Sample records for wide furrow potato

  1. Ridge and Furrow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per Grau


    Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...

  2. Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato. (United States)

    Kaye, Barbara K.


    Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…

  3. A furrow-seeder for the northeast (United States)

    Raymond E. Graber; Donald F. Thompson; Donald F. Thompson


    Furrow-seeding techniques seem to offer the best means of providing desired conditions at reasonable cost (Croker 1967). A tractor-drawn furrow-seeder prepares a mineral seedbed, sows and covers the seed, and can be maneuvered so as to leave some existing vegetation between furrows for shade. Since no commercial equipment was suitable for use under typical northeastern...

  4. Software for Genome-Wide Association Studies in Autopolyploids and Its Application to Potato

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    Umesh R. Rosyara


    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are widely used in diploid species to study complex traits in diversity and breeding populations, but GWAS software tailored to autopolyploids is lacking. The objectives of this research were to (i develop an R package for autopolyploids based on the + mixed model, (ii validate the software with simulated data, and (iii analyze a diversity panel of tetraploid potatoes. A unique feature of the R package, called GWASpoly, is its ability to model different types of polyploid gene action, including additive, simplex dominant, and duplex dominant. Using a simulated tetraploid population, we confirmed our hypothesis that statistical power is higher when the assumed gene action in the GWAS model matches the gene action at unobserved quantitative trait loci (QTL. Thirteen traits were analyzed in the Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project (SolCAP potato diversity panel and, consistent with previous studies, significant QTL for tuber shape and eye depth co-localized on chromosome 10. For the other traits, only marginally significant QTL were detected, most likely due to insufficient statistical power: for simulated traits with a heritability ( of 0.3, the median genome-wide power was only 0.01. Our results indicate that both marker density and population size were limiting factors for GWAS with the SolCAP panel.

  5. Influence of furrow width on the stability of titanium implants. A study in the rabbit

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    Patricia Miranda Burgos


    Full Text Available Aim: Previous rabbit studies demonstrated higher affinity for bone formation at implant threads with furrows to threads without furrows. The present animal study was undertaken to study the bone tissue response and stability of oxidized titanium implants with 80, 110 and 160 μm wide furrows added on one thread flank. Materials and methods: Ninety-six (96 threaded titanium implants, 3.75 mm in diameter and 7 mm long (TiUnite™, MKIII, Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden, were manufactured with 70 μm deep and either 80 (S0, 110 (S1 or 160 (S2 μm wide furrows or no furrows (controls. The implants were installed in the distal femoral condyle and the tibial methaphysis of 12 rabbits. Six weeks later the implants were subjected to resonance frequency analysis (RFA and removal torque (RTQ tests, after ground sections were manufactured for light microscopy. Results: A significantly increased (22% stability of S1 implants in femoral sites compared with control implants was found. RFA showed no significant differences between test and control implants. Histology revealed more frequent bone fill of furrows with decreased width in parallel with increased frequency of fracture of the bone at the furrow entrance as opposed to a separation at the interface. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated an increased and maximum rotational stability of oxidized titanium implants with a 110 μm wide furrow on one thread flank compared with control implants without a furrow. The observed increased stability can be explained by fracture of the bone at the entrance of the furrow as opposed to a separation at the interface as seen at the wider furrows and at control implants.

  6. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  7. Genome-wide analysis of starch metabolism genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). (United States)

    Van Harsselaar, Jessica K; Lorenz, Julia; Senning, Melanie; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia


    Starch is the principle constituent of potato tubers and is of considerable importance for food and non-food applications. Its metabolism has been subject of extensive research over the past decades. Despite its importance, a description of the complete inventory of genes involved in starch metabolism and their genome organization in potato plants is still missing. Moreover, mechanisms regulating the expression of starch genes in leaves and tubers remain elusive with regard to differences between transitory and storage starch metabolism, respectively. This study aimed at identifying and mapping the complete set of potato starch genes, and to study their expression pattern in leaves and tubers using different sets of transcriptome data. Moreover, we wanted to uncover transcription factors co-regulated with starch accumulation in tubers in order to get insight into the regulation of starch metabolism. We identified 77 genomic loci encoding enzymes involved in starch metabolism. Novel isoforms of many enzymes were found. Their analysis will help to elucidate mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and degradation. Expression analysis of starch genes led to the identification of tissue-specific isoenzymes suggesting differences in the transcriptional regulation of starch metabolism between potato leaf and tuber tissues. Selection of genes predominantly expressed in developing potato tubers and exhibiting an expression pattern indicative for a role in starch biosynthesis enabled the identification of possible transcriptional regulators of tuber starch biosynthesis by co-expression analysis. This study provides the annotation of the complete set of starch metabolic genes in potato plants and their genomic localizations. Novel, so far undescribed, enzyme isoforms were revealed. Comparative transcriptome analysis enabled the identification of tuber- and leaf-specific isoforms of starch genes. This finding suggests distinct regulatory mechanisms in transitory and storage starch

  8. Precocious (pre-anaphase) cleavage furrows in Mesostoma spermatocytes. (United States)

    Forer, Arthur; Pickett-Heaps, Jeremy


    It generally is assumed that cleavage furrows start ingression at anaphase, but this is not always true. Cleavage furrows are initiated during prometaphase in spermatocytes of the flatworm Mesostoma, becoming detectable soon after the spindles achieve bipolarity. The furrows deepen during prometaphase, but ingression soon arrests. After anaphase the pre-existing furrow recommences its ingression and rapidly cleaves the cell. Such "precocious" furrowing also commonly occurs in diatoms and other algae. The position of the "precocious" cleavage furrow changes when there are changes in the distribution of chromosomes. Each of the 4 unipolarly-oriented univalent chromosomes moves to a pole at the start of prometaphase but later in prometaphase may move to the opposite pole. The furrow position adjusts during prometaphase according to the numbers of univalents at the two poles: when there are two univalent chromosomes at each pole the furrow is symmetrical at the spindle equator, but when there are unequal numbers at the poles the furrow shifts 2-3 microm toward the half-spindle with fewer univalents. Nocodazole causes spindle microtubules to disappear. After addition of nocodazole, bivalents become detached from one pole and move toward the other, which causes the furrow to shift 2-3 microm toward the pole with fewer chromosomes. Furrow positioning thus is sensitive to the positioning of chromosomes in the spindle and furrow positions change in the absence of spindle microtubules. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide identification of the potato WRKY transcription factor family. (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Dongdong; Yang, Chenghui; Kong, Nana; Shi, Zheng; Zhao, Peng; Nan, Yunyou; Nie, Tengkun; Wang, Ruoqiu; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Qin


    WRKY transcription factors play pivotal roles in regulation of stress responses. This study identified 79 WRKY genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic relationships, WRKY genes were classified into three major groups. The majority of WRKY genes belonged to Group II (52 StWRKYs), Group III had 14 and Group I consisted of 13. The phylogenetic tree further classified Group II into five sub-groups. All StWRKY genes except StWRKY79 were mapped on potato chromosomes, with eight tandem duplication gene pairs and seven segmental duplication gene pairs found from StWRKY family genes. The expression analysis of 22 StWRKYs showed their differential expression levels under various stress conditions. Cis-element prediction showed that a large number of elements related to drought, heat and salicylic acid were present in the promotor regions of StWRKY genes. The expression analysis indicated that seven StWRKYs seemed to respond to stress (heat, drought and salinity) and salicylic acid treatment. These genes are candidates for abiotic stress signaling for further research.

  10. Genome-wide identification of the potato WRKY transcription factor family.

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    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play pivotal roles in regulation of stress responses. This study identified 79 WRKY genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum. Based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic relationships, WRKY genes were classified into three major groups. The majority of WRKY genes belonged to Group II (52 StWRKYs, Group III had 14 and Group I consisted of 13. The phylogenetic tree further classified Group II into five sub-groups. All StWRKY genes except StWRKY79 were mapped on potato chromosomes, with eight tandem duplication gene pairs and seven segmental duplication gene pairs found from StWRKY family genes. The expression analysis of 22 StWRKYs showed their differential expression levels under various stress conditions. Cis-element prediction showed that a large number of elements related to drought, heat and salicylic acid were present in the promotor regions of StWRKY genes. The expression analysis indicated that seven StWRKYs seemed to respond to stress (heat, drought and salinity and salicylic acid treatment. These genes are candidates for abiotic stress signaling for further research.

  11. Ridge and furrow systems with film cover increase maize yields and mitigate climate risks of cold and drought stress in continental climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Wanlin; Zhang, Lizhen; Duan, Yu; Sun, Li; Zhao, Peiyi; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruonan; Sun, Zhigang


    Ridge-furrow tillage and plastic film cover are widely applied in China to mitigate climate risks, e.g. cool temperature and low rainfall. This study aimed to quantify the effects of ridge-furrow tillage and film cover on maize growth and yield in an environment with frequent seasonal drought and

  12. determination of design inflow rate in furrow irrigation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    while for the vertical and horizontal recessions, Shockley, et al (1964) and. Sherman and Singh (1978) models were used respectively. Hydraulics of Furrow Irrigation .... A drainage channel was provided at a distance of 100m from the upper end of each furrow, thus giving a total advance distance of 100m. The experimental.

  13. Modeling flow and solute transport in irrigation furrows (United States)

    This paper presents an internally coupled flow and solute transport model for free-draining irrigation furrows. Furrow hydraulics is simulated with a numerical zero-inertia model and solute transport is computed with a model based on a numerical solution of the cross-section averaged advection-dispe...

  14. Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia with corneal furrow degeneration

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    Pukhraj Rishi


    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man presented with redness of left eye since six months. Examination revealed bilateral corneal furrow degeneration. Left eye lesion was suggestive of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, encroaching on to cornea. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT confirmed peripheral corneal thinning. Fluorescein angiography confirmed intrinsic vascularity of lesion. Patient was managed with "no touch" surgical excision, dry keratectomy without alcohol, cryotherapy, and primary closure. Pathologic examination of removed tissue confirmed clinical diagnosis. Management of this particular case required modification of standard treatment protocol. Unlike the alcohol-assisted technique of tumor dissection described, ethyl alcohol was not used for risk of corneal perforation due to underlying peripheral corneal thinning. Likewise, topical steroids were withheld in the post-operative period. Three weeks post-operatively, left eye was healing well. Hence, per-operative usage of absolute alcohol and post-operative use of topical steroids may be best avoided in such eyes.

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Potato Circular RNAs in Response to Pectobacterium carotovorum Subspecies brasiliense Infection. (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Zhu, Yongxing; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Zhengwu; Wang, Shuping; Yin, Junliang; Chu, Zhaohui; Ma, Dongfang


    Little information about the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) during potato-Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb) interaction is currently available. In this study, we conducted the systematic identification of circRNAs from time series samples of potato cultivars Valor (susceptible) and BP1 (disease tolerant) infected by Pcb. A total of 2098 circRNAs were detected and about half (931, 44.38%) were intergenic circRNAs. And differential expression analysis detected 429 significantly regulated circRNAs. circRNAs play roles by regulating parental genes and sponging miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of parental genes and miRNAs targeted mRNAs revealed that these differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs were involved in defense response (GO:0006952), cell wall (GO:0005199), ADP binding (GO:0043531), phosphorylation (GO:0016310), and kinase activity (GO:0016301), suggesting the roles of circRNAs in regulating potato immune response. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) found that circRNAs were closely related with coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). And together they were cultivar-specifically regulated to strengthen immune response of potato to Pcb infection, implying the roles of circRNAs in reprogramming disease responsive transcriptome. Our results will provide new insights into the potato-Pcb interaction and may lead to novel disease control strategy in the future.

  16. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Potato Circular RNAs in Response to Pectobacterium carotovorum Subspecies brasiliense Infection

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    Ran Zhou


    Full Text Available Little information about the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs during potato-Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb interaction is currently available. In this study, we conducted the systematic identification of circRNAs from time series samples of potato cultivars Valor (susceptible and BP1 (disease tolerant infected by Pcb. A total of 2098 circRNAs were detected and about half (931, 44.38% were intergenic circRNAs. And differential expression analysis detected 429 significantly regulated circRNAs. circRNAs play roles by regulating parental genes and sponging miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment of parental genes and miRNAs targeted mRNAs revealed that these differentially expressed (DE circRNAs were involved in defense response (GO:0006952, cell wall (GO:0005199, ADP binding (GO:0043531, phosphorylation (GO:0016310, and kinase activity (GO:0016301, suggesting the roles of circRNAs in regulating potato immune response. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA found that circRNAs were closely related with coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs. And together they were cultivar-specifically regulated to strengthen immune response of potato to Pcb infection, implying the roles of circRNAs in reprogramming disease responsive transcriptome. Our results will provide new insights into the potato-Pcb interaction and may lead to novel disease control strategy in the future.

  17. Determination of Empirical Parameters of Revised SCS Method for Furrow Irrigation

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    M. Ghahremannejad


    Full Text Available Introduction: Infiltration is the most important physical properties of agricultural soils. Infiltration families are general relationships that attempt to categorize the infiltration behavior of soils. Walker et al. (2006 discussed the assumptions and procedures used to develop the original NRCS families. Those families categorize infiltration behavior according to their steady-intake rate and were developed largely from border irrigation data. As such, those families have been more widely adopted in border/basin irrigation analyses than in furrow studies. In 2004, NRCS decided to revise the families, largely with the goal of enhancing their applicability to furrow irrigation (Walker et al., 2006. In contrast with the original families, Walker et al. (2006 categorized infiltration based on the average rate during the first 6 h of opportunity time. The new families were developed from furrow infiltration measurements, and then adapted to border conditions. Those infiltration measurements were obtained under inflow rate, slope, cross section, and roughness conditions. Recognizing that these flow conditions affect flow depth and that flow depth affects infiltration in furrows, Walker et al. (2006 proposed procedures for adapting the parameters to new hydraulic conditions. Procedures are also provided for adapting the parameters to events late in the irrigation season. Another important aspect of the new families is the use of the Extended Kostiakov equation, which represents steady-state infiltration better than the Kostiakov formula employed by the original NRCS families. The procedures used to adapt the furrow infiltration parameters to different hydraulic conditions are empirical. From the available data, Walker et al. (2006 developed relationships for the reference parameter values (Kref, aref, and f0ref and reference hydraulic conditions (discharge Qref and wetted perimeter1 WPref as a function of Fn, the family value. In this study the

  18. A vertex model of Drosophila ventral furrow formation.

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    Philipp Spahn

    Full Text Available Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is an outstanding model system to study the mechanisms involved in large-scale tissue rearrangements. Ventral cells accumulate myosin at their apical sides and, while being tightly coupled to each other via apical adherens junctions, execute actomyosin contractions that lead to reduction of their apical cell surface. Thereby, a band of constricted cells along the ventral epithelium emerges which will form a tissue indentation along the ventral midline (the ventral furrow. Here we adopt a 2D vertex model to simulate ventral furrow formation in a surface view allowing easy comparison with confocal live-recordings. We show that in order to reproduce furrow morphology seen in vivo, a gradient of contractility must be assumed in the ventral epithelium which renders cells more contractile the closer they lie to the ventral midline. The model predicts previous experimental findings, such as the gain of eccentric morphology of constricting cells and an incremental fashion of apical cell area reduction. Analysis of the model suggests that this incremental area reduction is caused by the dynamical interplay of cell elasticity and stochastic contractility as well as by the opposing forces from contracting neighbour cells. We underpin results from the model through in vivo analysis of ventral furrow formation in wildtype and twi mutant embryos. Our results show that ventral furrow formation can be accomplished as a "tug-of-war" between stochastically contracting, mechanically coupled cells and may require less rigorous regulation than previously thought.For the developmental biologist it is a fascinating question how cells can coordinate major tissue movements during embryonic development. The so-called ventral furrow of the Drosophila embryo is a well-studied example of such a process when cells from a ventral band, spanning nearly the entire length of the embryo, undergo dramatic shape change by contracting their

  19. Potato market in Ukraine

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    С. І. Мельник


    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  20. Differentially-dimensioned furrow formation by zygotic gene expression and the MBT. (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Blankenship, J Todd


    Despite extensive work on the mechanisms that generate plasma membrane furrows, understanding how cells are able to dynamically regulate furrow dimensions is an unresolved question. Here, we present an in-depth characterization of furrow behaviors and their regulation in vivo during early Drosophila morphogenesis. We show that the deepening in furrow dimensions with successive nuclear cycles is largely due to the introduction of a new, rapid ingression phase (Ingression II). Blocking the midblastula transition (MBT) by suppressing zygotic transcription through pharmacological or genetic means causes the absence of Ingression II, and consequently reduces furrow dimensions. The analysis of compound chromosomes that produce chromosomal aneuploidies suggests that multiple loci on the X, II, and III chromosomes contribute to the production of differentially-dimensioned furrows, and we track the X-chromosomal contribution to furrow lengthening to the nullo gene product. We further show that checkpoint proteins are required for furrow lengthening; however, mitotic phases of the cell cycle are not strictly deterministic for furrow dimensions, as a decoupling of mitotic phases with periods of active ingression occurs as syncytial furrow cycles progress. Finally, we examined the turnover of maternal gene products and find that this is a minor contributor to the developmental regulation of furrow morphologies. Our results suggest that cellularization dynamics during cycle 14 are a continuation of dynamics established during the syncytial cycles and provide a more nuanced view of developmental- and MBT-driven morphogenesis.

  1. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains


    Wistrand, Glen L.


    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  2. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

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    Dunlop, Jason A.


    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  3. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes (United States)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  4. Genome-wide survey of B-box proteins in potato (Solanum tuberosum-Identification, characterization and expression patterns during diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolation.

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    Urszula Talar

    Full Text Available Plant B-box domain proteins (BBX mediate many light-influenced developmental processes including seedling photomorphogenesis, seed germination, shade avoidance and photoperiodic regulation of flowering. Despite the wide range of potential functions, the current knowledge regarding BBX proteins in major crop plants is scarce. In this study, we identify and characterize the StBBX gene family in potato, which is composed of 30 members, with regard to structural properties and expression profiles under diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolations. Based on domain organization and phylogenetic relationships, StBBX genes have been classified into five groups. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that expression of most of them oscillates following a 24-h rhythm; however, large differences in expression profiles were observed between the genes regarding amplitude and position of the maximal and minimal expression levels in the day/night cycle. On the basis of the time-of-day/time-of-night, we distinguished three expression groups specifically expressed during the light and two during the dark phase. In addition, we showed that the expression of several StBBX genes is under the control of the circadian clock and that some others are specifically associated with the etiolation and de-etiolation conditions. Thus, we concluded that StBBX proteins are likely key players involved in the complex diurnal and circadian networks regulating plant development as a function of light conditions and day duration.

  5. Simulation Furrow Irrigation by Winsrfr4.1 in order to Determine the Optimum Length of Furrow

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    Mona Golabi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surface irrigation methods are the most common methods for irrigation of agricultural land. These methods are superior to sprinkler, drip and underground irrigation, because they have lower costs of funding and implementation, is inexpensive, needed maintenance of equipment is simple and does not require skilled labor. New requirements for the use of municipal water, energy, industrial, and military intends to further improve the performance of surface irrigation systems. In other words, the low efficiency of surface irrigation is not related to the method of it, but the weakness is because of the design, implementation and management. Due to the special place of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran in agriculture and applied surface irrigation for most of the farms in this province, in the present study was simulated water flow in furrow irrigation by using WinSRFR4.1 and the optimum length of furrow was determined in the experimental farm of the Water Sciences Engineering Shoshtar University. For this purpose, advance and recession of flow were simulated by Zero inertia and Kinematic wave model and result were compared with observed data. Materials and Methods: In order to calculate and predicte advance and recession curves field measurement is necessary, but it takes a lot of time and cost. Therefore, the use of mathematical models and software for access information is important. In this research the amount of advance in furrow irrigation was measured and the results were compared with simulation of WinSRFR4.1.Field experiments was conducted in the research field of Water Sciences Engineering Shoshtar University. Data were collected from three furrows. The lengths of them were 60, 80 and 100 meters. Irrigation was performed under three discharges (1, 1.25 and 1.5 L/s, with three iterations. Three experiments furrows were provided which central furrow was for measurement data and side furrows were as buffer furrow. Before

  6. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  7. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

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    Vito Conte

    Full Text Available The article provides a biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Ventral furrow formation is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement in the fly embryo. It involves deformation of a uniform cellular monolayer formed following cellularisation, and has therefore long been used as a simple system in which to explore the role of mechanics in force generation. Here we use a quantitative framework to carry out a systematic perturbation analysis to determine the role of each of the active forces observed. The analysis confirms that ventral furrow invagination arises from a combination of apical constriction and apical-basal shortening forces in the mesoderm, together with a combination of ectodermal forces. We show that the mesodermal forces are crucial for invagination: the loss of apical constriction leads to a loss of the furrow, while the mesodermal radial shortening forces are the primary cause of the internalisation of the future mesoderm as the furrow rises. Ectodermal forces play a minor but significant role in furrow formation: without ectodermal forces the furrow is slower to form, does not close properly and has an aberrant morphology. Nevertheless, despite changes in the active mesodermal and ectodermal forces lead to changes in the timing and extent of furrow, invagination is eventually achieved in most cases, implying that the system is robust to perturbation and therefore over-determined.

  8. Blocking Internalization of Phosphatidylethanolamine at Cleavage Furrow of Mitosis as a Novel Mechanism of Anti-Breast-Cancer Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zheng


    During the formation of cleavage furrow of mitosis, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) flips from inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to the outer leaflet specifically in the furrow region near the contractile ring...

  9. Blocking Internalization of Phosphatidylethanolamine at Cleavage Furrow of Mitosis as a Novel Mechanism of Anti-Breast Cancer Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zhen


    During the formation of cleavage furrow of mitosis, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) flips from inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to the outer leaflet specifically in the furrow region near the contractile ring...

  10. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

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    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)


    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  11. Physical mapping of QTL for tuber yield, starch content and starch yield in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by means of genome wide genotyping by sequencing and the 8.3 K SolCAP SNP array. (United States)

    Schönhals, Elske Maria; Ding, Jia; Ritter, Enrique; Paulo, Maria João; Cara, Nicolás; Tacke, Ekhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Gebhardt, Christiane


    Tuber yield and starch content of the cultivated potato are complex traits of decisive importance for breeding improved varieties. Natural variation of tuber yield and starch content depends on the environment and on multiple, mostly unknown genetic factors. Dissection and molecular identification of the genes and their natural allelic variants controlling these complex traits will lead to the development of diagnostic DNA-based markers, by which precision and efficiency of selection can be increased (precision breeding). Three case-control populations were assembled from tetraploid potato cultivars based on maximizing the differences between high and low tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC) and starch yield (TSY, arithmetic product of TY and TSC). The case-control populations were genotyped by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and the 8.3 k SolCAP SNP genotyping array. The allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between cases and controls. RADseq identified, depending on data filtering criteria, between 6664 and 450 genes with one or more differential SNPs for one, two or all three traits. Differential SNPs in 275 genes were detected using the SolCAP array. A genome wide association study using the SolCAP array on an independent, unselected population identified SNPs associated with tuber starch content in 117 genes. Physical mapping of the genes containing differential or associated SNPs, and comparisons between the two genome wide genotyping methods and two different populations identified genome segments on all twelve potato chromosomes harboring one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TY, TSC and TSY. Several hundred genes control tuber yield and starch content in potato. They are unequally distributed on all potato chromosomes, forming clusters between 0.5-4 Mbp width. The largest fraction of these genes had unknown function, followed by genes with putative signalling and regulatory functions. The

  12. Dynamin regulates metaphase furrow formation and plasma membrane compartmentalization in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Rikhy


    Full Text Available The successive nuclear division cycles in the syncytial Drosophila embryo are accompanied by ingression and regression of plasma membrane furrows, which surround individual nuclei at the embryo periphery, playing a central role in embryo compartmentalization prior to cellularization. Here, we demonstrate that cell cycle changes in dynamin localization and activity at the plasma membrane (PM regulate metaphase furrow formation and PM organization in the syncytial embryo. Dynamin was localized on short PM furrows during interphase, mediating endocytosis of PM components. Dynamin redistributed off ingressed PM furrows in metaphase, correlating with stabilized PM components and the associated actin regulatory machinery on long furrows. Acute inhibition of dynamin in the temperature sensitive shibire mutant embryo resulted in morphogenetic consequences in the syncytial division cycle. These included inhibition of metaphase furrow ingression, randomization of proteins normally polarized to intercap PM and disruption of the diffusion barrier separating PM domains above nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose that cell cycle changes in dynamin orchestrate recruitment of actin regulatory machinery for PM furrow dynamics during the early mitotic cycles in the Drosophila embryo.

  13. Whey utilization in furrow irrigation: effects on aggregate stability and erosion. (United States)

    Lehrsch, Gary A; Robbins, Charles W; Brown, Melvin J


    Improving soil structure often reduces furrow erosion and maintains adequate infiltration. Cottage cheese whey, the liquid byproduct from cottage cheese manufacture, was utilized to stabilize soil aggregates and reduce sediment losses from furrow irrigation. We applied either 2.4 or 1.9L of whey per meter of furrow (3.15 or 2.49Lm(-2), respectively) by gravity flow without incorporation to two fields of Portneuf silt loam (Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid) near Kimberly, ID. Furrows were irrigated with water beginning four days later. We measured sediment losses with furrow flumes during each irrigation and measured aggregate stability by wet sieving about 10 days after the last irrigation. Overall, whey significantly increased aggregate stability 25% at the 0-15mm depth and 14% at 15-30mm, compared to controls. On average, whey reduced sediment losses by 75% from furrows sloped at 2.4%. Whey increased the aggregate stability of structurally degraded calcareous soil in irrigation furrows.

  14. Environmental Fate of Soil Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides in an Irrigated Potato Agroecosystem (United States)

    Huseth, Anders S.; Groves, Russell L.


