WorldWideScience

Sample records for wide field camera

  1. A wide field X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, M.; Turner, M.J.L.; Willingale, R.

    1980-01-01

    A wide field of view X-ray camera based on the Dicke or Coded Mask principle is described. It is shown that this type of instrument is more sensitive than a pin-hole camera, or than a scanning survey of a given region of sky for all wide field conditions. The design of a practical camera is discussed and the sensitivity and performance of the chosen design are evaluated by means of computer simulations. The Wiener Filter and Maximum Entropy methods of deconvolution are described and these methods are compared with each other and cross-correlation using data from the computer simulations. It is shown that the analytic expressions for sensitivity used by other workers are confirmed by the simulations, and that ghost images caused by incomplete coding can be substantially eliminated by the use of the Wiener Filter and the Maximum Entropy Method, with some penalty in computer time for the latter. The cyclic mask configuration is compared with the simple mask camera. It is shown that when the diffuse X-ray background dominates, the simple system is more sensitive and has the better angular resolution. When sources dominate the simple system is less sensitive. It is concluded that the simple coded mask camera is the best instrument for wide field imaging of the X-ray sky. (orig.)

  2. Wide field and diffraction limited array camera for SIRTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, G.G.; Koch, D.G.; Melnick, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF/IRAC) is capable of two-dimensional photometry in either a wide field or diffraction-limited mode over the wavelength interval from 2 to 30 microns. Three different two-dimensional direct readout (DRO) array detectors are being considered: Band 1-InSb or Si:In (2-5 microns) 128 x 128 pixels, Band 2-Si:Ga (5-18 microns) 64 x 64 pixels, and Band 3-Si:Sb (18-30 microns) 64 x 64 pixels. The hybrid DRO readout architecture has the advantages of low read noise, random pixel access with individual readout rates, and nondestructive readout. The scientific goals of IRAC are discussed, which are the basis for several important requirements and capabilities of the array camera: (1) diffraction-limited resolution from 2-30 microns, (2) use of the maximum unvignetted field of view of SIRTF, (3) simultaneous observations within the three infrared spectral bands, and (4) the capability for broad and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution. A strategy has been developed to minimize the total electronic and environmental noise sources to satisfy the scientific requirements. 7 references

  3. Non-mydriatic, wide field, fundus video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Bernhard; Voigtmann, Peter; Michelson, Georg; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    We describe a method we call "stripe field imaging" that is capable of capturing wide field color fundus videos and images of the human eye at pupil sizes of 2mm. This means that it can be used with a non-dilated pupil even with bright ambient light. We realized a mobile demonstrator to prove the method and we could acquire color fundus videos of subjects successfully. We designed the demonstrator as a low-cost device consisting of mass market components to show that there is no major additional technical outlay to realize the improvements we propose. The technical core idea of our method is breaking the rotational symmetry in the optical design that is given in many conventional fundus cameras. By this measure we could extend the possible field of view (FOV) at a pupil size of 2mm from a circular field with 20° in diameter to a square field with 68° by 18° in size. We acquired a fundus video while the subject was slightly touching and releasing the lid. The resulting video showed changes at vessels in the region of the papilla and a change of the paleness of the papilla.

  4. Searching for transits in the Wide Field Camera Transit Survey with difference-imaging light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendejas, Dominguez J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R.; Birkby, J.L.; Hodgkin, S.; Kovács, G.; Pinfield, D.; Sipocz, B.; Barrado, D.; Bender, R.; Burgo, del C.; Cappetta, M.; Martín, E.; Nefs, B.; Riffeser, A.; Steele, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera Transit Survey is a pioneer program aiming at for searching extra-solar planets in the near-infrared. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. We produce an alternative set of light

  5. Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr

  6. Radiometric calibration of wide-field camera system with an application in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Nasyrova, Maria; Stehlíková, Veronika

    2017-09-01

    Camera response function (CRF) is widely used for the description of the relationship between scene radiance and image brightness. Most common application of CRF is High Dynamic Range (HDR) reconstruction of the radiance maps of imaged scenes from a set of frames with different exposures. The main goal of this work is to provide an overview of CRF estimation algorithms and compare their outputs with results obtained under laboratory conditions. These algorithms, typically designed for multimedia content, are unfortunately quite useless with astronomical image data, mostly due to their nature (blur, noise, and long exposures). Therefore, we propose an optimization of selected methods to use in an astronomical imaging application. Results are experimentally verified on the wide-field camera system using Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera.

  7. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with Wide-Field Camera 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Kurczynski, Peter; Bond, Nicholas A.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Colbert, James W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; de Mello, Duilia F.; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E.; Siana, Brian D.; Scarlata, Claudia; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are #12534.

  8. Improved iris localization by using wide and narrow field of view cameras for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics is a method of identifying individuals by their physiological or behavioral characteristics. Among other biometric identifiers, iris recognition has been widely used for various applications that require a high level of security. When a conventional iris recognition camera is used, the size and position of the iris region in a captured image vary according to the X, Y positions of a user's eye and the Z distance between a user and the camera. Therefore, the searching area of the iris detection algorithm is increased, which can inevitably decrease both the detection speed and accuracy. To solve these problems, we propose a new method of iris localization that uses wide field of view (WFOV) and narrow field of view (NFOV) cameras. Our study is new as compared to previous studies in the following four ways. First, the device used in our research acquires three images, one each of the face and both irises, using one WFOV and two NFOV cameras simultaneously. The relation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is determined by simple geometric transformation without complex calibration. Second, the Z distance (between a user's eye and the iris camera) is estimated based on the iris size in the WFOV image and anthropometric data of the size of the human iris. Third, the accuracy of the geometric transformation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is enhanced by using multiple matrices of the transformation according to the Z distance. Fourth, the searching region for iris localization in the NFOV image is significantly reduced based on the detected iris region in the WFOV image and the matrix of geometric transformation corresponding to the estimated Z distance. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed iris localization method is better than that of conventional methods in terms of accuracy and processing time.

  9. Cryogenic solid Schmidt camera as a base for future wide-field IR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Alexey N.

    2011-11-01

    Work is focused on study of capability of solid Schmidt camera to serve as a wide-field infrared lens for aircraft system with whole sphere coverage, working in 8-14 um spectral range, coupled with spherical focal array of megapixel class. Designs of 16 mm f/0.2 lens with 60 and 90 degrees sensor diagonal are presented, their image quality is compared with conventional solid design. Achromatic design with significantly improved performance, containing enclosed soft correcting lens behind protective front lens is proposed. One of the main goals of the work is to estimate benefits from curved detector arrays in 8-14 um spectral range wide-field systems. Coupling of photodetector with solid Schmidt camera by means of frustrated total internal reflection is considered, with corresponding tolerance analysis. The whole lens, except front element, is considered to be cryogenic, with solid Schmidt unit to be flown by hydrogen for improvement of bulk transmission.

  10. UVUDF: Ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble ultra deep field with wide-field camera 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James W.; Hanish, Daniel J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: hit@ipac.caltech.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); and others

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5; (2) probe the evolution of massive galaxies by resolving sub-galactic units (clumps); (3) examine the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from galaxies at z ∼ 2-3; (4) greatly improve the reliability of photometric redshift estimates; and (5) measure the star formation rate efficiency of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at z ∼ 1-3. In this overview paper, we describe the survey details and data reduction challenges, including both the necessity of specialized calibrations and the effects of charge transfer inefficiency. We provide a stark demonstration of the effects of charge transfer inefficiency on resultant data products, which when uncorrected, result in uncertain photometry, elongation of morphology in the readout direction, and loss of faint sources far from the readout. We agree with the STScI recommendation that future UVIS observations that require very sensitive measurements use the instrument's capability to add background light through a 'post-flash'. Preliminary results on number counts of UV-selected galaxies and morphology of galaxies at z ∼ 1 are presented. We find that the number density of UV dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch.

  11. SHOK—The First Russian Wide-Field Optical Camera in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipunov, V. M.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V. G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Petrov, V. L.; Yashin, I. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Vedenkin, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Onboard the spacecraft Lomonosov is established two fast, fixed, very wide-field cameras SHOK. The main goal of this experiment is the observation of GRB optical emission before, synchronously, and after the gamma-ray emission. The field of view of each of the cameras is placed in the gamma-ray burst detection area of other devices located onboard the "Lomonosov" spacecraft. SHOK provides measurements of optical emissions with a magnitude limit of ˜ 9-10m on a single frame with an exposure of 0.2 seconds. The device is designed for continuous sky monitoring at optical wavelengths in the very wide field of view (1000 square degrees each camera), detection and localization of fast time-varying (transient) optical sources on the celestial sphere, including provisional and synchronous time recording of optical emissions from the gamma-ray burst error boxes, detected by the BDRG device and implemented by a control signal (alert trigger) from the BDRG. The Lomonosov spacecraft has two identical devices, SHOK1 and SHOK2. The core of each SHOK device is a fast-speed 11-Megapixel CCD. Each of the SHOK devices represents a monoblock, consisting of a node observations of optical emission, the electronics node, elements of the mechanical construction, and the body.

  12. SAAO's new robotic telescope and WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worters, Hannah L.; O'Connor, James E.; Carter, David B.; Loubser, Egan; Fourie, Pieter A.; Sickafoose, Amanda; Swanevelder, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) is designing and manufacturing a wide-field camera for use on two of its telescopes. The initial concept was of a Prime focus camera for the 74" telescope, an equatorial design made by Grubb Parsons, where it would employ a 61mmx61mm detector to cover a 23 arcmin diameter field of view. However, while in the design phase, SAAO embarked on the process of acquiring a bespoke 1-metre robotic alt-az telescope with a 43 arcmin field of view, which needs a homegrown instrument suite. The Prime focus camera design was thus adapted for use on either telescope, increasing the detector size to 92mmx92mm. Since the camera will be mounted on the Nasmyth port of the new telescope, it was dubbed WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera). This paper describes both WiNCam and the new telescope. Producing an instrument that can be swapped between two very different telescopes poses some unique challenges. At the Nasmyth port of the alt-az telescope there is ample circumferential space, while on the 74 inch the available envelope is constrained by the optical footprint of the secondary, if further obscuration is to be avoided. This forces the design into a cylindrical volume of 600mm diameter x 250mm height. The back focal distance is tightly constrained on the new telescope, shoehorning the shutter, filter unit, guider mechanism, a 10mm thick window and a tip/tilt mechanism for the detector into 100mm depth. The iris shutter and filter wheel planned for prime focus could no longer be accommodated. Instead, a compact shutter with a thickness of less than 20mm has been designed in-house, using a sliding curtain mechanism to cover an aperture of 125mmx125mm, while the filter wheel has been replaced with 2 peripheral filter cartridges (6 filters each) and a gripper to move a filter into the beam. We intend using through-vacuum wall PCB technology across the cryostat vacuum interface, instead of traditional hermetic connector-based wiring. This

