDE-209. This compound has been rarely observed in seabirds before, and its presence in Antarctic prions could be due to the species feeding habits or to the ingestion of plastic debris. Overall, the study shows that relatively lower trophic level seabirds (zooplankton-eaters) breeding in the remote southern Indian Ocean are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants, in particular cadmium, selenium and some emerging-POPs, which merits further toxicological investigations. - Highlights: • Trace elements and POPs were measured in various tissues of 10 Antarctic prions. • Residue diversity was notable given the species' small size and low trophic position. • Cd, Se, BDE 183 and 209 showed noticeably high internal tissue concentrations. • Several POPs showed inter- and intra-tissue correlations, indicating co-exposure. • Blood was validated as a good bioindicator of internal tissue As and Hg levels.

  16. Wide range of metallic and organic contaminants in various tissues of the Antarctic prion, a planktonophagous seabird from the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromant, Aymeric [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent [Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5805 EPOC (LPTC Research Group), Université Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, F 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS—Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Chastel, Olivier; Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372 CNRS—Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2016-02-15

    ABSTRACT: Trace elements (n = 14) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n = 30) were measured in blood, liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 10 Antarctic prions (Pachyptila desolata) from Kerguelen Islands, southern Indian Ocean, in order to assess their concentrations, tissue distribution, and inter-tissue and inter-contaminant relationships. Liver, kidney and feathers presented the highest burdens of arsenic, cadmium and mercury, respectively. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc correlated in liver and muscle, suggesting that uptake and pathways of metabolism and storage were similar for these elements. The major POPs were 4,4′-DDE, mirex, PCB-153 and PCB-138. The concentrations and tissue distribution patterns of environmental contaminants were overall in accordance with previous results in other seabirds. Conversely, some Antarctic prions showed surprisingly high concentrations of BDE-209. This compound has been rarely observed in seabirds before, and its presence in Antarctic prions could be due to the species feeding habits or to the ingestion of plastic debris. Overall, the study shows that relatively lower trophic level seabirds (zooplankton-eaters) breeding in the remote southern Indian Ocean are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants, in particular cadmium, selenium and some emerging-POPs, which merits further toxicological investigations. - Highlights: • Trace elements and POPs were measured in various tissues of 10 Antarctic prions. • Residue diversity was notable given the species' small size and low trophic position. • Cd, Se, BDE 183 and 209 showed noticeably high internal tissue concentrations. • Several POPs showed inter- and intra-tissue correlations, indicating co-exposure. • Blood was validated as a good bioindicator of internal tissue As and Hg levels.

  17. Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from the sample size, median, range and/or interquartile range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Jiming; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-19

    In systematic reviews and meta-analysis, researchers often pool the results of the sample mean and standard deviation from a set of similar clinical trials. A number of the trials, however, reported the study using the median, the minimum and maximum values, and/or the first and third quartiles. Hence, in order to combine results, one may have to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation for such trials. In this paper, we propose to improve the existing literature in several directions. First, we show that the sample standard deviation estimation in Hozo et al.'s method (BMC Med Res Methodol 5:13, 2005) has some serious limitations and is always less satisfactory in practice. Inspired by this, we propose a new estimation method by incorporating the sample size. Second, we systematically study the sample mean and standard deviation estimation problem under several other interesting settings where the interquartile range is also available for the trials. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods through simulation studies for the three frequently encountered scenarios, respectively. For the first two scenarios, our method greatly improves existing methods and provides a nearly unbiased estimate of the true sample standard deviation for normal data and a slightly biased estimate for skewed data. For the third scenario, our method still performs very well for both normal data and skewed data. Furthermore, we compare the estimators of the sample mean and standard deviation under all three scenarios and present some suggestions on which scenario is preferred in real-world applications. In this paper, we discuss different approximation methods in the estimation of the sample mean and standard deviation and propose some new estimation methods to improve the existing literature. We conclude our work with a summary table (an Excel spread sheet including all formulas) that serves as a comprehensive guidance for performing meta-analysis in different

  18. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  19. What is the optimum sample size for the study of peatland testate amoeba assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazei, Yuri A; Tsyganov, Andrey N; Esaulov, Anton S; Tychkov, Alexander Yu; Payne, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Testate amoebae are widely used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of peatlands, particularly as indicators of surface wetness. To ensure data are robust and comparable it is important to consider methodological factors which may affect results. One significant question which has not been directly addressed in previous studies is how sample size (expressed here as number of Sphagnum stems) affects data quality. In three contrasting locations in a Russian peatland we extracted samples of differing size, analysed testate amoebae and calculated a number of widely-used indices: species richness, Simpson diversity, compositional dissimilarity from the largest sample and transfer function predictions of water table depth. We found that there was a trend for larger samples to contain more species across the range of commonly-used sample sizes in ecological studies. Smaller samples sometimes failed to produce counts of testate amoebae often considered minimally adequate. It seems likely that analyses based on samples of different sizes may not produce consistent data. Decisions about sample size need to reflect trade-offs between logistics, data quality, spatial resolution and the disturbance involved in sample extraction. For most common ecological applications we suggest that samples of more than eight Sphagnum stems are likely to be desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  1. Can an electronic device with a single cuff be accurate in a wide range of arm size? Validation of the Visomat Comfort 20/40 device for home blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, G S; Tzamouranis, D; Nasothimiou, E G; Protogerou, A D

    2008-11-01

    An appropriate cuff according to the individual's arm circumference is recommended with all blood pressure (BP) monitors. An electronic device for home monitoring has been developed (Visomat Comfort 20/40) that estimates the individual's arm circumference by measuring the cuff filing volume and makes an adjustment of measured BP taking into account the estimated arm circumference. Thus the manufacturer recommends the use of a single cuff for arm circumference 23-43 cm. The device accuracy was assessed using the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol. Simultaneous BP measurements were obtained in 33 adults by two observers (connected mercury sphygmomanometers) four times, sequentially with three measurements taken using the tested device. Absolute device-observer BP differences were classified into difference differences differences difference (systolic/diastolic) was 3.7 +/- 5.6/-1.5 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (4.7 +/- 4.9/ - 1.7 +/- 4.3 in arm circumference 23-29 cm [39 readings] and 3.1 +/- 5.9/-1.4 +/- 5.0 in arm 30-34 cm [60 readings], P=NS). In conclusion, the device fulfils the International Protocol requirements and can be recommended for clinical use. Interestingly, the device was accurate using a single cuff in a wide range of arm circumference (23-34 cm). This study provides no information about the device accuracy in larger arms.