    Since 1995, neonicotinoid insecticides have been a critical component of arthropod management in potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Recent detections of neonicotinoids in groundwater have generated questions about the sources of these contaminants and the relative contribution from commodities in U.S. agriculture. Delivery of neonicotinoids to crops typically occurs as a seed or in-furrow treatment to manage early season insect herbivores. Applied in this way, these insecticides become systemically mobile in the plant and provide control of key pest species. An outcome of this project links these soil insecticide application strategies in crop plants with neonicotinoid contamination of water leaching from the application zone. In 2011 and 2012, our objectives were to document the temporal patterns of neonicotinoid leachate below the planting furrow following common insecticide delivery methods in potato. Leaching loss of thiamethoxam from potato was measured using pan lysimeters from three at-plant treatments and one foliar application treatment. Insecticide concentration in leachate was assessed for six consecutive months using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Findings from this study suggest leaching of neonicotinoids from potato may be greater following crop harvest in comparison to other times during the growing season. Furthermore, this study documented recycling of neonicotinoid insecticides from contaminated groundwater back onto the crop via high capacity irrigation wells. These results document interactions between cultivated potato, different neonicotinoid delivery methods, and the potential for subsurface water contamination via leaching. PMID:24823765

  15. Environmental fate of soil applied neonicotinoid insecticides in an irrigated potato agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S Huseth

    Full Text Available Since 1995, neonicotinoid insecticides have been a critical component of arthropod management in potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Recent detections of neonicotinoids in groundwater have generated questions about the sources of these contaminants and the relative contribution from commodities in U.S. agriculture. Delivery of neonicotinoids to crops typically occurs as a seed or in-furrow treatment to manage early season insect herbivores. Applied in this way, these insecticides become systemically mobile in the plant and provide control of key pest species. An outcome of this project links these soil insecticide application strategies in crop plants with neonicotinoid contamination of water leaching from the application zone. In 2011 and 2012, our objectives were to document the temporal patterns of neonicotinoid leachate below the planting furrow following common insecticide delivery methods in potato. Leaching loss of thiamethoxam from potato was measured using pan lysimeters from three at-plant treatments and one foliar application treatment. Insecticide concentration in leachate was assessed for six consecutive months using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Findings from this study suggest leaching of neonicotinoids from potato may be greater following crop harvest in comparison to other times during the growing season. Furthermore, this study documented recycling of neonicotinoid insecticides from contaminated groundwater back onto the crop via high capacity irrigation wells. These results document interactions between cultivated potato, different neonicotinoid delivery methods, and the potential for subsurface water contamination via leaching.

  16. Focal adhesions control cleavage furrow shape and spindle tilt during mitosis. (United States)

    Taneja, Nilay; Fenix, Aidan M; Rathbun, Lindsay; Millis, Bryan A; Tyska, Matthew J; Hehnly, Heidi; Burnette, Dylan T


    The geometry of the cleavage furrow during mitosis is often asymmetric in vivo and plays a critical role in stem cell differentiation and the relative positioning of daughter cells during development. Early observations of adhesive cell lines revealed asymmetry in the shape of the cleavage furrow, where the bottom (i.e., substrate attached side) of the cleavage furrow ingressed less than the top (i.e., unattached side). This data suggested substrate attachment could be regulating furrow ingression. Here we report a population of mitotic focal adhesions (FAs) controls the symmetry of the cleavage furrow. In single HeLa cells, stronger adhesion to the substrate directed less ingression from the bottom of the cell through a pathway including paxillin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vinculin. Cell-cell contacts also direct ingression of the cleavage furrow in coordination with FAs in epithelial cells-MDCK-within monolayers and polarized cysts. In addition, mitotic FAs established 3D orientation of the mitotic spindle and the relative positioning of mother and daughter centrosomes. Therefore, our data reveals mitotic FAs as a key link between mitotic cell shape and spindle orientation, and may have important implications in our understanding stem cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis.

  17. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M.E; Conner, Anthony J


    .... This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture...

  18. Furrow-irrigated chufa crops in Valencia (Spain. II: Performance analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pascual-Seva


    Full Text Available Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck. is a traditional crop in the Mediterranean region of Spain, where it is only furrow irrigated. This article analyzes the irrigation performance for this crop, conducting field studies over three consecutive seasons in Valencia (Spain. Irrigation schedule was based on the volumetric soil water content, which was measured with capacitance sensors. Infiltrability was measured with blocked-furrow infiltrometers. An area velocity flow module measured the water flow, the cross-sectional geometry of furrows was determined using furrow profilometers, and times for advance and recession were recorded. WinSRFR software was used to analyze every irrigation event, determining the application efficiency (AE and distribution uniformity of the minimum (DUmin, and to optimize the combination of furrow inflow (q and cut-off time (Tco. Average values obtained for AE were 30.1%, 25.6%, and 26.7% in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively, and the corresponding DUmin values were 0.54, 0.61, and 0.67. Optimized results showed that it is possible to reach AE and DUmin values up to 87% and 0.86, respectively. However, understanding the q-Tco relationship that maximizes both AE and DUmin is more important than knowing the specific values. A function that related q and Tco was obtained for the typical plot dimensions, and this was validated in 2011. Therefore, this function can be used in most of the plots in the cultivation area.

  19. Robust mechanisms of ventral furrow invagination require the combination of cellular shape changes (United States)

    Conte, Vito; Muñoz, José J.; Baum, Buzz; Miodownik, Mark


    Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement during the life of the embryo, and is driven by co-ordinated changes in the shape of individual epithelial cells within the cellular blastoderm. Although many of the genes involved have been identified, the details of the mechanical processes that convert local changes in gene expression into whole-scale changes in embryonic form remain to be fully understood. Biologists have identified two main cell deformation modes responsible for ventral furrow invagination: constriction of the apical ends of the cells (apical wedging) and deformation along their apical-basal axes (radial lengthening/shortening). In this work, we used a computer 2D finite element model of ventral furrow formation to investigate the ability of different combinations of three plausible elementary active cell shape changes to bring about epithelial invagination: ectodermal apical-basal shortening, mesodermal apical-basal lengthening/shortening and mesodermal apical constriction. We undertook a systems analysis of the biomechanical system, which revealed many different combinations of active forces (invagination mechanisms) were able to generate a ventral furrow. Two important general features were revealed. First that combinations of shape changes are the most robust to environmental and mutational perturbation, in particular those combining ectodermal pushing and mesodermal wedging. Second, that ectodermal pushing plays a big part in all of the robust mechanisms (mesodermal forces alone do not close the furrow), and this provides evidence that it may be an important element in the mechanics of invagination in Drosophila.

  20. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mabry McCray


    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost, furrow application (14, 28, and 56 m3 ha−1 of these materials, and no amendment. Another experiment compared furrow applications (28 and 56 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost with no amendment. There were significant yield (t sucrose ha−1 responses to broadcast and furrow-applied mill mud but responses to furrow applications were not consistent across sites. There were no significant yield responses to yard waste compost suggesting that higher rates or repeated applications of this amendment will be required to achieve results comparable to mill mud. Results also suggest that enhancing water and nutrient availability in the entire volume of the root zone with broadcast incorporation of organic amendments is the more effective approach for low organic matter sands.

  1. Determining the Most Compatible Method for Estimating Infiltration Parameters in Mathematical Furrow Irrigation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samira akhavan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surface irrigation is still the most used method. For accessing to high efficiency, irrigation requires careful design and correct implementation. In addition, the design and evaluation of these systems require the identification of the advance, recession, and infiltration curves. Infiltration is the most important and difficult parameter to evaluate surface irrigation systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate five different methods to estimate infiltration parameters (two-point method of Elliott and Walker, recycling furrow infiltrometer, Singh and Yu method, Shepard one-point method and modified Shepard et al. two-point method and to determine the most compatible method with design and evaluation models of furrow irrigation (hydrodynamic, kinematic wave and zero inertia by applying SIRMOD software. Materials and Methods: For the simulation of the surface irrigation, the continuity and momentum equations (Sant-Venant equations used. SIRMOD simulation model is one of the models for the management and design of surface irrigation systems. The software package, hydraulic hydrodynamic models, zero inertia and kinetic wave have been placed. These models are resolvent of the Sant-Venant equations based on various assumptions. In this study, two-point method of Elliott and Walker, recycling furrow infiltrometer, Singh and Yu method (to calculate the coefficients of Kostiakov-Louis equation, Shepard one-point method and modified Shepard et al. two-point method (to calculate the coefficients of Philip equation, were used for estimating infiltration parameters. For this purpose, three field data sets were used. The total infiltrated water volume and advance time were predicted in each infiltration method and irrigation simulation model. In order to compare and evaluate the mentioned methods, the relative and standard errors were calculated. Results and Discussion: According to the five methods (two-point method of Elliott and

  2. Gap analysis - potatoes occurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Haan, de S.; Juarez, H.; Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Bernau, V.; Salas, A.; Heider, B.; Simon, R.; Maxted, N.; Spooner, D.M.


    Records (with and without coordinates) representing germplasm accessions and sightings of the wild relatives of potato. These records were used as input to assess the ex situ conservation urgency of 73 wild relatives of potato

  3. Increasing energy efficiency by geometric modification of hoe-type furrow opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction Direct planting becomes more common in the recent years, because it conserves soil and water as well as it saves energy and time. However, this technology needs special implements such as seed planter. Given that direct planting is practiced in undisturbed lands, so it was needed to design a special furrow opener. In order to obtain a suitable furrow opener this experiment was conducted in rain-fed Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh. Materials and Methods Most of seed planters that are used for cultivation in rain fed conditions are equipped by hoe-type furrow opener. Hoe-type furrow openers have good penetration in hard and dry soils. However, they do not have the ability for direct planting. Hoe-type furrow opener was chosen as a model. Then by changing the geometric form of the depth to width ratio (d/w, the two openers were designed. In the first design, which was called O1 two wings and a narrow blade acting as a coulter were added in front of the hoe-type furrow opener. In the second design, which was called O2, in addition to the O1 modification, furrow opener width was decreased and a disk blade was added for seed sowing (Fig. 1. The performance of O1 and O2 openers were compared with the conventional hoe-type furrow opener (check in soil bin and in field conditions. At three different forward speeds (1, 1.5 and 2 m.s-1 with 3 replications, the effects of the openers designs of vertical and horizontal soil forces were evaluated in soil-bin conditions. In order to evaluate the performance of the furrow opener in field conditions, an experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on RCBD at 4 replications. Furrow openers formed the main plots and forward speeds formed the sub plots. Each plot size was 22 meters long in two rows for each treatment. After germination of wheat crop, the numbers of seedlings in two rows were counted (along a one meter. After crop maturity, all plots were harvested by hand and

  4. Comparative effect of ridge furrow and zero tillage on cowpea at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trials were carried out to compare effect of different seedbeds on cowpea at Abeokuta and Akure in different microclimates of Nigeria. The values of selected soil physical properties, plant nutrient status and growth and yield of cowpea given by zero tillage, manual clearing, ridge top, ridge side, ridge base, and furrow were ...

  5. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas (United States)

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US. Problems with these systems arise when nutrients are transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of tillage...

  6. Infiltration characteristics of furrow irrigation in a heavy-textured soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassi, C.J.


    The objective of this thesis is to study the rate and pattern of infiltration of soil water, under the conditions of heavy texture and shallow depth in a tropical furrow- irrigated soil. The analysis is the result of a series of field-experiments and is supported by theories that has been

  7. Use of Mobile Pipeline with Self-regulated Water Outlets for Furrow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochkina L.I.


    Full Text Available Surface irrigation is one of the most common irrigation methods, but it has its own significant drawbacks. A mobile pipeline for furrow irrigation from closed irrigation network was designed and its parameters were proved in order to improve furrow irrigation. The mobile pipeline consists of plastic pipes based on 10 pairs of spring skis connected in the middle by a flexible connection. It is known that water flow into the furrow decreases along the pipeline due to pressure losses along the length of the pipeline. It was proposed to use water outlets ensuring uniform supply of water to each furrow by the presence of the butterfly valve in housing of the water outlet in the mobile pipeline. In order to ensure sustainable valve position, an equation was derived and values of the area of the upper and bottom parts of the valve were obtained. According to the pipeline field test results, water distribution uniformity coefficient through the outlets was 0.98, at a flow rate of 1.0-3.0 l∙s-1 and hydraulic slopes along the pipeline of 0.001−0.005.

  8. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  9. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.


    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  10. Residuejams and their effect on Infiltration, Runoff and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Furrow Irrigation Systems (United States)

    Mailapalli, D. R.; Wallender, W. W.; Horwath, W.; Ma, S.; Lazicki, P.


    Crop residue, which consists of small debris of different sizes, is an important resource in agricultural ecosystems. It plays a vital role in conservation tillage as a best management practice (BMP) for reducing runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide transport from irrigated fields. In furrow irrigation, the predominant irrigation method in the world, as irrigation or winter runoff water moves along a furrow, it lifts the unanchored residue and transports across the field. The complex interaction of multiple residue pieces (debris) with itself, the soil matrix, and the fluid cause jams to form along the furrow. The residuejams can be thought of logjams in fluvial rivers or channels which help in increasing channel roughness to reduce flow velocities and shear stress along eroding banks. The logjams also create a hydraulic shadow, a low-velocity zone for some distance upstream that allows sediment to settle out and stabilize. Similarly, the residuejams help in formation of catchments, which promote increased infiltration and settlement of sediments along the furrow. The infiltration and residue interaction with the soil-water influence the runoff, sediment, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export. The reduction of DOC export is critical to enhancing drinking water resources by reducing reactive sources of DOC that form carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection process. Hence, investigation of geomorphology of the residuejams is essential to understand their impact on infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration. This study focuses on the formation of residuejams and their effect on the infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration from 122 m long furrow plots with cover crop (CC), no-till (NT) and standard tillage (ST). These treatments (CC, NT and ST) were replicated three times using randomized complete block design and the plots initially, had 10, 32 and 42% of residue cover (sunflower residue on ST and NT; sunflower and wheat residue on CC plot

  11. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    , loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... the furrows compared with the corresponding layers below the ridges. The RLD values in the soil profile of the ridges and the furrows followed the Gerwitz and Page model: RLD =˛×exp(−ˇ×z). The highest value of surface root density (˛) and rate of change in density (ˇ) was found in coarse sand while the lowest...... values of ˛ and ˇ were found in the sandy loam and loamy sand. The model estimated the effective rooting depth in coarse sand and sandy loam quite well but did slightly overestimate it in the loamy sand. Statistical analysis showed that one ˛ and ˇ value can be used for each soil irrespective...

  12. Interplay of lancet furrows and shape change in the horseshoe bat noseleaf. (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam K; Webster, Dane; Müller, Rolf


    Horseshoe bats emit biosonar pulses through the nostrils and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic pulses with baffles, so-called "noseleaves," that surround the nostrils. The noseleaves have complex static geometries and can furthermore undergo dynamic shape changes during emission of the biosonar pulses. The posterior noseleaf part, the lancet, has been shown to carry out anterior-posterior flicking motions during biosonar emissions with average lancet tip displacements of about 1 mm. Here, the acoustic effects of the interplay between the lancet furrows and shape change (lancet rotation) on the emission beam were investigated using the animated digital models obtained from the noseleaves of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). It was found that forward lancet rotations increase the amount of sound energy allocated to secondary amplitude maxima (sidelobes) in the beampattern, but only in the presence of the furrows. The interaction between static and dynamic features can be readily quantified by roughness (standard deviation about local mean) of the amplitude distribution of the beampatterns. This effect goes beyond the static impact of the furrows on the width of the mainlobe. It could allow the bats to send out their pulses through a sequence of qualitatively different beampatterns.

  13. Field assessment of surge and continuous furrow irrigation methods in relation to tillage systems (United States)

    Mattar, Mohamed A.; El-Saadawy, Mohamed A.; Helmy, Mamdouh A.; Sorour, Hussien M.


    Surge flow irrigation is one of the irrigation techniques for controlling furrow irrigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surge furrow irrigation on water management compared with continuous irrigation for different tillage systems. An experimental field was treated with various tillage systems (mouldboard plough, chisel plough and rotary plough) and water irrigation application methods (continuous flow, control) in which irrigation water was applied continuously, and surge flow (3-surges, 4-surges and 5-surges) in which irrigation water was applied intermittently until it reached the tail end of the furrow. The results showed that water savings obtained using the surge technique were 18.58, 11.84 and 18.93% lower water use than with continuous flow, for the mouldboard, chisel and rotary ploughs, respectively. The 3-surges treatment with the rotary plough reduced the advance time by 25.36% from that for continuous irrigation. The 4-surges treatment with the mouldboard plough had the highest water application efficiency (88.13%). The 3-surges treatment with the rotary plough had the highest distribution uniformity (85.01%). The rotary plough did not cause as much soil aeration around the root system as the other tillage systems. The field research provided information about surge flow, aimed at reducing advance times and increasing irrigation efficiency.

  14. Food preparation characteristics of potato starch pastes containing a proportion of chemically-modified starch


    菊地, 和美; 高橋 セツ子; 吉田 訓子; 山本 未穂; 知地 英征; Kazumi, KIKUCHI; Takahashi, Setsuko; Yoshida, Kuniko; Yamamoto, Miho; CHIJI Hideyuki; 藤女子大学人間生活学部食物栄養学科; 藤女子大学人間生活学部食物栄養学科藤女子大学大学院人間生活学研究科食物栄養学専攻


    Hokkaido potatoes are widely used as a source of starch. Potato starch is used for various purposes,particularly for the production of fish paste products,livestock products, and confectionery. Moreover, modified starch, which is produced by processing potato starch chemically and physically, is used in a variety of forms. This study examines the properties of modified starch gels produced by further enhancing the starch functions of potato starch. To study the primary properties of starch ge...

  15. Using a Smart-phone for Collecting Discharge Data in Irrigation Furrows in Tanzania. (United States)

    Pena-Haro, S.; Lüthi, B.; Philippe, T.; Naudascher, R.; Siegfried, T.


    When managed effectively and sustainably crop yield in irrigated agriculture can be up to three times than in rainfed agriculture. Unsurprisingly, irrigation agriculture is globally gaining in importance. This is especially true in Africa where the share of irrigated to rainfed agriculture in terms of area cultivated is below global averages. A large-scale expansion of irrigation, nonetheless has the potential to alter the natural hydrological cycle at local up to basin scales. In all cases, a good understanding of the water balance is needed. However, and especially in the developing context, data are scarce and knowledge about the available resources is most often not present. Some of the key reasons are: a) traditional monitoring approaches do not scale in terms of costs, b) repair is difficult and c) vandalism. There is a clear need of cheaper and easy-to-use methods for gathering information on water use and water availability.We have developed a mobile device application for measuring discharge in rivers and irrigation furrows. The discharge is computed by analysing a few seconds of a movie recorded using the built-in camera. The great advantage is that the only requirement is that the field of view contains two reference markers with known scale and with known position relative to the channel geometry, a priori knowledge on the channel geometry and its roughness. The other great advantage is that the data collected (water level, surface velocity and discharge) can be sent via SMS or web-service to a central database.The app is being currently used in a formerly ungauged catchment, the Themi River, which is part of the Pangani Basin in Tanzania. Furrow leaders and community members measure furrow discharges on-farm and monitor water levels in rivers off-farm. These community members were given a smartphone and received thorough training. Additionally, off-grid members have received a mobile recharging solution. Operational Expenses of the community members

  16. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05 on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6% at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers.

  17. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny


    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into susceptible

  18. A Robust Potato Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Franke, A.C.; Steyn, J.M.; Pronk, A.A.; Caldiz, D.O.; Kooman, P.L.


    In 1994, LINTUL-POTATO was published, a comprehensive model of potato development and growth. The mechanistic model simulated early crop processes (emergence and leaf expansion) and light interception until extinction, through leaf layers. Photosynthesis and respiration in a previous crop growth

  19. Disturbance of Ultisol soil based on interactions between furrow openers and coulters for the no-tillage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francetto, T.R.; Alonço, A. dos S.; Brandelero, C.; Machado, O.D. da C.; Veit, A.A.; Carpes, D.P.


    The present study evaluated the effect of different associations between coulters and fertilizer furrow openers on soil disturbance, furrow depth and width, according to forward speed. The study was conducted on a farm in Santa Maria (Brazil/RS), in soil classified as sandy loam Ultisol. The experiment consisted of 24 combinations of treatments with three replications in a 2×3×4 factorial experiment. The combinations were formed by the interaction of the factors including: two types of furrow openers (hoe and double-disc), three types of coulters (no-coulter, smooth and offset fluted) and four levels of forward speed (1.11, 1.67, 2.22 and 2.78 m/s). Soil elevation and soil disturbance area profiles were obtained with the use of a micro profilometer, and disturbance values were calculated with the aid of computer software program Auto Cad. The disturbance area was not affected by speed; it was greater when using the hoe opener, and in association with the offset fluted coulter. Speed was inversely proportional to the depth of the furrows made by the hoe opener. Furthermore, the hoe caused the greatest furrow width (0.26 m) in comparison with the double-disc (0.24 m). The use of different coulters associated with furrow openers increased this variable (0.23 m for the no-coulter condition, 0.25 m with smooth and 0.26 m with offset fluted). The use of coulters combined with furrow openers reduces soil swelling, in approximately 8% for the smooth and 20% for the offset fluted. (Author)

  20. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.


    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  1. Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases (United States)

    Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry


    The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

  2. The maternal-effect gene cellular island encodes aurora B kinase and is essential for furrow formation in the early zebrafish embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijiro Yabe


    Full Text Available Females homozygous for a mutation in cellular island (cei produce embryos with defects in cytokinesis during early development. Analysis of the cytoskeletal events associated with furrow formation reveal that these defects include a general delay in furrow initiation as well as a complete failure to form furrow-associated structures in distal regions of the blastodisc. A linkage mapping-based candidate gene approach, including transgenic rescue, shows that cei encodes the zebrafish Aurora B kinase homologue. Genetic complementation analysis between the cei mutation and aurB zygotic lethal mutations corroborate gene assignment and reveal a complex nature of the maternal-effect cei allele, which appears to preferentially affect a function important for cytokinesis in the early blastomeres. Surprisingly, in cei mutant embryos a short yet otherwise normal furrow forms in the center of the blastodisc. Furrow formation is absent throughout the width of the blastodisc in cei mutant embryos additionally mutant for futile cycle, which lack a spindle apparatus, showing that the residual furrow signal present in cei mutants is derived from the mitotic spindle. Our analysis suggests that partially redundant signals derived from the spindle and astral apparatus mediate furrow formation in medial and distal regions of the early embryonic blastomeres, respectively, possibly as a spatial specialization to achieve furrow formation in these large cells. In addition, our data also suggest a role for Cei/AurB function in the reorganization of the furrow-associated microtubules in both early cleavage- and somite-stage embryos. In accordance with the requirement for cei/aurB in furrow induction in the early cleavage embryo, germ plasm recruitment to the forming furrow is also affected in embryos lacking normal cei/aurB function.

  3. Vegetation Cover and Furrow Erosion due to Extreme Rain Events in Semiarid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Cárceles-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The conservation of the soil resource in semi-arid environments is one of the major challenges of agricultural systems, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, two types of soil management were compared: minimum tillage (ML and minimum tillage with spontaneous vegetation cover (MLVE. The comparison was conducted in a rainfed almond plantation at slope (35%, under an extraordinary event in 2015 (91.3 mm and EI30 of 2,719.89 mm ha-1 h-1. In this situation in MLVE plots, the development of furrows in contrast to ML were not recorded; the total soil loss was more than 12 times lower than that recorded in the latter. This fact demonstrated the effectiveness of the vegetal cover in the protection of the agricultural soil against the erosion during extreme events. Also, for ML management, furrow erosion represented more than 60% of the total soil loss, demonstrating the dominance of this type of erosion. Finally, it should be noted that this event represents the almost total loss of soil recorded in the experimental plots during the period 2012-2015; and this consequently shows the significant impact of extreme events on erosion rates in the Mediterranean region.

  4. Potato breeding : a practical manual for the potato chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Delleman, J.; Eisinger, E.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.


    This is the first practical manual ever published for potato breeding which combines theory, scientific knowledge and, specifically, practical application and methodology. It serves the practical breeder as well as other parties involved in the potato industry.

  5. Yield gaps and ecological footprints of potato production systems in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.


    In Chile, potatoes are grown in a wide range of ecological zones and levels of technology resulting in wide ranges of crop management and yields. The aim of the present study was to assess yield gaps, resource use efficiencies and foot-printing in different potato cropping zones between 18 and 53°

  6. Resistance of potato germplasm to the potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) (United States)

    The evaluation of potato accessions for resistance to potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a valuable component of integrated pest management; however, few attempts have been made to identify natural genetic tuber resistance to tuberworm on potato germplasm. The objective of this stu...

  7. Mineral fertilizer and manure effects on leached inorganic N, nitrate isotopic composition, P, and DOC under furrow irrigation (United States)

    To improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency in irrigated agriculture, a better understanding is needed of mineral fertilizer and manure effects on nutrient leaching in a furrow irrigated silt loam in southern Idaho. In this 2003-to-2006 field study, we measured deep percolation fluxes at 1.2-m depth and...

  8. Applications of biotechnology and genomics in potato improvement. (United States)

    Barrell, Philippa J; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J


    Potato is the third most important global food crop and the most widely grown noncereal crop. As a species highly amenable to cell culture, it has a long history of biotechnology applications for crop improvement. This review begins with a historical perspective on potato improvement using biotechnology encompassing pathogen elimination, wide hybridization, ploidy manipulation and applications of cell culture. We describe the past developments and new approaches for gene transfer to potato. Transformation is highly effective for adding single genes to existing elite potato clones with no, or minimal, disturbances to their genetic background and represents the only effective way to produce isogenic lines of specific genotypes/cultivars. This is virtually impossible via traditional breeding as, due to the high heterozygosity in the tetraploid potato genome, the genetic integrity of potato clones is lost upon sexual reproduction as a result of allele segregation. These genetic attributes have also provided challenges for the development of genetic maps and applications of molecular markers and genomics in potato breeding. Various molecular approaches used to characterize loci, (candidate) genes and alleles in potato, and associating phenotype with genotype are also described. The recent determination of the potato genome sequence has presented new opportunities for genomewide assays to provide tools for gene discovery and enabling the development of robustly unique marker haplotypes spanning QTL regions. The latter will be useful in introgression breeding and whole-genome approaches such as genomic selection to improve the efficiency of selecting elite clones and enhancing genetic gain over time. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.


    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  10. PH Domain-Arf G Protein Interactions Localize the Arf-GEF Steppke for Cleavage Furrow Regulation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon M Lee

    Full Text Available The recruitment of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs to specific subcellular sites dictates where they activate small G proteins for the regulation of various cellular processes. Cytohesins are a conserved family of plasma membrane GEFs for Arf small G proteins that regulate endocytosis. Analyses of mammalian cytohesins have identified a number of recruitment mechanisms for these multi-domain proteins, but the conservation and developmental roles for these mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report how the pleckstrin homology (PH domain of the Drosophila cytohesin Steppke affects its localization and activity at cleavage furrows of the early embryo. We found that the PH domain is necessary for Steppke furrow localization, and for it to regulate furrow structure. However, the PH domain was not sufficient for the localization. Next, we examined the role of conserved PH domain amino acid residues that are required for mammalian cytohesins to bind PIP3 or GTP-bound Arf G proteins. We confirmed that the Steppke PH domain preferentially binds PIP3 in vitro through a conserved mechanism. However, disruption of residues for PIP3 binding had no apparent effect on GFP-Steppke localization and effects. Rather, residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins made major contributions to this Steppke localization and activity. By analyzing GFP-tagged Arf and Arf-like small G proteins, we found that Arf1-GFP, Arf6-GFP and Arl4-GFP, but not Arf4-GFP, localized to furrows. However, analyses of embryos depleted of Arf1, Arf6 or Arl4 revealed either earlier defects than occur in embryos depleted of Steppke, or no detectable furrow defects, possibly because of redundancies, and thus it was difficult to assess how individual Arf small G proteins affect Steppke. Nonetheless, our data show that the Steppke PH domain and its conserved residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins have substantial effects on Steppke localization and activity in early Drosophila embryos.