  13. Stellar photometry with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) images are analyzed in order to discover the most effective techniques for stellar photometry and to evaluate the accuracy and limitations of these techniques. The capabilities and operation of the WF/PC and the simulations employed in the study are described. The basic techniques of stellar photometry and methods to improve these techniques for the WF/PC are discussed. The correct parameters for star detection, aperture photometry, and point-spread function (PSF) fitting with the DAOPHOT software of Stetson (1987) are determined. Consideration is given to undersampling of the stellar images by the detector; variations in the PSF; and the crowding of the stellar images. It is noted that, with some changes DAOPHOT, is able to generate photometry almost to the level of photon statistics. 10 refs

  14. OP09O-OP404-9 Wide Field Camera 3 CCD Quantum Efficiency Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The HST/Wide Field Camera (WFC) 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the QEH feature contrast was typically 0.1-0.2% or less. The behavior was replicated using flight spare detectors. A visible light flat-field (540nm) with a several times full-well signal level can pin the detectors at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths, suppressing the QEH behavior. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. The HST/Wide Field Camera 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. The first observed manifestation of QEH was the presence in a small percentage of flat-field images of a bowtie-shaped contrast that spanned the width of each chip. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the contrast observed for this feature was typically 0.1-0.2% or less, though at warmer temperatures contrasts up to 5% (at -50C) have been observed. The bowtie morphology was replicated using flight spare detectors in tests at the GSFC Detector Characterization Laboratory by power cycling the detector while cold. Continued investigation revealed that a clearly-related global QE suppression at the approximately 5% level can be produced by cooling the detector in the dark; subsequent flat-field exposures at a constant illumination show asymptotically increasing response. This QE "pinning" can be achieved with a single high signal flat-field or a series of lower signal flats; a visible light (500-580nm) flat-field with a signal level of several hundred thousand electrons per pixel is sufficient for QE pinning at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a

  15. Wide-Field Imaging of Omega Centauri with the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, D.; Dorfman, J. L.; Cool, A. M.; Anderson, J.; Bailyn, C. D.; Edmonds, P. D.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    We present initial results of a wide-field imaging study of the globular cluster Omega Cen (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). We have obtained a mosaic of 3x3 pointings of the cluster using the HST/ACS Wide Field Camera covering approximately 10' x 10', roughly out to the cluster's half-mass radius. Using F435W (B435), F625W (R625) and F658N (H-alpha) filters, we are searching for optical counterparts of Chandra X-ray sources and studying the cluster's stellar populations. Here we report the discovery of an optical counterpart to the X-ray source identified by Rutledge et al. (2002) as a possible quiescent neutron star on the basis of its X-ray spectrum. The star's magnitude and color (R625 = 24.4, B435-R625 = 1.5) place it more than 1.5 magnitudes to the blue side of the main sequence. Through the H-alpha filter it is about 1.3 magnitudes brighter than cluster stars of comparable R625 magnitude. The blue color and H-alpha excess suggest the presence of an accretion disk, implying that the neutron star is a member of a quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. The object's faint absolute magnitude (M625 ˜ 10.6, M435 ˜ 11.8) implies that the system contains an unusually weak disk and that the companion, if it is a main-sequence star, is of very low mass (ACS study. This work is supported by NASA grant GO-9442 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  16. Updates to Post-Flash Calibration for the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    This report presents a new technique for generating the post-flash calibration reference file for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC). The new method substantially reduces, if not, eliminates all together the presence of dark current artifacts arising from improper dark subtraction, while simultaneously preserving flat-field artifacts. The stability of the post-flash calibration reference file over time is measured using data taken yearly since 2012 and no statistically significant deviations are found. An analysis of all short-flashed darks taken every two days since January 2015 reveals a periodic modulation of the LED intensity on timescales of about one year. This effect is most readily explained by changes to the local temperature in the area surrounding the LED. However, a slight offset between the periods of the temperature and LED modulations lends to the possibility that the effect is a chance observation of the two sinusoids at an unfortunate point in their beat cycle.

  17. Contributed Review: Camera-limits for wide-field magnetic resonance imaging with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Adam M.; Karadas, Mürsel; Huck, Alexander; Osterkamp, Christian; Jankuhn, Steffen; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2018-03-01

    Sensitive, real-time optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond relies on accurate imaging of small (≪10-2), fractional fluorescence changes across the diamond sample. We discuss the limitations on magnetic field sensitivity resulting from the limited number of photoelectrons that a camera can record in a given time. Several types of camera sensors are analyzed, and the smallest measurable magnetic field change is estimated for each type. We show that most common sensors are of a limited use in such applications, while certain highly specific cameras allow achieving nanotesla-level sensitivity in 1 s of a combined exposure. Finally, we demonstrate the results obtained with a lock-in camera that paves the way for real-time, wide-field magnetometry at the nanotesla level and with a micrometer resolution.

  18. The influence of distrubing effects on the performance of a wide field coded mask X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, M.R.; Turner, M.J.L.; Willingale, R.

    1985-01-01

    The coded aperture telescope, or Dicke camera, is seen as an instrument suitable for many applications in X-ray and gamma ray imaging. In this paper the effects of a partially obscuring window mask support or collimator, a detector with limited spatial resolution, and motion of the camera during image integration are considered using a computer simulation of the performance of such a camera. Cross correlation and the Wiener filter are used to deconvolve the data. It is shown that while these effects cause a degradation in performance this is in no case catastrophic. Deterioration of the image is shown to be greatest where strong sources are present in the field of view and is quite small (proportional 10%) when diffuse background is the major element. A comparison between the cyclic mask camera and the single mask camera is made under various conditions and it is shown the single mask camera has a moderate advantage particularly when imaging a wide field of view. (orig.)

  19. Measuring metallicities with Hubble space telescope/wide-field camera 3 photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walker, Alistair, E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu, E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: awalker@ctio.noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-01-01

    We quantified and calibrated the metallicity and temperature sensitivities of colors derived from nine Wide-Field Camera 3 filters on board the Hubble Space Telescope using Dartmouth isochrones and Kurucz atmosphere models. The theoretical isochrone colors were tested and calibrated against observations of five well studied galactic clusters, M92, NGC 6752, NGC 104, NGC 5927, and NGC 6791, all of which have spectroscopically determined metallicities spanning –2.30 < [Fe/H] <+0.4. We found empirical corrections to the Dartmouth isochrone grid for each of the following color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs): (F555W-F814W, F814W), (F336W-F555W, F814W), (F390M-F555W, F814W), and (F390W-F555W, F814W). Using empirical corrections, we tested the accuracy and spread of the photometric metallicities assigned from CMDs and color-color diagrams (which are necessary to break the age-metallicity degeneracy). Testing three color-color diagrams [(F336W-F555W),(F390M-F555W),(F390W-F555W), versus (F555W-F814W)], we found the colors (F390M-F555W) and (F390W-F555W) to be the best suited to measure photometric metallicities. The color (F390W-F555W) requires much less integration time, but generally produces wider metallicity distributions and, at very low metallicity, the metallicity distribution function (MDF) from (F390W-F555W) is ∼60% wider than that from (F390M-F555W). Using the calibrated isochrones, we recovered the overall cluster metallicity to within ∼0.1 dex in [Fe/H] when using CMDs (i.e., when the distance, reddening, and ages are approximately known). The measured MDF from color-color diagrams shows that this method measures metallicities of stellar clusters of unknown age and metallicity with an accuracy of ∼0.2-0.5 dex using F336W-F555W, ∼0.15-0.25 dex using F390M-F555W, and ∼0.2-0.4 dex with F390W-F555W, with the larger uncertainty pertaining to the lowest metallicity range.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two groups have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) to acquire new high-resolution images of the planet Neptune. Members of the WFPC-2 Science Team, lead by John Trauger, acquired the first series of images on 27 through 29 June 1994. These were the highest resolution images of Neptune taken since the Voyager-2 flyby in August of 1989. A more comprehensive program is currently being conducted by Heidi Hammel and Wes Lockwood. These two sets of observations are providing a wealth of new information about the structure, composition, and meteorology of this distant planet's atmosphere.Neptune is currently the most distant planet from the sun, with an orbital radius of 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles, or 30 Astronomical Units). Even though its diameter is about four times that of the Earth (49,420 vs. 12,742 km), ground-based telescopes reveal a tiny blue disk that subtends less than 1/1200 of a degree (2.3 arc-seconds). Neptune has therefore been a particularly challenging object to study from the ground because its disk is badly blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. In spite of this, ground-based astronomers had learned a great deal about this planet since its position was first predicted by John C. Adams and Urbain Leverrier in 1845. For example, they had determined that Neptune was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, and that its blue color caused by the presence of trace amounts of the gas methane, which absorbs red light. They had also detected bright cloud features whose brightness changed with time, and tracked these clouds to infer a rotation period between 17 and 22 hours.When the Voyager-2 spacecraft flew past the Neptune in 1989, its instruments revealed a surprising array of meteorological phenomena, including strong winds, bright, high-altitude clouds, and two large dark spots attributed to long-lived giant storm systems. These bright clouds and dark spots were tracked as they moved

  1. Contributed review: camera-limits for wide-field magnetic resonance imaging with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojciechowski, Adam M.; Karadas, Mürsel; Huck, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Sensitive, real-time optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond relies on accurate imaging of small (≪10−2), fractional fluorescence changes across the diamond sample. We discuss the limitations on magnetic field sensitivity resulting from the limited number of photoelectrons t......-level sensitivity in 1 s of a combined exposure. Finally, we demonstrate the results obtained with a lock-in camera that paves the way for real-time, wide-field magnetometry at the nanotesla level and with a micrometer resolution....

  2. Galaxy formation in the reionization epoch as hinted by Wide Field Camera 3 observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Ryan, Russell E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a large sample of candidate galaxies at z ∼ 7-10, selected in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the new observations of the Wide Field Camera 3 that was recently installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. Our sample is composed of 20 z 850 -dropouts (four new discoveries), 15 Y 105 -dropouts (nine new discoveries) and 20 J 125 -dropouts (all new discoveries). The surface densities of the z 850 -dropouts are close to what was predicted by earlier studies, however, those of the Y 105 - and J 125 -dropouts are quite unexpected. While no Y 105 - or J 125 -dropouts have been found at AB ≤ 28.0 mag, their surface densities seem to increase sharply at fainter levels. While some of these candidates seem to be close to foreground galaxies and thus could possibly be gravitationally lensed, the overall surface densities after excluding such cases are still much higher than what would be expected if the luminosity function does not evolve from z ∼ 7 to 10. Motivated by such steep increases, we tentatively propose a set of Schechter function parameters to describe the luminosity functions at z ∼ 8 and 10. As compared to their counterpart at z ∼ 7, here L * decreases by a factor of ∼ 6.5 and φ * increases by a factor of 17-90. Although such parameters are not yet demanded by the existing observations, they are allowed and seem to agree with the data better than other alternatives. If these luminosity functions are still valid beyond our current detection limit, this would imply a sudden emergence of a large number of low-luminosity galaxies when looking back in time to z ∼ 10, which, while seemingly exotic, would naturally fit in the picture of the cosmic hydrogen reionization. These early galaxies could easily account for the ionizing photon budget required by the reionization, and they would imply that the global star formation rate density might start from a very high value at z ∼ 10, rapidly reach the minimum at z ∼ 7, and start to rise again

  3. Contact-free trans-pars-planar illumination enables snapshot fundus camera for nonmydriatic wide field photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benquan; Toslak, Devrim; Alam, Minhaj Nur; Chan, R V Paul; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-06-08

    In conventional fundus photography, trans-pupillary illumination delivers illuminating light to the interior of the eye through the peripheral area of the pupil, and only the central part of the pupil can be used for collecting imaging light. Therefore, the field of view of conventional fundus cameras is limited, and pupil dilation is required for evaluating the retinal periphery which is frequently affected by diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and other chorioretinal conditions. We report here a nonmydriatic wide field fundus camera employing trans-pars-planar illumination which delivers illuminating light through the pars plana, an area outside of the pupil. Trans-pars-planar illumination frees the entire pupil for imaging purpose only, and thus wide field fundus photography can be readily achieved with less pupil dilation. For proof-of-concept testing, using all off-the-shelf components a prototype instrument that can achieve 90° fundus view coverage in single-shot fundus images, without the need of pharmacologic pupil dilation was demonstrated.