  2. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye. These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance.

  3. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Wide-range measurement of thermal effusivity using molybdenum thin film with low thermal conductivity for thermal microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shugo; Matsui, Genzou; Ohta, Hiromichi; Hatori, Kimihito; Taguchi, Kohei; Yamamoto, Suguru

    2017-07-01

    Thermal microscopes are a useful technology to investigate the spatial distribution of the thermal transport properties of various materials. However, for high thermal effusivity materials, the estimated values of thermophysical parameters based on the conventional 1D heat flow model are known to be higher than the values of materials in the literature. Here, we present a new procedure to solve the problem which calculates the theoretical temperature response with the 3D heat flow and measures reference materials which involve known values of thermal effusivity and heat capacity. In general, a complicated numerical iterative method and many thermophysical parameters are required for the calculation in the 3D heat flow model. Here, we devised a simple procedure by using a molybdenum (Mo) thin film with low thermal conductivity on the sample surface, enabling us to measure over a wide thermal effusivity range for various materials.

  5. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    OpenAIRE

    L. Campo; A. B. Monteagudo; B. Salleres; P. Castro; J. Moreno-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. ...

  6. Wide-angle, polarization-insensitive and broadband absorber based on eight-fold symmetric SRRs metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Lei; Ma, Rui; Li, Yutong; Li, Ruifang; Ye, Han

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel three dimensional metamaterial design with eight-fold rotational symmetry that shows a polarization-insensitive, wide-angle and broadband perfect absorption in the microwave band. By simulation, the polarization-insensitive absorption is over 90% between 26.9 GHz to 32.9 GHz, and the broadband absorption remains a good absorption performance to a wide incident angles for both TE and TM polarizations. The magnetic field distribution are investigated to interpret the physical mechanism of broadband absorption. The broadband absorption is based on overlapping the multiple magnetic resonances at the neighboring frequencies by coupling effects of multiple metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs). Moreover, it is demonstrate that the designed structure can be extended to other frequencies by scale down the size of the unit cell, such as the visible frequencies. The simulated results show that the absorption of the smaller absorber is above 90% in the frequency range from 467 THz to 765 THz(392-642 nm), which include orange to purple light in visible region(400-760nm). The wide-angle and polarization-insensitive stabilities of the smaller absorber is also demonstrated at visible region. The proposed work provides a new design of realization of a polarization-insensitive, wide-angle and broadband absorber ranging different frequency bands, and such a structure has potential application in the fields of solar cell, imaging and detection.

  7. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  8. Influence of grain size on the tensile and creep properties of a type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, S.L.; Samuel, K.G.; Rodriguez, P.

    The influence of grain size, on the tensile deformation behaviour in the temperature range 300-1223 K and on the creep rate at 873 and 973 K over a wide range of applied stresses, in a type 316 stainless steel has been investigated. For the tensile results, the Hall-Petch relation was found to be valid up to 1023 K. The variations of flow stress and work hardening rate with temperature and grain size have been found to be influenced by dynamic strain aging which occurs in the temperature range 523-923 K. The creep experiments revealed that grain boundaries contribute to strengthening at high stresses (180-260 MPa) at 873 K but this strengthening does not correlate with the available models which attempt to incorporate the Hall-Petch strengthening effect into creep rate equations. At 973 K the creep rate was generally constant but increased at small grain sizes and at lower stresses due to increased contribution from grain boundary sliding. The difference in the grain size effects on creep at the two temperatures is attributed to the difference in the substructures developed during creep. (author)

  9. 2.5 Gbit/s Optical Receiver Front-End Circuit with High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tiezhu; Mo, Taishan; Ye, Tianchun

    2017-12-01

    An optical receiver front-end circuit is designed for passive optical network and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS technology. The whole circuit consists of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA), a single-ended to differential amplifier and an output driver. The TIA employs a cascode stage as the input stage and auxiliary amplifier to reduce the miller effect. Current injecting technique is employed to enlarge the input transistor's transconductance, optimize the noise performance and overcome the lack of voltage headroom. To achieve a wide dynamic range, an automatic gain control circuit with self-adaptive function is proposed. Experiment results show an optical sensitivity of -28 dBm for a bit error rate of 10-10 at 2.5 Gbit/s and a maxim input optical power of 2 dBm using an external photodiode. The chip occupies an area of 1×0.9 mm2 and consumes around 30 mW from single 1.8 V supply. The front-end circuit can be used in various optical receivers.

  10. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H 2 CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  12. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  13. A CMOS frontend chip for implantable neural recording with wide voltage supply range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialin, Liu; Xu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Hu; Yatao, Guo; Peng, Li; Ming, Liu; Bin, Li; Hongda, Chen

    2015-10-01

    A design for a CMOS frontend integrated circuit (chip) for neural signal acquisition working at wide voltage supply range is presented in this paper. The chip consists of a preamplifier, a serial instrumental amplifier (IA) and a cyclic analog-to-digital converter (CADC). The capacitive-coupled and capacitive-feedback topology combined with MOS-bipolar pseudo-resistor element is adopted in the preamplifier to create a -3 dB upper cut-off frequency less than 1 Hz without using a ponderous discrete device. A dual-amplifier instrumental amplifier is used to provide a low output impedance interface for ADC as well as to boost the gain. The preamplifier and the serial instrumental amplifier together provide a midband gain of 45.8 dB and have an input-referred noise of 6.7 μVrms integrated from 1 Hz to 5 kHz. The ADC digitizes the amplified signal at 12-bits precision with a highest sampling rate of 130 kS/s. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC is 8.7 bits. The entire circuit draws 165 to 216 μA current from the supply voltage varied from 1.34 to 3.3 V. The prototype chip is fabricated in the 0.18-μm CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.23 mm2 (including pads). In-vitro recording was successfully carried out by the proposed frontend chip. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474107, 61372060, 61335010, 61275200, 61178051) and the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-L11-01).