  11. Sweet Potato Ketchup

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. it is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (lpomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  12. Discovery of a low-glycaemic index potato and relationship with starch digestion in vitro. (United States)

    Ek, Kai Lin; Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les; Brand-Miller, Jennie C


    Potatoes are usually a high-glycaemic index (GI) food. Finding a low-GI potato and developing a screening method for finding low-GI cultivars are both health and agricultural priorities. The aims of the present study were to screen the commonly used and newly introduced cultivars of potatoes, in a bid to discover a low-GI potato, and to describe the relationship between in vitro starch digestibility of cooked potatoes and their in vivo glycaemic response. According to International Standard Organisation (ISO) guidelines, seven different potato cultivars were tested for their GI. In vitro enzymatic starch hydrolysis and chemical analyses, including amylose content analysis, were carried out for each potato cultivar, and correlations with the respective GI values were sought. The potato cultivars had a wide range of GI values (53-103). The Carisma cultivar was classified as low GI and the Nicola cultivar (GI = 69) as medium GI and the other five cultivars were classified as high GI according to ISO guidelines. The GI values were strongly and positively correlated with the percentage of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in the cooked potatoes, particularly with the hydrolysis percentage at 120 min (r 0·91 and P starch content was not correlated with either in vitro starch digestibility or GI. The findings suggest that low-GI potato cultivars can be identified by screening using a high-throughput in vitro digestion procedure, while chemical composition, including amylose and fibre content, is not indicative.

  13. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn


    Potatoes contain glycoalkaloids in varying levels depending upon variety, treatment and so on. Glycoalkaloids are potentially toxic at the natural levels in potatoes, and Nordic assessments recommend that the safety levels of total glycoalkaloids (TGA) in new potato varieties should not exceed 100...... mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  14. Genomic prediction of starch content and chipping quality in tetraploid potato using genotyping-by-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Ea Høegh Riis


    potato necessitates large training populations to efficiently capture the genetic diversity of elite potato germplasm and enable accurate prediction across the entire spectrum of elite potatoes. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that GS is a promising breeding strategy for tetraploid potato.......Genomic selection uses genome-wide molecular markers to predict performance of individuals and allows selections in the absence of direct phenotyping. It is regarded as a useful tool to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs, and is becoming increasingly viable for crops as genotyping costs...... continue to fall. In this study, we have generated genomic prediction models for starch content and chipping quality in tetraploid potato to facilitate varietal development. Chipping quality was evaluated as the colour of a potato chip after frying following cold induced sweetening. We used genotyping...

  15. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  16. Influence of growth regulators on plant growth, yield, and skin color of specialty potatoes (United States)

    2,4-D has been used since the 1950’s to enhance color in red-skinned potatoes, but there is little research on the potential use of other plant growth regulators to improve tuber skin color in the wide range of specialty potatoes now available on the market. Field trials conducted at Parma, ID in 20...

  17. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; McQuinn, R.; Fei, Z.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Eck, van J.; Brown, C.; Giovannoni, J.J.; Li, L.


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid contents. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, Désirée, 91E22 and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular and genomics approaches. These lines

  18. Passive Mechanical Forces Control Cell-Shape Change during Drosophila Ventral Furrow Formation (United States)

    Polyakov, Oleg; He, Bing; Swan, Michael; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Kaschube, Matthias; Wieschaus, Eric


    During Drosophila gastrulation, the ventral mesodermal cells constrict their apices, undergo a series of coordinated cell-shape changes to form a ventral furrow (VF) and are subsequently internalized. Although it has been well documented that apical constriction is necessary for VF formation, the mechanism by which apical constriction transmits forces throughout the bulk tissue of the cell remains poorly understood. In this work, we develop a computational vertex model to investigate the role of the passive mechanical properties of the cellular blastoderm during gastrulation. We introduce to our knowledge novel data that confirm that the volume of apically constricting cells is conserved throughout the entire course of invagination. We show that maintenance of this constant volume is sufficient to generate invagination as a passive response to apical constriction when it is combined with region-specific elasticities in the membranes surrounding individual cells. We find that the specific sequence of cell-shape changes during VF formation is critically controlled by the stiffness of the lateral and basal membrane surfaces. In particular, our model demonstrates that a transition in basal rigidity is sufficient to drive VF formation along the same sequence of cell-shape change that we observed in the actual embryo, with no active force generation required other than apical constriction. PMID:25140436

  19. Impact of alternate furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals on yield, water use efficiency, and economic return of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abd El-Halim


    Full Text Available Alternate furrow irrigation with proper irrigation intervals could save irrigation water and result in high grain yield with low irrigation costs in arid areas. Two field experiments were conducted in the Middle Nile Delta area of Egypt during the 2010 and 2011 seasons to investigate the impact of alternate furrow irrigation with 7-d (AFI7 and 14-d intervals (AFI14 on yield, crop water use efficiency, irrigation water productivity, and economic return of corn (Zea mays L. as compared with every-furrow irrigation (EFI, conventional method with 14-d interval. Results indicated that grain yield increased under the AFI7 treatment, whereas it tended to decrease under AFI14 as compared with EFI. Irrigation water saving in the AFI7 and AFI14 treatments was approximately 7% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the EFI treatment. The AFI14 and AFI7 treatments improved both crop water use efficiency and irrigation water productivity as compared with EFI. Results also indicated that the AFI7 treatment did not only increase grain yield, but also increased the benefit-cost ratio, net return, and irrigation water saving. Therefore, if low cost water is available and excess water delivery to the field does not require any additional expense, then the AFI7 treatment will essentially be the best choice under the study area conditions.

  20. Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen

    Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative....... We have used genotyping-by-sequencing to genotype 762 individuals. The individuals were randomly selected from a population of 5,000 individuals derived from a poly-parental cross generated from 18 tetraploid cultivars and breeding clones (MASPot population). Phenotypic data have been established...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on a Kunitz-type potato serine protease inhibitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, E.A.J.; Pouvreau, L.A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Abrahams, J.P.


    Interest in protease inhibitors has been renewed because of their potent activity in preventing carcinogenesis in a wide variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. Potato tubers contain a wide range of such protease inhibitors. In cv. Elkana potato tubers, protease inhibitors represent about 50%

  2. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Kitazawa

    Full Text Available Peripheral microtubules (MTs near the cell cortex are essential for the positioning and continuous constriction of the contractile ring (CR in cytokinesis. Time-lapse observations of Drosophila male meiosis showed that myosin II was first recruited along the cell cortex independent of MTs. Then, shortly after peripheral MTs made contact with the equatorial cortex, myosin II was concentrated there in a narrow band. After MT contact, anillin and F-actin abruptly appeared on the equatorial cortex, simultaneously with myosin accumulation. We found that the accumulation of myosin did not require centralspindlin, but was instead dependent on Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLASP. This protein is required for stabilization of central spindle MTs, which are essential for cytokinesis. Orbit was also localized in a mid-zone of peripheral MTs, and was concentrated in a ring at the equatorial cortex during late anaphase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin in the CR. We also showed that the myosin heavy chain was in close proximity with Orbit in the cleavage furrow region. Centralspindlin was dispensable in Orbit ring formation. Instead, the Polo-KLP3A/Feo complex was required for the Orbit accumulation independently of the Orbit MT-binding domain. However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases in Orbit localization. Orbit was also necessary for the maintenance of the CR. Our data suggest that Orbit plays an essential role as a connector between MTs and the CR in Drosophila male meiosis.

  3. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  4. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering (United States)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  5. Acrylamide in processed potato products (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  6. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.


    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  7. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these innovations to farmers for production and make them available to consumers across Colombia. Improving crops, increasing food security To help ensure that people widely adopt the improved potato varieties, the project team will plan targeted agricultural training, ...

  8. Comparative BAC end sequence analysis of tomato and potato reveals overrepresentation of specific gene families in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, E.; Mueller, L.A.; Buels, R.; Giovannoni, J.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Stiekema, W.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.


    Background: Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon) and potato ( S. tuberosum) are two economically important crop species, the genomes of which are currently being sequenced. This study presents a first genome-wide analysis of these two species, based on two large collections of BAC end sequences

  9. Removal of Phenol from Synthetic and Industrial Wastewater by Potato Pulp Peroxidases. (United States)

    Kurnik, Katarzyna; Treder, Krzysztof; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    Plant peroxidases have strong potential utility for decontamination of phenol-polluted wastewater. However, large-scale use of these enzymes for phenol depollution requires a source of cheap, abundant, and easily accessible peroxidase-containing material. In this study, we show that potato pulp, a waste product of the starch industry, contains large amounts of active peroxidases. We demonstrate that potato pulp may serve as a tool for peroxidase-based remediation of phenol pollution. The phenol removal efficiency of potato pulp was over 95 % for optimized phenol concentrations. The potato pulp enzymes maintained their activity at pH 4 to 8 and were stable over a wide temperature range. Phenol solutions treated with potato pulp showed a significant reduction in toxicity compared with untreated phenol solutions. Finally we determined that this method may be employed to remove phenol from industrial effluent with over 90 % removal efficiency under optimal conditions.

  10. Improving Genetic Gain with Genomic Selection in Autotetraploid Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony T. Slater


    Full Text Available Potato ( L. breeders consider a large number of traits during cultivar development and progress in conventional breeding can be slow. There is accumulating evidence that some of these traits, such as yield, are affected by a large number of genes with small individual effects. Recently, significant efforts have been applied to the development of genomic resources to improve potato breeding, culminating in a draft genome sequence and the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The availability of these genome-wide SNPs is a prerequisite for implementing genomic selection for improvement of polygenic traits such as yield. In this review, we investigate opportunities for the application of genomic selection to potato, including novel breeding program designs. We have considered a number of factors that will influence this process, including the autotetraploid and heterozygous genetic nature of potato, the rate of decay of linkage disequilibrium, the number of required markers, the design of a reference population, and trait heritability. Based on estimates of the effective population size derived from a potato breeding program, we have calculated the expected accuracy of genomic selection for four key traits of varying heritability and propose that it will be reasonably accurate. We compared the expected genetic gain from genomic selection with the expected gain from phenotypic and pedigree selection, and found that genetic gain can be substantially improved by using genomic selection.

  11. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix


    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  12. Recruitment of cortexillin into the cleavage furrow is controlled by Rac1 and IQGAP-related proteins (United States)

    Faix, Jan; Weber, Igor; Mintert, Ursula; Köhler, Jana; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Marriott, Gerard


    Cytokinesis in eukaryotic organisms is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Cortexillins are actin-binding pro teins whose activity is crucial for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. Here we show that the IQGAP-related and Rac1-binding protein DGAP1 specifically interacts with the C-terminal, actin-bundling domain of cortexillin I. Like cortexillin I, DGAP1 is enriched in the cortex of interphase cells and translocates to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. The activated form of the small GTPase Rac1A recruits DGAP1 into a quaternary complex with cortexillin I and II. In DGAP1– mutants, a complex can still be formed with a second IQGAP-related protein, GAPA. The simultaneous elimination of DGAP1 and GAPA, however, prevents complex formation and localization of the cortexillins to the cleavage furrow. This leads to a severe defect in cytokinesis, which is similar to that found in cortexillin I/II double-null mutants. Our observations define a novel and functionally significant signaling pathway that is required for cytokinesis. PMID:11447112

  13. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas


    , containing short chains with an average length of 22-25 glucosyl residues. The branching pattern is not well known, but branch point clustering guides chains to determine the overall starch granule architecture and starch functionality. The clusters consist of 5-10 grouped short chains, which...... are interconnected by long chains with more than 36 residues. The clusters consist of still smaller, very tightly branched building blocks. The clusters direct the semicrystalline structures found inside the starch granules. The crystals, which are ~5.2. nm thick, contain double helices formed from the external...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...

  14. Detection of potato leafroll virus isolated from potato fields in Tehran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 19, 2010 ... The surveys conducted during 2006 and 2007 revealed the infection of the virus in potato fields in ... Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), a species of the genus Pole- ..... Potato leafroll virus. In: Hooker WJ (Ed),. Compendium of potato diseases, The American Phytopathological. Society, St. Paul, MN, pp. 68-70.

  15. Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe-Novak, M.; Gruden, K.; Baebler, P.; Krecic-Stress, H.; Kovac, M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Ravnikar, M.


    The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using

  16. Vector Transmission Alone Fails to Explain the Potato Yellow Vein Virus Epidemic among Potato Crops in Colombia. (United States)

    Cuadros, Diego F; Hernandez, Anngie; Torres, Maria F; Torres, Diana M; Branscum, Adam J; Rincon, Diego F


    The potato yellow vein disease, caused by the potato yellow vein virus (PYVV), is a limiting potato disease in northern South America. The virus can be transmitted either by the greenhouse whitefly (GWF), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), or through vegetative propagules, such as infected tubers. Recently, GWF populations have been spotlighted as one of the main drivers of PYVV re-emergence, and consequently, PYVV management has been predominantly directed toward vector control, which is heavily based on insecticide use. However, the drivers of the PYVV outbreaks as well as the contribution of GWF populations on the spread of PYVV among potato crops are still not completely understood. This study aims to assess the role of the GWF as a driver of the PYVV epidemic in the potato-producing areas in Colombia, one of the countries more severely affected by the PYVV epidemic, and whose geography allows the study of the spatial association between the vector and the disease epidemic across a wide altitude range. The geographical clusters where the PYVV epidemic is concentrated, as well as those of farms affected by the GWF were identified using a novel spatial epidemiology approach. The influence of altitude range on the association between PYVV and T. vaporarioum was also assessed. We found a relatively poor spatial association between PYVV epidemic and the presence of the GWF, especially at altitudes above 3,000 m above mean sea level. Furthermore, GWF populations could only explain a small fraction of the extent of the PYVV epidemic in Colombia. Movement of infected seed tubers might be the main mechanism of dispersion, and could be a key driver for the PYVV infection among potato crops. Agricultural policies focused on improving quality of seed tubers and their appropriate distribution could be the most efficient control intervention against PYVV dispersion.

  17. Diversity of potato genetic resources. (United States)

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko


    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection.

  18. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar gelatinization temperature (70 oC), enthalpy change (10 J/g), and peak viscosity (600 cp) were obtained for sweet potato starch phosphodiester and the raw starch indicating that their gelatinization properties were identical. Compared with sweet potato starch, digestible starch content of sweet potato starch ...

  19. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.


    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  20. Potato in progress: Science meets practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Struik, P.C.


    The contributions in this book reflect the rapid developments both in the industry and in science. The nutritional aspects of the potato tuber are discussed as well as the volatile consumer moods in saturated or new markets. Latest developments in potato breeding and seed potato production are

  1. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jong Walter S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  3. Effects of Ridge-Furrow System Combined with Different Degradable Mulching Materials on Soil Water Conservation and Crop Production in Semi-Humid Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ren


    Full Text Available In China, the ridge-furrow water conservation planting (RC system is advantageous for improving crop yields and rainwater use efficiency. In RC planting system, plastic film-mulched ridges are employed for water harvesting while the furrows serve as infiltration and planting belts. To optimize the RC system and to overcome problems due to the lack of water in semi-humid areas at risk of drought, we mulched the furrows with 8% biodegradable film (RCSB, liquid film (RCSL, or no mulching in the furrows (RCSN, while conventional flat planting (CF was employed as the control. After 4 year (2007–2010 consecutive field study, the results showed that the soil water storage level in the 0–100 cm layer with four treatments was ranked as follow: RCSB > RCSL > RCSN > CF, while the RCSB and RCSL were 26.3 and 12.2 mm greater than RCSN, respectively. Compared with CF, the average soil temperature was significantly (P < 0.05 higher by 3.1, 1.7, and 1.5°C under the RC planting treatments (RCSB, RCSL, and RCSN during each year, respectively. The average ET rate of RC treatments were all lower than CF in each experimental year, and the average decreased by 8.0% (P < 0.05. The average yields with RCSB, RCSL, and RCSN increased by 2,665, 1,444, and 1,235 kg ha−1, respectively, and the water use efficiency (WUE increased by 51.6, 25.6, and 21.1%, compared with CF. RCSB obtained the highest economic benefit, the average net income was higher than CF by 4,020 Yuan ha−1. In conclusion, we found that RC planting with biodegradable film mulching in the furrows is the best cultivation pattern in the semi-humid areas of China in terms of both environmental and economic benefits.

  4. The Potato Tuber Mitochondrial Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie


    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum ‘Folva’) and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more “extreme” proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  5. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    ) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  6. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah


    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  7. Genetic diversity of thiamin and folate in primitive cultivated and wild potato (Solanum) species. (United States)

    Goyer, Aymeric; Sweek, Kortney


    Biofortification of staple crops like potato via breeding is an attractive strategy to reduce human micronutrient deficiencies. A prerequisite is metabolic phenotyping of genetically diverse material which can potentially be used as parents in breeding programs. Thus, the natural genetic diversity of thiamin and folate contents was investigated in indigenous cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum group Andigenum) and wild potato species (Solanum section Petota). Significant differences were found among clones and species. For about 50% of the clones there were variations in thiamin and folate contents between years. Genotypes which contained over 2-fold the thiamin and 4-fold the folate content compared to the modern variety Russet Burbank were identified and should be useful material to integrate in breeding programs which aim to enhance the nutritional value of potato. Primitive cultivars and wild species with widely different amounts of thiamin and folate will also be valuable tools to explore their respective metabolic regulation.

  8. Air flow and chlorpropham (CIPC) emissions from a potato storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D.; Schans, van der D.A.; Mosquera Losada, J.


    After having been harvested, potatoes are often stored at the farm. Chlorpropham (CIPC) is used in the potato storage to ensure potato sprout inhibition. This substance has a fairly low vapour pressure and easily attaches itself to material in the potato storage such as: potatoes, soil and

  9. Software para dimensionamento de irrigação por sulcos Software for the calculations of furrow irrigation projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlei Arriel Botrel


    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da irrigação por sulcos e devido a este sistema de irrigação necessitar de trabalhosos cálculos e ensaios de campo para seu projeto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar o software Sulcos 2000, para Windows 95, desenvolvido em linguagem Delphi 3.0. Este software auxilia a elaboração de projetos de irrigação por sulcos através de procedimentos de cálculos automáticos que agilizam e possibilitam testar várias situações durante a fase de projeto. Também permite a obtenção da equação de infiltração através do ensaio de campo, já a equação de avanço pelo ensaio de campo e pela simulação. À partir destas equações realiza-se os cálculos referentes ao projeto e fornece-se uma avaliação da irrigação. Os dados são salvos em um banco de dados que pode ser acessado posteriormente. O software apresenta relatórios impressos e acesso a tabelas e ferramentas de dimensionamento.Considering the importance of furrow irrigation, the need of difficult calculations and necessary field research for the project, this work developed a software 'Sulcos 2000', for Windows 95 in Delphi 3.0. This software assists and facilitates the elaboration of furrow irrigation projects through the procedures of automatic calculations that activate and allow to test several situations during the project phase. Infiltration equations are obtained from field research. Progress equations are obtained from field research and simulation. The data are saved in a database that can be accessed at any moment. The software also presents printed reports and allows access to tables and design tools.

  10. Physico-chemical and functional properties of potato proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, van G.A.


    Key words: potato proteins, patatin, protease inhibitors, solubility, structure, pH, temperature, ethanol, ionic strength, phenolic compounds, foams, emulsions

    In potato starch manufacture an aqueous byproduct remains that is called potato

  11. Contest and scramble competition and the carry-over effect in Globodera spp. in potato-based crop rotations using an extended Ricker model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Grasman, J.


    The Ricker model extended with a linear term was used to model the dynamics of a potato cyst nematode population on different potato cultivars over a wide range of population densities. The model accounts for contest and scramble competition and between-year carryover of unhatched eggs. Contest

  12. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.


    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  13. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  14. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit


    Acrylamide diminishing in potato slices and strips was studied in relation to frying temperature and some pre-treatments. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8 percent Prior to frying...... frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes...... surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mu m/kg) even when they were fried at 190 degrees C. Potato immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150 degrees C. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2...

  15. The role of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties of potato and sweet potato starches. (United States)

    Guo, Li; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Juanjuan; Du, Xianfeng


    The hydrodynamic properties of potato starch and sweet potato starch in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were studied using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope, and steady shear rheological measurements. The results indicated that the potato starch solutions showed a linear shape of the η red versus c curves. The sweet potato starch solutions presented a non-linear shape with a downturn in dilute solutions, or the concentrations were lower than entanglement concentration (c e ). The c e values of the potato and sweet potato starch solutions were 0.43% and 0.54%, respectively. These findings indicated that the impact of the c e value on the network formation of the potato starch solutions was much more significant compared with the impact on the sweet potato starch solutions. The potato and sweet potato starch solutions showed shear thinning behaviour hardly occurs when the concentrations were less than c e , while shear thinning behaviour approached when the concentrations were equal to or greater than c e . Similarly, the potato and sweet potato starch solutions rarely resembled a pseudoplastic state when the concentrations were lower than or equal to c e , while the pseudoplastic behaviour developed when the concentrations were higher than c e . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-limitation of potato growth by Potato Cyst Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) and Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiani, Z.; Zafari, D.; Rezaee, S.; Arjmandian, A.; Gitti, M.; Struik, P.C.


    Globodera rostochiensis and Rhizoctonia solani are the most important growth limiting factors influencing potato production in Iran. The effects of inoculation with Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) (0, 50, 75 and 100 cysts/3.5 kg soil) and R. solani (with or without inoculation) on potato growth and

  17. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priedniece Vivita


    Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  18. Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review (United States)

    Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija


    The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.

  19. Resistance of potato clones to necrotic recombinant strains of potato virus y (pvy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Rodrigues de Paula Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The Ry adg allele is widely used by breeders to confer extreme resistance to all strains of PVY. However, the necrotic strain has increased recombination resulting in recent considerable losses in productivity. Thus far, not all necrotic recombinant strains of PVY have been tested for their reaction to the Ry gene. The objective of this study was to identify potato clones carrying the resistant allele and to assess their reaction to the following recombinant strains: NTN (PVY NTN, Wilga (PVY N-Wi, and "curly top" (PVY E. Advanced clones from the potato breeding program at Universidade Federal de Lavras were evaluated through a specific molecular marker for the Ry adg allele. The clones carrying the resistance allele were grafted on tobacco plants infected with necrotic recombinant strains of PVY. The clones carrying the allele for resistance to PVY were not infected with any of the recombinants during the grafting test. These results confirm that resistance to necrotic recombinant strains has not yet been overcome and that the Ry adg allele also confers resistance to the three recombinant strains tested.

  20. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of potato blackleg caused by Dickeya species. (United States)

    Safenkova, Irina V; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Byzova, Nadezhda A; Drenova, Natalia V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B


    Early detection of potato infections is essential for effective disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani. Polyclonal antibodies specific to different strains of Dickeya were obtained from rabbits after immunization with bacterial cells of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing with use of a wide range of bacterial species showed that the polyclonal antibodies detect closely related strains of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Cross-reactivity with widespread pathogenic bacteria (nine species) and saprophytes of healthy potato plants was not detected. The LFIA based on the obtained antibodies and gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 20 nm was developed. Under optimized conditions, the LFIA method enabled the analysis of potato extracts within 10 min, with a visual limit of detection of 1 × 10 5  CFU/ml for leaves and 4 × 10 5  CFU/ml for tubers. The assay was tested on potato stem and tuber extracts, and the results of the LFIA were confirmed in 92.1% of samples using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. The findings confirmed that the developed LFIA could be used for monitoring blackleg infection without the need for special equipment or skills. Graphical Abstract The developed lateral flow immunoassay is an efficient tool for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani.

  1. [Effects of ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation on winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics, yield and water use efficiency in Guanzhong irrigation district]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Qing-fang; Cheng, Xue-feng; Yang, Shan-shan; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Ding, Rui-xia; Ren, Xiao-long; Nie, Jun-feng


    A field experiment was conducted to determine the regulation of crop photosynthesis and output and water saving effect under ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation in Guanzhong irrigation district. The experiment was set with 5 treatments with irrigation at returning green stage, and the widths of both ridge and furrow being 60 cm. T1, T2 and T3 were in the ridge and furrow rain harvesting planting pattern, with the irrigation volumes being 0, 375 and 750 m3 · hm(-2) respectively, T4 was flat planting with irrigation (border irrigation) of 750 m3 · hm(-2) and CK was flat planting without irrigation. Effects on winter wheat photosynthetic organs, photosynthetic rate, yield and water use efficiency, etc. were tested. The results showed that compared with T4, T1, T2 and T3 treatments increased the grain yield by 2.8%, 9.6% and 18.9%, improved the harvest index by 2.0% to 8.5%, advanced the flag leaf chlorophyll content by 41.9% to 64.4% significantly, and improved the 0-40 cm layer soil moisture content by 0.1%-4.6% during the whole growth period. Photosynthetic rates at the flowering and filling stages also increased by 22.3% to 54.2% and -4.3% to 67.2%, respectively. Total water use efficiencies (WUEy) were 17.9%, 10.4% and 15.4% higher than that of T4, and 69.3%, 58.6% and 65.7% higher than that of CK (P water use efficiencies (IUE) were 119.1% and 18.8% higher than that of T4, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that ridge and furrow rain harvesting cultivation could maintain higher grain yield than border irrigation without irrigation or with irrigation reduction by 50%. The utilization efficiency of irrigation water under the condition of irrigation reduction by 50% was improved significantly, and the ridge and furrow rain harvesting could significantly improve whole cropland water use efficiency in the year of less rainfall.

  2. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional propagation and 85% for micropropagation. The survival rate of micropropagated plants were maximum of 79% in vermicompost and minimum of 50% ...

  3. 160 155 Mechanical Properties of Potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample procurement. Potato tubers used in this study were purchased in Zaria. Reagents used. All reagents and chemicals used in the study were of analytical grade. Extraction of starch. The potato tubers were chopped into small pieces and then wet-milled. The suspension.