  4. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  5. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Microanalysis and Recognition of Micrometeoroid Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Postflight surveys of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope have located hundreds of features on the 2.2 by 0.8 m curved plate, evidence of hypervelocity impact by small particles during 16 years of exposure to space in low Earth orbit (LEO). The radiator has a 100 - 200 micron surface layer of white paint, overlying 4 mm thick Al alloy, which was not fully penetrated by any impact. Over 460 WFPC2 samples were extracted by coring at JSC. About half were sent to NHM in a collaborative program with NASA, ESA and IBC. The structural and compositional heterogeneity at micrometer scale required microanalysis by electron and ion beam microscopes to determine the nature of the impactors (artificial orbital debris, or natural micrometeoroids, MM). Examples of MM impacts are described elsewhere. Here we describe the development of novel electron beam analysis protocols, required to recognize the subtle traces of MM residues.

  6. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Sace Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Ion Beam Analysis of Subtle Impactor Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of origin for particles responsible for impact damage on spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) relies upon postflight analysis of returned materials. A unique opportunity arose in 2009 with collection of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) from HST by shuttle mission STS-125. A preliminary optical survey confirmed that there were hundreds of impact features on the radiator surface. Following extensive discussion between NASA, ESA, NHM and IBC, a collaborative research program was initiated, employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion beam analysis (IBA) to determine the nature of the impacting grains. Even though some WFPC2 impact features are large, and easily seen without the use of a microscope, impactor remnants may be hard to find.

  7. ON THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF THE LOWEST MASS MEMBERS OF THE PLEIADES WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey of 11 of the lowest mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades known (25–40 M Jup ). These objects represent the predecessors to T dwarfs in the field. Using a semi-empirical binary point-spread function (PSF)-fitting technique, we are able to probe to 0.″ 03 (0.75 pixel), better than 2x the WFC3/UVIS diffraction limit. We did not find any companions to our targets. From extensive testing of our PSF-fitting method on simulated binaries, we compute detection limits which rule out companions to our targets with mass ratios of ≳0.7 and separations ≳4 AU. Thus, our survey is the first to attain the high angular resolution needed to resolve brown dwarf binaries in the Pleiades at separations that are most common in the field population. We constrain the binary frequency over this range of separation and mass ratio of 25–40 M Jup Pleiades brown dwarfs to be <11% for 1σ (<26% at 2σ). This binary frequency is consistent with both younger and older brown dwarfs in this mass range

  8. An experiment in big data: storage, querying and visualisation of data taken from the Liverpool Telescope's wide field cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, R. M.; Steele, Iain A.; Smith, R. J.; Mawson, Neil R.

    2014-07-01

    The Small Telescopes Installed at the Liverpool Telescope (STILT) project has been in operation since March 2009, collecting data with three wide field unfiltered cameras: SkycamA, SkycamT and SkycamZ. To process the data, a pipeline was developed to automate source extraction, catalogue cross-matching, photometric calibration and database storage. In this paper, modifications and further developments to this pipeline will be discussed, including a complete refactor of the pipeline's codebase into Python, migration of the back-end database technology from MySQL to PostgreSQL, and changing the catalogue used for source cross-matching from USNO-B1 to APASS. In addition to this, details will be given relating to the development of a preliminary front-end to the source extracted database which will allow a user to perform common queries such as cone searches and light curve comparisons of catalogue and non-catalogue matched objects. Some next steps and future ideas for the project will also be presented.

  9. The HST/WFC3 Quicklook Project: A User Interface to Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Matthew; Bajaj, Varun; Bowers, Ariel; Dulude, Michael; Durbin, Meredith; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Gunning, Heather; Khandrika, Harish; Martlin, Catherine; Sunnquist, Ben; Viana, Alex

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument, comprised of two detectors, UVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) and IR (Infrared), has been acquiring ~ 50-100 images daily since its installation in 2009. The WFC3 Quicklook project provides a means for instrument analysts to store, calibrate, monitor, and interact with these data through the various Quicklook systems: (1) a ~ 175 TB filesystem, which stores the entire WFC3 archive on disk, (2) a MySQL database, which stores image header data, (3) a Python-based automation platform, which currently executes 22 unique calibration/monitoring scripts, (4) a Python-based code library, which provides system functionality such as logging, downloading tools, database connection objects, and filesystem management, and (5) a Python/Flask-based web interface to the Quicklook system. The Quicklook project has enabled large-scale WFC3 analyses and calibrations, such as the monitoring of the health and stability of the WFC3 instrument, the measurement of ~ 20 million WFC3/UVIS Point Spread Functions (PSFs), the creation of WFC3/IR persistence calibration products, and many others.

  10. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H.; O'Connell, R. W.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Crockett, R. M.; Disney, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z ∼ 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z ∼> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in ∼40 arcmin 2 to H obs ∼ * ∼ 10 11 M ☉ ) undergo the strongest evolution from z ∼ 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z) –α , we find a tentative scaling of α ≈ (– 0.6 ± 0.7) + (0.9 ± 0.4)log (M * /10 9 M ☉ ), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M * -R e relation for red galaxies.

  11. O-6 Optical Property Degradation of the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera-2 Pick Off Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen M.; Hughes, D. W.; Lauer, H. V.; Burkett, P. J.; Reed, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation in the performance of optical components can be greatly affected by exposure to the space environment. Many factors can contribute to such degradation including surface contaminants; outgassing; vacuum, UV, and atomic oxygen exposure; temperature cycling; or combinations of parameters. In-situ observations give important clues to degradation processes, but there are relatively few opportunities to correlate those observations with post-flight ground analyses. The return of instruments from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) after its final servicing mission in May 2009 provided such an opportunity. Among the instruments returned from HST was the Wide-Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC-2), which had been exposed to the space environment for 16 years. This work focuses on the identifying the sources of degradation in the performance of the Pick-off mirror (POM) from WFPC-2. Techniques including surface reflectivity measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR (and ATR-FTIR) analyses, SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with and without ion milling, and wet and dry physical surface sampling were performed. Destructive and contact analyses took place only after completion of the non-destructive measurements. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was then repeated to determine the extent of contaminant removal by the destructive techniques, providing insight into the nature and extent of polymerization of the contaminant layer.

  12. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-01-01

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H F160W imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H ∼ 28 mag arcsec -2 . We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r e = 0.42 ± 0.14 kpc in the observed H F160W band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor ∼10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  13. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  14. Atmospheric Characterization of Five Hot Jupiters with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 micrometers) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 micrometers, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1s precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1 sigma precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 x 10(exp -4) and 2.1 x 10(exp -4) for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  15. THE HUBBLE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 TEST OF SURFACES IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM: SPECTRAL VARIATION ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. Twelve targets were re-observed with the WFC3 in the optical and NIR wavebands designed to complement those used during the first visit. Additionally, all of the observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A re-analysis of the optical and NIR color distribution reveals a bifurcated optical color distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colors and has correlated optical and NIR colors, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on five targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point-spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have a broad range of dynamical classes and absolute magnitudes, exhibit a broad range of apparent magnitude variations, and are found in both compositional classes. The spectrally variable objects with sufficiently accurate colors for spectral classification maintain their membership, belonging to the same class at both epochs. 2005 TV189 exhibits a sufficiently broad difference in color at the two epochs that span the full range of colors of the neutral class. This strongly argues that the neutral class is one single class with a broad range of colors, rather than the combination of multiple overlapping classes

  16. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: rryan@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  17. Atmospheric characterization of five hot Jupiters with the wide field Camera 3 on the Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mandell, Avi M., E-mail: sranjan@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 μm) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 μm, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 × 10{sup –4} and 2.1 × 10{sup –4} for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  18. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 ∼ 11 * [M ☉ ] 12 . By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV–V) = 3.5 and (NUV–V) = 3.3, with 1σ standard deviations ≅1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent (∼<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  19. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 10{sup 11} < M{sub *}[M{sub Sun }]<10{sup 12}. By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV-V) = 3.5 and (NUV-V) = 3.3, with 1{sigma} standard deviations {approx_equal}1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent ({approx}<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  20. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF M83: IMAGING AND PHOTOMETRY WITH THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Long, Knox S.; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E.; MacKenty, John; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Frogel, Jay A.; O'Connell, Robert; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    We present Wide Field Camera 3 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope within a single field in the southern grand design star-forming galaxy M83. Based on their size, morphology, and photometry in continuum-subtracted Hα, [S II], Hβ, [O III], and [O II] filters, we have identified 60 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, as well as a handful of young ejecta-dominated candidates. A catalog of these remnants, their sizes and, where possible, their Hα fluxes are given. Radiative ages and pre-shock densities are derived from those SNRs that have good photometry. The ages lie in the range 2.62 rad /yr) 0 /cm -3 min = 16 +7 -5 M sun . Finally, we give evidence for the likely detection of the remnant of the historical supernova, SN1968L.

  1. The Fifteen-Year Attitude History of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Radiator and Collection Efficiencies for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Cooke, William J.; Koehler, H.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was a distinct biasing of the largest 45 impact features towards one side of the radiator, in contrast to an approximately uniform distribution of smaller impacts. Such a distribution may be a consequence of the HST s attitude history and pointing requirements for the cold radiator, or of environmental effects, such as an anisotropic distribution of the responsible population in that size regime. Understanding the size-dependent spatial distribution of impact features is essential to the general analysis of these features. We have obtained from GSFC a 15 minute temporal resolution record of the state vector (Earth Centered Inertial position and velocity) and HST attitude, consisting of the orientation of the velocity and HST-sun vectors in HST body coordinates. This paper reviews the actual state vector and attitude history of the radiator in the context of the randomly tumbling plate assumption and assesses the statistical likelihood (or collection efficiency) of the radiator for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environments. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Meteoroid Environment Model is used to assess the micrometeoroid component. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) is used to model the orbital debris component. Modeling results are compared with observations of the impact feature spatial distribution, and the relative contribution of each environmental component are examined in detail.

  2. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; McCullough, Peter R.; Burke, Christopher J.; Homeier, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 μm. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2σ, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 μm in diameter.