  14. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  15. Fast or slow-foods? Describing natural variations in oral processing characteristics across a wide range of Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; Leong, C; Chia-Ming, E; McCrickerd, K

    2017-02-22

    The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings. Behavioural coding analysis was completed on the recordings to extract total bites, chews and swallows and cumulative time of the food spent in the mouth. From these measurements a series of microstructural properties including average bite size (g), chews per bite, oro-sensory exposure time (seconds) and average eating rate (g min -1 ) were derived per food. The sensory and macronutrient properties of each food were correlated with the microstructure of eating to compare the differences in eating behaviour on a gram for gram basis. There were strong relationships between the perceived food textural properties and its eating behaviours and a food's total water content was the best predictor of its eating rate. Foods that were eaten at a slower eating rate, with smaller bites and more chews per bite were rated as higher in the expected fullness. These relationships are important as oral processing behaviours and beliefs about the potential satiating value of food influence portion decisions and moderate meal size. These data support the idea that naturally occurring differences in the food structure and texture could be used to design meals that slow the rate of eating and maximise fullness.

  16. Decrease in the CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat mutation of the fragile X syndrome to normal size range during paternal transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeisaenen, M.L.; Haataja, R.; Leisti, J. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by the expansion of a CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene. Although the repeat number usually increases during transmission, few cases with reduction of an expanded CGG{sub n} repeat back to the normal size range have been reported. We describe for the first time a family in which such reduction has occurred in the paternal transmission. The paternal premutation ({Delta} = 300 hp) was not detected in one of the five daughters or in the son of this daughter, although he had the grandpaternal RFLP haplotype. Instead, fragments indicating the normal CGG{sub n} repeat size were seen on a Southern blot probed with StB12.3. PCR analysis of the CGG{sub n} repeat confirmed this; in addition to a maternal allele of 30 repeats, an allele of 34 repeats was detected in the daughter and, further, in her son. Sequencing of this new allele revealed a pure CGG{sub n} repeat configuration without AGG interruptions. No evidence for a somatic mosaicism of a premutation allele in the daughter or a normal allele in her father was detected when investigating DNA derived from blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. Another unusual finding in this family was lack of the PCR product of the microsatellite marker RS46 (DXS548) in one of the grandmaternal X chromosomes, detected as incompatible inheritance of RS46 alleles. The results suggest an intergenerational reduction in the CGG{sub n} repeat from premutation size to the normal size range and stable transmission of the contracted repeat to the next generation. However, paternal germ-line mosaicism could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for the reverse mutation. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Wide-range light-harvesting donor-acceptor assemblies through specific intergelator interactions via self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2012-12-03

    We have synthesized two new low-molecular-mass organogelators based on tri-p-phenylene vinylene derivatives, one of which could be designated as the donor whereas the other one is an acceptor. These were prepared specifically to show the intergelator interactions at the molecular level by using donor-acceptor self-assembly to achieve appropriate control over their macroscopic properties. Intermolecular hydrogen-bonding, π-stacking, and van der Waals interactions operate for both the individual components and the mixtures, leading to the formation of gels in the chosen organic solvents. Evidence for intergelator interactions was acquired from various spectroscopic, microscopic, thermal, and mechanical investigations. Due to the photochromic nature of these molecules, interesting photophysical properties, such as solvatochromism and J-type aggregation, were clearly observed. An efficient energy transfer was exhibited by the mixture of donor-acceptor assemblies. An array of four chromophores was built up by inclusion of two known dyes (anthracene and rhodamine 6G) for the energy-transfer studies. Interestingly, an energy-transfer cascade was observed in the assembly of four chromophores in a particular order (anthracene-donor-acceptor-rhodamine 6G), and if one of the components was removed from the assembly the energy transfer process was discontinued. This allowed the build up of a light-harvesting process with a wide range. Excitation at one end produces an emission at the other end of the assembly. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  19. Effect of a size-selective biomanipulation on nutrient release by gizzard shad in Florida (USA lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaus M.H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fish removal for biomanipulation is often highly size-selective, our understanding of the nutrient cycling effects of this size-selection is poor. To better understand these effects, we measured nutrient excretion by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum of differing sizes from four central Florida (USA lakes and combined these measures with gillnet biomass and size-structure data to compare lake-wide effects among lakes and years. Direct removal of P in fish tissue ranged from 0.16−1.00 kg·P·ha-1·yr-1. The estimated reduction in P excretion due to harvest ranged from 30.8−202.5 g·P·ha-1·month-1, with effects strongly tied to the biomass and size structure harvested. The amount of P release prevented per kg of fish removed was lower in previously unharvested lakes, due to the initial removal of larger fish with lower mass-specific excretion rates. Gill net mesh size impacted the size distribution of harvested fish, with smaller fish that excrete more P per gram being more vulnerable to smaller mesh sizes. In Lake Apopka, decreasing the mesh size by 1.3 cm yielded P excretion reductions that were 10.7−15.1% larger. Fish harvesting to reduce internal nutrient cycling can be most effective by increasing total harvest and by harvesting smaller size classes over multiple years.

  20. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  1. Size Distribution Imaging by Non-Uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin Echo (NOGSE MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Shemesh

    Full Text Available Objects making up complex porous systems in Nature usually span a range of sizes. These size distributions play fundamental roles in defining the physicochemical, biophysical and physiological properties of a wide variety of systems - ranging from advanced catalytic materials to Central Nervous System diseases. Accurate and noninvasive measurements of size distributions in opaque, three-dimensional objects, have thus remained long-standing and important challenges. Herein we describe how a recently introduced diffusion-based magnetic resonance methodology, Non-Uniform-Oscillating-Gradient-Spin-Echo (NOGSE, can determine such distributions noninvasively. The method relies on its ability to probe confining lengths with a (length6 parametric sensitivity, in a constant-time, constant-number-of-gradients fashion; combined, these attributes provide sufficient sensitivity for characterizing the underlying distributions in μm-scaled cellular systems. Theoretical derivations and simulations are presented to verify NOGSE's ability to faithfully reconstruct size distributions through suitable modeling of their distribution parameters. Experiments in yeast cell suspensions - where the ground truth can be determined from ancillary microscopy - corroborate these trends experimentally. Finally, by appending to the NOGSE protocol an imaging acquisition, novel MRI maps of cellular size distributions were collected from a mouse brain. The ensuing micro-architectural contrasts successfully delineated distinctive hallmark anatomical sub-structures, in both white matter and gray matter tissues, in a non-invasive manner. Such findings highlight NOGSE's potential for characterizing aberrations in cellular size distributions upon disease, or during normal processes such as development.