  4. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, beta carotene. (vitamin A equivalent nutrient), vitamin C, and vitamin. B6. According to FAO 1990, sweet potato leaves and shoots are good sources of vitamins A, C, and B2. (Riboflavin) and lutein. Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those.

  5. Assessing reproduction of potato psyllid haplotypes (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” that causes zebra chip disease of potato. So far, four distinct genetic ...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN...

  7. Towards F1 Hybrid Seed Potato Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, P.; Meijer, D.A.; Schotte, T.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.


    Compared to other major food crops, progress in potato yield as the result of breeding efforts is very slow. Genetic gains cannot be fixed in potato due to obligatory out-breeding. Overcoming inbreeding depression using diploid self-compatible clones should enable to replace the current method of

  8. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars. (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang


    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  9. Effect of Different Irrigation and Planting Methods on Water Productivity and Health of Commercial Varieties of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Salemi


    Full Text Available Introduction Water crisis as a main factor of agronomy limitation exists in all over the arid and semiarid regions such as Isfahan, province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin (ZRB. Due to the increase in the cultivated area of potato in Fareidan Region located in the west of Isfahan province, it will be necessary to use pressurized irrigation systems to achieve the highest irrigation application efficiency and water productivity. Materials and Methods The ZRB (41,500 km2 is a closed basin with no outlet to the sea. The research was conducted in the Fareidan region of Isfahan, which is located in the west part of the ZRB. The Rozveh Agricultural Research Station (32°, 58' N, 50°, 25' E is located at the altitude of 2390 m above the sea level. This study was conducted as a randomized complete blocks design as a split strip plot layout with three replications and during two years (2007-2008. Three irrigation systems (Drip tape, Sprinkler and furrow were considered as main plots, two planting methods (one - row planting and two-row planting as split subplots and two potato cultivars (Marfuna and Agria as split-split subplots. Production (Tuber-yield, the consumption water and cultivars reactions to common diseases were evaluated in different treatments. The soil of the experimental area, according to USDA Soil Taxonomy 1994 is of silty loamy. At the soil depth of 1m, soil salinity (1.1-2.0 dS m-1, water salinity (1.24 dS m-1, soil moisture at field capacity (23 Vol. %, and bulk density (BD = 1.44 g/cm3 at the field site were measured or experimentally obtained in the Isfahan Soil and Water Laboratory. The results were subjected to an ANOVA to analyze the effects of the treatments and their interactions. The data obtained were analyzed using the compound variance analysis and the averages of different treatments were separated using the Duncan multiple range test using the statistical software (SAS Institute, Inc

  10. Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field. (United States)

    Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig


    The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small.

  11. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal. (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F


    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  12. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato? (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  13. Antisense RNA mediated inhibition of granule - bound starch synthase gene expression in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, A.


    Potato starch and its derivatives are widely used in several fields of application. The manufacturing of most products requires the modification of native starch with respect to, for example, viscosity and physical stability. In addition to the currently used physical, chemical and

  14. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae : quantitative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.


    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of

  15. Functional Analysis of Pathogenicity Proteins of the Potato Cyst Nematode Globodera rostochiensis Using RNAi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing, C.; Rehman, S.; Smant, G.; Jones, J.T.


    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used widely as a tool for examining gene function and a method that allows its use with plant-parasitic nematodes recently has been described. Here, we use a modified method to analyze the function of secreted ß-1,4, endoglucanases of the potato cyst nematode

  16. Control of sweet potato virus diseases. (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad


    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic prediction for dry matter and chipping quality in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Nielsen, Ea Høegh Riis; Johnsen, Heidi Øllegaard

    Potato is one of the most space-efficient food crops and is of vital importance for global food security. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however, genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops...... across-population predictions were low or moderate. Overall, the results suggest that genomic prediction and hence selection of breeding material can be obtained with good accuracies within tetraploid potato. Although the most optimal prediction accuracies were obtained when predicting within the same...... population, the results from combining training populations with genotypes from different populations suggest a promising approach for establishing a broad-application prediction model for the implementation of genomic selection in tetraploid potato breeding programmes....

  18. Improvement of Constipation in Leukemia Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Using Sweet Potato. (United States)

    Zou, Jing-Ying; Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing; Zhu, Xia-Ming


    Leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy commonly develop constipation, which is difficult to treat using routine methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether sweet potato can alleviate constipation in leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy. Leukemia patients receiving their first chemotherapy were randomized to an intervention group (n = 57) or a control group (n = 63). The control and intervention groups were managed by using routine nursing methods and routine methods plus dietary sweet potato consumption (eating sweet potato 200 g/d, from admission to discharge), respectively. Related data regarding patients' defecation were collected on the second and fifth days after chemotherapy initiation, which included rates of constipation, frequency and duration of purgative usage, constipation status assessed by Rome III criteria, and scores on defecation satisfaction. On the second day, the rate of constipation and the rate of having first defecation within 24 hours after chemotherapy initiation were significantly improved in the intervention group, but the difference of the defecation satisfaction and "almost no loose stools without purgative use" in Rome III criteria were not significantly changed. On the fifth day, except for "the sensation of anorectal obstruction" and "requirement of manual assistance" in Rome III criteria, other items regarding defecation were significantly improved. This study demonstrates that sweet potato had a positive impact on the prevention of constipation and the defecation satisfaction in leukemia patients receiving their first chemotherapy. As sweet potato is inexpensive, abundant, tasty, and easy to prepare, it can be widely used in leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  19. Quality Evalution of Potato Clones as Processed Material Cultivated in Lembang (United States)

    Rahayu, S. T.; Handayani, T.; Levianny, P. S.


    Potatoes are widely grown in the temperate as well as tropical zones and are the fourth largest staple crop in the world after maize, wheat and rice. The study aimed to evaluate the quality of several potato clones as raw material on potato based products (chips and boiled). The study was conducted at Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute, Lembang about 1200 m asl height, in 2016. The design used was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The samples tested were 5 clones selection (clones number 1,2,3,4,10). In this study, variety Granola (Clone number 6) and Atlantic (Clone number 7) were used as a susceptible control, meanwhile the Katahdin (Clone number 8) and SP 951 (Clone number 9) were used as the resistant control. Chemical properties tested were starch, reduction sugar, water content, specific gravity, and Total Soluble Solute (TSS). The organoleptic assessment method used was hedonic test with scale of 1-5 (very like until very dislike) which had been done by 15 untrained panelists. Data was statisticaly analized by Duncan’s test (5%). Clone 1 and 2 were preferred by panelist as raw material for potato chips, which got score of ‘very like’ until ‘like’ for color, size, taste, and texture parameters. Although there was no significant difference on color and size parameters for all samples of that boiled potato there, however, clone no 8 can be considered as the most favourite based on taste and texture parameters.

  20. A case-control study on potato consumption and risk of stroke in central Iran. (United States)

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Shakeri, Forough; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad


      Potato, a high- glycemic index (GI) food, is one of the most widely used starchy foods worldwide. Previous studies on the association of dietary intakes with stroke have mostly focused on the dietary GI and there is no information regarding the association between potato consumption and risk of stroke. This case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between potato consumption and risk of stroke in an Iranian adult population. In this case-control study, 195 patients with stroke, hospitalized in the Neurology Ward of Alzahra University Hospital and 195 controls from other wards of the hospital with convenience non-random sampling method were enrolled. To assess participants' dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Information on socioeconomic and demographic variables, physical activity pattern, and smoking were collected by the use of questionnaires. Logistic regression method in different models was applied to explore the associations between potato intake and stroke. First quartile of potato intake was used as a reference in all models. Mantel-Haenszel extension chi-square test was used to assess the overall trend across quartiles of potato consumption. Individuals with stroke were more likely to be male (60% vs. 46%, P < 0.05) and older (68.0 ± 1.0 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8 y, P < 0.001) as compared with controls. They had lower body mass index (BMI) (25.2 ± 0.3 vs. 28.5 ± 1.0 kg/m2, P < 0.05), and were less likely to be obese (11.3% vs. 29.2%, P < 0.001) compared with controls. The mean potato consumption was 31.1 ± 3.4 and 23.4 ± 1.3 g/d for cases and controls, respectively. Participants with the highest potato consumption were younger and more likely to be physically active. High potato consumption was associated with higher intakes of energy, fruits, vegetables, pulses, and grains. After adjustment for age, sex, and total energy intake, we found that individuals with the highest potato consumption were more likely

  1. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek


    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  2. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.


    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  3. Sequence characteristics of potato virus Y recombinants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Xiaojun; Karasev, Alexander V; Brown, Celeste J; Lorenzen, Jim H


    ... Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA 4 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kampala, Uganda Correspondence Alexander V. Karasev akarasev{at} Potato virus Y (PVY...

  4. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid


    was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which......Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...

  5. Contribution of Noncolonizing Aphids to Potato Virus Y Prevalence in Potato in Idaho. (United States)

    Mondal, Shaonpius; Wenninger, Erik J; Hutchinson, Pamela J S; Weibe, Monica A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A


    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major concern for potato production in the United States given its impact on both crop quality and yield. Although green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is the most efficient PVY vector, it may be less abundant in potato-growing areas of Idaho relative to non-potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY that may disperse from nearby cereal fields and other crops. A field study was conducted during 2012-2013 to examine if noncolonizing aphids disperse to nearby potato fields as cereal crops dry down before harvest. The aphid fauna was sampled weekly in four different potato fields in south-central and southeastern Idaho using yellow sticky traps and yellow pan traps. Potato fields were chosen with an adjacent cereal field such that the prevailing westerly wind would facilitate aphid dispersal from cereal fields to potato. Non-potato-colonizing aphids sampled included 10 cereal aphid species, the most abundant of which were Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker). More than 35 species from noncereal hosts also were found. Overall, green peach aphid abundance was relatively low, ranging from 0.5-2.5% of the total aphid capture between years and among fields. In both years and all locations, cereal aphid abundance peaked in mid- to late July (cereal ripening stage) and decreased thereafter as cereal crops dried. PVY prevalence in the potato fields increased following these increases in aphid abundance. This study suggests that cereal aphids and other noncolonizing aphids are important contributors to PVY prevalence in potato in southern Idaho. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Effect of potato used as a trap crop on potato cyst nematodes and other soil pathogens and on the growth of a subsequent main potato crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.


    A field experiment in which main-crop potatoes were grown every other year was conducted on a sandy soil from 1994 to 1999. The aim of the experiment was to control soil-borne pathogens of potato with ecologically sound methods. Potato grown as a trap crop from the end of April to the end of June (8

  7. Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Soriano Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Ramírez-Rodríguez VR, Frías-Treviño G, Aviña-Padilla K, Silva-Rosales L, Martínez-Soria JP: Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes. Virology Journal 2009, 6:48

  8. The use of potato and sweet potato starches affects white salted noodle quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Potato and sweet potato starches and derivatives thereof were used to substitute part of the wheat flour in white salted noodle (WSN) manufacture. The quality of the WSN obtained was compared with the quality of WSN made from wheat flour only. When up to 20% of wheat flour was replaced by acetylated

  9. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.


    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  10. Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products. (United States)

    Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H


    Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods.

  11. Effect of Transplanting Dates and Spacing on Yield Attributing Character, Productivity and Economics of Potato Cultivation Through True Potato Seed (TPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sen


    Full Text Available A field experiment in split plot design was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Potato Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Anandapur,West Midnapore,West Bengal to study the effect of dates of transplanting and spacing on yield attributing character, productivity and economics of potato cultivation through true potato seed (TPS technology. The highest number of tubers per plant was recorded in early transplanted (December 3 crop, while, crop spacing did not produce any significant differences in recording tuber number per plant. Early established crop also produced significantly higher tuber weight per plant as compared to intermediate (December 11 and late (December 19 transplanted crops and widely spaced (60 x 15 cm crop recorded higher weight of tuber per plant as compared to the narrowly spaced crop. Early transplanting and wider spacing also showed its superiority in respect of recording harvest index of potato. As such, early transplanted and densely planted crops produced significantly higher yield of seedling tuber, marketable tuber and total tuber than their counterparts. Though cost of production of early transplanted and closely spaced crop was higher, but net profit and return per rupee investment was also higher in those cases.

  12. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing (United States)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop

  13. Identification of a novel umami compound in potatoes and potato chips. (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Peterson, Devin G


    The influence of frying time on the taste profile of potato chips was characterized. Direct comparison of isolates from potato chip samples fried for 170s and 210s indicated longer frying time increased the perceived umami intensity and decreased the sour intensity. The compounds responsible for the greater umami intensity were identified as monosodium l-pyroglutamate (l-MSpG) and monosodium d-pyroglutamate (d-MSpG). The reduction in sour intensity was attributed to the degradation of d-chlorogenic acid. MSpGs were endogenous in raw potatoes and also thermally generated from glutamic acid during frying. Taste recombination studies further confirmed the contribution of both compounds to the umami character of potato chips. Furthermore, time-intensity taste analysis revealed that topical addition of both l- and d-MSpG enhanced the perceived intensity of the umami taste and the overall flavor characteristic of the potato chips. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TEXTURAL AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF IRISH POTATOES: I. Textural Properties. (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas R; Ahmed, Esam M


    Steam-peeled unprocessed potatoes showed the least hardness, gumminess, and resistance to shear or to compression forces in comparison to those peeled by lye or by abrasion. Fracturability values were greater than hardness values for the unprocessed potatoes, while the reverse was true for processed potatoes. Processed lye-peeled potatoes showed the greatest amount of cohesiveness and gumminess, and required the largest forces to shear or compress. The peeling method had no observed effect on adhesiveness values of processed potatoes. Texture profile parameters as well as resistance to shear or compression forces, and sensory hardness ratings increased during storage of processed potatoes. Steam and lye-peeled potatoes were more preferred organoleptically than abrasion-peeled potatoes.

  15. Influence of spatial arrangements in maize/solanum potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum tuberosum L.) on the incidence of potato aphids and leafhoppers was conducted at Namulonge in Uganda during the two growing seasons of 1995. Three potato varieties and one maize variety were intercropped in six spatial ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov


    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  17. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong


    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  18. Dressing wounds with potato peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patange Vidya


    Full Text Available The use of boiled potato peel (PP in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%, near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva


    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  20. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali


    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  1. The method for potato root system measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głuska


    Full Text Available Extracting of a root system from the soil without losses is the main difficulty in investigations of the potato root system. In the years 1992-1998 at The Potato Research Institute, Jadwisin (Poland an original method for potato root system investigation was developed.A special pot (40 cm in diameter, 100 cm high made of zinc coated steel sheet 0,8 mm was constructed. This device may be opened lengthwise to obtain the whole intact root system of potato plant. Soil profile in the pot is formed in 10 horizontal layers separated by circles made of plastic mesh which enable distinguishing of roots related to certain soil horizons. The method described makes possible (in a relatively easy way taking measurements of weight and length of roots in every 10-cm layer of soil up to depth of 1 meter, so as to assess: the weight of fresh and/or dry matter and length of the whole potato plant root system and its distribution in the soil profile. This method might be useful also for investigation of root systems of another species.

  2. Genetic Variability in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Genotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late blight (Phytophthora infestans de Bary) is the most important and destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L). The pathogen has the ability to rapidly evolve and overcome resistance genes, leading commercial potato varieties to succumb to it too soon. As a result, evaluation of commercial potato varieties for ...

  3. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.


    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  4. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  5. Determinants of sweet potato value addition among smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important food security promoted crop in Nigeria. The recognition of its relative health benefits has resulted in fresh consumption as well as the utilization of processed products such as sweet potato chips, fries and pre-cut, flour, and pureed sweet potatoes. This study examined the determinants of sweet ...

  6. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato yields in Uganda have remained low at 7.5 t ha-1. This low yield is attributed to low yielding varieties, poor management practices and lack of quality seed potatoes among other factors. This study was conducted to ascertain the challenges and opportunities of quality seed potato availability and production in the ...

  7. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil


    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  8. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae) (United States)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    translatable coat protein (CP) gene fragments of Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and. Potato virus X (PVX) with and without selectable marker gene was conducted using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. Preliminary ...... Plant–cell. 5:1749–1759. 30. Lu, H-J., Zhou, X.R., Gong, Z–X. and Upadhyaya,.

  10. The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 18, 2015 ... Key words: Aeroponics, hydroponics, dissolved oxygen, minituber, potato, tuberization. INTRODUCTION. There is a great potential for the production of a large number of potato tubers, from potatoes grown in nutrient cultures and bioreactors (Akita and Takayama, 1994;. Wurr et al., 1997). During the last ...

  11. Cell cycle and storage related gene expression in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, J.


    Potato tubers are vegetative structures aimed at survival of the period when conditions are not optimal for the growth of the potato plant. Understanding the process of tuber formation in potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) is important, both from a scientific view, and for

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  13. Mineral Composition of Leaves and Tubers of Potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of low yield and quality of potato in Ethiopia is attributable to nutrient deficiencies. Therefore, a survey was conducted to elucidate the problem through plant tissue analyses. Mature and fully expanded potato leaves and tubers were sampled randomly from purposively selected smallholder potato farms across ...

  14. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.


    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in

  15. Production of bioethanol through enzymatic hydrolysis of potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to gradual decrease in petroleum resources and impacts of these wastes on the environment, there is a need to utilize the wastes of potatoes to get wealth out of wastes and clean the environment. In this study, potato wastes were investigated as source of bioethanol. 100 g potato powder was mixed with 1 L distilled ...

  16. The potential of unintended effects in potato glycoalkaloids | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato glycoalkaloids are known toxic compounds to humans and animals. These days, food safety evaluation tests of transgenic potato varieties are conducted on routine basis to keep the glycoalkaloid levels below a threshold level. Some transgenic potato varieties have been found with altered glycoalkaloid levels, which ...

  17. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, K.R.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.J.; Kim, T.J.; Bergervoet-van Deelen, J.E.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Vossen, J.H.


    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into

  18. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    varieties, poor management practices and lack of quality seed potatoes among other factors. This ... Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... chain. In Uganda, the potato formal seed system is not well developed, it operates through a semi-formal institutional arrangement for multiplication and.

  19. Biocontrol of potato wilt by selective rhizospheric and endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biocontrol of potato wilt by selective rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with potato plant. ... identification with the Ralstonia solanacearum specific primers 759/760 revealed that 24 of the pathogenic isolates belong to the Ralstonia solanacearum species, biovar two; the causal agent of potato bacterial wilt.

  20. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato as an import.ant food a-op. Breeding techniques to develop tropical potato varieties with higher yield, wider adaptability, and better resistance to late blight and bacterial wilt are discussed. Genotypes, 381381.20 ...

  1. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (1988) reported significant variations among potato genotypes in tuber setting and harvest index in different subtropical environments. Despite significant climatic variation between the two systems, potato breeders in Ethiopia select and release improved potato varieties solely based on performance under rainfed condition.

  2. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato as an import.ant food a-op. Breeding techniques to develop tropical potato varieties with higher yield, wider adaptability, and better resistance to late blight and bacterial wilt are discussed. Genotypes, 381381.20 ...

  3. Potato virus Y infection hinders potato defence response and renders plants more vulnerable to Colorado potato beetle attack. (United States)

    Petek, Marko; Rotter, Ana; Kogovšek, Polona; Baebler, Spela; Mithöfer, Axel; Gruden, Kristina


    In the field, plants are challenged by more than one biotic stressor at the same time. In this study, the molecular interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say; CPB) and Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN) ) were investigated through analyses of gene expression in the potato leaves and the gut of the CPB larvae, and of the release of potato volatile compounds. CPB larval growth was enhanced when reared on secondary PVY(NTN) -infected plants, which was linked to decreased accumulation of transcripts associated with the antinutritional properties of potato. In PVY(NTN) -infected plants, ethylene signalling pathway induction and induction of auxin response transcription factors were attenuated, while no differences were observed in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. Similarly to rearing on virus-infected plants, CPB larvae gained more weight when reared on plants silenced in JA receptor gene (coi1). Although herbivore-induced defence mechanism is regulated predominantly by JA, response in coi1-silenced plants only partially corresponded to the one observed in PVY(NTN) -infected plants, confirming the role of other plant hormones in modulating this response. The release of β-barbatene and benzyl alcohol was different in healthy and PVY(NTN) -infected plants before CPB larvae infestation, implicating the importance of PVY(NTN) infection in plant communication with its environment. This was reflected in gene expression profiles of neighbouring plants showing different degree of defence response. This study thus contributes to our understanding of plant responses in agro-ecosystems. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils. (United States)

    Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi


    Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

  5. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays for detection of Potato virus S in potato plants. (United States)

    Song, Ge; Wu, Jia-Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Yong; Qian, Ya-Juan; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Wu, Jian-Xiang

    Potato virus S (PVS) often causes significant losses in potato production in potato-growing countries. In this study, the ordinary strain of PVS (PVSO) was purified from PVS-infected potato plants and used as the immunogen to produce hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Five highly specific and sensitive murine MAbs (1A3, 16C10, 18A9, 20B12, and 22H4) against PVS were prepared using conventional hybridoma technology. Using these MAbs, tissue print-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, and double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA were developed for sensitive and specific detection of PVS infection in potato plants. The results of sensitivity assays revealed that PVS could be reliably detected in PVS-infected leaf crude extracts diluted at 1:10 240 and 1:163 840 (w/v, g/ml) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA, respectively. Twenty-two samples collected from potato fields in Yunnan Province, China were tested for PVS infection using the serological assays we had developed, and 14 of them were found to be positive. This indicates that PVS is now prevalent in potato fields in Yunnan Province.

  6. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta


    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  7. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI...... increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...

  8. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli


    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hermeziu


    Full Text Available Potato breeding are oriented to obtain varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors and with high yield capacity to satisfy the both quantitative and qualitative needs of consumers. Productivity, quality and stability are achieved through crop improvement works to promote new varieties with traits performance. Among the achievements of National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet in 2015 was registred the variety Cosiana. The variety is obtained through sexual hybridization and individual clonal selection. As vegetation period enroll in the group of middle varieties. Cosiana has a high yield capacity, is resistant to black wart (Synchitrium endobioticum, middle resistant to late blight (Phytopththora infestans and to different viruses (PVY0 and PLRV. The variety is conceived for autumn-winter consumption, being suitable for most culinary preparations, from salad to mash potatoes.

  10. Welcome to the Potato Powered Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia


    As part of the Art@CMS initiative, UK artist Rachael Nee worked with a group of international teachers taking part in the 2017 High School Teacher Programme to produce an art installation. The Potato Powered Cosmos represents CERN as an interrelated system of experiment, machine, energy and people. The installation emphasises the importance of CERN’s community - it doesn’t work without human interaction. Art@CMS has produced a ‘how-to’ guide for other art and science teachers who would like to recreate the Potato Powered Cosmos with their students.

  11. The influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity properties of potato starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Food choices, while influenced by taste and nutritional value, have also symbolic enjoyment meanings. The texture, appearance, and flavor are important acceptability factors for any meal component. In our every day enjoyment of eating, texture is often as important as flavor. Starch is the most important source of carbohydrate in human nutrition and is widely used in many applications throughout the food industry. As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas. Potato starch is extracted from the root tubers of the potato plant. Radiation processing can be applied on foods for different purposes. It can also produce some modifications that are important to know. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity of potato starch. Starch samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The results obtained showed that texture became inversely proportional to the applied radiation dose. Increasing doses promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L was not significantly affected. On the other hand, the viscosity of potato starch aqueous preparations decreased with the radiation dose, attributable to some degradation of starch molecules. (author)

  12. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato (United States)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.


    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  13. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska


    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  14. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products (United States)

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to ...

  15. Historical collections reveal patterns of diffusion of sweet potato in Oceania obscured by modern plant movements and recombination. (United States)

    Roullier, Caroline; Benoit, Laure; McKey, Doyle B; Lebot, Vincent


    The history of sweet potato in the Pacific has long been an enigma. Archaeological, linguistic, and ethnobotanical data suggest that prehistoric human-mediated dispersal events contributed to the distribution in Oceania of this American domesticate. According to the "tripartite hypothesis," sweet potato was introduced into Oceania from South America in pre-Columbian times and was then later newly introduced, and diffused widely across the Pacific, by Europeans via two historically documented routes from Mexico and the Caribbean. Although sweet potato is the most convincing example of putative pre-Columbian connections between human occupants of Polynesia and South America, the search for genetic evidence of pre-Columbian dispersal of sweet potato into Oceania has been inconclusive. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Using complementary sets of markers (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) and both modern and herbarium samples, we test the tripartite hypothesis. Our results provide strong support for prehistoric transfer(s) of sweet potato from South America (Peru-Ecuador region) into Polynesia. Our results also document a temporal shift in the pattern of distribution of genetic variation in sweet potato in Oceania. Later reintroductions, accompanied by recombination between distinct sweet potato gene pools, have reshuffled the crop's initial genetic base, obscuring primary patterns of diffusion and, at the same time, giving rise to an impressive number of local variants. Moreover, our study shows that phenotypes, names, and neutral genes do not necessarily share completely parallel evolutionary histories. Multidisciplinary approaches, thus, appear necessary for accurate reconstruction of the intertwined histories of plants and humans.

  16. Application of a portable infrared instrument for simultaneous analysis of sugars, asparagine and glutamine levels in raw potato tubers. (United States)

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Santos, Alejandra M; Moyseenko, Jennifer; Kleinhenz, Matthew; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E


    The level of reducing sugars and asparagine in raw potatoes is critical for potato breeders and the food industry for production of commonly consumed food products including potato chips and French fries. Our objective was to evaluate the use of a portable infrared instrument for the rapid quantitation of major sugars and amino acids in raw potato tubers using single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and dial path accessories as an alternative to time-consuming chromatographic techniques. Samples representing a total of 84 experimental and commercial potato varieties harvested in two consecutive growing seasons (2012 and 2013) were used in this study. Samples had wide ranges of sugars determined by HPLC-RID (non-detectable (ND)-7.7 mg glucose, ND-9.4 mg fructose and 0.4-5.4 mg sucrose per 1 g fresh weight), and asparagine and glutamine levels determined by GC-FID (0.7-2.9 mg and 0.3-1.7 mg per 1 g fresh weight). Infrared spectra collected from 64 varieties were used to create partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models that predicted the sugar and amino acid levels in an independent set of 16 validation potato varieties. Excellent linear correlations between infrared predicted and reference values were obtained. PLSR models had a high correlation coefficient of prediction (rPred >0.95) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) values ranging between 3.1 and 5.5. Overall, the results indicated that the models could be used to simultaneously predict sugars, free asparagine and glutamine levels in the raw tubers, significantly benefiting potato breeding, certain aspects of crop management, crop production and research.

  17. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    Full Text Available The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg-1 soil. The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield.