  3. The ArTéMiS wide-field sub-millimeter camera: preliminary on-sky performance at 350 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revéret, Vincent; André, Philippe; Le Pennec, Jean; Talvard, Michel; Agnèse, Patrick; Arnaud, Agnès.; Clerc, Laurent; de Breuck, Carlos; Cigna, Jean-Charles; Delisle, Cyrille; Doumayrou, Eric; Duband, Lionel; Dubreuil, Didier; Dumaye, Luc; Ercolani, Eric; Gallais, Pascal; Groult, Elodie; Jourdan, Thierry; Leriche, Bernadette; Maffei, Bruno; Lortholary, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Rabaud, Wilfried; Relland, Johan; Rodriguez, Louis; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Visticot, François

    2014-07-01

    ArTeMiS is a wide-field submillimeter camera operating at three wavelengths simultaneously (200, 350 and 450 μm). A preliminary version of the instrument equipped with the 350 μm focal plane, has been successfully installed and tested on APEX telescope in Chile during the 2013 and 2014 austral winters. This instrument is developed by CEA (Saclay and Grenoble, France), IAS (France) and University of Manchester (UK) in collaboration with ESO. We introduce the mechanical and optical design, as well as the cryogenics and electronics of the ArTéMiS camera. ArTeMiS detectors consist in Si:P:B bolometers arranged in 16×18 sub-arrays operating at 300 mK. These detectors are similar to the ones developed for the Herschel PACS photometer but they are adapted to the high optical load encountered at APEX site. Ultimately, ArTeMiS will contain 4 sub-arrays at 200 μm and 2×8 sub-arrays at 350 and 450 μm. We show preliminary lab measurements like the responsivity of the instrument to hot and cold loads illumination and NEP calculation. Details on the on-sky commissioning runs made in 2013 and 2014 at APEX are shown. We used planets (Mars, Saturn, Uranus) to determine the flat-field and to get the flux calibration. A pointing model was established in the first days of the runs. The average relative pointing accuracy is 3 arcsec. The beam at 350 μm has been estimated to be 8.5 arcsec, which is in good agreement with the beam of the 12 m APEX dish. Several observing modes have been tested, like "On- The-Fly" for beam-maps or large maps, spirals or raster of spirals for compact sources. With this preliminary version of ArTeMiS, we concluded that the mapping speed is already more than 5 times better than the previous 350 μm instrument at APEX. The median NEFD at 350 μm is 600 mJy.s1/2, with best values at 300 mJy.s1/2. The complete instrument with 5760 pixels and optimized settings will be installed during the first half of 2015.

  4. THE LUMINOSITY, MASS, AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPACT STAR CLUSTERS IN M83 BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near-ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function (LF) for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL ∝ L α , with α = -2.04 ± 0.08, down to M V ∼ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the LF to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in α. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI, Hα colors with predictions from single stellar population models. The age distribution of the clusters can be approximated by a power law, dN/dτ ∝ τ γ , with γ = -0.9 ± 0.2, for M ∼> few x 10 3 M sun and τ ∼ 8 yr. This indicates that clusters are disrupted quickly, with ∼80%-90% disrupted each decade in age over this time. The mass function of clusters over the same M-τ range is a power law, dN/dM ∝ M β , with β = -1.94 ± 0.16, and does not have bends or show curvature at either high or low masses. Therefore, we do not find evidence for a physical upper mass limit, M C , or for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters when compared with higher mass clusters, i.e., mass-dependent disruption. We briefly discuss these implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters.

  5. Lensless imaging for wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Hajime; Yagi, Yasushi

    2015-02-01

    It is desirable to engineer a small camera with a wide field of view (FOV) because of current developments in the field of wearable cameras and computing products, such as action cameras and Google Glass. However, typical approaches for achieving wide FOV, such as attaching a fisheye lens and convex mirrors, require a trade-off between optics size and the FOV. We propose camera optics that achieve a wide FOV, and are at the same time small and lightweight. The proposed optics are a completely lensless and catoptric design. They contain four mirrors, two for wide viewing, and two for focusing the image on the camera sensor. The proposed optics are simple and can be simply miniaturized, since we use only mirrors for the proposed optics and the optics are not susceptible to chromatic aberration. We have implemented the prototype optics of our lensless concept. We have attached the optics to commercial charge-coupled device/complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras and conducted experiments to evaluate the feasibility of our proposed optics.

  6. AWARE Wide Field View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    G. Anderson, S. D. Feller, E . M. Vera , H. S. Son, S.-H. Youn, J. Kim, M. E . Gehm, D. J. Brady, J. M. Nichols, K. P. Judd, M. D. Duncan, J. R...scale in monocentric gigapixel cameras." Applied Optics 50(30): 5824-5833. Tremblay, E . J., et al. (2012). "Design and scaling of monocentric...cameras. Optomechanical Engineering 2013. A. E . Hatheway. 8836. Youn, S. H., et al. (2013). Efficient testing methodologies for microcameras in a

  7. Face Liveness Detection Using a Light Field Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A light field camera is a sensor that can record the directions as well as the colors of incident rays. This camera is widely utilized from 3D reconstruction to face and iris recognition. In this paper, we suggest a novel approach for defending spoofing face attacks, like printed 2D facial photos (hereinafter 2D photos and HD tablet images, using the light field camera. By viewing the raw light field photograph from a different standpoint, we extract two special features which cannot be obtained from the conventional camera. To verify the performance, we compose light field photograph databases and conduct experiments. Our proposed method achieves at least 94.78% accuracy or up to 99.36% accuracy under different types of spoofing attacks.

  8. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    wide dynamic range camera that provides a high precision solar position tracking signal as well as an image of the sky in the 45° field of view around the solar axis, which can be of great assistance in flagging data for cloud effects or other factors that might impact data quality.

  9. The Wide Field Imager instrument for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Barbera, Marco; Emberger, Valentin; Fürmetz, Maria; Manhart, Markus; Müller-Seidlitz, Johannes; Nandra, Kirpal; Plattner, Markus; Rau, Arne; Treberspurg, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    ESA's next large X-ray mission ATHENA is designed to address the Cosmic Vision science theme 'The Hot and Energetic Universe'. It will provide answers to the two key astrophysical questions how does ordinary matter assemble into the large-scale structures we see today and how do black holes grow and shape the Universe. The ATHENA spacecraft will be equipped with two focal plane cameras, a Wide Field Imager (WFI) and an X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU). The WFI instrument is optimized for state-of-the-art resolution spectroscopy over a large field of view of 40 amin x 40 amin and high count rates up to and beyond 1 Crab source intensity. The cryogenic X-IFU camera is designed for high-spectral resolution imaging. Both cameras share alternately a mirror system based on silicon pore optics with a focal length of 12 m and large effective area of about 2 m2 at an energy of 1 keV. Although the mission is still in phase A, i.e. studying the feasibility and developing the necessary technology, the definition and development of the instrumentation made already significant progress. The herein described WFI focal plane camera covers the energy band from 0.2 keV to 15 keV with 450 μm thick fully depleted back-illuminated silicon active pixel sensors of DEPFET type. The spatial resolution will be provided by one million pixels, each with a size of 130 μm x 130 μm. The time resolution requirement for the WFI large detector array is 5 ms and for the WFI fast detector 80 μs. The large effective area of the mirror system will be completed by a high quantum efficiency above 90% for medium and higher energies. The status of the various WFI subsystems to achieve this performance will be described and recent changes will be explained here.

  10. Optical camera system for radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Senoo, Makoto; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Shibata, Keiichiro; Honda, Takuro.

    1995-01-01

    An infrared-ray camera comprises a transmitting filter used exclusively for infrared-rays at a specific wavelength, such as far infrared-rays and a lens used exclusively for infrared rays. An infrared ray emitter-incorporated photoelectric image converter comprising an infrared ray emitting device, a focusing lens and a semiconductor image pick-up plate is disposed at a place of low gamma-ray dose rate. Infrared rays emitted from an objective member are passed through the lens system of the camera, and real images are formed by way of the filter. They are transferred by image fibers, introduced to the photoelectric image converter and focused on the image pick-up plate by the image-forming lens. Further, they are converted into electric signals and introduced to a display and monitored. With such a constitution, an optical material used exclusively for infrared rays, for example, ZnSe can be used for the lens system and the optical transmission system. Accordingly, it can be used in a radiation field of high gamma ray dose rate around the periphery of the reactor container. (I.N.)

  11. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  12. A Physical Model-based Correction for Charge Traps in the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 Near-IR Detector and Its Applications to Transiting Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lew, Ben W. P., E-mail: yzhou@as.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Science/Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1640 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR channel is extensively used in time-resolved observations, especially for transiting exoplanet spectroscopy as well as brown dwarf and directly imaged exoplanet rotational phase mapping. The ramp effect is the dominant source of systematics in the WFC3 for time-resolved observations, which limits its photometric precision. Current mitigation strategies are based on empirical fits and require additional orbits to help the telescope reach a thermal equilibrium . We show that the ramp-effect profiles can be explained and corrected with high fidelity using charge trapping theories. We also present a model for this process that can be used to predict and to correct charge trap systematics. Our model is based on a very small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the detector. We find that these parameters are very stable between the different data sets, and we provide best-fit values. Our model is tested with more than 120 orbits (∼40 visits) of WFC3 observations and is proved to be able to provide near photon noise limited corrections for observations made with both staring and scanning modes of transiting exoplanets as well as for starting-mode observations of brown dwarfs. After our model correction, the light curve of the first orbit in each visit has the same photometric precision as subsequent orbits, so data from the first orbit no longer need to be discarded. Near-IR arrays with the same physical characteristics (e.g., JWST/NIRCam ) may also benefit from the extension of this model if similar systematic profiles are observed.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  14. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  15. Hubble Space Telescope  Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z ∼ 2.3–4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brent M.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K.; MacKenty, John W.; O’Connell, Robert W.; Silk, Joseph I.

    2018-02-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 34 massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and 12 weak AGN with reliably measured spectroscopic redshifts at z≃ 2.3{--}4.1. We analyzed Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) mosaics of the Early Release Science (ERS) field in three UVIS filters to sample the rest-frame LyC over this redshift range. With our best current assessment of the WFC3 systematics, we provide 1σ upper limits for the average LyC emission of galaxies at = 2.35, 2.75, and 3.60 to ∼28.5, 28.1, and 30.7 mag in image stacks of 11–15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, and F336W, respectively. The LyC flux of weak AGN at = 2.62 and 3.32 are detected at 28.3 and 27.4 mag with S/Ns of ∼2.7 and 2.5 in F275W and F336W for stacks of 7 and 3 AGN, respectively, while AGN at = 2.37 are constrained to ≳27.9 mag at 1σ in a stack of 2 AGN. The stacked AGN LyC light profiles are flatter than their corresponding non-ionizing UV continuum profiles out to radii of r≲ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 9, which may indicate a radial dependence of porosity in the ISM. With synthetic stellar SEDs fit to UV continuum measurements longward of {{Ly}}α and IGM transmission models, we constrain the absolute LyC escape fractions to {f}{esc}{abs}≃ {22}-22+44% at = 2.35 and ≲55% at = 2.75 and 3.60, respectively. All available data for galaxies, including published work, suggests a more sudden increase of {f}{esc} with redshift at z≃ 2. Dust accumulating in (massive) galaxies over cosmic time correlates with increased H I column density, which may lead to reducing {f}{esc} more suddenly at z≲ 2. This may suggest that SFGs collectively contributed to maintaining cosmic reionization at redshifts z≳ 2{--}4, while AGN likely dominated reionization at z≲ 2.