  2. Multi-Instrument Manager Tool for Data Acquisition and Merging of Optical and Electrical Mobility Size Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritscher, Torsten; Kykal, Carsten; Bischof, Oliver F; Koched, Amine; Filimundi, Eric; Han, Hee-Siew; Johnson, Tim; Elzey, Sherrie; Avenido, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Electrical mobility classification (EC) followed by Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) detection is the technique combined in Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers(SMPS) to retrieve nanoparticle size distributions in the range from 2.5 nm to 1 μm. The detectable size range of SMPS systems can be extended by the addition of an Optical Particle Sizer(OPS) that covers larger sizes from 300 nm to 10 μm. This optical sizing method reports an optical equivalent diameter, which is often different from the electrical mobility diameter measured by the standard SMPS technique. Multi-Instrument Manager (MIM TM ) software developed by TSI incorporates algorithms that facilitate merging SMPS data sets with data based on optical equivalent diameter to compile single, wide-range size distributions. Here we present MIM 2.0, the next-generation of the data merging tool that offers many advanced features for data merging and post-processing. MIM 2.0 allows direct data acquisition with OPS and NanoScan SMPS instruments to retrieve real-time particle size distributions from 10 nm to 10 μm, which we show in a case study at a fireplace. The merged data can be adjusted using one of the merging options, which automatically determines an overall aerosol effective refractive index. As a result an indirect and average characterization of aerosol optical and shape properties is possible. The merging tool allows several pre-settings, data averaging and adjustments, as well as the export of data sets and fitted graphs. MIM 2.0 also features several post-processing options for SMPS data and differences can be visualized in a multi-peak sample over a narrow size range. (paper)

  3. The Kubo-Greenwood calculation of conductivity of the simple and non-simple liquid metals in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A N; Mirzoev, A A

    2008-01-01

    We calculated the temperature dependences of electroconductivity for the different metals, such as alkalis (caesium), transition metals (iron), and mercury by Kubo-Greenwood formula. Atomic models of 1000-4000 atoms were obtained by Shommers method using the data of diffractional experiments for the wide temperature range. The electronic structure and interaction parameters for supercells of 30-50 atoms were got by LMTO method. The recursion method was used for the calculation of DOS and diffusivity quotients. The lowering of the DOS at the Fermi level was carefully examined. The results obtained are in good agreement with other authors' in views on the nature of the metal-nonmetal transition in different liquid metals. The calculated DOS and conductivity for all metals match the experimental data well

  4. Titanium carbide nanocube core induced interfacial growth of crystalline polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol lamellar shell for wide-temperature range supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Pan, Hsiao-An; Wu, Nae-Lih; Chen, Geroge Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This is the first investigation on electrically conducting polymers-based supercapacitor electrodes over a wide temperature range, from -18 °C to 60 °C. A high-performance supercapacitor electrode material consisting of TiC nanocube core and conformal crystalline polypyrrole (PPy)/poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA) lamellar shell has been synthesized by heterogeneous nucleation-induced interfacial crystallization. PPy is induced to crystallize on the negatively charged TiC nanocube surfaces via strong interfacial interactions. In this organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, the long chain PVA enables enhanced cycle life due to improved mechanical properties, and the TiC nanocube not only contributes to electron conduction, but also dictates the PPy morphology/crystallinity for maximizing the charging-discharging performance. The crystalline PPy/PAV layer on the TiC nanocube offers unprecedented high capacity (>350 F g-1-PPy at 300 mV s-1 with ΔV = 1.6 V) and cycling stability in a temperature range from -18 °C to 60 °C. The presented hybrid-filler and interfacial crystallization strategies can be applied to the exploration of new-generation high-power conducting polymer-based supercapacitor materials.

  5. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  6. The effective size of the Icelandic population and the prospects for LD mapping: inference from unphased microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Mailund, Thomas; Thorlacius, Steinunn

    2006-01-01

    on scaled recombination rates from patterns of LD. Patterns of LD in Iceland suggest a genome-wide scaled recombination rate of ρ* = 200 [130–330] per cM which is equivalent to a long term effective population size of ~5000 in the range of estimates recently reported in three populations using extensive...

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association from genomic prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A limitation of many genome-wide association studies (GWA) in animal breeding is that there are many loci with small effect sizes; thus, larger sample sizes (N) are required to guarantee suitable power of detection. To increase sample size, results from different GWA can be combined in a meta-analys...

  8. Particle Size Distribution of E-Cigarette Aerosols and the Relationship to Cambridge Filter Pad Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alderman Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 109 particles/cm3 range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.

  9. Population characteristics of submicrometer-sized craters on regolith particles from asteroid Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Hasegawa, S.; Nakao, S.; Sakai, M.; Yurimoto, H.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated impact crater structures on regolith particles from asteroid Itokawa using scanning electron microscopy. We observed the surfaces of 51 Itokawa particles, ranging from 15 μm to 240 μm in size. Craters with average diameters ranging from 10 nm to 2.8 μm were identified on 13 Itokawa particles larger than 80 μm. We examined the abundance, spatial distribution, and morphology of approximately 900 craters on six Itokawa particles. Craters with sizes in excess of 200 nm are widely dispersed, with spatial densities from 2.6 μm2 to 4.5 μm2; a fraction of the craters was locally concentrated with a density of 0.1 μm2. The fractal dimension of the cumulative crater diameters ranges from 1.3 to 2.3. Craters of several tens of nanometers in diameter exhibit pit and surrounding rim structures. Craters of more than 100 nm in diameter commonly have melted residue at their bottom. These morphologies are similar to those of submicrometer-sized craters on lunar regolith. We estimated the impactor flux on Itokawa regolith-forming craters, assuming that the craters were accumulated during direct exposure to the space environment for 102 to 104 yr. The range of impactor flux onto Itokawa particles is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude higher than the interplanetary dust flux and comparable to the secondary impact flux on the Moon. This indicates that secondary ejecta impacts are probably the dominant cratering process in the submicrometer range on Itokawa regolith particles, as well as on the lunar surface. We demonstrate that secondary submicrometer craters can be produced anywhere in centimeter- to meter-sized depressions on Itokawa's surface through primary interplanetary dust impacts. If the surface unevenness on centimeter to meter scales is a significant factor determining the abundance of submicrometer secondary cratering, the secondary impact flux could be independent of the overall shapes or sizes of celestial bodies, and the secondary