  18. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming


    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant New World Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Michael David; Ho, Simon Y W; Wales, Nathan


    The plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans emerged in Europe in 1845, triggering the Irish potato famine and massive European potato crop losses that continued until effective fungicides were widely employed in the 20(th) century. Today the pathogen is ubiquitous, with more aggressive and virulent......)-century Europe, three from 1950s U.K. and 34 from modern populations across the New World. We use phylogenetic analyses to identify the HERB-1 lineage in modern populations from both Mexico and South America, and to demonstrate distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were present in 19(th)-century Europe...

  20. Forage potential of American potato bean (United States)

    American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

  1. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The other chemicals used are of analytical grade. Preparation of starch phosphodiester. The preparation of starch phosphodiester was done according to a published method [10]. A quantity of sweet potato starch was mixed with a certain amount of STMP, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, urea, and water in sequence.

  2. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.


    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  3. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  4. Responses of potatoes plants inoculated with arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was set to examine the impact of the foliar litter (Hardwickia binata and Azadirachta indica) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the development of two varieties of potato plants (Aida, Atlas). Three litter doses (0, 25 and 50 g) were applied to the pots after bedding plantlets. The plants were ...

  5. Potato biology and biotechnology: advances and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Gebhardt, C.; Govers, F.; MacKerron, D.; Taylor, M.; Ross, H.


    This book covers the potato world market as it expands further into the new millennium. Authors stress the overriding need for stable yields to eliminate human hunger and poverty, while considering solutions to enhance global production and distribution. It comprehensively describes genetics and


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato. (Ipomea batatas L.) in a humid Ultisols. ... this permits the growing of two or three crop cycles in a year. This crop is usually produced ...... vegetative growth as evidenced by number of leaves, vines, shorter internodes and ...

  7. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.


    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of

  8. Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of two Serbian potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Serbian potato cultivars Dragaevka and Jelica, enabling the introduction of oryzacystatin genes OCI and OCII, was established. Starting with leaf explants, a two-stage transformation protocol combining procedures of Webb and Wenzler provided high shoot ...

  9. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar university, Agra- 282004, India. 2Department of Botany, RBS College, Agra- 282004, India. Accepted 1 ... K2O. 14%. 32.48 kg method of rapid multiplication in potatoes (Ranalli et al.,. 1994) and in blueberry by Zimmerman and Broome.

  10. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.


    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection

  11. Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Carl E [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002 (United States)], E-mail:


    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.

  12. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.


    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  13. physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers undergo a period of dormancy, during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy is determined by environmental, physiological and hormonal control mechanisms. Dormancy is the final stage of tuber life, which serves to preserve tubers as organs of vegetative.

  14. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.


    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  15. Molecular characterization of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat ... and U.S.A, with the aim of generating information on the genetic diversity and relationship among the genotypes for better exploitation in breeding programs. A total ...

  16. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.


    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  17. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A


    20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance......Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single...... genotype. It is widely believed that new strains migrated into Europe in 1976 and that this led to subsequent population changes including the introduction of the A2 mating type. The population characteristics of recently collected isolates in NW Europe show a diverse population including both mating types...

  18. Potassium phosphite primes defense responses in potato against Phytophthora infestans. (United States)

    Machinandiarena, Milagros Florencia; Lobato, María Candela; Feldman, Mariana Laura; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Andreu, Adriana Balbina


    Although phosphite is widely used to protect plants from pathogenic oomycetes on a wide range of horticultural crops, the molecular mechanisms behind phosphite induced resistance are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of potassium phosphite (KPhi) on potato plant defense responses to infection with Phytophtora infestans (Pi). Pathogen development was severely restricted and there was also an important decrease in lesion size in infected KPhi-treated leaves. We demonstrated that KPhi primed hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion production in potato leaves at 12 h post-inoculation with Pi. Moreover, the KPhi-treated leaves showed an increased and earlier callose deposition as compared with water-treated plants, beginning 48 h after inoculation. In contrast, callose deposition was not detected in water-treated leaves until 72 h after inoculation. In addition, we carried out RNA gel blot analysis of genes implicated in the responses mediated by salicylic (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). To this end, we examined the temporal expression pattern of StNPR1 and StWRKY1, two transcription factors related to SA pathway, and StPR1 and StIPII, marker genes related to SA and JA pathways, respectively. The expression of StNPR1 and StWRKY1 was enhanced in response to KPhi treatment. In contrast, StIPII was down regulated in both KPhi- and water-treated leaves, until 48 h after infection with Pi, suggesting that the regulation of this gene could be independent of the KPhi treatment. Our results indicate that KPhi primes the plant for an earlier and more intense response to infection and that SA would mediate this response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients. (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann


    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09-9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77-1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products.

  20. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review. (United States)

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C


    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  1. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  2. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 (United States)


    .... Commercial grade round, red-skinned potatoes for use in certain value added potato products. They further... small-size potatoes to U.S. No. 2 would erode the quality reputation of the area's potatoes. The...

  3. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread. (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei


    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  4. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  5. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices. (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang


    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae) (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Urek


    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.

  8. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale


    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  9. Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae (United States)

    Nishihama, Ryuichi; Schreiter, Jennifer H.; Onishi, Masayuki; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Hanna, Julia; Moravcevic, Katarina; Lippincott, Margaret F.; Han, Haesun; Lemmon, Mark A.; Pringle, John R.


    Cytokinesis requires coordination of actomyosin ring (AMR) contraction with rearrangements of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon mitotic exit even when the AMR is absent. Inn1 is essential for PS formation but not for Chs2 localization. The Inn1 C-terminal region is necessary for localization, and distinct PXXP motifs in this region mediate functionally important interactions with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore PS formation in inn1Δ cells). The Inn1 N terminus resembles C2 domains but does not appear to bind phospholipids; nonetheless, when overexpressed or fused to Hof1, it can provide Inn1 function even in the absence of the AMR. Thus, Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating Chs2 for PS formation, which allows coordination of AMR contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:19528296

  10. Use of active films in the minimally processed potato conservation


    Maria Paula Junqueira C. Gonçalves; Edimar Aparecida Filomeno Fontes; Soraia Vilela Borges; Danielle Augusta Alvarenga dos Santos; Nilda de Fátima Ferreira Soares; Érika Endo


    Potatoes of the variety “Monalisa” were minimally processed like slices and submitted to different treatments, employed to decrease the enzymatic browning and growth of microorganisms. These treatments consisted on pure cellulose films (FP) or incorporated with active compounds (2% of citric acid (AC), 0,5% of L-cysteine Hydrochloride Monohydrate (CIS), 7% of sorbic acid (AS) and film incorporated with all of them (MIS)) which were intercalated to sliced potatoes. For control, potatoes were c...

  11. Identification of Potato Genotypes Using Digital Image Analysis


    CSÁK, Máté; Hegedűs, Géza; POLGÁR, Zsolt


    Based on the fractal analysis of digital images, a new classifying system has been proposed at the Potato Research Centre of Keszthely. It is a qualifying system generating objective values to distinguish potato varieties or detect quality differences within the genotype in a relatively simple way. The goal of the research project was to investigate whether Spectral Fractal Dimension (SFD) value of digital images is applicable to describe various quality characters of potato tubers and whethe...

  12. Purple Sweet Potato Attenuate Weight Gain in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice. (United States)

    Ju, Ronghui; Zheng, Shujuan; Luo, Hongxia; Wang, Changgang; Duan, Lili; Sheng, Yao; Zhao, Changhui; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun


    Purple sweet potato (PSP) is widely grown in Asia and considered as a healthy vegetable. The objective of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity effect of the PSP on high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The mice were administrated with high fat diet supplemented with the sweet potato (SP) or PSP at the concentration of 15% and 30% for 12 wk, respectively. The results showed that the supplementation of SP or PSP at 30% significantly ameliorated high fat diet induced obesity and its associated risk factors, including reduction of body weight and fat accumulation, improvement of lipid profile and modulation of energy expenditure. Moreover, PSP also posed beneficial effect on the liver and kidney functions. These results indicate that PSP and SP have anti-obesity effect and are effective to reduce the metabolic risk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The growth in vitro of several potato cultivars (Amelia, Christian, Nicoleta and Roclas on media containing plant growth regulators has been studied with a view to accelerating micropropagation of slow-growing cultivars. Whilst 0,5 mg/l GA3+0.1 mg/l IAA substantially increased the height of plantlets of most cultivars, the combination of 0,1 mg/l GA3+0,1 mg/l IAA+ 1,5 mg/l BAP was more effective in increasing the number of shoots which could subsequently be cultured. Using PM medium, a specific medium designed for potato, slow-growing or recalcitrant cultivars, such as Amelia, could be multiplied more rapidly than on basic Murashige & Skoog medium. Cultivars studied showed wide variation in their response to the plant regulators, best results being obtained for the cultivar Nicoleta.

  14. Biochar Mitigates Salinity Stress in Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, S S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai


    A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water...... with the respective non-biochar control. Decreased Na+, Na+/K+ ratio and increased K+ content in xylem with biochar amendment also indicated its ameliorative effects on potato plants in response to salinity stress. The results suggested that incorporation of biochar might be a promising approach for enhancing crop...

  15. Drying kinetics of potato pulp waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Tavares de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Potato pulp waste (PPW drying was investigated under different experimental conditions (temperatures from 50 to 70 °C and air flow from 0.06 to 0.092 m³ m- 2 s- 1 as a possible way to recover the waste generated by potato chip industries and to select the best-fit model to the experimental results of PPW drying. As a criterion to evaluate the fitting of mathematical models, a method based on the sum of the scores assigned to the four evaluated statistical parameters was used: regression coefficient (R², relative mean error P (%, root mean square error (RMSE, and reduced chi-square (χ². The results revealed that temperature and air velocity are important parameters to reduce PPW drying time. The models Midilli and Diffusion had the lowest sum values, i.e., with the best fit to the drying data, satisfactorily representing the drying kinetics of PPW.

  16. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources (United States)

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle


    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BULARCA


    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed and interpreted the main statistical indicators of potato produced in Romania. First of all, we start by presenting some information about potatoes: origin and appearance, their importance and necessity in the life of people and animals. Then on the basis of the specific statistical indicators, it was interpreted the evolution of the cultivated area, the percentage of the main counties in the cultivated area with potatoes, the average yield per hectare, as well as the import and export of potatoes in a given period. Each indicator was analyzed and corresponding remarks and conclusions have been drawn.

  18. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

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    Janet Igarza Castro


    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  19. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes. (United States)

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  20. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.


    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  1. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

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    Drago Milošević


    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  2. Reproductive ecology and genetic variability in natural populations of the wild potato, Solanum kurtzianum. (United States)

    Marfil, C F; Masuelli, R W


    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) has more than 200 related wild species distributed along the Andes, adapted to a wide range of geographical and ecological areas. Since the last century, several collection expeditions were carried out to incorporate genetic variability into the potato germplasm around the world. However, little is known about the reproductive ecology and genetic population structure of natural potato population from field studies. The aim of this work is to study, in the field, the genetic variability and reproductive strategies of populations of one of the most widely distributed potato species in Argentina, Solanum kurtzianum, growing in Mendoza province. AFLP markers showed that the genetic variability is mainly present among plants within populations, indicating that in the sampled populations, sexual reproduction is more relevant than clonal multiplication (by tubers). Additional evidence was obtained evaluating the genetic diversity in populations with a distribution in patches, where several genotypes were always detected. From a field study performed in the Villavicencio Natural Reserve, we found that the average number of plump seeds per fruit was 94.3, identified and calculated the foraging distance of four insect pollinators, and demonstrated the seed dispersal by storm water channels. We argue that the breeding system, the two modes of reproduction and the ecological interaction described here may have a prominent role in determining the genetic structure of S. kurtzianum populations, and discuss the importance of field studies on population genetics, reproductive biology and ecology to design collections and conservation strategies. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.


    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  4. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L. (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie


    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial distribution patterns of the peppery furrow shell Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778) along the European coast: A review (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Campos, Joana; Heip, Carlo H. R.; van der Veer, Henk W.


    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana is an important species of shallow water benthic communities with a wide geographic distribution but also with a general patchy pattern, i.e. irregular in occurrence and in density. This review aims to determine the processes responsible for the species' spatial distribution pattern based on the available information on S. plana. Although several pre- and post-settlement processes are believed to influence spatial patterns of marine invertebrates, the general patchy distribution of S. plana seems to be determined by the existence of specific environmental conditions during settlement. Factors such as temperature, salinity, sediment type, hydrographic conditions and predation affect settlement and spat survival and not one but a combination of factors seems to explain the species distribution pattern. Future work should focus on determining the scale of patchiness, using hierarchical sampling, as well as the connectivity between populations by analysing the population genetic structure.

  6. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) ? a class-I KNOX gene in potato


    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.


    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and sto...

  7. The unlucky potato: Study of consumer risk perception toward a GM-potato using mental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    The second generation of GMO aims at providing consumers with food that has a clear health benefit such as rice with enhanced nutrient levels or potatoes with a lower level of natural toxin. The new generation with health enhancing attributes is predicted to reduce consumer skepticism toward use...... of GMO in food production, but a new and ongoing study on consumers' risk perception in regard to a GMO potato reveals that other barriers for acceptance of GMO food exist, barriers such as personal eating history....

  8. Population Structure of the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a Potato Germplasm Nursery in Two Consecutive Years. (United States)

    Tian, Yuee; Yin, Junliang; Sun, Jieping; Ma, Hongmei; Ma, Yunfang; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing


    As the causal agent of late blight on potato, Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens worldwide and widely known as the Irish potato famine pathogen. Understanding the genetic structure of P. infestans populations is important both for breeding and deployment of resistant varieties and for development of disease control strategies. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of P. infestans in a potato germplasm nursery in northwestern China. In total, 279 isolates were recovered from 63 potato varieties or lines in 2010 and 2011, and were genotyped by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a set of nine simple-sequence repeat markers. Selected isolates were further examined for virulence on a set of differential lines containing each resistance (R) gene (R1 to R11). The overall P. infestans population was characterized as having a low level of genetic diversity and resistance to metalaxyl, and containing a high percentage of individuals that virulent to all 11 R genes. Both A1 and A2 mating types as well as self-fertile P. infestans isolates were present but there was no evidence of sexual reproduction. The low level of genetic differentiation in P. infestans populations is probably due to the action of relatively high levels of migration as supported by analysis of molecular variance (P < 0.01). Migration and asexual reproduction were the predominant mechanisms influencing the P. infestans population structure in the germplasm nursery. Therefore, it is important to ensure the production of pathogen-free potato seed tubers to aid sustainable production of potato in northwestern China.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2. (United States)

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui


    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  10. Furrow Irrigation Management and Design Criteria Using Efficiency Parameters and Simulation Models Criterios para Manejo y Diseño de Riego por Surcos Utilizando Parámetros de Eficiencia y Modelos de Simulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Holzapfel


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the variables of furrow irrigation and the irrigation performance parameters, crop yield, and deep percolation as a basis for furrow irrigation design and management. Application efficiency (AE, requirement efficiency (RE, requirement distribution efficiency (RDE, total distribution efficiency (TDE, and furrow irrigation management, operation, and design variables (inflow discharge, furrow length, and irrigation cutoff time were correlated. The relationship between performance irrigation parameters and relative yield was also examined. In addition, environmental aspects related to leaching and runoff were also presented for each of the parameters. Study results indicate that increasing the length of the furrow reduces RE, RDE, and TDE values. However, an increase in inflow discharge and cutoff time increases efficiency. In contrast, an increase in furrow length increases AE while an increase in inflow discharge and cutoff time reduces it. Unlike AE, RE, RDE, and TDE parameters are well-correlated with relative yield. TDE and AE are recommended parameters for the design, management, and operation of furrow irrigation systems, in order to establish good irrigation practices, and to prevent contamination.El presente artículo analiza la relación entre las variables de riego por surcos y los parámetros que determinan la calidad del riego, producción, y percolación profunda como base para el diseño y manejo del riego por surcos. Se ha realizado la correlación entre la eficiencia de aplicación (AE, eficiencia de requerimiento (RE, eficiencia de distribución del requerimiento (RDE, eficiencia de distribución total (TDE, y las variables de manejo, operación y diseño de riego por surcos (caudal, longitud de surco y tiempo de corte de riego. También se ha examinado la relación entre los parámetros que determinan la calidad de riego y la producción relativa. Además, se presentan para cada uno de

  11. Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp (United States)


    ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose

  12. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants (United States)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  13. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic materials remain in the nature for decades. Slow degradation of plastics in the environment caused a public trend to biodegradable polymers. The aim of this research was to produce the microbial biodegradable low density polyethylene with potato starch. Degradation of potato starch based low density polyethylene ...

  14. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug, Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) ... The mean number of eggs per female was higher on sprouting potatoes (121.3) than on citrus (68), but declined with an increase in temperature from 22 to ...

  15. In situ hybridization to somatic metaphase chromosomes of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R. G.; Hoekstra, R.; van der Leij, F. R.; Pijnacker, L. P.; Witholt, B.; Feenstra, W. J.


    An in situ hybridization procedure was developed for mitotic potato chromosomes by using a potato 24S rDNA probe. This repetitive sequence hybridized to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of chromosome 2 in 95%-100% of the metaphase plates. Another repetitive sequence (P5), isolated from the

  16. Potato bacterial wilt management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearumis the major threat to potato production. Farmers are not aware of the causes of potato diseases and they believe that all types of diseases are caused by rain and mist. Research has been carried out in four districts namely Shashemene, Tulubolo, Welmera and ...

  17. Diversity and evolution of potato mop-top virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuch, Ulrike; Beuch, Sofia; Åkerblom, Jonas


    Nearly complete sequences of RNA-CP and 3′-proximal RNA-TGB were determined for 43 samples of potato mop-top virus (PMTV) originating from potato tubers and field soil from Sweden, Denmark and the USA. The results showed limited diversity and no strict geographical grouping, suggesting only a few...

  18. Potato Bacterial Wilt Management in the Central Highlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearumis the major threat to potato production. Farmers are not aware of the causes of potato diseases and they believe that all types of diseases are caused by rain and mist. Research has been carried out in four districts namely Shashemene, Tulubolo, Welmera and ...

  19. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by Verticillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 3, 2009 ... sclerotia of R. solani was reduced by V. biguttatum isolates. V. biguttatum also significantly reduced the disease severity of R. solani on potato sprouts in pot experiments. This is the first report of V. biguttatum from sclerotia of R. solani in Turkey. Key words: Bio-control, potato, Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium ...

  20. introduction aerobic mesophilic bacteria associated with irish potato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial soft rot is one of the most common potato diseases in the tropics and induces quick and heavy spoilage losses. Its causal bacterium, Erwinia carotovora, has been extensively studied (Harrison and Nielson, 1990). Among the fungi reported to be associated with dry rot of potato,. Fusarium solani has been reported ...

  1. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey to determine occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) was conducted in major sweet potato growing areas in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Eighty-four symptomatic vine samples were collected and graft-inoculated onto universal indicator plants, Ipomoea ...

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato (United States)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  3. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts for the Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy foodstuffs using crude amylase extracts from Ugandan sweet potato cultivars. Amylolytic activity in 18 sweet potato cultivars grown at Namulonge was evaluated and there was a significant variation of activity among cultivars ...

  4. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  5. Consumer perceptions and demand for biofortified sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain varieties of sweet potato, especially orange-fleshed, are being promoted as part of the strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant mothers. However, the consumption of sweet potato is more widespread in rural households where it is mainly boiled or eaten raw. The lack of value addition ...

  6. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  7. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  8. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  9. Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteros, A.R.


    This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of

  10. Effect of selection methods on seed potato quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunadi, N.; Pronk, A.A.; Karjadi, A.K.; Prabaningrum, L.; Moekasan, T.K.


    Potato is one of the most important crops in the world. Although it ranks fourth after rice, wheat and maize, the major food crops in the world, either in production or in the economic value, in terms of energy and protein production per hectare and per unit of time, the potato ranks first which is

  11. Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicate that there is scope for adoption of stems as an alternative sample to tubers for indexing against R. solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed potato fields. However, although significant, the low r-value calls for more

  12. Effect of irrigation system uniformity and method on potato (United States)

    Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and water uniformity is important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menof...

  13. Click beetles (Coleopter: Elateridae) associated with potatoes in Alaska (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the species composition, seasonal biology, and geographic distribution of adult elaterids associated with potato production in Alaska. Adult elaterids were collected in the major potato producing areas of Alaska and from a subsistence farm above the arctic...

  14. Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) (United States)

    In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

  15. Genetic analysis of root-knot nematode resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaistra, J.


    The development of potato varieties with resistance towards the potato cyst nematode, allowed a dramatic decrease of the use of nematicides. Subsequently the population of the free living nematodes and the root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) has increased. Among the root-knot nematodes, three

  16. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  17. Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils (United States)

    Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...

  18. Neonicotinoids as seed potato treatments to control wireworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, H.F.; Ester, A.


    A series of field trials were carried out from 2000 to 2003. Neonicotinoid insecticides applied as seed potato treatments at planting were tested to control wireworms in potato crops. Compounds were applied as drench or spray. Neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid at rates of 35, 70, 88, and 175 g

  19. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.


    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  1. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sami siraj


    Sep 13, 2012 ... 2Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Institute of Agricultural ... first report on the molecular characterization of full length PVX coat protein sequence infecting potato from Pakistan. ... sensitive and reliable detection methods (Salazar, 1994). Potato virus X ...

  2. Occurrence of Pospiviroid in potato, tomato and some ornamental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these samples, potato tubers were collected from markets, leaf samples from potato fields (Erzurum), tomato samples from field (Tokat, Amasya, Balýkesir and Bursa) and greenhouses (Antalya and Mula), leaves and vines of ornamental plants from greenhouses (Yalova) and florists (Erzurum) and recreation areas ...

  3. Influence of Treatment of Seed Potato Tubers with Plant Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers in most developing countries store seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers in traditional storage that invariably leads to rapid deterioration in the quality of the seed tubers due to sprouting and aging. Thus, potato seed tubers senesce and are past their prime when planted. A pot experiment was conducted at ...

  4. Preparation of resistant sweet potato starch by steam explosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... steam explosion (SE) technology. Methods: A response surface method was used to investigate the effects of explosion pressure, pressure-holding time and autoclaving time on digestion resistance of sweet potato starch. The resulting resistant sweet potato starch was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ...

  5. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview. (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito


    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  6. ​Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For the past 15 years, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNC) has worked on the development of new potato cultivars, better suited for post-harvest storage and processing. UNC has made significant progress in developing and collecting new potato clones but these have to be tested for nutritional and processing ...

  7. A review of therapeutic potentials of sweet potato: Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a global food crop, now being recognized as a functional food due to several of its nutraceutical components. Several experimental studies have reported that sweet potato can generally be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases through its antioxidant, ...

  8. Ecology and control of Dickeya spp. in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert


    Potato blackleg caused by pectinolytic Pectobacterium and Dickeya species is a bacterial disease creating serious economic losses in (seed)potato production worldwide. Effective management to control blackleg is absent and validated, cost-effective detection protocols for blackleg bacteria do not

  9. Modification of potato steroidal glycoalkaloids with silencing RNA constructs (United States)

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), while found in many solanaceous plants, can accumulate to unacceptably high levels in potatoes. The two primary SGAs that occur in potatoes are the tri-glycosylated alkaloids, a-solanine and a-chaconine. The first glycosylation steps in their biosynthetic pathways ...

  10. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  11. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  12. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  13. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  14. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...

  15. Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...

  16. Evaluation of citrus, butternut and sprouting potato as mass rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Biological control programs of mealybug species have relied on sprouting potatoes, pumpkins and butternut for rearing of both mealybugs and their natural enemies. In this study, the suitability of sprouting potatoes, butternuts and citrus as mass rearing substrates for the oleander mealybug,. Paracoccus burnerae was ...

  17. Resource use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Odeda Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This study estimated the resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Odeda Local. Government Area, Ogun State. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling procedure; analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis ...

  18. The induction and growth of potato ( Solanum tuberosum . L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The induction and growth of potato ( Solanum tuberosum . L) microtubers (sante ... The cultures of single node were grown against white light (4000 to 5000 LUX) and on sucrose for one month. In the second ... after induction. Key words: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), 6-benzylaminopurine, sucrose, microtuber formation.

  19. Yield levels of potato crops: recent achievements and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Struik, P.C.


    The potential yield of potato is defined as the theoretical yield that can be assessed for a well-adapted cultivar, grown from the best possible seed under optimal conditions. More than in crops that are grown from generative seeds, the growth, development, yield and quality of the potato crop are

  20. Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 26, 2016 ... The potato is one of Colombia's most important staple foods and a significant source of low-cost calories for families. However, yellow potato varieties grown in the Nariño region in southern Colombia are low-yielding and highly susceptible to late blight disease. In response to this problem, an innovative ...

  1. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potato starch gave acceptable bread. Up to 40 and 50% inclusion of starch or flour to wheat gave acceptable cakes with desired colours. Also, 50% inclusion of starch or flour to wheat gave acceptable chinchin for colour and general acceptability. Key words: Sweet potato, flour, starch, confectionery, functional properties, ...

  2. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...

  3. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes (United States)

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  4. Production of manganese peroxidase by white rot fungi from potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) by white rot fungus strain L-25 was carried out using potato-processing wastewater and the effects of amino acids in the potato-processing wastewater was investigated. The MnP was efficiently produced from the wastewater by the addition of glucose and the maximum MnP ...

  5. The Potato Association of America: Working for you since 1913 (United States)

    The history and contributions of the Potato Association of America (PAA) to the advancement of the potato industry will be given with specific examples of how the industry has benefitted from the research and extension activities of the PAA. The primary purpose of the poster being to further familia...

  6. Whole sales market for fresh potatoes in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study estimates a conditional mean and conditional variance model for producer prices of fresh potatoes. The results suggest that potato price movements are volatile exhibiting a symmetric and non-stationary process. Prices respond symmetrically to exogenous shocks and the shocks are, thereafter, predicted to prevail in prices to the end of the marketing year. The persistency of the price shocks makes potato price movements unpredictable and, therefore, increases price risks of holding potato inventories. The estimates indicate elastic price response with respect to annual potato yield shocks. A ten percent yield increase is predicted to decrease prices by 20%. The information on inventory levels is included in prices and this information is not increased by surveying the inventory levels. Because of the elastic price response, the largest risk for a farmer is an exceptionally large total yield of potatoes. Information on the aggregate potato yield, which arrives during the growing season, will be quickly incorporated in prices. Therefore, pre-harvest hedging strategies are more efficient than after-harvest hedging strategies in managing potato price risks.