  16. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  17. External Mask Based Depth and Light Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-08

    External mask based depth and light field camera Dikpal Reddy NVIDIA Research Santa Clara, CA dikpalr@nvidia.com Jiamin Bai University of California...passive depth acquisition technology is illustrated by the emergence of light field camera companies like Lytro [1], Raytrix [2] and Pelican Imaging

  18. Dynamic Artificial Potential Fields for Autonomous Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    the implementation and evaluation of Artificial Potential Fields for automatic camera placement. We first describe the re- casting of the frame composition problem as a solution to a two particles suspended in an Artificial Potential Field. We demonstrate the application of this technique to control both camera...

  19. Fabrication of multi-focal microlens array on curved surface for wide-angle camera module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun-Gu; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-angle and compact camera module that consists of microlens array with different focal lengths on curved surface. The design integrates the principle of an insect's compound eye and the human eye. It contains a curved hexagonal microlens array and a spherical lens. Compared with normal mobile phone cameras which usually need no less than four lenses, but our proposed system only uses one lens. Furthermore, the thickness of our proposed system is only 2.08 mm and diagonal full field of view is about 100 degrees. In order to make the critical microlens array, we used the inkjet printing to control the surface shape of each microlens for achieving different focal lengths and use replication method to form curved hexagonal microlens array.

  20. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  1. The Light Field Attachment: Turning a DSLR into a Light Field Camera Using a Low Budget Camera Ring

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwang; Liu, Yebin; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    camera. From an algorithmic point of view, the high-quality light field mode is made possible by a new light field super-resolution method that first improves the spatial resolution and image quality of the side cameras and then interpolates additional

  2. Constrained optimization for position calibration of an NMR field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paul; Nassirpour, Sahar; Eschelbach, Martin; Scheffler, Klaus; Henning, Anke

    2018-07-01

    Knowledge of the positions of field probes in an NMR field camera is necessary for monitoring the B 0 field. The typical method of estimating these positions is by switching the gradients with known strengths and calculating the positions using the phases of the FIDs. We investigated improving the accuracy of estimating the probe positions and analyzed the effect of inaccurate estimations on field monitoring. The field probe positions were estimated by 1) assuming ideal gradient fields, 2) using measured gradient fields (including nonlinearities), and 3) using measured gradient fields with relative position constraints. The fields measured with the NMR field camera were compared to fields acquired using a dual-echo gradient recalled echo B 0 mapping sequence. Comparisons were done for shim fields from second- to fourth-order shim terms. The position estimation was the most accurate when relative position constraints were used in conjunction with measured (nonlinear) gradient fields. The effect of more accurate position estimates was seen when compared to fields measured using a B 0 mapping sequence (up to 10%-15% more accurate for some shim fields). The models acquired from the field camera are sensitive to noise due to the low number of spatial sample points. Position estimation of field probes in an NMR camera can be improved using relative position constraints and nonlinear gradient fields. Magn Reson Med 80:380-390, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  4. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  5. The Light Field Attachment: Turning a DSLR into a Light Field Camera Using a Low Budget Camera Ring

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwang

    2016-11-16

    We propose a concept for a lens attachment that turns a standard DSLR camera and lens into a light field camera. The attachment consists of 8 low-resolution, low-quality side cameras arranged around the central high-quality SLR lens. Unlike most existing light field camera architectures, this design provides a high-quality 2D image mode, while simultaneously enabling a new high-quality light field mode with a large camera baseline but little added weight, cost, or bulk compared with the base DSLR camera. From an algorithmic point of view, the high-quality light field mode is made possible by a new light field super-resolution method that first improves the spatial resolution and image quality of the side cameras and then interpolates additional views as needed. At the heart of this process is a super-resolution method that we call iterative Patch- And Depth-based Synthesis (iPADS), which combines patch-based and depth-based synthesis in a novel fashion. Experimental results obtained for both real captured data and synthetic data confirm that our method achieves substantial improvements in super-resolution for side-view images as well as the high-quality and view-coherent rendering of dense and high-resolution light fields.

  6. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  7. 3D for the people: multi-camera motion capture in the field with consumer-grade cameras and open source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological, behavioral and biomechanical studies often need to quantify animal movement and behavior in three dimensions. In laboratory studies, a common tool to accomplish these measurements is the use of multiple, calibrated high-speed cameras. Until very recently, the complexity, weight and cost of such cameras have made their deployment in field situations risky; furthermore, such cameras are not affordable to many researchers. Here, we show how inexpensive, consumer-grade cameras can adequately accomplish these measurements both within the laboratory and in the field. Combined with our methods and open source software, the availability of inexpensive, portable and rugged cameras will open up new areas of biological study by providing precise 3D tracking and quantification of animal and human movement to researchers in a wide variety of field and laboratory contexts.

  8. Camera Networks The Acquisition and Analysis of Videos over Wide Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    As networks of video cameras are installed in many applications like security and surveillance, environmental monitoring, disaster response, and assisted living facilities, among others, image understanding in camera networks is becoming an important area of research and technology development. There are many challenges that need to be addressed in the process. Some of them are listed below: - Traditional computer vision challenges in tracking and recognition, robustness to pose, illumination, occlusion, clutter, recognition of objects, and activities; - Aggregating local information for wide

  9. Wide-Field Imaging Using Nitrogen Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk Robert (Inventor); Trusheim, Matthew Edwin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancies in bulk diamonds and nanodiamonds can be used to sense temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH. Unfortunately, conventional sensing techniques use gated detection and confocal imaging, limiting the measurement sensitivity and precluding wide-field imaging. Conversely, the present sensing techniques do not require gated detection or confocal imaging and can therefore be used to image temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH over wide fields of view. In some cases, wide-field imaging supports spatial localization of the NVs to precisions at or below the diffraction limit. Moreover, the measurement range can extend over extremely wide dynamic range at very high sensitivity.

  10. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    class large area detector (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument based on the coded mask principle, providing coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The LAD will provide an effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... resolution of monitoring instrument to study long term variability of many classes of X-ray sources. The sensitivity of the WFM will be 2.1 mCrab in a one day observation, and 270 mCrab in 3s in observations of in the crowded field of the Galactic Center. The high duty...

  11. Ultra-wide-field imaging in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Tsui, Irena; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2017-10-01

    Since 1991, 7-field images captured with 30-50 degree cameras in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were the gold standard for fundus imaging to study diabetic retinopathy. Ultra-wide-field images cover significantly more area (up to 82%) of the fundus and with ocular steering can in many cases image 100% of the fundus ("panretinal"). Recent advances in image analysis of ultra-wide-field imaging allow for precise measurements of the peripheral retinal lesions. There is a growing consensus in the literature that ultra-wide-field imaging improves detection of peripheral lesions in diabetic retinopathy and leads to more accurate classification of the disease. There is discordance among studies, however, on the correlation between peripheral diabetic lesions and diabetic macular edema and optimal management strategies to treat diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photometric Calibration and Image Stitching for a Large Field of View Multi-Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new compact large field of view (FOV multi-camera system is introduced. The camera is based on seven tiny complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor modules covering over 160° × 160° FOV. Although image stitching has been studied extensively, sensor and lens differences have not been considered in previous multi-camera devices. In this study, we have calibrated the photometric characteristics of the multi-camera device. Lenses were not mounted on the sensor in the process of radiometric response calibration to eliminate the influence of the focusing effect of uniform light from an integrating sphere. Linearity range of the radiometric response, non-linearity response characteristics, sensitivity, and dark current of the camera response function are presented. The R, G, and B channels have different responses for the same illuminance. Vignetting artifact patterns have been tested. The actual luminance of the object is retrieved by sensor calibration results, and is used to blend images to make panoramas reflect the objective luminance more objectively. This compensates for the limitation of stitching images that are more realistic only through the smoothing method. The dynamic range limitation of can be resolved by using multiple cameras that cover a large field of view instead of a single image sensor with a wide-angle lens. The dynamic range is expanded by 48-fold in this system. We can obtain seven images in one shot with this multi-camera system, at 13 frames per second.

  13. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montilla, I.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to develop a system to permit wide field operation of Michelson Interferometers. A wide field of view is very important in applications such as the observation of extended or multiple objects, the fringe acquisition and/ or tracking on a nearby unresolved object, and

  14. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  15. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  16. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  17. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  18. IOT Overview: Wide-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, F. J.

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument at La Silla has been the workhorse of wide-field imaging instruments at ESO for several years. In this contribution I will summarize the issues relating to its productivity for the community both in terms of the quality and quantity of data that has come out of it. Although only surveys of limited scope have been completed using WFI, it is ESO's stepping-stone to the new generation of survey telescopes.

  19. Improved depth estimation with the light field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huachun; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Guo, Nan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu

    2017-10-01

    Light-field cameras are used in consumer and industrial applications. An array of micro-lenses captures enough information that one can refocus images after acquisition, as well as shift one's viewpoint within the sub-apertures of the main lens, effectively obtaining multiple views. Thus, depth estimation from both defocus and correspondence are now available in a single capture. And Lytro.Inc also provides a depth estimation from a single-shot capture with light field camera, like Lytro Illum. This Lytro depth estimation containing many correct depth information can be used for higher quality estimation. In this paper, we present a novel simple and principled algorithm that computes dense depth estimation by combining defocus, correspondence and Lytro depth estimations. We analyze 2D epipolar image (EPI) to get defocus and correspondence depth maps. Defocus depth is obtained by computing the spatial gradient after angular integration and correspondence depth by computing the angular variance from EPIs. Lytro depth can be extracted from Lyrto Illum with software. We then show how to combine the three cues into a high quality depth map. Our method for depth estimation is suitable for computer vision applications such as matting, full control of depth-of-field, and surface reconstruction, as well as light filed display

  20. Review The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12036-017-9430-4. Review. The Ooty Wide Field ... salient features of the upgrade, as well as its main science drivers. There are three ..... tecture for low frequency arrays, Ph.D. thesis, Jawaharalal.

  1. The LOFT wide field monitor simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Campana, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the simulator we developed for the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) aboard the Large Observatory For Xray Timing (LOFT) mission, one of the four ESA M3 candidate missions considered for launch in the 2022–2024 timeframe. The WFM is designed to cover a large FoV in the same bandpass as the Large...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  3. Evaluation of the Quality of Action Cameras with Wide-Angle Lenses in Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-06-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  4. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  5. Examination of the ''Ultra-wide-angle compton camera'' in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has made the camera in the title, which can visualize radioactive substances emitting gamma ray in a wide-angle view of almost 180 degrees (hemisphere) and this paper explains its technological details and actual examination in Iitatemura Village, Fukushima Prefecture. The camera has a detector module consisting from 5-laminated structure of 2 layers of Si-double-sided strip detector (Si-DSD) and 3 layers of CdTe-DSD at 4 mm pitch, and their device size and electrode pitch are made the same, which enables the detector tray and analog application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) usable to communize the read-out circuits and for economical reduction. Two modules are placed side by side for increasing sensitivity and car-loaded to operate at -5 degree for the examination. The CdTe-DSD has actually Pt cathode and Al anode (Pt/CdTe/Al) for reduction of electric leaking and increase of energy resolution for 137 Cs gamma ray (662 keV). Data from the detector are digital pulse height values, which are then converted to the hit information of the detected position and energy. The hit event due to photoelectric absorption peak in CdTe originated from Compton scattering in Si is selected to be back-projected on the celestial hemisphere, leading to the torus depending on the direction of the gamma ray, of which accumulation results in specifying the position of the source. At the Village of 2-3 mcSv/h of ambient dose environment, locally accumulated radioactive substances (30 mcSv/h) are successfully visualized. With use of soft gamma ray detector in ASTRO-H satellite under development in JAXA, the improved camera can be more sensitive and may be useful in such a case as de-contamination to monitor its results in real time. (T.T.)