  10. Design of pressure-sensing diaphragm for MEMS capacitance diaphragm gauge considering size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Sun, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Chengxiang

    2018-03-01

    MEMS capacitance diaphragm gauge with a full range of (1˜1000) Pa is considered for its wide application prospect. The design of pressure-sensing diaphragm is the key to achieve balanced performance for this kind of gauges. The optimization process of the pressure-sensing diaphragm with island design of a capacitance diaphragm gauge based on MEMS technique has been reported in this work. For micro-components in micro scale range, mechanical properties are very different from that in the macro scale range, so the size effect should not be ignored. The modified strain gradient elasticity theory considering size effect has been applied to determine the bending rigidity of the pressure-sensing diaphragm, which is then used in the numerical model to calculate the deflection-pressure relation of the diaphragm. According to the deflection curves, capacitance variation can be determined by integrating over the radius of the diaphragm. At last, the design of the diaphragm has been optimized based on three parameters: sensitivity, linearity and ground capacitance. With this design, a full range of (1˜1000) Pa can be achieved, meanwhile, balanced sensitivity, resolution and linearity can be kept.

  11. A rocky composition for an Earth-sized exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Johnson, John Asher; Winn, Joshua N; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A; Fulton, Benjamin J; Sinukoff, Evan; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2013-11-21

    Planets with sizes between that of Earth (with radius R Earth symbol) and Neptune (about 4R Earth symbol) are now known to be common around Sun-like stars. Most such planets have been discovered through the transit technique, by which the planet's size can be determined from the fraction of starlight blocked by the planet as it passes in front of its star. Measuring the planet's mass--and hence its density, which is a clue to its composition--is more difficult. Planets of size 2-4R Earth symbol have proved to have a wide range of densities, implying a diversity of compositions, but these measurements did not extend to planets as small as Earth. Here we report Doppler spectroscopic measurements of the mass of the Earth-sized planet Kepler-78b, which orbits its host star every 8.5 hours (ref. 6). Given a radius of 1.20 ± 0.09 R Earth symbol and a mass of 1.69 ± 0.41 R Earth symbol, the planet's mean density of 5.3 ± 1.8 g cm(-3) is similar to Earth's, suggesting a composition of rock and iron.

  12. Variations in stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric water vapor in the marine boundary layer across a wide latitude range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Xiao, Cunde; Ding, Minghu; Ren, Jiawen

    2014-11-01

    The newly-developed cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy analyzer with special calibration protocols has enabled the direct measurement of atmospheric vapor isotopes at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents real-time hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data for atmospheric water vapor above the sea surface, over a wide range of latitudes spanning from 38°N to 69°S. Our results showed relatively higher values of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in the subtropical regions than those in the tropical and high latitude regions, and also a notable decreasing trend in the Antarctic coastal region. By combining the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data with meteoric water line and backward trajectory model analysis, we explored the kinetic fractionation caused by subsiding air masses and related saturated vapor pressure in the subtropics, and the evaporation-driven kinetic fractionation in the Antarctic region. Simultaneous observations of meteorological and marine variables were used to interpret the isotopic composition characteristics and influential factors, indicating that d-excess is negatively correlated with humidity across a wide range of latitudes and weather conditions worldwide. Coincident with previous studies, d-excess is also positively correlated with sea surface temperature and air temperature (Tair), with greater sensitivity to Tair. Thus, atmospheric vapor isotopes measured with high accuracy and good spatial-temporal resolution could act as informative tracers for exploring the water cycle at different regional scales. Such monitoring efforts should be undertaken over a longer time period and in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  14. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB

  15. Size effects on negative thermal expansion in cubic ScF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. G.; Zhang, K. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tong, P., E-mail: tongpeng@issp.ac.cn; Lin, J. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Lin, S.; Xu, W.; Song, W. H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, P. C. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Y. P., E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-07-11

    Scandium trifluoride (ScF{sub 3}), adopting a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure at ambient pressure, undergoes a pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide range of temperatures (10 K–1100 K). Here, we report the size effects on the NTE properties of ScF{sub 3}. The magnitude of NTE is reduced with diminishing the crystal size. As revealed by the specific heat measurement, the low-energy phonon vibrations which account for the NTE behavior are stiffened as the crystal size decreases. With decreasing the crystal size, the peaks in high-energy X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) become broad, which cannot be illuminated by local symmetry breaking. Instead, the broadened PDF peaks are strongly indicative of enhanced atomic displacements which are suggested to be responsible for the stiffening of NTE-related lattice vibrations. The present study suggests that the NTE properties of ReO{sub 3}-type and other open-framework materials can be effectively adjusted by controlling the crystal size.

  16. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  17. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B King

    Full Text Available Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females. We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835-1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further

  18. Involvement of TRPM2 in a wide range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako So

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests a role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2 in immune and inflammatory responses. We previously reported that TRPM2 deficiency attenuated inflammatory and neuropathic pain in some pain mouse models, including formalin- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, and peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain models, while it had no effect on the basal mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivities. In this study, we further explored the involvement of TRPM2 in various pain models using TRPM2-knockout mice. There were no differences in the chemonociceptive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or hydrogen peroxide between wildtype and TRPM2-knockout mice, while acetic acid-induced writhing behavior was significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. In the postoperative incisional pain model, no difference in mechanical allodynia was observed between the two genotypes. By contrast, mechanical allodynia in the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain model and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model were significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. Furthermore, mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and streptozotocin-induced painful diabetic neuropathy models were significantly attenuated in TRPM2-knockout mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TRPM2 plays roles in a wide range of pathological pain models based on peripheral and central neuroinflammation, rather than physiological nociceptive pain.