  7. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva Muniz


    Feb 24, 2014 ... The genotypes, 1213, 1190, 33P10 between the 1213 were the most divergent in the SPGB (Sweet Potato. Germplasm Bank), with 0.00 of similarity to 58% of sweet potatoes. The main cultivars were divided among sub groups, and the first group differed at 0.2 JS, with 'Olho. Roxo' and 'Beauregard' as well ...

  8. Detection of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. in Potato Tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Solke H.; Charkowski, Amy O.; Wolf, van der J.M.


    Bacterial soft rot in potato doliage and tubers is caused by various species in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Until recently, most potato stem rots were characterized as blackleg, a distinctive black-colored decay starting from the seed tuber; or aerial stem rot, a soft rot of aboveground

  9. Evaluation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes for yeild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) produces more nutritious food on less land with short period of time, but the production in lowland areas is limited by high temperatures, because the crop is adapted to cool climates and perform best at about 20°C. The production of potato at lowland areas demands to develop heat tolerant ...

  10. Resource use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Odeda Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2000). Economic Efficiency of Resource Use in. Millet-Based Cropping Systems in Borno State of. Nigeria, Nigeria Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 2: 33-42. International Potato Centre, (2009). Treasure for the. Poor in Sweet Potato Main. CIP, Lima, Peru, pp. 25. National Bureau of Statistics (2009). Nigeria Abstract of.

  11. Influence of ventilation and media on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of supplemental aeration ...

  12. effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth of potato genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) has high phosphorus requirement for optimum growth and yield. Thus, under. P deficiency, growth and yield are considerably reduced. An experiment was conducted in a controlled growth chamber on the effect of P supply on morphological and physiological plant parameters of three potato ...

  13. Characterization of Tanzanian elite sweet potato genotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four microsatellites markers distinguished the 57 Tanzanian sweet potato genotypes into two major clusters. The relatively high level of genetic diversity indicates broad genetic base for sweet potato breeding in Tanzania. The results obtained demonstrate the efficiency of SSR marker technique for the assessment of ...

  14. Performance of potato varieties raised from true potato seed in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola had 100% uniformity in tuber shape and skin colour. Only RC 767-2 and CIP 387705-18 had 100% uniformity in skin colour. The study showed that it is possible to produce healthy seed tubers from true potato seed under Jos Plateau, Nigeria conditions. Among the TPS genotypes studied CIP 387705-18 and RC ...

  15. Potato production and innovative technologies. Proceedings Potato Russia International Conference, Moscou Agust 21-22, 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Anisimov, B.V.


    This comprehensive book is the result of the Potato Russia international conference that took place in August 2007 in Moscow. It begins with a series of papers that give an excellent overview of consumer behaviour and marketing with examples from various countries in the world. The quality of

  16. [Detection and molecular characterization of Potato virus S (PVS, Carlavirus) from Colombia]. (United States)

    Fernando, Gil José; Cotes, José Miguel; Marín, Mauricio


    In Colombia, potato crops are affected by a wide variety of viruses such as PVY, PLRV, PVX, PMTV and PVS. Unfortunately, there are very few studies on the biology, distribution and pathogenicity of these viruses; this situation is even worse for the latent virus PVS. In this work, we evaluated the presence ofPVS in four Colombian provinces (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Nariño) by the use of ELISA. We also studied the degree of molecular variation by sequence comparison of a segment of the gene encoding for the viral coat protein. In average, PVS was detected in 40% of 320 analyzed samples of potato leaves; the highest levels were observed in the East ofAntioquia (49%) and Pasto (Nariño) (47%), while in the other regions ranged between 35% and 42%. Analysis of sequence revealed the presence of two PVS strains in Colombia: three isolates were associated to PVSo (Ordinary) and twelve belonged to PVSA (Andean). A high diversity was observed among PVSA strains with percent identities in the range of 88-99%. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening seed certification programs and quarantine measures in Colombia for viruses like PVS, which can cause losses of up to 20% in potato crops and even higher in mixed virus infection.

  17. Virulence assessment of Portuguese isolates of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José M. DA CUNHA


    Full Text Available Identification of species and virulence groups of potato cyst nematodes (PCN, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis, present in field populations is important in the control of these nematodes by means of resistant cultivars. In order to characterize the virulence of Globodera spp. isolates from Portugal, 43 G. rostochiensis and three G. pallida isolates were evaluated by measuring their multiplication rates on a susceptible potato cultivar and five differential potato genotypes in a growth chamber pot experiment. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed that the reproduction rates were different in terms of both the numbers of eggs and the numbers of cysts produced. Portuguese isolates of PCN were more virulent on genotypes derived from Solanum vernei than on genotypes derived from other Solanum resistance sources, and there was a significant nematode isolate × host genotype interaction. The virulence bioassay clearly distinguished the two PCN species but failed to differentiate isolates into pathotypes. There was a wide and continuous range of virulence to the resistant genotypes, especially in G. rostochiensis isolates.

  18. Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Trevisan de Souza


    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Tuberosum crop is particularly susceptible to water deficit because of its small and shallow root system. The fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW approach has been widely used in the evaluation of plant responses to water deficit in different crops. The FTSW 34 threshold (when stomatal closure starts is a trait of particular interest because it is an indicator of tolerance to water deficit. The FTSW threshold for decline in transpiration and leaf growth was evaluated in a drying soil to identify potato clones tolerant to water deficit. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out in pots, with three advanced clones and the cultivar Asterix. The FTSW, transpiration and leaf growth were measured on a daily basis, during the period of soil drying. FTSW was an efficient method to separate potato clones with regard to their response to water deficit. The advancedclones SMINIA 02106-11 and SMINIA 00017-6 are more tolerant to soil water deficit than the cultivar Asterix, and the clone SMINIA 793101-3 is more tolerant only under high solar radiation.

  19. Glycoalkaloids as biomarkers for recognition of cultivated, wild, and somatic hybrids of potato. (United States)

    Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio


    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs). During breeding programs, species genomes are often put together through either sexual or somatic hybridization. Therefore, the determination of the GA composition of hybrids is very important in that it may affect either human consumption, or resistance to pathogen and pests. Here, we report the results of GA analysis performed on wild Solanum bulbocastanum, haploids of cultivated potato S. tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids. GAs were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. HPLC Profile of S. tuberosum haploids showed, as expected, the presence of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. The profile of S. bulbocastanum extract showed lack of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, and the presence of four GAs. The GA pattern of the somatic hybrids was the sum of their parents' profile. This represents a noteworthy tool for their unequivocal recognition. Interestingly, two hybrids produced not only GAs of both parents but also new compounds to be further investigated. This provided evidence that somatic hybridization induced the synthesis of new metabolites. The nature of the probable unidentified GAs associated to S. bulbocastanum and its somatic hybrids was ascertained by chemical degradation and spectroscopic analysis of their aglycones and sugar moieties. Our results suggest their close relation with GAs of both wild and cultivated potato species.

  20. Biotechnological improvement of nutritional and therapeutic value of cultivated potato. (United States)

    Bagri, Deepak Singh; Upadhyay, Devanshi Chandel; Jain, Subodh Kumar; Upadhyay, Chandrama Prakash


    Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality. Similarly, the vitamin pathway engineering of potato has been proved to enhance the vitamin content with increased cellular antioxidant activities. Secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have also been altered through the genetic engineering of potato. This review provides detailed reports on the advances made in genetic transformation of potato for enrichment in its nutritional and therapeutic value by an increase in functional secondary metabolites, carbohydrate, essential amino acids, proteins, lipids, vitamins and edible vaccines.

  1. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit


    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar...... and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips....... Glucose content decreased in similar to32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching reduced...

  2. Molecular basis of Colorado potato beetle adaptation to potato plant defence at the level of digestive cysteine proteinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruden, K.; Kuipers, A.G.J.; Guncar, G.; Slapar, N.; Strukelj, B.; Jongsma, M.A.


    Potato synthesises high levels of proteinase inhibitors in response to insect attack. This can adversely affect protein digestion in the insects, leading to reduced growth, delayed development and lowered fecundity. Colorado potato beetle overcomes this defence mechanism by changing the composition

  3. Palisade Russet and Teton Russet: Two New Potato Cultivars from the Northwest (Tri-State) Potato Variety Development Program (United States)

    The Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program released two potato cultivars in 2011: Palisade Russet and Teton Russet. Palisade Russet (PR) is notable for having resistance to foliar and tuber late blight. PR is also resistant to Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot, and has a moderate re...

  4. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars (United States)

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang


    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella.

  5. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  6. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...

  7. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products (United States)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  8. Matrimony vine and potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a worrisome marriage? (United States)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  9. Cool Farm Tool – Potato: Model Description and Performance of Four Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Hillier, J.G.


    The Cool Farm Tool – Potato (CFT-Potato) is a spreadsheet programme that allows the calculation of the amount of CO2 equivalents that it costs to produce 1 t of potato. The spreadsheet was adapted from an original generic version of the tool, and completed for potato production in diverse production

  10. Effect of intercropping maize and solanum potato on yield of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three potato (Solunum tuberosum) varieties and one maize variety were intercropped in six spatial arrangements, viz., sole crops, 2:1, 2:2, 1:1, 1:2 potato: maize row arrangements and one additive mixture. Intercropping influenced some growth parameters of potato but not of maize. For instance, the rate of potato stem ...

  11. Characterization of viruses infecting potato plants from a single location in Shetland, an isolated scottish archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R.J.; Shen, Xinyi; Reid, Alex


    Sequence data were obtained from 29 isolates of Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus V (PVV) and Potato virus X (PVX) infecting nine tubers from Shetland, one of the most remote inhabited islands in the United Kingdom. These isolates were sequenced in the coat protein region, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova


    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  13. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK


    Full Text Available Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified seeds are produced by certain institute, under controlled conditions within a specific program, it is the best guarantee of yield. The certified seeds should be renewed every 2 or 4 yearly periods because the seed yield can reduce if they are used every year. 200-600 kg seed amount used per hectare and it can change depending on purpose, the variety, ecological conditions, the size of tubers and planting density. Seed costs are the most important item in production inputs. In Turkey the amount of certified seed production has increased and consequently there has been an increase in meeting the need of seed amount, in recent years. Turkey certified seed production was 175,397 tons and the needed amount was 230,819 tons in 2015. It has met 76% the need amount. In our country, the seed potato sector is commonly worked marketing of reproduced seed of the imported rootstocks stage within the country. in the event of insufficient seed Certified production, as producers are forced to use their seed, procured from their own products or obtained from each other. This practice, in addition to decrease in yield, it also causes the spread of many pathogens that threated the sustainability of our potato production.

  14. RNA-seq profiling reveals defense responses in a tolerant potato cultivar to stem infection by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Kwenda


    Full Text Available Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a member of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE family that causes tuber soft rot and blackleg diseases of stems in potato plants. Currently, there are no effective chemical strategies for the control of members of the SRE. Thus, an understanding of the inducible defense responses in stems of potato plants is important, particularly during colonization of the vascular system. Here, time-course RNA-sequencing analysis was used to compare expressed genes between a susceptible potato cultivar (Solanum tubersoum cv Valor and a tolerant cultivar (S. tuberosum cv BP1 at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-inoculation with P. c. brasiliense. In total, we identified 6,139 and 8,214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the tolerant and susceptible cultivars, compared to mock-inoculated controls, respectively. Key DEGs distinguishing between tolerance and susceptibility were associated with negative regulation of cell death and plant-type cell wall organization/ biogenesis biological processes in the tolerant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Among these were DEGs involved in signaling (mainly MAPK cascade and ethylene pathway, defense-related transcription regulation including WRKY transcription factors, and downstream secondary cell biosynthesis. Together, our results suggest that S. tuberosum cv BP1 likely employs quantitative defense response against P.c brasiliense. Overall, our study provides the first transcriptome-wide insight into the molecular basis of tolerance and/or resistance of potato stems to SRE infection.

  15. Programa computacional para dimensionamento e avaliação de sistemas de irrigação por sulco Software for designing and evaluation of furrow irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o aplicativo denominado DimSulco, desenvolvido em linguagem Visual Basic 5, em ambiente Windows 95, que objetiva facilitar ao usuário o dimensionamento e a avaliação de sistemas de irrigação por sulco, a partir do conhecimento prévio de parâmetros básicos de projeto. O DimSulco foi estruturado em cinco módulos: I - Irrigação sem déficit hídrico e comprimento do sulco definido; II - Irrigação sem déficit hídrico e comprimento do sulco indefinido; III - Irrigação com déficit hídrico e comprimento do sulco definido; IV - Irrigação com déficit hídrico e comprimento do sulco indefinido e V - Sistema de reutilização de água. Os módulos I e III foram divididos em dois submódulos, que permitem o dimensionamento e a avaliação do sistema com e sem vazão reduzida. Os módulos II e IV foram divididos em quatro submódulos, contemplando as seguintes opções: a sem vazão reduzida e tempo de avanço (Ta igual a ¼ do tempo de oportunidade de infiltração da lâmina requerida no final da parcela (To; b com vazão reduzida e Ta igual a ¼ de To; c sem vazão reduzida e Ta igual a To e d com vazão reduzida e Ta igual a To. O módulo V dimensiona sistemas de reutilização da água a partir de um dimensionamento prévio efetuado em qualquer um dos módulos anteriores, definindo os elementos básicos de cada setor e recalculando os índices de desempenho. Para ilustrar a execução do programa, utilizou-se um exemplo de dimensionamento de um sistema de irrigação por sulco.This work presents a software named DimSulco, developed in the Visual Basic language, version 5 for Windows 95, with the objective of helping the user to design and to evaluate furrow irrigation systems from previous knowledge of fundamental project parameters. It was structured in five modules: I - Without deficit irrigation and defined furrow length; II - Without deficit irrigation and undefined furrow length; III - Deficit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafikova Т.N.


    Full Text Available Many bacteria, including phytopathogenic ones produce extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides which are universal molecules. Causal agent of potato ring rot, Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus, secretes exopolysaccharides which role in pathogenesis is poorly investigated. The aim of our research is to ascertain the composition and structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus are determined to consist of 4-6 anionic and neutral components which have molecular weights from 700 kDa. Glucose is a major monomer of polysaccharides and arabinose, rhamnose and mannose are minor monomers. Glucose is present in α-Dglucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose configurations. Calcium is determined to be a component of exopolysaccharides. Components of exopolysaccharides of potato ring rot pathogen are probably capableto associate via calcium ions and other ionic interactions that may result in a change of their physiological activity. Further studies of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides composition and structure can serve a base for the synthesis of their chemical analogues with elicitor action.

  17. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization. (United States)

    Ševčíková, Hana; Mašková, Petra; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, Tomáš; Lipavská, Helena


    Potato represents the third most important crop worldwide and therefore to understand regulations of tuber onset is crucial from both theoretical and practical points of view. Photosynthesis and related carbohydrate status along with phytohormone balance belong to the essential factors in regulation of plant development including storage organ formation. In our work we used potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Lada and its spontaneously tuberizing mutant (ST plants) grown in vitro under low carbohydrate availability (non-inductive conditions). Small plant phenotype and readiness to tuberization of ST plants was, however, not accompanied by lower gibberellins levels, as determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. Therefore, we focused on the other inducing factor, carbohydrate status. Using HPLC, we followed changes in carbohydrate distribution under mixotrophic (2.5% sucrose in medium) and photoautotrophic conditions (no sucrose addition and higher gas and light availability) and observed changes in soluble carbohydrate allocation and starch deposition, favouring basal stem part in mutants. In addition, the determination of tuber-inducing marker gene expressions revealed increased levels of StSP6A in ST leaves. Collectively these data point towards the possibility of two parallel cross-talking pathways (carbohydrate - and gibberellin- dependent ones) with the power of both to outcompete the other one when its signal is for some reason extraordinary strong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical constituents and health effects of sweet potato. (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Nie, Shaoping; Zhu, Fan


    Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionally enhanced and value-added food products to promote human health. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazal Akyol


    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  20. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit


    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170......% NaCI solution at 25 °) for 5 min; (iv) Blan ching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min plus immersion in a distilled water at 25 °) for 5 min. Raw potato slices were used as control. Blanching reduced the acrylamide content of potato chips with 12 %. On the other hand, when potato slices were immersed...

  1. Performance of the SUBSTOR-potato model across contrasting growing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prassad, Rishi


    and cultivars, N fertilizer application, water supply, sowing dates, soil types, temperature environments, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and included open top chamber and Free-Air-CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiments. Tuber yields were generally well simulated with the SUBSTOR-potato model across a wide.......4% for tuber fresh weight. Cultivars ‘Desiree’ and ‘Atlantic’ were grown in experiments across the globe and well simulated using consistent cultivar parameters. However, the model underestimated the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and poorly simulated high temperature effects on crop growth...

  2. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch (United States)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.


    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  3. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  4. The influence of light on the germination of potato seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Listowski


    Full Text Available The influence of white and coloured Light and of the darkness on the germination of potato seeds was investigated. Potato seeds germinate in light as well as in darkness. Bed light is stimulative. Far-red and blue light depending of the origin of the seeds populations acted or inhibitive or only as a delaying factor. The after effect of R after FR or FR after R was also studied. The R-FR or FR-R photoreaction observed by potato seeds, differ from the classic pattern established by lettuce and tomato seeds.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation Water on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Potato and Determination of Its Optimum Consumptive Use of Water in Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoud Naderi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Owing to drought, increasing demand for fresh water resources and low water use efficiency, the optimum use of water is essential in the agricultural sector. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of irrigation water on quantitative and qualitative Characteristics of potato (Burren cultivar and determination of its optimum consumptive use of water under Shahr-e kord environment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center and Natural Resources in Shahr-e kord with longitude and latitude of 32˚18΄ and 50˚51΄ , respectively, in 2013. This experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 7 treatments consisted of different levels of irrigation water and 3 replications. Different levels of irrigation water were: 40, 55, 70, 85, 100, 115 and 130 % of the soil moisture deficit. Potato seeds (burren cultivar were planted with distance of 20 cm from each other and furrow width of 75 cm. Irrigation program were performed based on the measurement of soil moisture deficit. The irrigation intervals were considered as a fixed 7 day. Irrigation levels were applied to 105 days after planting and the total growth period was 130 days from planting to harvesting. The samples were taken from the two middle furrows. The evaluated parameters were included weight of tubers per plant, tuber diameter, weight of tuber in seed size, weight of tuber production in a plant in marketable size, tuber dry weight, the starch percent, percent of soluble sugars, nitrogen percent. The starch content was determined by Polarimetry method. The soluble sugars content was measured by Colorimetric method, the nitrogen content was measured by wet digestion method and using the Kjeldahl set. Then, the optimal depth of water consumption in conditions of limited water resources were determined by English method Statistical analysis of data and drawing graphs were done with

  6. Characterization of Galician (N.W. Spain) quality brand potatoes: a comparison study of several pattern recognition techniques. (United States)

    Padín, P M; Peña, R M; García, S; Iglesias, R; Barro, S; Herrero, C


    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion and rapid methods to guarantee it are widely demanded by food producers, processors, consumers and regulatory bodies. The objective of this work was to develop a classification system in order to confirm the authenticity of Galician potatoes with a Certified Brand of Origin and Quality (CBOQ) 'Denominación Específica: Patata de Galicia' and to differentiate them from other potatoes that did not have this CBOQ. Ten selected metals were determined by atomic spectroscopy in 102 potato samples which were divided into two categories: CBOQ and non-CBOQ potatoes. Multivariate chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to perform a preliminary study of the data structure. Four supervised pattern recognition procedures [including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbours (KNN), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MLF-ANN)] were used to classify samples into the two categories considered on the basis of the chemical data. Results for LDA, KNN and MLF-ANN are acceptable for the non-CBOQ class, whereas SIMCA showed better recognition and prediction abilities for the CBOQ class. A more sophisticated neural network approach performed by the combination of the self-organizing with adaptive neighbourhood network (SOAN) and MLF network was employed to optimize the classification. Using this combined method, excellent performance in terms of classification and prediction abilities was obtained for the two categories with a success rate ranging from 98 to 100%. The metal profiles provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying potatoes according to their origin brand based on SOAN-MLF neural networks.

  7. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.


    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  8. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. (United States)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, Anita; Capri, Ettore; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Mayer, Philipp


    A method for quantifying the effect of medium composition on the diffusive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals through thin layers was applied to plant tissue. The method employs two silicone disks, one serving as source and one as sink for a series of PAHs diffusing through thin layers of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant tissue was modeled using Fick's first law of diffusion. Both the experimental results and the model suggest that mass transfer through plant tissue occurs predominantly through pore water and that, therefore, the mass transfer ratio between plant tissue and water is independent of the hydrophobicity of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" rendersthe concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes.

  9. Freezing and low temperature photoinhibition tolerance in cultivated potato and potato hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Four Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars (Nicola, Pito, Puikula, Timo and somatic hybrids between freezing tolerant S. commersonii and freezing sensitive S. tuberosum were evaluated for their tolerance to freezing and low temperature photoinhibition. Cellular freezing tolerance was studied using ion leakage tests and the sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus to freezing and high light intensity stress by measuring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM and oxygen evolution. Exposure to high light intensities after freezing stress increased frost injury significantly in all genotypes studied. Compared with S. tuberosum cultivars, the hybrids were more tolerant both of freezing and intense light stresses. In field experiments the mechanism of frost injury varied according to the severity of night frosts. During night frosts in 1999, the temperature inside the potato canopy was significantly higher than at ground level, and did not fall below the lethal temperature for potato cultivars (from -2.5 to -3.0°C. As a result, frost injury developed slowly, indicating that damage occurred to the photosynthetic apparatus. However, as the temperature at ground level and inside the canopy fell below -4°C, cellular freezing occurred and the canopy was rapidly destroyed. This suggests that in the field visual frost damage can follow from freezing or non-freezing temperatures accompanied with high light intensity. Therefore, in an attempt to improve low temperature tolerance in potato, it is important to increase tolerance to both freezing and chilling stresses.

  10. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  11. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak


    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  12. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses. (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo


    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  13. Development of biomarkers and a diagnostic tool for investigation of coinfections by and interactions between potato purple top and potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas in tomato (United States)

    Columbia Basin potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma and Alaska potato witches’-broom (PWB) phytoplasma are two closely-related but mutually distinct pathogenic bacteria that infect potato and other vegetable crops. Inhabiting phloem sieve elements and being transmitted by phloem-feeding insect vecto...

  14. Association of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae) with Lycium spp. (Solanaceae) in potato growing regions of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When cultivated crops are not available, potato psyllid may often be found on non-crop hosts within the Solanaceae. This study determined that species of Lyci...

  15. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  16. Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using mutant ... The mutants exhibited similar morphological and cultural characteristics as the wild ... The genetic analysis resealed that the Lactobacillus bulgaricus studied did not ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar


    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  18. genetic evaluation of polycross hybrids of sweet potatoes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Received 14 June ... sweet potato to Identify tuber bearing progenies was conducted at PNG University of Technology farm, ... Heritability values for tuber yield, tuber number and vine weight were OÜO, 0.62 and 0.10, respectively.

  19. Response of potato genotypes to different levels of nitrogen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakht Amin; Abid Yaqub; Muhammad Ali; Misbah Ullah; Abid Khan; Tayeb Muhammad; Adil Khan; Muhammad Ayaz


      The present study was carried out to evaluate response of potato genotypes to different levels of nitrogen at fruit and vegetable nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Azad Jammu...

  20. Response of the potato tubers to impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová


    Full Text Available The response of tubers of nine varieties of potatoes to the bar impact have been evaluated. The proposed method enables to obtain force – time record. The response function is represented by the time history of the surface displacement. This function has been recorded using laser vibrometer technique. The main features of the force and displacement function have been found both in the time and frequency domain. It has been found that given method can be used for the detection of the potato tubers damage origin as well as for the differentiation among different varieties of the potatoes. There is also a chance to evaluate the main mechanical characteristics of the potato tubers by non – destructive way.

  1. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato]. (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou


    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  2. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby


    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  3. Impact of technological change on output of potato production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Douglas production functions were estimated for the potato varieties and production systems. Chow's test's were carried out to test for structural shifts in production functions, for production system and varietal effects, homogeneity of slopes ...

  4. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  5. Incorporating soil health management practices into viable potato cropping systems (United States)

    Soil health is critical to agricultural sustainability, environmental quality, and ecosystem function, but is generally degraded through intensive potato production. Soil and crop management practices beneficial to soil health, such as crop rotations, cover crops and green manures, organic amendment...

  6. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , shank length, wing length, body height, body length, thigh length, leg length, daily feed intake, heart weight and crop weight. Processed sweet potato meal can replace maize grain in finisher broiler rations without deleterious effect. Keywords: ...

  7. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito


    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds...

  8. Potato shrinkage during hot air drying. (United States)

    Frías, A; Clemente, G; Mulet, A


    Shrinkage is one of the most important physical changes that occur during the dehydration of foods. In this work, the effect of the temperature (35, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) and air velocity (7, 8, 9 and 10 m/s) on bulk volumetric shrinkage was investigated. Volume changes were evaluated by image analysis. It was found that neither temperature nor air velocity had any significant effects on bulk shrinkage in this system. The bulk shrinkage of the potato cubes was well correlated with the moisture content of the sample during drying (R(2) = 97.28). Volume varied linearly with the moisture content changes under the studied conditions. The volume of lost water and the decrease in volume of the samples during dehydration were similar.

  9. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie


    One way to study the function of plant mitochondria is to extract them from plant tissues in an uncontaminated, intact and functional form. The reductionist assumption is that the components present in such a preparation and the in vitro measurable functions or activities reliably reflect...... the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...... the mitochondria are only exposed to strong shearing forces once. After removal of starch and large tissue pieces by filtration, differential centrifugation is used to remove residual starch as well as larger organelles. The crude mitochondria are then first purified by using a step Percoll gradient...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    300gm of sliced potato toot tuber in about. 300mls of water. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was .... m. 5mg/kg 84.50±. 131.25. 126.73 124.55 ± 2.00 121.85 ± 2.0. 120.25 ± 2.00. 2.00. ±2.00. ±2 00. IV. 5mg/kg 83.00± 131.50± 109.05 115.05 ± 3.00 104.66 ± 3.00. 101.00 ± 2.00. 0.02. 0.02. ±3.00 v. 5mgjkg 82.50±.

  11. Gene transcription analysis during interaction between potato and Ralstonia solanacearum


    Li, G C; L. P. Jin; Wang, X W; Xie, K.Y.; Yang, Y; Vossen; Huang, S W; Qu, D.Y.


    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) is an important quarantine disease that spreads worldwide and infects hundreds of plant species. The BW defense response of potato is a complicated continuous process, which involves transcription of a battery of genes. The molecular mechanisms of potato-Rs interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we combined suppression subtractive hybridization and macroarray hybridization to identify genes that are differentially expressed...