  6. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper.

  7. A detailed comparison of single-camera light-field PIV and tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; Ding, Junfei; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio; New, T. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper conducts a comprehensive study between the single-camera light-field particle image velocimetry (LF-PIV) and the multi-camera tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV). Simulation studies were first performed using synthetic light-field and tomographic particle images, which extensively examine the difference between these two techniques by varying key parameters such as pixel to microlens ratio (PMR), light-field camera Tomo-camera pixel ratio (LTPR), particle seeding density and tomographic camera number. Simulation results indicate that the single LF-PIV can achieve accuracy consistent with that of multi-camera Tomo-PIV, but requires the use of overall greater number of pixels. Experimental studies were then conducted by simultaneously measuring low-speed jet flow with single-camera LF-PIV and four-camera Tomo-PIV systems. Experiments confirm that given a sufficiently high pixel resolution, a single-camera LF-PIV system can indeed deliver volumetric velocity field measurements for an equivalent field of view with a spatial resolution commensurate with those of multi-camera Tomo-PIV system, enabling accurate 3D measurements in applications where optical access is limited.

  8. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f24 field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and design of the F/24 field camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera was designed for application to the radial bay of the optical telescope assembly and has an on axis field of view of 3 arc-minutes by 3 arc-minutes.

  9. X-ray powder diffraction camera for high-field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K; Mitsui, Y; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, K

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a high-field X-ray diffraction (HF-XRD) camera which will be inserted into an experimental room temperature bore (100 mm) of a conventional solenoid-type cryocooled superconducting magnet (10T-CSM). Using the prototype camera that is same size of the HF-XRD camera, a XRD pattern of Si is taken at room temperature in a zero magnetic field. From the obtained results, the expected ability of the designed HF-XRD camera is presented.

  10. Observing GRBs with the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Feroci, M.

    2013-01-01

    (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle, and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide...

  11. Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ARL-TR-8185 ● OCT 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video...Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras by Caitlin P Conn and Geoffrey H Goldman Sensors and...June 2016 – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras 5a. CONTRACT

  12. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  13. Wide-Field Optic for Autonomous Acquisition of Laser Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman A.; Charles, Jeffrey R.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An innovation reported in Two-Camera Acquisition and Tracking of a Flying Target, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 8 (August 2008), p. 20, used a commercial fish-eye lens and an electronic imaging camera for initially locating objects with subsequent handover to an actuated narrow-field camera. But this operated against a dark-sky background. An improved solution involves an optical design based on custom optical components for the wide-field optical system that directly addresses the key limitations in acquiring a laser signal from a moving source such as an aircraft or a spacecraft. The first challenge was to increase the light collection entrance aperture diameter, which was approximately 1 mm in the first prototype. The new design presented here increases this entrance aperture diameter to 4.2 mm, which is equivalent to a more than 16 times larger collection area. One of the trades made in realizing this improvement was to restrict the field-of-view to +80 deg. elevation and 360 azimuth. This trade stems from practical considerations where laser beam propagation over the excessively high air mass, which is in the line of sight (LOS) at low elevation angles, results in vulnerability to severe atmospheric turbulence and attenuation. An additional benefit of the new design is that the large entrance aperture is maintained even at large off-axis angles when the optic is pointed at zenith. The second critical limitation for implementing spectral filtering in the design was tackled by collimating the light prior to focusing it onto the focal plane. This allows the placement of the narrow spectral filter in the collimated portion of the beam. For the narrow band spectral filter to function properly, it is necessary to adequately control the range of incident angles at which received light intercepts the filter. When this angle is restricted via collimation, narrower spectral filtering can be implemented. The collimated beam (and the filter) must be relatively large to

  14. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii object depth estimation; and (iii detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Isaac Newton Telescope Wide Field Survey (CASU 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit

    2002-04-01

    The INT Wide Field Survey (WFS) is using the Wide Field Camera (~0.3 square degrees) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The project was initiated in August 1998 and is expected to have a duration of up to five years. Multicolour data will be obtained over 200+ square degrees to a typical depth of ~25 mag (u' through z'). The data is publically accessible via the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit to UK and NL communities from day one, with access to the rest of the world after one year. This observation log lists all observations older than the one year proprietary period. (1 data file).

  16. Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    LA SILLA CAMERA OBSERVES CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ESO PR Photo 02a/03 ESO PR Photo 02a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 904k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4000 x 4366 pix - 23.1M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/03 shows a three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) , obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It was produced by the combination of about 450 images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours. The field measures 36 x 34 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The combined efforts of three European teams of astronomers, targeting the same sky field in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven) have enabled them to construct a very deep, true-colour image - opening an exceptionally clear view towards the distant universe . The image ( PR Photo 02a/03 ) covers an area somewhat larger than the full moon. It displays more than 100,000 galaxies, several thousand stars and hundreds of quasars. It is based on images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours, collected under good observing conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) - many of them extracted from the ESO Science Data Archive . The position of this southern sky field was chosen by Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2002) at a time when he was Director General of ESO, together with Piero Rosati (ESO). It was selected as a sky region towards which the NASA Chandra X-ray satellite observatory , launched in July 1999, would be pointed while carrying out a very long exposure (lasting a total of 1 million seconds, or 278 hours) in order to detect the faintest possible X-ray sources. The field is now known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) . The new WFI photo of CDF-S does not reach quite as deep as the available images of the "Hubble Deep Fields

  17. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry : Principles and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montilla, I.; Pereira, S.F.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new interferometric technique for Michelson wide-field interferometry is presented that consists of a Michelson pupil-plane combination scheme in which a wide field of view can be achieved in one shot. This technique uses a stair-shaped mirror in the intermediate image plane of each telescope in

  18. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. These nonuniformities may be severe, and have been observed to be on the order of 100% for some LLNL optical streak cameras. Geometric distortion due to optical couplings, electron-optics, and sweep nonlinearity not only affects pulse position and timing measurements, but affects pulse amplitude and shape measurements as well. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, we can effectively create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. We will discuss the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, will present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects. 6 refs., 6 figs

  19. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance.

  20. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  1. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A; Kim, Sharon H; Kozberg, Mariel G; Thibodeaux, David N; Zhao, Hanzhi T; Yu, Hang; Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2016-10-05

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Development of a high sensitivity pinhole type gamma camera using semiconductors for low dose rate fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi; Fujishima, Yasutake; Yoshida, Akira; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2018-06-01

    We developed a pinhole type gamma camera, using a compact detector module of a pixelated CdTe semiconductor, which has suitable sensitivity and quantitative accuracy for low dose rate fields. In order to improve the sensitivity of the pinhole type semiconductor gamma camera, we adopted three methods: a signal processing method to set the discriminating level lower, a high sensitivity pinhole collimator and a smoothing image filter that improves the efficiency of the source identification. We tested basic performances of the developed gamma camera and carefully examined effects of the three methods. From the sensitivity test, we found that the effective sensitivity was about 21 times higher than that of the gamma camera for high dose rate fields which we had previously developed. We confirmed that the gamma camera had sufficient sensitivity and high quantitative accuracy; for example, a weak hot spot (0.9 μSv/h) around a tree root could be detected within 45 min in a low dose rate field test, and errors of measured dose rates with point sources were less than 7% in a dose rate accuracy test.

  3. Astronomical Orientation Method Based on Lunar Observations Utilizing Super Wide Field of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,astronomical orientation is achieved by observing the moon utilizing camera with super wide field of view,and formulae are deduced in detail.An experiment based on real observations verified the stability of the method.In this experiment,after 15 minutes' tracking shoots,the internal precision could be superior to ±7.5" and the external precision could approximately reach ±20".This camera-based method for astronomical orientation can change the traditional mode (aiming by human eye based on theodolite,thus lowering the requirements for operator's skill to some extent.Furthermore,camera with super wide field of view can realize the function of continuous tracking shoots on the moon without complicated servo control devices.Considering the similar existence of gravity on the moon and the earth's phase change when observed from the moon,once the technology of self-leveling is developed,this method can be extended to orientation for lunar rover by shooting the earth.

  4. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, the authors can create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. The author discusses the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects

  5. A 3D technique for simulation of irregular electron treatment fields using a digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalow, Roustem; Sidhu, Narinder P.

    2003-01-01

    Cerrobend inserts, which define electron field apertures, are manufactured at our institution using perspex templates. Contours are reproduced manually on these templates at the simulator from the field outlines drawn on the skin or mask of a patient. A previously reported technique for simulation of electron treatment fields uses a digital camera to eliminate the need for such templates. However, avoidance of the image distortions introduced by non-flat surfaces on which the electron field outlines were drawn could only be achieved by limiting the application of this technique to surfaces which were flat or near flat. We present a technique that employs a digital camera and allows simulation of electron treatment fields contoured on an anatomical surface of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) shape, such as that of the neck, extremities, face, or breast. The procedure is fast, accurate, and easy to perform

  6. Non-invasive diagnostics of ion beams in strong toroidal magnetic fields with standard CMOS cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Adem; Ates, Yakup; Niebuhr, Heiko; Ratzinger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    A superconducting Figure-8 stellarator type magnetostatic Storage Ring (F8SR) is under investigation at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP) at Goethe University Frankfurt. Besides numerical simulations on an optimized design for beam transport and injection a scaled down (0.6T) experiment with two 30°toroidal magnets is set up for further investigations. A great challenge is the development of a non-destructive, magnetically insensitive and flexible detector for local investigations of an ion beam propagating through the toroidal magnetostatic field. This paper introduces a new way of beam path measurement by residual gas monitoring. It uses a single board camera connected to a standard single board computer by a camera serial interface all placed inside the vacuum chamber. First experiments with one camera were done and in a next step two under 90 degree arranged cameras were installed. With the help of the two cameras which are moveable along the beam pipe the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified successfully. Previous experimental results have been confirmed. The transport of H+ and H2+ ion beams with energies of 7 keV and at beam currents of about 1 mA is investigated successfully.