  19. Luminescence of high density electron-hole plasma in CdS and CdSe in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Shionoya, S.

    1983-01-01

    Time-resolved spectra of the spontaneous luminescence of the high density electron-hole plasma (EHP) in CdS and CdSe are observed in a wide range of temperature which is surely higher than the calculated critical temperature for electron-hole liquid formation, in order to carry forward discussion on dynamic nature of the EHP previously observed in 4.2 K experiments. Spectra in the late stage are analyzed, and obtained values of the reduced bandgap energy and chemical potential are compared with those theoretically calculated for higher temperatures. The aspects of the change of the spectral shape in the late stage are hard to understand. Unfortunately no clear conclusion is drawn on the nature of the EHP produced at 4.2 K. The only thing one can say is that the condensed electron-hole liquid state, which is in equilibrium with the exciton state, is not realized. (author)

  20. Combustion and emission characteristics of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) fuelled with naphtha and gasoline in wide load range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Wang, Zhi; Shuai, Shijin; Yang, Hongqiang; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Naphtha MPCI can operate stably in wide load range from 0.4 MPa to 1.4 MPa of IMEP. • Naphtha MPCI can achieve high thermal efficiency due to low exhaust loss. • Gasoline MPCI has low heat transfer loss than CDC and naphtha MPCI. • MPCI can produce low NO x emissions (<0.4 g/kW h) with the EGR ratio less than 30%. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of naphtha (RON = 65.6) and commercial gasoline (RON = 94.0) on Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) mode. The experiment is conducted on a single cylinder research diesel engine with compression ratio of 16.7. The engine is operated at an engine speed of 1600 rpm for the IMEP from 0.4 to 1.4 MPa. Commercial diesel (CN = 56.5) is also tested in Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) mode as a baseline. At each operating point, the injection strategy and intake conditions are adjusted to meet with the criteria (NO x < 0.4 g/kW h, soot < 0.06 m −1 , MPRR < 1 MPa/deg and CA50 < 20 CAD ATDC). The typical two-stage combustion characteristics of MPCI are obtained in both naphtha and gasoline. Stable combustion is achieved by naphtha in wide load range, while the engine fuelled with gasoline cannot operate stably at 0.4 MPa IMEP. The COV of IMEP of gasoline MPCI is higher than that of naphtha and diesel. However, gasoline has the low MPRR and the retarded CA50 at medium and high loads due to its longest ignition delay. As a result of low exhaust loss for naphtha and low heat transfer loss for gasoline, the thermal efficiencies are higher for both naphtha and gasoline in MPCI mode than diesel in CDC mode, even though diesel has the highest combustion efficiency. The separated combustion in MPCI leads to low cylinder temperature, and moderate EGR ratio (less than 30%) is needed to control NO x emissions under the limit of EURO VI

  1. Electrolytes for Low Impedance, Wide Operating Temperature Range Lithium-Ion Battery Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallac, Boutros (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor); Jiang, Junwei (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Metz, Bernhard M. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A lithium ion battery cell includes a housing, a cathode disposed within the housing, wherein the cathode comprises a cathode active material, an anode disposed within the housing, wherein the anode comprises an anode active material, and an electrolyte disposed within the housing and in contact with the cathode and anode. The electrolyte consists essentially of a solvent mixture, a lithium salt in a concentration ranging from approximately 1.0 molar (M) to approximately 1.6 M, and an additive mixture. The solvent mixture includes a cyclic carbonate, an non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester. The additive mixture consists essentially of lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) in an amount ranging from approximately 0.5 weight percent to approximately 2.0 weight percent based on the weight of the electrolyte, and vinylene carbonate (VC) in an amount ranging from approximately 0.5 weight percent to approximately 2.0 weight percent based on the weight of the electrolyte.

  2. Salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction with a dual-role solvent for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with a wide polarity range in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Man; Qu, Jingang; Chen, Kai; Jin, Lide; Dahlgren, Randy Alan; Wang, Huili; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-11-01

    In real aquatic environments, many occupational pollutants with a wide range of polarities coexist at nanogram to milligram per liter levels. Most reported microextraction methods focus on extracting compounds with similar properties (e.g., polarity or specific functional groups). Herein, we developed a salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction based on a dual-role solvent (SILM-DS) for simultaneous detection of tetracycline, doxycycline, bisphenol A, triclosan, and methyltriclosan, with log K ow ranging from -1.32 to 5.40 in complex milk and environmental water matrices. The disperser in the ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was converted to the extraction solvent in the subsequent salting-out-assisted microextraction procedures, and thus a single solvent performed a dual role as both extractant and disperser in the SILM-DS process. Acetonitrile was selected as the dual-role solvent because of its strong affinity for both ionic liquids and water, as well as the extractant in the salting-out step. Optimized experimental conditions were 115 μL [C 8 MIM][PF 6 ] as extractor, 1200 μL acetonitrile as dual-role solvent, pH 2.0, 5.0 min ultrasound extraction time, 3.0 g Na 2 SO 4 , and 3.0 min vortex extraction time. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries of the five pollutants ranged from 74.5 to 106.9%, and their LODs were 0.12-0.75 μg kg -1 in milk samples and 0.11-0.79 μg L -1 in environmental waters. Experimental precision based on relative standard deviation was 1.4-6.4% for intraday and 2.3-6.5% for interday analyses. Compared with previous methods, the prominent advantages of the newly developed method are simultaneous determination of pollutants with a wide range of polarities and a substantially reduced workload for ordinary environmental monitoring and food tests. Therefore, the new method has great application potential for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with strongly contrasting polarities in several

  3. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colberg, Peter H., E-mail: pcolberg@chem.utoronto.ca; Kapral, Raymond, E-mail: rkapral@chem.utoronto.ca [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-11-14