  12. Corn and potato starch as an agar alternative for Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato single nodes were subcultured onto fresh MS medium gelled with 0, 1 and 2 g/l of agar + 40, 50 or 60 g/l of commercial corn and potato starch (CS or PS, respectively). After 4 weeks of culture, the pH of medium supplemented with 50 or 60 g/l of CS or 60 g/l of PS was significantly decreased to 3.91 - 4.00.

  13. Management approaches in organic potato and tomato production


    Schulte-Geldermann, Elmar


    The presented thesis considered three different system approach topics to ensure yield and plant health in organically grown potatoes and tomatoes. The first topic describes interactions between late blight (Phytophthora infestans) incidence and soil nitrogen supply on yield in organic potato farming focussing in detail on the yield loss relationship of late blight based on results of several field trials. The interactive effects of soil N-supply, climatic conditions and late blight on the yi...

  14. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum


    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan


    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  15. Effects of compost tea and organic fertilizers on organic potato


    Kochbati, Hela


    The aim of this work is to compare the effects of compost tea and organic fertilizers allowed in organic agriculture on potato growth, development, tuberisation and nutrition (cv. Spunta).Many observations related to agronomic aspects were released as height of plants, diameter of stems, foliar surface, vegetative vigor and evaluation of late blight. The results obtained during the potato development cycle showed us good vegetative growth and tolerance to late blight.Comparison between compos...

  16. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen


    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...... slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter 40 mm, width 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0%). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (1) control...... blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in distilled water at 25 °C for 5 min; and (6) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution. Blanching followed by the immersion of potato slices in 1 g/100 g NaCl solution was effective in reducing acrylamide content in ∼62%; however, almost...

  17. [Concentration of glycoalkaloids in the tuber of potatoes found in retail trade]. (United States)

    Mazurczyk, W


    Levels of glycoalkaloids were determined in potatoes sold in grocery shops in summer 1987 and during the period of potato storage (October 1987-April 1983). The average concentration of glycoalkaloids in 66 samples of unpeeled potatoes was 7.5 mg/100 g. In only two samples purchased on July 13th this level was slightly above 20 mg/100 g. Peeled potatoes contained glycoalkaloids in amounts several times lower than whole potatoes. The average concentration of glycoalkaloids was in peeled potatoes only 2.2 mg/100 g.

  18. Time of harvest affects the yield of soluble polysaccharides extracted enzymatically from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Sørensen, Ole Bandsholm; Meyer, Anne S.


    Potato pulp is a co-processing product from potato starch production. The pulp mainly consists of the tuber cell walls, which are rich in pectin and cellulose. The potato pulp pectin is dominated by galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan 1 which after enzymatic solubilization has shown promising...... campaign of 2011 were characterized: the yields of enzymatically solubilized potato polysaccharides and the solubilized galactan proportion increased during the potato starch campaign. The data thus suggest that potato pulp produced late in the campaign would be preferable for upgrading to the bifidogenic...

  19. Phenology of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Commercial Potato Fields in Idaho. (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Carroll, Amy; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Thornton, Michael; Miller, Jeff; Nolte, Philip; Olsen, Nora; Price, William


    Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015). All life stages of psyllids were sampled using a combination of methods (yellow sticky traps, vacuum samples, and leaf samples), and adult psyllids were tested for the presence of Lso by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Abundance of potato psyllids initially increased gradually over each growing season, then exhibited a sharp late-season rise and a sharp decline as most fields were being harvested. Abundance of psyllids was higher at warmer, lower elevation sites, but infestation onset did not differ between growing regions. Fewer psyllids were collected in vacuum samples than in sticky trap samples. Nymphs and eggs were found only late season and during years with high abundance of adults. Overall incidence of Lso was similar among all years but one. The results presented here clarify our understanding of the seasonal phenology of potato psyllids and Lso in Idaho potato fields and will aid in developing integrated management strategies against this important pest of potato. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Efeitos da aplicação de bórax em cultura de batatinha, em várzea irrigada, no Vale do Paraíba Effects of addition of boron on potato plant production

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    Norberto Leite


    Full Text Available São relatados os efeitos produzidos pela aplicação de bórax na cultura da batatinha (Solatium tuberosum L., em solos de várzea irrigada do Vale do Paraíba. Quatro doses de bórax - 10, 20, 30 e 40 kg/ha - foram aplicadas de três maneiras distintas: no sulco de plantio, em cobertura (vinte dias após a germinação e parceladamente em 4 pulverizações foliares semanais. As melhores doses de bórax foram as de 10 e 20 kg/ha, aplicadas no sulco de plantio, em mistura com os demais adubos. As aplicações em pulverização provocaram sintomas de toxidez nas folhas, notadamente as de maiores doses.The production of potato plants (Solatium tuberosum L. grown in alluvial soils of the Rio Paraíba Valey in the State of São Paulo, is not always correlated with high N-P-K fertilization. This has been reported to be due to boron deficiency in these soils. The effect of addition of boron at different rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg of borax / ha applied in mixture with common NPK formulation in the furrow at planting time, as side dressing or by spraying, was studied in an area where symptoms of deficiency was observed in Aquila potato variety, in the previous year. An increase in the production of about 20 % was obtained with the addition of 10 or 20 kg of borax / ha in mixtures with NPK fertilizing formulation but not with the two higher doses. The same amount of borax applied by spraying also increased yield but at a lesser extent and the side dressing technique was less effective than the other two methods of application of borax.

  1. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.


    A method for quantifying the effect of medium composition on the diffusive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals through thin layers was applied to plant tissue. The method employs two silicone disks, one serving as source and one as sink for a series of PAHs diffusing through thin layers...... of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Z. Ebrahem


    Full Text Available Reducing the tuber period for potato plants by planting previously grown sprouts is a new technique. Applying this new agricultural methodology requires modification of the potato planter. The theoretical analysis was carried out to obtain information that can help avoid tuber damage during feeding and until it exits the feeding system. Starting from these considerations, a new potato planter with a spoon-based feeding system was designed and built. The tests conducted verified that the new system performed well when dividing tuber pieces into rows: considering the best growth spacing for potatoes is 20÷30 cm, the new system has a 68% distribution versus the 50,62 % of the old one. The tubers’ spacing in rows are evaluated based on tuber voids and tuber doubles. The results show that there is no difference between the two systems’ configurations, while a general consideration about our machine is that it is better at managing small tuber pieces. The void ratios are largely valid within the range of 0.4 up to 0.8 m/s of planted speeds; moreover, the results revealed that the tuber doubles decrease by increasing planting speed and vice versa with tuber voids. The quality of the potatoes planted is evaluated using the Shatter Index (SI %, which shows how the new configuration is more delicate with the tuber pieces (1.5 % against 17.5 % at 10 rpm or 46 % against 94 % at rpm 20. The new configuration could be an interesting improvement for potato quality and Egyptian potato production.

  3. Potato Size and Shape Detection Using Machine Vision

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    Liao Guiping


    Full Text Available To reduce the error and faster classification by mechanizing in classifying the potato shape and size through machine vision using the extraction of characters procedure to identify the size, and using the shape detection procedure to identify the shape. Test results in potato size detection revealed 40/191 = 0.210mm/pixel as length scale or calibration factor (40/M where 40 is the table tennis ball size (40mm and 191 as image pixels table tennis (M; measurement results revealed that between the algorithm results and the manual measurements, the absolute error was <3mm, while the relative error rate was <4%; and the measurement results based on the ellipse axis length can accurately calculate the actual long axis and short axis of potato. Potato shape detection revealed the analysis of 228 images composed of 114 positive and 114 negatives side, only 2 have been incorrectly classified, mainly because the Extracted ratio (R of the potato image of those two positive and negative images are near 0.67, respectively 0.671887, 0.661063, 0.667604, and 0.67193. The comparison to establish a calibration system method using both basic rectangle and ellipse R ratio methods to detect the potato size and shape, revealed that the basic rectangle method has better effect in the case of fixed place. Moreover, the ellipse axis method was observed to be more stable with an error rate of 7%. Therefore it is recommended that the ellipse axis method should be used to detect the shape of potato for differentiation into round, long cylindrical, and oval shapes, with the accuracy level of 98.8%.

  4. Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties. (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano


    The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among

  5. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14. (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen


    Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato.

  6. The mode of sucrose degradation in potato tubers determines the fate of assimilate utilisation.

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    Stephanus J Ferreira


    Full Text Available Cytosolic (U-IN-2 or apoplasmic (U-IN-1 targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to reduced sucrose and increased glucose, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. U-IN-2 has a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 are characterised by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2, might be due to sugar signalling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic G6P transporter (GPT is significantly down-regulated, leading to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic G6P ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastidic pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. A strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilisation is coordinated at the level of

  7. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

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    Tayoub Ghaleb


    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  8. Seeding quality and soybean yields from using different furrowers and operation speedsQualidade de semeadura e produtividade da soja sob diferentes sulcadores e velocidades de operação

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    Alcir José Modolo


    Full Text Available The sowing process for annual no-till crops affects the physical soil conditions around the seeds by exposing them to adverse conditions that may limit initial plant development and reduce potential yield. The use of seed drills that are not compatible with field conditions and the use of inappropriate seed drill speeds affect sowing performance. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of different seed drill types and operating speeds on soybean quality parameters and yield components. Two furrow opener (double disc and chisel and four operating speed (0.86; 1.22; 1.47 and 1.94 m s-1 treatments were used. The following variables were evaluated: mean number of days until emergence, plant distribution uniformity, sowing depth, area of the soil disturbed, crop stand and grain yield. Overall, the chisel furrow opener provided a greater sowing depth and increased the disturbed soil area more than the double disc furrow opener. Increased operating speeds reduced crop stands and yields and increased the disturbed soil area. Em culturas anuais submetidas ao sistema plantio direto o processo de semeadura afeta o condicionamento físico do solo ao redor das sementes expondo as mesmas a condições adversas, podendo limitar o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas e minimizar o potencial produtivo. O uso de sulcadores não condizentes com a situação de campo e de velocidades inadequadas são fatores que afetam o bom desempenho da semeadura. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve por objetivo, avaliar o efeito de diferentes sulcadores e velocidades de operação sobre parâmetros de qualidade de semeadura e componentes de produtividade da cultura da soja. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre dois sulcadores (disco e haste e quatro velocidades de operação (0,86; 1,22; 1,47 e 1,94 m s-1. Foram avaliados: o número médio de dias para a emergência, a uniformidade de distribuição de plantas, a profundidade de semeadura, a área de

  9. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Development of Sweet Potato Industry in Ziyun County


    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Xiaoshan; Li, Guang


    According to the actual situation of sweet potato industry development in Ziyun County, we use SWOT analysis method to conduct strategic analysis on strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and challenges of the external environment of the sweet potato industry, to explore correct strategic countermeasures suitable for the future development of sweet potato industry in Ziyun County and provide reference for the sweet potato industry to maintain sustainable co...

  10. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

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    Polona Kogovšek

    Full Text Available Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation, virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed.

  11. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking (United States)


    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a

  12. Pyrolytic characteristics of sweet potato vine. (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Dong, Xiaochen; Jin, Zaixing; Su, Wenjing; Ye, Xiaoning; Dong, Changqing; Lu, Qiang


    To utilized biomass for optimum application, sweet potato vine (SPV) was studied on its pyrolytic characteristics by TGA and Py-GC/MS analysis as a representative of biomass with low lignin content and high extractives content. Results indicated that lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives contents were 7.85 wt.%, 33.01 wt.%, 12.25 wt.% and 37.12 wt.%, respectively. In bio-oil, sugars content firstly increased from 8.76 wt.% (350 °C) to 13.97 wt.% (400 °C) and then decreased to 9.19 wt.% (500 °C); linear carbonyls and linear acids contents decreased from 16.58 wt.% and 17.45 wt.% to 5.26 wt.% and 4.03 wt.%, respectively; furans content increased from 7.10 wt.% to 15.47 wt.%. The content 11.86 wt.% of levoglucose at 400 °C, 15.41 wt.% of acetic acid at 350 °C and 6.94 wt.% of furfural at 500 °C suggested good pyrolysis selectivity of SPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Blandov


    Full Text Available Aminotransferases (transaminases catalyze intermolecular transfer of an amino group from amino acids on ketoacids, and as a coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate which carries out a role of an intermediate acceptor of an amino group serves in this reaction. For example, an alaninaminotransferase (AlAT catalyzes reaction of transamination between alanine and α-ketoglutaric acid. Kinetic parameters of an alaninaminotransferase of potatoes are determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot: Km = 0.298 mmol/l, Vmax = 0.0151 µmol/min. The reduction of enzyme reaction rate under high concentration of a substrate was revealed. As extent of conversion of a substrate in a product doesn't exceed in our conditions 1%, it speaks about the phenomenon of inhibition by substrate. Using the assumption of formation of an inactive bisubstrate complex,, we analysed the corresponding kinetic scheme for uncompetitive inhibition where the role of inhibitor plays a substratum, removed the equation Miсhaelis-Menten and Linewiever-Burk for this case and by differentiation defined the provision of a point of an extremum on Linewiever-Burk plot: : Ki = [S]2 min / Km. It allowed to calculate an inhibition constant a substratum which is Ki = 0.428 mmol/l.

  14. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins

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    Renata Barczyńska


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion – they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  15. Improving potato cultivation using siphons for partial root-zone drying irrigation: A case study in the Blue Nile river basin, Ethiopia

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    Yactayo Wendy


    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD is an irrigation technique which consists of alternating the water supply from one furrow to another, and keeping the other one dry during the weekly alternation period. Studies assessing PRD in potato have reported a 30-50% of water savings with no tuber yield reductions and an increase of antioxidant concentrations and marketable tubers. In this study, we adapted the PRD technique to rural Ethiopian conditions and compared it against the customary (C irrigation practiced by local farmers. Two PRD alternatives were evaluated; with (PRDs and without (PRDw locally made flexible-hose siphons. Only PRDs showed no significant differences in total (35.8±1.6 t ha-1 and marketable (34.2±1.6 t ha-1 tuber yield when compared with customary irrigation (39.4±1.3 and 37.6±1.2 t ha-1 corresponding to total and marketable yield, respectively. The PRDw was more water restricted, showing significantly lower total (29.7±1.1 t ha-1 and marketable (27.6±1.2 t ha-1 yields. PRDs had the benefit of a better control of applied water allowing a saving of 50% of the irrigation water without negatively affecting yield. The use of the siphons PRD technique provides options for saving scarce water and reaching out to many smallholder farmers who are in serious need of irrigation water in the Blue Nile river basin.

  16. The pressure of Aphids (Aphididae, Hemiptera, vectors of potato viruses

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    Vučetić Anđa


    Full Text Available Plant viruses and aphids as their vectors, are limiting factors in the production of healthy seed potato. Potato Virus Y (PVY and Potato Leafroll Virus (PLRV are the two most significant potato viruses in Europe, and seed quality depends directly on the infection level. In order to determine the possibilities for healthy seed potato production in Serbia, aphid flight activities have been monitored for four years in four localities. Over 6400 specimens of aphids have been collected. The number of aphids and vector pressure index varies depending on the localities’ altitude. In localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was in locality Kotraža in 2007, when the PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as was the vector pressure index. The lowest index values were recorded in localities on Mt. Golija at 1300 m a.s.l. where the indexes for both viruses never exceeded value 6. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  17. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations. (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  18. Aqueous ozone solutions for pesticide removal from potatoes. (United States)

    Heleno, Fernanda F; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lr; Faroni, Lêda Ra; Neves, Antônio A; de Oliveira, André F; Costa, Luiz Pl; Pimenta, Gustavo G


    The presence of pesticide residues in potatoes is of concern because of the potential impact to human health due to the high consumption of this vegetable. In this study, aqueous solutions with and without ozone saturation as postharvest wash treatment at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 were tested to remove chlorothalonil from potatoes. The method used for pesticide analysis has been validated, presenting recovery values of 94-103%, with variations in the repeatability coefficients of ≤10.6%, and a quantification limit of 0.05 mg kg-1 Regardless of pH, treatment with aqueous ozone solutions removed 70-76% of the pesticide present in the potato. In the no-ozone treatments, the percentage average removal of chlorothalonil residues in potatoes was only 36%. Over 24 days of storage, the quality of potatoes washed with aqueous ozone solutions was not significantly different from those washed with pure water. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato. (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J


    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit


    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  1. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

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    Xiaoyan Song


    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  2. Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Soriano Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract As part of a routine screening for the possible presence of the necrotic strains of potato virus Y affecting potatoes in Mexico, five PVY isolates were submitted to biological and molecular analysis. Considering their serological properties, two belong to the common strain (O and three to the necrotic strain (N. All the isolates induced vein necrosis in Nicotiana tabacum. To characterize the isolates, 5' NTR and P1 genes were sequenced and compared with sequences from GenBank database. Nucleotide sequence similarity ranged from 47–100% in the 5' NTR and from 63–100% in the P1 coding region. The lowest amino acid similarity between sequences of P1 gene was 55%. In phylogenetic trees of 5'NTR analysis, two PVYO Mexican isolates clustered with other PVYO isolates. In turn, the three PVYN isolates grouped with PVYN-NTN isolates. The phylogenetic analysis of P1 sequences (nucleotide and amino acid showed two PVYO isolates grouping next to N-NTN cluster. A detailed analysis of the PVYO isolates showed two potential recombination regions in the P1 gene, in contrast to 5'NTR where no recombination was detected.

  3. A complex of genes involved in adaptation of Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae to induced potato defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petek, M.; Turnšek, N.; Gašparic, M.B.; Novak, M.P.; Gruden, K.; Slapar, N.; Popovic, T.; Štrukelj, B.; Jongsma, M.A.


    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is the most important pest of potato in many areas of the world. One of the main reasons for its success lies in the ability of its larvae to counteract plant defense compounds. Larvae adapt to protease inhibitors (PIs) produced in potato leaves

  4. Developing cold-chipping potato varieties by silencing the vacuolar invertase gene (United States)

    Accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage is a persistent and costly problem for the potato processing industry. High temperature processing of potato tubers with elevated amounts of reducing sugars results in potato chips, fries and other products that are unacceptable to consumers becaus...

  5. Multiplex SSR analysis of Phytophthora infestans in different countries and the importance for potato breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.


    Potato is the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In the mid-19th century, P. infestans attacked the European potato fields and this resulted in a widespread famine in Ireland and

  6. Dissection of the major late blight resistance cluster on potato linkage group IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokossou, A.A.


    Potato is consumed worldwide and represents the fourth most important staple food crop after rice and wheat. Potato cultivars display a large variety of color, shape, taste, cooking properties and starch content but are all derived from the same species; Solanum tuberosum. Potato breeding is an

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of potato tuber development and tuber quality traits using microarray technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, B.A.


    The potato crop is one of the most important food crops in the world and in order to understand how in potato plants the formation of potato tubers and the determination of different tuber quality traits are regulated, we need to identify and characterize the genes that are involved in regulating

  8. Report of foliar necrosis of potato caused by Cochliobolus lunatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Report of foliar necrosis of potato caused by Cochliobolus lunatus in India. Bengyella Louis, Roy Pranab, Sayanika Devi Waikhom, Narayan Chandra Talukdar. Abstract. During the winter season of 2011, Cochliobolus lunatus was isolated from necrotized leaves of potato in potato plantations of Burdwan District, West ...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD, under...

  10. The value chain for seed and ware potatoes in Kenya: Opportunities for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.R.M.; Wiersema, S.G.; Goos, H.J.Th.; wiersma, W.


    In Kenya potato is an important food crop, second after maize. Potatoes are grown on 128,000 ha per year with average yields of about 8 tonnes per ha. The yield is far below its po-tential and should be improved to enhance food security. Of all potato growers in Kenya, 98% are characterised as

  11. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement 1. In return for...

  12. RNA interference of effector gene 16D10 leads to broad meloidogyne resistance in potato (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a significant problem in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. There is no known Meloidogyne resistance gene in cultivated potato, even though sources of resistance were identified in wild potato species. The objective of this study was to generate stable ...

  13. Quantitative Fate of Chlorogenic Acid during Enzymatic Browning of Potato Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.


    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO3 (S control). To study the

  14. Performance evaluation of an automated detection and control system for volunteer potatoes in sugar beet fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.J.


    Incomplete control of volunteer potato plants causes a high environmental load through increased crop protection chemical usage in potato cropping. A joint effort of industry, policy makers and science initiated a four year scientific project on detection and control of volunteer potato plants. A

  15. Use of Brassica and other disease-suppressive rotation crops in potato production systems (United States)

    Soilborne diseases of potato can be persistent, difficult-to-control problems in potato production. The use of disease-suppressive crops, as rotation, cover, or green manure crops, can potentially reduce multiple soilborne potato diseases. Brassica spp. and related plants suppress diseases through m...

  16. Discovery and genotyping of existing and induced DNA sequence variation in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L.


    In this thesis natural and induced DNA sequence diversity in potato (Solanum tuberosum) for use in marker-trait analysis and potato breeding is assessed. The study addresses the challenges of reliable, high-throughput identification and genotyping of sequence variants in existing tetraploid potato

  17. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  18. LC-MS analysis of solanidane glycoalkaloid diversity among four wild potato species and three cultivars (United States)

    Among the small molecules found in potato tubers are some that are phytonutrients or plant defense compounds. The extent of variation of these small molecules among different potato genotypes is not well characterized. LCMS analysis of tuber extracts from seven potato genotypes showed that one larg...

  19. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P.C.; Leeuwis, C.


    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a

  20. A description of seed potato systems in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Demo, P.; Barker, I.; Kaguongo, W.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Wakahiu, M.; Leeuwis, C.; Struik, P.C.


    Seed potato systems in East Africa are described and opportunities for improvement identified on the basis of interviews with potato producers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, and an assessment of Ralstonia solanacearum and virus disease levels in Kenya. 3% of seed potato sold in Kenyan markets was

  1. Structural properties and gelatinisation characteristics of potato and cassava starches and mutants thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomand, S.V.; Lamberts, L.; Derde, L.J.; Groesaert, H.; Vandeputte, G.E.; Goderis, B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Delcour, J.A.


    The molecular size of amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM), AP chain length distribution, crystallinity and granular structure (morphology and granule size distribution) of five wild type potato starches (wtps), five AM free potato starches (amfps), four high-AM potato starches (haps), one wild type

  2. Preparing for climate change: Breeding frost tolerant potatoes adapted to Andean Highlands especially the Altiplano (United States)

    Frost can have a devastating impact on potato production since most cultivated potatoes are very sensitive to frost and are severely damaged at air temperatures below -2 or -3 C. In the Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia over 60,000 hectares of potato production is impacted by frost. It has been estimate...

  3. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress (United States)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  4. iPot: Improved potato monitoring in Belgium using remote sensing and crop growth modelling (United States)

    Piccard, Isabelle; Gobin, Anne; Curnel, Yannick; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Planchon, Viviane; Wellens, Joost; Tychon, Bernard; Cattoor, Nele; Cools, Romain


    Potato processors, traders and packers largely work with potato contracts. The close follow up of contracted parcels is important to improve the quantity and quality of the crop and reduce risks related to storage, packaging or processing. The use of geo-information by the sector is limited, notwithstanding the great benefits that this type of information may offer. At the same time, new sensor-based technologies continue to gain importance and farmers increasingly invest in these. The combination of geo-information and crop modelling might strengthen the competitiveness of the Belgian potato chain in a global market. The iPot project, financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo), aims at providing the Belgian potato processing sector, represented by Belgapom, with near real time information on field condition (weather-soil), crop development and yield estimates, derived from a combination of satellite images and crop growth models. During the cropping season regular UAV flights (RGB, 3x3 cm) and high resolution satellite images (DMC/Deimos, 22m pixel size) were combined to elucidate crop phenology and performance at variety trials. UAV images were processed using a K-means clustering algorithm to classify the crop according to its greenness at 5m resolution. Vegetation indices such as %Cover and LAI were calculated with the Cyclopes algorithm (INRA-EMMAH) on the DMC images. Both DMC and UAV-based cover maps showed similar patterns, and helped detect different crop stages during the season. A wide spread field monitoring campaign with crop observations and measurements allowed for further calibration of the satellite image derived vegetation indices. Curve fitting techniques and phenological models were developed and compared with the vegetation indices during the season, both at trials and farmers' fields. Understanding and predicting crop phenology and canopy development is important for timely crop management and ultimately for yield estimates. An

  5. Analysis of potato virus Y coat protein epitopes recognized by three commercial monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains from PVYO and PVYC strains, or detect all PVY strains, respectively. However, the minimal epitopes recognized by these antibodies have not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SPOT peptide array was used to map the epitopes in CP recognized by MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130. Then alanine replacement as well as N- and C-terminal deletion analysis of the identified peptide epitopes was done to determine critical amino acids for antibody recognition and the respective minimal epitopes. The epitopes of all antibodies were located within the 30 N-terminal-most residues. The minimal epitope of MAb1128 was 25NLNKEK30. Replacement of 25N or 27N with alanine weakened the recognition by MAb1128, and replacement of 26L, 29E, or 30K nearly precluded recognition. The minimal epitope for MAb1129 was 16RPEQGSIQSNP26 and the most critical residues for recognition were 22I and 23Q. The epitope of MAb1130 was defined by residues 5IDAGGS10. Mutation of residue 6D abrogated and mutation of 9G strongly reduced recognition of the peptide by MAb1130. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that these epitopes are relatively conserved among PVY strains. Finally, recombinant CPs were produced to demonstrate that mutations in the variable positions of the epitope regions can affect detection with the MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The epitope data acquired can be compared with data on PVY CP-encoding sequences produced by laboratories worldwide and utilized to monitor how widely the new variants of PVY can be detected with current seed potato certification schemes or during the

  6. Selection of Bacillus species for targeted in situ release of prebiotic galacto-rhamnogalacturonan from potato pulp in piglets. (United States)

    Jers, Carsten; Strube, Mikael L; Cantor, Mette D; Nielsen, Bea K K; Sørensen, Ole B; Boye, Mette; Meyer, Anne S


    We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase but no or limited secretion of galactanase and β-galactosidase. By screening a library of 158 Bacillus species isolated from feces and soil, we demonstrated that especially strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus mojavensis have the necessary enzyme profile and thus the capability to degrade polygalacturonan. Using an in vitro porcine gastrointestinal model system, we revealed that specifically strains of B. mojavensis were able to efficiently release galacto-rhamnogalacturonan from potato pulp under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The work thus demonstrated the feasibility of producing prebiotic fibers via a feed containing Bacillus spores and potato pulp and identified candidates for future in vivo evaluation in piglets.