  7. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  8. Scalable gamma-ray camera for wide-area search based on silicon photomultipliers array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Manhee; Van, Benjamin; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2018-03-01

    Portable coded-aperture imaging systems based on scintillators and semiconductors have found use in a variety of radiological applications. For stand-off detection of weakly emitting materials, large volume detectors can facilitate the rapid localization of emitting materials. We describe a scalable coded-aperture imaging system based on 5.02 × 5.02 cm2 CsI(Tl) scintillator modules, each partitioned into 4 × 4 × 20 mm3 pixels that are optically coupled to 12 × 12 pixel silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) arrays. The 144 pixels per module are read-out with a resistor-based charge-division circuit that reduces the readout outputs from 144 to four signals per module, from which the interaction position and total deposited energy can be extracted. All 144 CsI(Tl) pixels are readily distinguishable with an average energy resolution, at 662 keV, of 13.7% FWHM, a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.2, and a peak-to-Compton ratio of 2.9. The detector module is composed of a SiPM array coupled with a 2 cm thick scintillator and modified uniformly redundant array mask. For the image reconstruction, cross correlation and maximum likelihood expectation maximization methods are used. The system shows a field of view of 45° and an angular resolution of 4.7° FWHM.

  9. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  10. The Receiver System for the Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The legacy Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) is being reconfigured as a 264-element synthesis telescope, called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). Its antenna elements are the contiguous 1.92 m sections of the parabolic cylinder. It will operate in a 38-MHz frequency band centred at 326.5 MHz and will be equipped with a ...

  11. Wide-field spectrally resolved quantitative fluorescence imaging system: toward neurosurgical guidance in glioma resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Thom, Maria; Ebner, Michael; Wykes, Victoria; Desjardins, Adrien; Miserocchi, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastien; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Vercauteren, Tom

    2017-11-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, tumor resection is often guided by intraoperative fluorescence imaging. 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) provides fluorescent contrast between normal brain tissue and glioma tissue, thus achieving improved tumor delineation and prolonged patient survival compared with conventional white-light-guided resection. However, commercially available fluorescence imaging systems rely solely on visual assessment of fluorescence patterns by the surgeon, which makes the resection more subjective than necessary. We developed a wide-field spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging system utilizing a Generation II scientific CMOS camera and an improved computational model for the precise reconstruction of the PpIX concentration map. In our model, the tissue's optical properties and illumination geometry, which distort the fluorescent emission spectra, are considered. We demonstrate that the CMOS-based system can detect low PpIX concentration at short camera exposure times, while providing high-pixel resolution wide-field images. We show that total variation regularization improves the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed quantitative concentration map by approximately twofold. Quantitative comparison between the estimated PpIX concentration and tumor histopathology was also investigated to further evaluate the system.

  12. SVBRDF-Invariant Shape and Reflectance Estimation from a Light-Field Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Chun; Chandraker, Manmohan; Efros, Alexei A; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    2018-03-01

    Light-field cameras have recently emerged as a powerful tool for one-shot passive 3D shape capture. However, obtaining the shape of glossy objects like metals or plastics remains challenging, since standard Lambertian cues like photo-consistency cannot be easily applied. In this paper, we derive a spatially-varying (SV)BRDF-invariant theory for recovering 3D shape and reflectance from light-field cameras. Our key theoretical insight is a novel analysis of diffuse plus single-lobe SVBRDFs under a light-field setup. We show that, although direct shape recovery is not possible, an equation relating depths and normals can still be derived. Using this equation, we then propose using a polynomial (quadratic) shape prior to resolve the shape ambiguity. Once shape is estimated, we also recover the reflectance. We present extensive synthetic data on the entire MERL BRDF dataset, as well as a number of real examples to validate the theory, where we simultaneously recover shape and BRDFs from a single image taken with a Lytro Illum camera.

  13. Advanced MOKE magnetometry in wide-field Kerr-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I. V.; Schäfer, R.

    2017-10-01

    The measurement of MOKE (Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect) magnetization loops in a wide-field Kerr microscope offers the advantage that the relevant domain images along the loop can be readily recorded. As the microscope's objective lens is exposed to the magnetic field, the loops are usually strongly distorted by non-linear Faraday rotations of the polarized light that occur in the objective lens and that are superimposed to the MOKE signal. In this paper, an experimental method, based on a motorized analyzer, is introduced which allows to compensate the Faraday contributions, thus leading to pure MOKE loops. A wide field Kerr microscope, equipped with this technology, works well as a laser-based MOKE magnetometer, additionally offering domain images and thus providing the basis for loop interpretation.

  14. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  15. Projecting range-wide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Scotson

    Full Text Available Monitoring population trends of threatened species requires standardized techniques that can be applied over broad areas and repeated through time. Sun bears Helarctos malayanus are a forest dependent tropical bear found throughout most of Southeast Asia. Previous estimates of global population trends have relied on expert opinion and cannot be systematically replicated. We combined data from 1,463 camera traps within 31 field sites across sun bear range to model the relationship between photo catch rates of sun bears and tree cover. Sun bears were detected in all levels of tree cover above 20%, and the probability of presence was positively associated with the amount of tree cover within a 6-km2 buffer of the camera traps. We used the relationship between catch rates and tree cover across space to infer temporal trends in sun bear abundance in response to tree cover loss at country and global-scales. Our model-based projections based on this "space for time" substitution suggested that sun bear population declines associated with tree cover loss between 2000-2014 in mainland southeast Asia were ~9%, with declines highest in Cambodia and lowest in Myanmar. During the same period, sun bear populations in insular southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei were projected to have declined at a much higher rate (22%. Cast forward over 30-years, from the year 2000, by assuming a constant rate of change in tree cover, we projected population declines in the insular region that surpassed 50%, meeting the IUCN criteria for endangered if sun bears were listed on the population level. Although this approach requires several assumptions, most notably that trends in abundance across space can be used to infer temporal trends, population projections using remotely sensed tree cover data may serve as a useful alternative (or supplement to expert opinion. The advantages of this approach is that it is objective, data-driven, repeatable, and it requires that

  16. Wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) microscopy with time resolution below the frame exposure time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M. [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Petrášek, Zdeněk [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Fast frame rate CMOS cameras in combination with photon counting intensifiers can be used for fluorescence imaging with single photon sensitivity at kHz frame rates. We show here how the phosphor decay of the image intensifier can be exploited for accurate timing of photon arrival well below the camera exposure time. This is achieved by taking ratios of the intensity of the photon events in two subsequent frames, and effectively allows wide-field TCSPC. This technique was used for measuring decays of ruthenium compound Ru(dpp) with lifetimes as low as 1 μs with 18.5 μs frame exposure time, including in living HeLa cells, using around 0.1 μW excitation power. We speculate that by using an image intensifier with a faster phosphor decay to match a higher camera frame rate, photon arrival time measurements on the nanosecond time scale could well be possible.

  17. Wide-field fundus autofluorescence corresponds to visual fields in chorioretinitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidensticker F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Florian Seidensticker1, Aljoscha S Neubauer1, Tamer Wasfy1,2, Carmen Stumpf1, Stephan R Thurau1,*, Anselm Kampik1, Marcus Kernt1,*1Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt *Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground and objectives: Detection of peripheral fundus autofluorescence (FAF using conventional scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs is difficult and requires pupil dilation. Here we evaluated the diagnostic properties of wide-field FAF detected by a two-laser wavelength wide-field SLO in uveitis patients.Study design/materials and methods: Observational case series of four patients suffering from different types of posterior uveitis/chorioretinitis. Wide-field FAF images were compared to visual fields. Panretinal FAF was detected by a newly developed SLO, which allows FAF imaging of up to 200° of the retina in one scan without the need for pupil dilation. Visual fields were obtained by Goldmann manual perimetry.Results: Findings from wide-field FAF imaging showed correspondence to visual field defects in all cases.Conclusion: Wide-field FAF allowed the detection of visual field defect-related alterations of the retinal pigment epithelium in all four uveitis cases.Keywords: fundus autofluorescence (FAF, Optomap, wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, imaging, uveitis, visual field

  18. WFIRST: Astrometry with the Wide-Field Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; WFIRST Astrometry Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The wide field of view and stable, sharp images delivered by WFIRST's Wide-Field Imager make it an excellent instrument for astrometry, one of five major discovery areas identified in the 2010 Decadal Survey. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST's wider field of view with similar image quality will provide hundreds more astrometric targets per image as well as background galaxies and stars with precise positions in the Gaia catalog. In addition, WFIRST will operate in the infrared, a wavelength regime where the most precise astrometry has so far been achieved with adaptive optics images from large ground-based telescopes. WFIRST will provide at least a factor of three improvement in astrometry over the current state of the art in this wavelength range, while spanning a field of view thousands of times larger. WFIRST is thus poised to make major contributions to multiple science topics in which astrometry plays an important role, without major alterations to the planned mission or instrument. We summarize a few of the most compelling science cases where WFIRST astrometry could prove transformational.

  19. Wide-field surveys from the SNAP mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-borne observatory that will survey the sky with a wide-field optical/NIR imager. The images produced by SNAP will have an unprecedented combination of depth, solid-angle, angular resolution, and temporal sampling. Two 7.5 square-degree fields will be observed every four days over 16 months to a magnitude depth of AB = 27.7 in each of nine filters. Co-adding images over all epochs will give an AB = 30.3 per filter. A 300 square-degree field will be surveyed with no repeat visits to AB = 28 per filter. The nine filters span 3500-17000 (angstrom). Although the survey strategy is tailored for supernova and weak gravitational lensing observations, the resulting data supports a broad range of auxiliary science programs

  20. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second.

  1. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L.; Oliveira, Alex C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV). Also, was evaluated their

  2. Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-05-06

    The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.

  3. Cosmological implication of wide field Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy clusters survey: exploration by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juin, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The goal of my Phd research is to prepare the data analysis of the near future wide-field observations of galaxy clusters detected by Sunyaev Zel'dovitch effect. I set up a complete chain of original tools to carry out this study. These tools allow me to highlight critical and important points of selection effects that has to be taken into account in future analysis. Analysis chain is composed by: a simulation of observed millimeter sky, state-of-the-art algorithms of SZ galaxy clusters extraction from observed maps, a statistical model of selection effects of the whole detection chain and, finally, tools to constrain, from detected SZ sources catalog, the cosmological parameters. I focus myself on multi-channel experiments equipped with large bolometer camera. I use these tools for a prospecting on Olimpo experiment. (author) [fr

  4. Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0) with automatic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tae-Geun; Byeon, Seoyeon; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Lee, Sang-Yun; Hwang, Sungyong; Choi, Changsu; Gibson, Coyne Andrew; Kuehne, John W.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2018-01-01

    We introduce Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0), with an automatic observing system. It is developed for monitoring the variabilities of many sources at a time, e.g. young stellar objects and active galactic nuclei. It can also find the locations of transient sources such as a supernova or gamma-ray bursts. In 2017 February, we installed the wide-field 10-inch telescope (Takahashi CCA-250) as a piggyback system on the 30-inch telescope at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, US. The 10-inch telescope has a 2.35 × 2.35 deg field-of-view with a 4k × 4k CCD Camera (FLI ML16803). To improve the observational efficiency of the system, we developed a new automatic observing software, KAOS30 (KHU Automatic Observing Software for McDonald 30-inch telescope), which was developed by Visual C++ on the basis of a windows operating system. The software consists of four control packages: the Telescope Control Package (TCP), the Data Acquisition Package (DAP), the Auto Focus Package (AFP), and the Script Mode Package (SMP). Since it also supports the instruments that are using the ASCOM driver, the additional hardware installations become quite simplified. We commissioned KAOS30 in 2017 August and are in the process of testing. Based on the WIT0 experiences, we will extend KAOS30 to control multiple telescopes in future projects.