    Self-propelled chemically powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. This paper considers even smaller Ångström-size synthetic motors. Such very small motors in bulk solution display effects arising from their self-propulsion. Recent experiments have shown that small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to their chemical activity. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of very small Ångström-size synthetic chemically powered sphere-dimer motors in a simple atomic-like solvent confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent depletion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation, and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research provides information needed for potential applications that use molecular-scale motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  4. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colberg, Peter H.; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Self-propelled chemically powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. This paper considers even smaller Ångström-size synthetic motors. Such very small motors in bulk solution display effects arising from their self-propulsion. Recent experiments have shown that small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to their chemical activity. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of very small Ångström-size synthetic chemically powered sphere-dimer motors in a simple atomic-like solvent confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent depletion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation, and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research provides information needed for potential applications that use molecular-scale motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory

  5. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  6. Extending the molecular application range of gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography is an important analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide range of application areas. It is fast, provides a high peak capacity, is sensitive and allows combination with a wide range of selective detection methods including mass spectrometry.

  7. Size-dependent magnetic properties of FeGaB/Al2O3 multilayer micro-islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Gao, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, Y.; Liang, X.; Lin, W.; Sun, N. X.

    2018-06-01

    Recently, micrometer-size patterned magnetic materials have been widely used in MEMS devices. However, the self-demagnetizing action is significantly influencing the performance of the magnetic materials in many MEMS devices. Here, we report an experimental study on the magnetic properties of the patterned micro-scale FeGaB/Al2O3 multilayers. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loop, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), permeability and domain behavior have been demonstrated by complementary techniques. Magnetic annealing was used to enhance the performance of magnetic multilayers. The comparisons among micro-islands with different sizes in the range of 200 μm ∼ 500 μm as well as full film show a marked influence of size-effect, the exchange coupling effect, and the different domain structures inside the islands.

  8. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  9. Thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon: importance of grain size and frequency-dependent mean free paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojie; Alaniz, Joseph E; Jang, Wanyoung; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2011-06-08

    The thermal conductivity reduction due to grain boundary scattering is widely interpreted using a scattering length assumed equal to the grain size and independent of the phonon frequency (gray). To assess these assumptions and decouple the contributions of porosity and grain size, five samples of undoped nanocrystalline silicon have been measured with average grain sizes ranging from 550 to 64 nm and porosities from 17% to less than 1%, at temperatures from 310 to 16 K. The samples were prepared using current activated, pressure assisted densification (CAPAD). At low temperature the thermal conductivities of all samples show a T(2) dependence which cannot be explained by any traditional gray model. The measurements are explained over the entire temperature range by a new frequency-dependent model in which the mean free path for grain boundary scattering is inversely proportional to the phonon frequency, which is shown to be consistent with asymptotic analysis of atomistic simulations from the literature. In all cases the recommended boundary scattering length is smaller than the average grain size. These results should prove useful for the integration of nanocrystalline materials in devices such as advanced thermoelectrics.

  10. A novel system for rapid measurement of high-frequency magnetic properties of toroidal cores of different sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Derebasi, N; Moses, A J; Fox, D

    2000-01-01

    A novel system for power loss and B-H measurements on toroidal magnetic cores was built to operate up to 200 kHz. Measurement data taken using sophisticated software at 10 MHz sampling rate and 16-bit resolution shows the system is versatile and can be used to test a wide range of core sizes and materials with an error <+-3%.

  11. Depletion of eIF4G from yeast cells narrows the range of translational efficiencies genome-wide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinnebusch Alan G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G is thought to influence the translational efficiencies of cellular mRNAs by its roles in forming an eIF4F-mRNA-PABP mRNP that is competent for attachment of the 43S preinitiation complex, and in scanning through structured 5' UTR sequences. We have tested this hypothesis by determining the effects of genetically depleting eIF4G from yeast cells on global translational efficiencies (TEs, using gene expression microarrays to measure the abundance of mRNA in polysomes relative to total mRNA for ~5900 genes. Results Although depletion of eIF4G is lethal and reduces protein synthesis by ~75%, it had small effects (less than a factor of 1.5 on the relative TE of most genes. Within these limits, however, depleting eIF4G narrowed the range of translational efficiencies genome-wide, with mRNAs of better than average TE being translated relatively worse, and mRNAs with lower than average TE being translated relatively better. Surprisingly, the fraction of mRNAs most dependent on eIF4G display an average 5' UTR length at or below the mean for all yeast genes. Conclusions This finding suggests that eIF4G is more critical for ribosome attachment to mRNAs than for scanning long, structured 5' UTRs. Our results also indicate that eIF4G, and the closed-loop mRNP it assembles with the m7 G cap- and poly(A-binding factors (eIF4E and PABP, is not essential for translation of most (if not all mRNAs but enhances the differentiation of translational efficiencies genome-wide.

  12. Study of carbon-doped micro and nano sized alumina for radiation dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontainha, C. C. P.; Alves, N.; Ferraz, W. B.; Faria, L. O.

    2017-10-01

    New materials have been widely investigated for ionizing radiation dosimetry for medical procedures. Carbon-doped doped alumina (Al 2 O 3 :C) have been proposed as thermoluminescent and photo luminescent dosimeters. In the present study nano and micro-sized alumina doped with different percentages of carbon, sintered under different atmosphere conditions, at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1750 degrees Celsius, were sintered and their dosimetric characteristics for gamma fields were investigated. Among the investigated sample preparation methods, the micro-sized alumina doped with 0.01% of carbon and sintered at 1700 degrees Celsius under reducing atmosphere has presented the best Tl output, comparable to the best Tl sensitivities ever reported to alumina and better efficiency than the nano-sized alumina synthesized in this study. The influence of humidity in the Tl signal has been evaluated to be -4.0%. The micro-sized alumina obtained by the methodology used in this work is a suitable candidate for application in X and gamma radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  13. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.