  7. Control of enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by sense and antisense RNA from tomato polyphenol oxidase. (United States)

    Coetzer, C; Corsini, D; Love, S; Pavek, J; Tumer, N


    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of Russet Burbank potato was inhibited by sense and antisense PPO RNAs expressed from a tomato PPO cDNA under the control of the 35S promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus. Transgenic Russet Burbank potato plants from 37 different lines were grown in the field. PPO activity and the level of enzymatic browning were measured in the tubers harvested from the field. Of the tubers from 28 transgenic lines that were sampled, tubers from 5 lines exhibited reduced browning. The level of PPO activity correlated with the reduction in enzymatic browning in these lines. These results indicate that expression of tomato PPO RNA in sense or antisense orientation inhibits PPO activity and enzymatic browning in the major commercial potato cultivar. Expression of tomato PPO RNA in sense orientation led to the greatest decrease in PPO activity and enzymatic browning, possibly due to cosuppression. These results suggest that expression of closely related heterologous genes can be used to prevent enzymatic browning in a wide variety of food crops without the application of various food additives.

  8. De novo sequencing and comprehensive analysis of the mutant transcriptome from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). (United States)

    Ma, Peiyong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Jia, Zhaodong; Guo, Xiaoding; Xie, Yizhi


    Purple sweet potatoes, rich in anthocyanin, have been widely favored in light of increasing awareness of health and food safety. In this study, a mutant of purple sweet potato (white peel and flesh) was used to study anthocyanin metabolism by high-throughput RNA sequencing and comparative analysis of the mutant and wild type transcriptomes. A total of 88,509 unigenes ranging from 200nt to 14,986nt with an average length of 849nt were obtained. Unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Functional enrichment using GO and KEGG annotations showed that 3828 of the differently expressed genes probably influenced many important biological and metabolic pathways, including anthocyanin biosynthesis. Most importantly, the structural and transcription factor genes that contribute to anthocyanin biosynthesis were downregulated in the mutant. The unigene dataset that was used to discover the anthocyanin candidate genes can serve as a comprehensive resource for molecular research in sweet potato. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, and Potential for Alternative Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J. Verheggen


    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle (CPB has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications.

  10. Influência da aplicação de adubos minerais nos sulcos de plantio, sobre os "stands" de culturas de mandioca Effects of application of some fertilizers in the furrows, on the stands of cassava fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ribeiro da Silva


    Full Text Available O efeito do calcário e de alguns adubos sôbre os "stands" de culturas de mandioca foi estudado em solos arenosos. Em três experiências fato-riais, o calcário aplicado a lanço e o sulfato de amônio em cobertura não modificaram os "stands", ao passo que o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio, empregados nos sulcos de plantio, provocaram substanciais e significativas reduções. Em três outras experiências, em blocos ao acaso, a aplicação de superfosfato simples + cloreto de potássio nos sulcos de plantio, completada com a de sulfato de amônio em cobertura, também causou substanciais reduções em relação aos "stands" dos tratamentos sem adubo, mas somente em duas das experiências essas reduções alcançaram significância estatística.The effects of lime and some fertilizers on the stands of cassava fields were studied in the State of São Paulo. Three factorial experiments showed that lime scattered broadcast and ammonium sulphate used as top dressing did not influence the stands, whereas ordinary superphosphate as well as potassium chloride, which were applied in the furrows at planting time, significantly decreased them. In three other experiments in randomized blocks, the application of ordinary superphosphate plus potassium chloride in the planting furrows, completed with that of ammonium sulphate as top dressing, also reduced the stands, but these reductions were significant only in two cases.

  11. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar


    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  12. [Chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitor isolated from potato tubers]. (United States)

    Revina, T A; Parfenov, I A; Gvozdeva, E L; Gerasimova, N G; Valueva, T A


    Potato Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor (PKCI-23) was isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., Zhukov's Jubilee breed) and purified to a homogenous state. The protein was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography using Sephadex G-75 and CM-Sepharose CL-6B, respectively. PKCI-23 protein has been shown to inhibit both chymotrypsin and trypsin with equal efficacy, forming equimolar complexes with these enzymes. However, much weaker inhibitory effect of PKCI-23 has been observed for Carlsberg subtilisin. The N-terminal 20 amino acid sequence of PKCI-23 has been sequenced. PKCI-23 has been shown to suppress, with different efficacy, the growth and development of pathogenic microorganisms Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. and Phytophtora infestans (Mont.) de Bary that infect potato.

  13. Detection of Genetic Modification 'ac2' in Potato Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik


    Full Text Available The genetic modification 'ac2' is based on the insertion and expression of ac2 gene, originally found in seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus, into the genome of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum. The purpose of the present study is to develop a PCR method for the detection of the mentioned genetically modified potatoes in various foodstuffs. The method was used to test twenty different potato-based products; none of them was positive for the genetic modification 'ac2'. The European Union legislation requires labelling of products made of or containing more than 0.9 % of genetically modified organisms. The genetic modification 'ac2' is not allowed on the European Union market. For that reason it is suitable to have detection methods, not only for the approved genetic modifications, but also for the 'unknown' ones, which could still occur in foodstuffs.

  14. Acrylamide diminishing in potato chips by using commercial Asparaginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit


    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the food safety world when they presented preliminary findings of acrylamide in some fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries. Asparagine is an aminoacid precursor of acrylamide formation through Maillard reaction. Asparaginase...... enzyme converts free asparagine into aspartic acid; another amino acid that does not form acrylamide and also maintains intact the food sensorial properties. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of different temperature-time asparaginase treatments over the acrylamide content....... Soaking blanched potato chips in a 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution for 20 min at 50°C was the most effective time-temperature combination asparaginase treatment in order to diminish the acrylamide content in potato chips in -90 %....

  15. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of potato in response to Phytophthora infestans in compatible and incompatible interactions. (United States)

    Ali, Ashfaq; Alexandersson, Erik; Sandin, Marianne; Resjö, Svante; Lenman, Marit; Hedley, Pete; Levander, Fredrik; Andreasson, Erik


    In order to get global molecular understanding of one of the most important crop diseases worldwide, we investigated compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora infestans and potato (Solanum tuberosum). We used the two most field-resistant potato clones under Swedish growing conditions, which have the greatest known local diversity of P. infestans populations, and a reference compatible cultivar. Quantitative label-free proteomics of 51 apoplastic secretome samples (PXD000435) in combination with genome-wide transcript analysis by 42 microarrays (E-MTAB-1515) were used to capture changes in protein abundance and gene expression at 6, 24 and 72 hours after inoculation with P. infestans. To aid mass spectrometry analysis we generated cultivar-specific RNA-seq data (E-MTAB-1712), which increased peptide identifications by 17%. Components induced only during incompatible interactions, which are candidates for hypersensitive response initiation, include a Kunitz-like protease inhibitor, transcription factors and an RCR3-like protein. More secreted proteins had lower abundance in the compatible interaction compared to the incompatible interactions. Based on this observation and because the well-characterized effector-target C14 protease follows this pattern, we suggest 40 putative effector targets. In summary, over 17000 transcripts and 1000 secreted proteins changed in abundance in at least one time point, illustrating the dynamics of plant responses to a hemibiotroph. Half of the differentially abundant proteins showed a corresponding change at the transcript level. Many putative hypersensitive and effector-target proteins were single representatives of large gene families.

  16. Hydroxycinnamic acids in cooked potato tubers fromSolanum tuberosumgroup Phureja. (United States)

    Piñeros-Niño, Clara; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C; Mosquera, Teresa


    Hydroxycinnamic acids are phenolic compounds and are considered to have health promotion properties due to their antioxidant activity. Potato tubers of 113 genotypes of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja belonging to the Colombian Central Collection, landraces of potatoes, and commercial cultivars were evaluated for their hydroxycinnamic acids content. The composition of these compounds was analyzed using cooked tubers in two different agro-climatic conditions. The genotypes were analyzed for chlorogenic acid, neo -chlorogenic acid, crypto -chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Chlorogenic acid was the major representative and varied between 0.77 to 7.98 g kg -1  DW (dry weight) followed by crypto -chlorogenic acid (from 0.09 to 1.50 g kg -1  DW). Under moorland agro-climatic conditions even though the chlorogenic acid levels increased with respect to flatland agro-climatic conditions, the related isomer neo -chlorogenic acid decreased as compared to flatland conditions. The correlation between chlorogenic acid with the isomers, and with caffeic acid was positive. This study demonstrated that there is a wide variation in hydroxycinnamic acids contents in the germplasm studied, which can be exploited in breeding programs to contribute to human health.

  17. Optimization of Polysaccharide Ultrasonic Extraction Conditions Using Purple Sweet Potato Tubers Based on Free Radical Scavenging and Glycosylation Inhibitory Bioactivities. (United States)

    Guo, Haihua; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan


    The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato (I. batatas) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was quantified by evaluating the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect after ultrasonic extraction, and the data were used in conjunction with optimized extraction conditions to train the predictive ANN models. The following conditions were predicted to yield optimal hydroxyl scavenging activity: 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min. In contrast, conditions of 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min yielded the greatest inhibitory effect on albumin nonenzymatic glycosylation. The accuracy and predictive ability of the models ranged from good to excellent, as indicated by R(2) values ranging from 0.953 to 0.998. The results of the present study showed that ANN predictive models are useful in ultrasonic processing, which can rapidly and accurately predict the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides based on their antioxidant and antiglycated activities. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the consumption of sweet potatoes may help reduce free radicals in the body and prevent or treat diabetes. Ultrasonic extraction conditions were simulated and optimized using artificial neural networkBioactivities showed nonlinear relationship with ultrasonic conditionsThe optimal extraction conditions were 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min for the highest antioxidant capacityThe optimal extraction conditions were 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min for the highest antiglycated effect. Abbreviations used: IBP: Polysaccharide of Ipomoea

  18. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  19. Adsorption of 3-Chloroaniline on Potato Skin in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal S. Mohammed


    Full Text Available The adsorption behaviour of aromatic amine 3-chloroaniline (3-CA from aqueous solution on fresh potato skin was investigated. A series of batch experiments were conducted under different experimental conditions of contact time, 3-chloroaniline concentration, weight of potato skin, pH, temperature, and ionic strength using RP-HPLC analysis. Adsorption equilibrium of 3-chloroaniline at concentration of 10 µg/mL on 1 g weight of chopped potato skin was achieved in 24 hours. Using different varieties of potato skin showed that the adsorption of 3-CA on Nicola variety is higher compared to Sante and Maris Peer varieties. Adsorption on potato skin was found to be generally higher compared to cortex and pith tissues. Analysis of adsorption isotherm shows that equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich model (R2=0.977. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3-chloroaniline were found in the pH range from 3 to 9, whereas low adsorption quantities were found in high acidic and high basic solutions (pH 2 and pH 13, resp.. Adsorption capacity increased with an increase in temperature from 4°C to 30°C but decreased with further increase of temperature to 40°C. Testing the ionic strength showed that increasing the concentration of electrolyte reduces the adsorption efficiency. This study indicated that the fresh potato skin (without any treatment is possible to use as a new adsorbent for removal of 3-chloroaniline from industrial waste water.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth


    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied.

  1. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.


    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe. Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis

  2. 77 FR 33455 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in... (United States)


    ... disease. In certified seed potato production, the final evaluation on virus levels is determined by... AGENCY Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in... the pesticide Bacillus mycoides isolate J to treat up to 2,675 acres of potato to control Potato Virus...

  3. A study on the use of empirical models to predict the formation of acrylamide in potato crisps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Viklund, G.Å.I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Sjöholm, I.M.; Skog, K.I.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    The formation of acrylamide in potato crisps was fitted by empirical mathematical models. Potato slices were fried under the same experimental conditions for different times. Besides the content of precursors in the raw potato slices, acrylamide and water content in the potato crisps were quantified


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir JOVANOVIC


    Full Text Available The northern region of Montenegro represents a very important resource for agricultural production. However, the depopulation of the analysed area, pronounced in-kind character of production without significant participation of market producers, lack of market research, stronger vertical and horizontal connection between primary production and processing sectors have significant impacts causing the low level of competitiveness of agricultural production. Potato production in the analysed area has recorded positive trends in last ten years. This paper presents economic models of agriculture households on the analysed area from the potatoes production point of view.

  5. Consumer fair prices for less pesticide in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study estimates Turkish citizens’ willingness to pay (WTP for reduced pesticides on potatoes.These estimates rely on data collected from 393 persons covering all regions in Turkey throughan online survey during the period from June 22 - July 21, 2014. The average WTP was found to be about TL 1.68 for all observations including zero bids and TL 2.91 excluding zero bids. The results of the probit model show that cosmetic defects, free-pesticide potatoes with insect damages, age, and gender were identified by the model to have significant impacts on the probability of WTP.

  6. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Yumin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temperature of 60º Celsius, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10, and processing time of 6d.

  7. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types (United States)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.


    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  8. Consumers Preferences to Sweet Potato Flakes (Spf) From Sweet Potato Pasta as a Raw Material, with Enrichment Mung Bean Flour as Source Protein


    Sjafrina, Noveria; Aminah, Syarifah


    Sweet potato flakes as an alternative food and a source of carbohydrates as breakfast cereals food. To meet the nutritional needs of sweet potato flakes contained in the primarily source of protein. The purpose of the research was a source of enrichment of protein contained in sweet potato flakes (SPF) with the addition of mung bean flour. And to get an optimal result of consumer preferences with the addition of mung bean flour optimal still be accepted by consumers based on organoleptic tes...

  9. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color. (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika


    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  10. Naturally occurring glycoalkaloids in potatoes aggravate intestinal inflammation in two mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Iablokov, Vadim; Sydora, Beate C; Foshaug, Rae; Meddings, Jon; Driedger, Darcy; Churchill, Tom; Fedorak, Richard N


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be initiated following disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. This disruption, in turn, permits luminal antigens unfettered access to the mucosal immune system and leads to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Glycoalkaloids, which are found in potatoes, disrupt cholesterol-containing membranes such as those of the intestinal epithelium. Glycoalkaloid ingestion through potatoes may play a role in the initiation and/or perpetuation of IBD. To determine if commercial and high glycoalkaloids containing fried potato skins aggravate intestinal inflammation using two different animal models of IBD. Fried potato skins from commercial potatoes containing low/medium glycoalkaloid levels and high glycoalkaloids potatoes were fed for 20 days to interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitic mice. Intestinal permeability, mucosal cytokine and myeloperoxidase levels and body weight were determined to assess intestinal injury. Deep frying potato skins markedly increased glycoalkaloid content. Interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice fed fried commercial potato skins with medium glycoalkaloid content exhibited significantly elevated levels of ileal IFN-γ relative to controls. Mice in the dextran sodium sulfate colitis model that were fed the same strain of potatoes demonstrated significantly elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 in the colon in addition to an enhanced colonic permeability. Inflammatory response was intensified when the mice were fed potatoes with higher glycoalkaloid contents. Our results demonstrate that consumption of potato skins containing glycoalkaloids can significantly aggravate intestinal inflammation in predisposed individuals.

  11. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics. (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat


    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p sweet potato flour replacements, respectively. Flow behavior index of wheat flour treatments containing fractions of sweet potato flour were fitted in a shear thinning model. Quality indices of pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  13. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review. (United States)

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha


    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić


    Full Text Available The potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER is very important potato pest. According to EPPO it is on the quarantines A2 list. This species was detected on the territory of Belice in 2001. In 2002 soil samples were taken on two treatments, one with potato in monoculture and the other on the wheat where potato was previous crop. Cysts extraction was done in the laboratory of nematology at the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Science. Virulent group Ro1,4 was detected. More cysts were discovered in the monoculture potato soil (458/100 ccm of soil than in the soil under the wheat (368/100 ccm of soil. In 2004 vitality of the cysts were analysed. Cysts from potato monoculture had higher vitality (203 larvae/ cyst than cyst from the soil under wheat (38 larvae/cyst with potato as previous crop.

  15. An analytically resolved model of a potato's thermal processing using Heun functions (United States)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.


    A potato's thermal processing model is solved analytically. The model is formulated using the equation of heat diffusion in the case of a spherical potato processed in a furnace, and assuming that the potato's thermal conductivity is radially modulated. The model is solved using the method of the Laplace transform, applying Bromwich Integral and Residue Theorem. The temperatures' profile in the potato is presented as an infinite series of Heun functions. All computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numerical values of the thermal parameters of the potato and geometric and thermal parameters of the processing furnace, the time evolution of the temperatures in different regions inside the potato are presented analytically and graphically. The duration of thermal processing in order to achieve a specified effect on the potato is computed. It is expected that the obtained analytical results will be important in food engineering and cooking engineering.

  16. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong


    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  17. Acrylamide reduction in potato chips by using commercial asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit


    In this research acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated in relation to blanching and asparaginase immersion treatments before final frying. Potatoes slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, thickness: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0 g/100 g...... (control II). Blanching in hot water (ii) was almost as effective as asparaginase potato immersion (iii) in order to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips (acrylamide reduction was ∼17% of the initial acrylamide concentration). When potato slices were blanched before asparaginase immersion......, the acrylamide content of the resultant potato chips was reduced considerably by almost 90%. We have demonstrated that blanching of potato slices plus asparaginase treatment is an effective combination for acrylamide mitigation during frying. It seems to be that blanching provokes changes in the microstructure...

  18. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    In this research, acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated in relation to blanching and asparaginase immersion treatments before final frying. Potatoes slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, thickness: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0 g/100 g...... (control II). Blanching in hot water (ii) was almost as effective as asparaginase potato immersion (iii) in order to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips (acrylamide reduction was ∼17% of the initial acrylamide concentration). When potato slices were blanched before asparaginase immersion......, the acrylamide content of the resultant potato chips was reduced considerably by almost 90%. We have demonstrated that blanching of potato slices plus asparaginase treatment is an effective combination for acrylamide mitigation during frying. It seems to be that blanching provokes changes in the microstructure...

  19. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts forthe Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy ... producing country in Africa and the fourth in .... Total amylase assay. Extraction. Three medium-sized sweet potato storage roots were thoroughly washed in water and sliced, 100 g were then homogenized in a Waring blender.

  20. Production of ethanol from tuberous plant (sweet potato) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, out of the three nitrogen sources (yeast extract, peptone and ammonium sulphate) tested for ethanol production, peptone at a concentration of 1.5 g/L was found to be best (7.93%). From the present study, it may be concluded that sweet potato can be an attractive feedstock for bioethanol production from both ...

  1. The impact of aeration on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root ...

  2. Degradation and Moisture Absorption Study of Potato-starch Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and potato-starch was produced and subjected to degradation studies with the agencies of enzymes, exposure to weather and immersion in water. Enzymatic hydrolysis degraded the matrix to an extent greater than 40% loss in strength and about 20% loss in ...

  3. Molecular characterization of the Indian Andigena potato core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) microsatellite (SSR) markers of a new PGI kit were used to validate the genetic diversity of the 77 Indian Andigena potato core collections. In SSR analysis, polymorphic information content (PIC), allelic richness per locus of microsatellite loci and cluster analysis showed the high diversity of core collection.

  4. Common scab and its control in seed-potato crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labruyere, R.E.


    In the Netherlands common scab of the potato is usually caused by Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waksman et Henrici, following Corbaz's description, and rarely by other Streptomyces species. Variation in morphological and other characteristics

  5. Potato farming becomes healthier in Ecuador | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jul 17, 2012 ... Without losing its important place in the life of Andean villages, potato growing is changing in Ecuador. Agricultural modernization has altered small-scale, traditional, subsistence farming systems. Many farmers combine traditional practices with machinery and agro-chemicals. They also may rely on highly ...

  6. Genetic and cultural management solutions to improve potato storage quality (United States)

    Potato storage quality is most easily described in terms of tuber attributes that maintain the value of the harvested crop. Among these attributes are attractive appearance, low shrink, low incidence of bruising and, for chip and fry processing varieties, specific gravity and reducing sugars appropr...

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Potato Tubers - Effects of Different Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.P.; Cankar, K.; Scheffer, S.J.; Beenen, H.G.; Shepherd, L.V.T.; Stewart, D.; Davies, H.V.; Wilkockson, S.J.; Leifert, C.; Gruden, K.; Kok, E.J.


    The use of profiling techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has been proposed to improve the detection of side effects of plant breeding processes. This paper describes the construction of a food safety-oriented potato cDNA microarray (FSPM). Microarray analysis was

  8. Transcriptome analysis of potato tubers: Effects of different agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Jeroen; Kok, Esther; Cankar, Katarina


    The use of profiling techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has been proposed to improve the detection of side effects of plant breeding processes. This paper describes the construction of a food safety-oriented potato cDNA microarray (FSPM). Microarray analysis was

  9. Potential of aeroponics system in the production of quality potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This system, as is the case with micropropagation, has potential to increase income and reduce cost of production of quality seed, thereby, making it more accessible to growers in developing countries where potato production is heavily constrained by the use of poor quality seed tubers. This review gives an insight on the ...

  10. Evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L. LAM) varieties in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. ... There was incidence of diseases but that of insects was low. For fresh root phenotypic characteristics, Ex-Igbariam and 199004-2 had yellow flesh, indicative of the presence of vitamin A precursor.

  11. Genetic diversity of Iranian potato soft rot bacteria based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial soft rot diseases caused by Pectobacterium-Dickeya complex are the most important and yield losses diseases of potato crop worldwide. Loss due to these diseases in some years/fields under Iran condition is huge and destructive. To screen and characterize the causal agents, thirty bacterial soft rot isolates ...

  12. Yield stability and acceptability of two new Solanum potato varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and disease resistant, the authors mention that farmers will quest for a variety that is highly market-demanded. However, the authors did not show why the consumers prefer certain potato varieties although tuber skin colour was mentioned in one instance (Adipala et al., 2000). Mugisa-Mutetika, 1997 noted that in addition to ...

  13. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl


    at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...

  14. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    these treatments had 21 - 89% more numbers of leaves compared to plants from the untreated seed tubers. Crude essential oils from dill weed at .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to filter paper ..... is a valid reference frame in postharvest ageing studies. Postharvest ...

  15. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar


    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  16. Identification of six potato virus Y isolates from Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 22, 2012 ... E-mail: + 966-. 6952291. Accepted ... Egypt) and the US. The autumn crop is planted from seed tubers produced locally from the spring crop. Potato virus Y (PVY), the type member of the genus Potyvirus, ..... Experiments, Center for Agriculture Publishing and Documentation,.

  17. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  18. Improving sweet potato processing and storage performance throug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important food security crop in, many parts of Tanzania. Despite this potential, research into its post-harvest handling for maximum utilisation hass been low. The objective of this study was therefore, to assess slicing performance of a fabricated hand operated slicing machine against the traditional knife ...

  19. Towards the development of sweet potato-based couscous for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato processing and consumption patterns are very limited in Benin. The present study aimed to suggest a new utilization of the crop as food. Roots from a white flesh variety were processed into flour and later into couscous. This couscous was steam-cooked following the same procedure as a wheat-based ...

  20. Introducing orange sweet potato: tracing the evolution of evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of orange sweet potato (OSP), rich in vitamin A, can have important and lasting impacts on reducing vitamin A deficiency among smallholder farmers in the developing world. In this paper, we describe the evolution of evidence about the effectiveness of disseminating OSP to smallholder farmers on vitamin A ...

  1. Agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute sub-station, Otobi, in 2006 and 2007 to assess the suitability of improved sweet potato varieties for intercropping with pigeonpea and also to determine the planting pattern and the productivity of the intercropping system. Intercropping ...

  2. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  3. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  4. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  5. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  6. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping. (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna


    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The performance and profitability of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) in ...

  8. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties among farmers. The objective of the study is to establish objectively and reliable means of identifying released, local ...

  9. Registration of Adu and Barkume: Improved Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two improved sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) varieties, namely, Adu (Cuba-2) and Barkume (TIS-8250-2) were developed by Root and Tuber Crops Improvement Program and approved by the National Variety Releasing Committee in 2007. The performances of the varieties were evaluated at four locations in the eastern ...

  10. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue culture techniques have opened a new frontier in agricultural science by addressing food security and agricultural production issues. A study was conducted to compare growth and yield characteristics between the tissue culture regenerated and conventionally propagated sweet potato cultivars. Five locally adapted ...

  11. Adoption of sweet potato production technologies in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved production technologies of sweet potato were jointly developed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan and National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike to eliminate constraints associated with farmers' use of local production technologies. Several years after introduction of the ...

  12. Gene transcription analysis during interaction between potato and Ralstonia solanacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.C.; Jin, L.P.; Wang, X.W.; Xie, K.Y.; Yang, Y.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Huang, S.W.; Qu, D.Y.


    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) is an important quarantine disease that spreads worldwide and infects hundreds of plant species. The BW defense response of potato is a complicated continuous process, which involves transcription of a battery of genes. The molecular

  13. new potato varieties fight poverty and malnutrition in colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cost calories for families in colombia. it is the main crop pro- duced by the 67 indigenous communities in nariño, a region with the second highest rate of malnutrition in the country. Yet, this staple crop is highly susceptible to late blight disease that results in low yields and, because of the poor quality of potato, nutritionally ...

  14. ​Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. In Colombia, food security is a national concern, and indigenous communities of Nariño are among the most food insecure in the country. Potato is the staple food crop and main source of family income for the region's smallholder farms — many of which are headed by women. One of the biggest threats to ...

  15. Biodiversity analyses for risk assessment of genetically modified potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Dicke, Marcel; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Loon, van Joop J.A.


    An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the

  16. Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine (United States)

    Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

  17. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes (United States)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  18. Assessing genetic variation in growth and development of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.S.


    Key words: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), segregating population, canopy cover dynamics, tuber bulking dynamics, beta function, thermal time, components of variance, genotype-by-environment interaction (GE), heritability, QTL mapping, QTL-by-environment (QTLE) interaction, complex traits,

  19. Report Topsector Potato India and Ethiopia 2015/16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, Annette; Haverkort, Anton; Brink, van den Lubbert; Janssens, Bas; Meijer, Ben; Beke, ter Frank; Vries, de Sicko; Schoutsen, Maureen; Michielsen, Jean-Marie; Kempenaar, Corné


    The Agricultural Counsellor of the Netherlands Embassy in Delhi initiated a BOCI project ‘Overview of the potato chain in India’ in early 2011. In September 2012 this initiative has been adopted by the Dutch and Indian stakeholders and the Pubic Private Partnership (PPS) was established to

  20. Technology use in sweet potato production, consumption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identify the technology used by households in the production, consumption and utilization of sweet potato in Southeastern Nigeria. Two difference types of structured interview schedules for farmers and consumers were utilized in obtaining information from one hundred and forty-four farmers and ...