  14. Low threshold lasing of bubble-containing glass microspheres by non-whispering gallery mode excitation over a wide wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tsutaru, E-mail: kumagai.t.af@m.titech.ac.jp; Kishi, Tetsuo; Yano, Tetsuji [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    Bubble-containing Nd{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass microspheres were fabricated by localized laser heating technique to investigate their optical properties for use as microresonators. Fluorescence and excitation spectra measurements were performed by pumping with a tunable CW-Ti:Sapphire laser. The excitation spectra manifested several sharp peaks due to the conventional whispering gallery mode (WGM) when the pumping laser was irradiated to the edge part of the microsphere. However, when the excitation light was irradiated on the bubble position inside the microsphere, “non-WGM excitation” was induced, giving rise to numerous peaks at a broad wavelength range in the excitation spectra. Thus, efficient excitation was achieved over a wide wavelength range. Lasing threshold excited at the bubble position was much lower than that for the excitation at the edges of the microsphere. The lowest value of the laser threshold was 34 μW for a 4 μm sphere containing a 0.5 μm bubble. Efficiency of the excitation at the bubble position with broadband light was calculated to be 5 times higher than that for the edge of the microsphere. The bubble-containing microsphere enables efficient utilization of broadband light excitation from light-emitting diodes and solar light.

  15. Sn-doped polyhedral In2O3 particles: Synthesis, characterization, and origins of luminous emission in wide visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunqing; Chen Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped octahedronal and tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particles were successfully synthesized by simple thermal evaporation of indium grains using SnO as dopant. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the Sn-doped tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particle had additional six {001} crystal surfaces compared with the octahedronal one. The luminous properties of both samples were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. A broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm was observed. Studies revealed that the emission consisted of three peaks of 511 nm, 564 nm, and 622 nm, which were attributed to radioactive recombination centers such as single ionized oxygen vacancy, indium interstitial, and antisite oxygen, respectively. We believe that the Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible luminous emission. - Graphical abstract: With more oxygen vacancies and tin doping. ITO particles can exhibit a better CL performance. Sn donor level near the conduction band edge plays an important role in luminous emission in wide visible range. Highlights: ► Polyhedral ITO particles synthesized by thermal evaporation using SnO as dopant. ► Broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm. ► Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible emission. ► ITO particles with more oxygen vacancies have better CL performance in visible range.

  16. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  17. Home range size and breeding dispersal of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telemetric studies have provided ample information on threatened raptors, but still little is known about space use and dispersal of common species. Here I describe the home range and breeding dispersal of a GPS-tracked adult male common buzzard, studied in south-eastern Estonia in 2014–16. This buzzard’s home range covered 8.3 km2 (kernel 95% estimate with the core range being 2.1 km2 (kernel 50%. The home range increased in the course of the breeding season but decreased again before migration. Surprisingly, the nests in the two successive breeding years were located in the opposite margins of the home range, 1.7 km from each other.

  18. KOI-3158: The oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campante T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first discoveries of exoplanets around Sun-like stars have fueled efforts to find ever smaller worlds evocative of Earth and other terrestrial planets in the Solar System. While gas-giant planets appear to form preferentially around metal-rich stars, small planets (with radii less than four Earth radii can form under a wide range of metallicities. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the Universe’s history when metals were far less abundant. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of KOI-3158, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk, which hosts five planets with sizes between Mercury and Venus. We used asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that KOI-3158 formed when the Universe was less than 20 % of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the Universe’s 13.8-billion-year history, providing scope for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy.

  19. Application of ferrofluid density separation to particles in the micrometer-size range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebin, R.S. Jr.; Johnson, J.W.; Robertson, D.M.

    1976-02-01

    A device designed and described by AVCO* as a ''Ferrofluid Density Separator''/sup (1)/ develops an apparent fluid density from nominally 2 to 20 g/cm 3 dependent on the magnitude of an imposed magnetic field gradient. The ferrofluid retains other normal properties of a liquid. One of these devices and a concentration series of ferrofluids were obtained in order to determine the practicality of separating groups of micrometer-size particles into density fractions. Such separations would be of enormous value in the study of various particle burdens because particles of interest are almost always diluted with overwhelming amounts of other particles. The results of a study of separations of micrometer-size particles with the ferrofluid density separator are presented

  20. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervino, G., E-mail: gervino@to.infn.it [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Torino, Turin (Italy); Mana, G. [INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy); Palmisano, C. [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the “best” spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. “Best” is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  1. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaio, E.; Collantes, J.M.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Mornet, S.; Couillaud, F.; Sandre, O.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m −1 . In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We propose AC magnetometry as a method to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles suitable for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. • We have built a lab-made AC magnetometer, which is able to measure magnetic dynamic hysteresis-loops of nanoparticle dispersions. • The device works with AC magnetic field intensities up to 24 kA m −1 in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 1 MHz. • The SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles around 12 nm in magnetic diameter dispersed in water are measured by the lab-made magnetometer and different calorimetric methods. • Although all methods are in good agreement, several factors (probe location, thermal inertia, losses, etc.) make calorimetric method less accurate than AC magnetometry

  3. Webometrics: Some Critical Issues of WWW Size Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Mohana Arunachalam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of webpages in the Internet has increased tremendously over the last two decades however only a part of it is indexed by various search engines. This small portion is the indexable web of the Internet and can be usually reachable from a Search Engine. Search engines play a big role in making the World Wide Web accessible to the end user, and how much of the World Wide Web is accessible on the size of the search engine’s index. Researchers have proposed several ways to estimate this size of the indexable web using search engines with and without privileged access to the search engine’s database. Our report provides a summary of methods used in the last two decades to estimate the size of the World Wide Web, as well as describe how this knowledge can be used in other aspects/tasks concerning the World Wide Web.

  4. RF-field generation in wide frequency range by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.; Nesterovich, A.; Minaev, S.

    1996-01-01

    A simple device for generating powerful RF oscillations in the frequency range of 100-250 MHz is considered. The two-gaps cavity is based on the quarter-wavelength coaxial line loaded by drift tubes. Frequency tuning is accomplished by using the movable shorting plunger. A permanent electron beam being modulated at the first gap return the energy at the second one. The additional tube with the permanent decelerating potential, introduced into the main drift tube, allows to decrease the drift tube length and keep the excitation conditions in frequency tuning. Both autogeneration and amplification modes are under consideration. RF-parameters of the cavity and experimental results are described. (author)

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...