  5. Mitigating fluorescence spectral overlap in wide-field endoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Vivian; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The number of molecular species suitable for multispectral fluorescence imaging is limited due to the overlap of the emission spectra of indicator fluorophores, e.g., dyes and nanoparticles. To remove fluorophore emission cross-talk in wide-field multispectral fluorescence molecular imaging, we evaluate three different solutions: (1) image stitching, (2) concurrent imaging with cross-talk ratio subtraction algorithm, and (3) frame-sequential imaging. A phantom with fluorophore emission cross-talk is fabricated, and a 1.2-mm ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) is used to test and compare these approaches. Results show that fluorophore emission cross-talk could be successfully avoided or significantly reduced. Near term, the concurrent imaging method of wide-field multispectral fluorescence SFE is viable for early stage cancer detection and localization in vivo. Furthermore, a means to enhance exogenous fluorescence target-to-background ratio by the reduction of tissue autofluorescence background is demonstrated. PMID:23966226

  6. Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate wide-field fluorescent and darkfield imaging on a cell-phone with compact, light-weight and cost-effective optical components that are mechanically attached to the existing camera unit of the cell-phone. For this purpose, we used battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to pump the sample of interest from the side using butt-coupling, where the pump light was guided within the sample cuvette to uniformly excite the specimen. The fluorescent emission from the sample was then imaged using an additional lens that was positioned right in front of the existing lens of the cell-phone camera. Because the excitation occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to our detection path, an inexpensive plastic colour filter was sufficient to create the dark-field background required for fluorescent imaging, without the need for a thin-film interference filter. We validate the performance of this platform by imaging various fluorescent micro-objects in 2 colours (i.e., red and green) over a large field-of-view (FOV) of ∼81 mm(2) with a raw spatial resolution of ∼20 μm. With additional digital processing of the captured cell-phone images, through the use of compressive sampling theory, we demonstrate ∼2 fold improvement in our resolving power, achieving ∼10 μm resolution without a trade-off in our FOV. Further, we also demonstrate darkfield imaging of non-fluorescent specimen using the same interface, where this time the scattered light from the objects is detected without the use of any filters. The capability of imaging a wide FOV would be exceedingly important to probe large sample volumes (e.g., >0.1 mL) of e.g., blood, urine, sputum or water, and for this end we also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of labeled white-blood cells from whole blood samples, as well as water-borne pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia cysts. Weighing only ∼28 g (∼1 ounce), this compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform

  7. Full image-processing pipeline in field-programmable gate array for a small endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Sousa, L. Natércia; Ferreira, Nuno Fábio; Sousa, Ricardo M.; Santos, Joao; Wäny, Martin; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopy is an imaging procedure used for diagnosis as well as for some surgical purposes. The camera used for the endoscopy should be small and able to produce a good quality image or video, to reduce discomfort of the patients, and to increase the efficiency of the medical team. To achieve these fundamental goals, a small endoscopy camera with a footprint of 1 mm×1 mm×1.65 mm is used. Due to the physical properties of the sensors and human vision system limitations, different image-processing algorithms, such as noise reduction, demosaicking, and gamma correction, among others, are needed to faithfully reproduce the image or video. A full image-processing pipeline is implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accomplish a high frame rate of 60 fps with minimum processing delay. Along with this, a viewer has also been developed to display and control the image-processing pipeline. The control and data transfer are done by a USB 3.0 end point in the computer. The full developed system achieves real-time processing of the image and fits in a Xilinx Spartan-6LX150 FPGA.

  8. The design of the wide field monitor for LOFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2014-01-01

    is designed to carry on-board two instruments with sensitivity in the 2-50 keV range: a 10 m 2 class Large Area Detector (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) making use of coded masks and providing an instantaneous coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM...... will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, thanks to its unique combination of a wide field of view (FoV) and energy resolution (better than 500 eV), the WFM will be also an excellent monitoring instrument to study the long term variability of many classes of X-ray sources. The WFM...

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  11. Global calibration of multi-cameras with non-overlapping fields of view based on photogrammetry and reconfigurable target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Renbo; Hu, Maobang; Zhao, Jibin; Chen, Songlin; Chen, Yueling

    2018-06-01

    Multi-camera vision systems are often needed to achieve large-scale and high-precision measurement because these systems have larger fields of view (FOV) than a single camera. Multiple cameras may have no or narrow overlapping FOVs in many applications, which pose a huge challenge to global calibration. This paper presents a global calibration method for multi-cameras without overlapping FOVs based on photogrammetry technology and a reconfigurable target. Firstly, two planar targets are fixed together and made into a long target according to the distance between the two cameras to be calibrated. The relative positions of the two planar targets can be obtained by photogrammetric methods and used as invariant constraints in global calibration. Then, the reprojection errors of target feature points in the two cameras’ coordinate systems are calculated at the same time and optimized by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to find the optimal solution of the transformation matrix between the two cameras. Finally, all the camera coordinate systems are converted to the reference coordinate system in order to achieve global calibration. Experiments show that the proposed method has the advantages of high accuracy (the RMS error is 0.04 mm) and low cost and is especially suitable for on-site calibration.

  12. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-20

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10(-6)/°C near 550 nm, which corresponds to ∼800 m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Self-supervised Traversability Assessment in Field Environments with Lidar and Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Underwood, James; Karstoft, Henrik

    , the visual classifier detects non-traversable image patches as outliers from a Gaussian Mixture Model that maintains the appearance of only traversable ground. Results Our method is evaluated using a diverse dataset of agricultural fields and orchards gathered with a perception research robot developed......Introduction The application of robotic automation within agriculture is increasing. There is a high demand for fully autonomous robots that are both efficient, reliable and affordable. In order to ensure safety, autonomous agricultural vehicles must perceive the environment and detect potential...... obstacles and threats across a variety of environmental conditions. In this paper, a self-supervised framework is proposed, combining laser range sensing from a lidar with images from a monocular camera to reliably assess terrain traversability/navigability. Methods The method uses a near-to-far approach...

  14. Camera Network Coverage Improving by Particle Swarm Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.C.; Lei, B.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how to improve the field of view (FOV) coverage of a camera network. We focus on a special but practical scenario where the cameras are randomly scattered in a wide area and each camera may adjust its orientation but cannot move in any direction. We propose a particle swarm

  15. Transverse electric fields' effects in the Dark Energy Camera CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, A A; Sheldon, E S; Bernstein, G M

    2014-01-01

    Spurious electric fields transverse to the surface of thick CCDs displace the photo-generated charges, effectively modifying the pixel area and producing noticeable signals in astrometric and photometric measurements. We use data from the science verification period of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to characterize these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs, where the transverse fields manifest as concentric rings (impurity gradients or ''tree rings'') and bright stripes near the boundaries of the detectors (''edge distortions'') with relative amplitudes of about 1% and 10%, respectively. Using flat-field images, we derive templates in the five DES photometric bands (grizY) for the tree rings and the edge distortions as a function of their position on each DECam detector. Comparison of the astrometric and photometric residuals confirms their nature as pixel-size variations. The templates are directly incorporated into the derivation of photometric and astrometric residuals. The results presented in these proceedings are a partial report of analysis performed before the workshop ''Precision Astronomy with Fully depleted CDDs'' at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Additional work is underway, and the final results and analysis will be published elsewhere (Plazas, Bernstein and Sheldon 2014, in prep.)

  16. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  17. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cooray, Asantha R.; /UC, Irvine; Covey, Kevin R.; /Harvard U.; Csabai, Istvan; /Eotvos U.; Ferguson, Henry C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kantor, Jeffrey; /LSST Corp.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Knapp, G.R.; /Princeton U.; Myers, Steven T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Caltech, IPAC /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Harvard U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /NOAO, Tucson /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2011-11-14

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  18. Speckle correlation resolution enhancement of wide-field fluorescence imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Structured illumination enables high-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanostructures [1]. We demonstrate a new high-resolution fluorescence imaging method that uses a scattering layer with a high-index substrate as a solid immersion lens [2]. Random scattering of coherent light enables a speckle pattern with a very fine structure that illuminates the fluorescent nanospheres on the back surface of the high-index substrate. The speckle pattern is raster-scanned over the fluorescent nanospheres using a speckle correlation effect known as the optical memory effect. A series of standard-resolution fluorescence images per each speckle pattern displacement are recorded by an electron-multiplying CCD camera using a commercial microscope objective. We have developed a new phase-retrieval algorithm to reconstruct a high-resolution, wide-field image from several standard-resolution wide-field images. We have introduced phase information of Fourier components of standard-resolution images as a new constraint in our algorithm which discards ambiguities therefore ensures convergence to a unique solution. We demonstrate two-dimensional fluorescence images of a collection of nanospheres with a deconvolved Abbe resolution of 116 nm and a field of view of 10 µm × 10 µm. Our method is robust against optical aberrations and stage drifts, therefore excellent for imaging nanostructures under ambient conditions. [1] M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82-87 (2000). [2] H. Yilmaz, E. G. van Putten, J. Bertolotti, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, Optica 2, 424-429 (2015).

  19. Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented

  20. WISH: Wide-field Imaging Durvayor for High-redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toru

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the concept and current status of WISH project and discuss the science cases. WISH is a proposed space science mission for JAXA, which is dedicated for the deep and wide-field near-infrared imaging surveys. The mission contains the 1.5m cooled telescope as well as the imager with the FoV of ~850 square arcmin. The main goal of WISH is to detect and study galaxies at z=8-15 in the earliest history of structure formation in the universe. The key feature is to conduct WISH Ultra Deep Survey, which images in total of 100 square degrees in 6 broad-band filters at 0.9-4.5 micron down to 28AB magnitude. While more than 10^5 galaxies at z=8-9, 10^4 galaxies at z=11-12 will be detected, WISH-UDS is designed to constrain UV luminosity function at z=15. Depending on the models of the earliest evolution history, 1-1000 galaxies at z~15 (~100 galaxies for the moderate cases) will be detected. The UV spectral properties as well as the clustering properties of galaxies at z=8-15 can be studied as well; UV slope can be measured up to z=15, and the stellar and dark-matter-halo masses can be obtained up to z=9. WISH UDS can provide excellent opportunities for studying SNe at high redshift. Up to ~7000 type Ia SNe at z>1 can be detected and the distance modulus can be constrained with the precision of 0.9-1.5% at z>1.5. More than 100 Super Luminous SNe at z>6, and 10 SLSN at z>10 can also be detected, which allow us to study the earliest history of massive star formation in the universe. WISH imaging surveys as well as WISHSpec, which is an optional parallel-operation simple IFU spectrograph, also provide unique opportunities in various astronomical fields. WISH mission proposal was submitted to JAXA in February 2015 for the first down selection of JAXA Large Strategic Science Mission targeting the launch date in 2020-22. International collaborations including SAO (G.Fazio et al.), LAM (D. Burgarella et al.) and Canada (M.Sawicki et al.) are also actively coordinated.

  1. PSF Estimation of Space-Variant Ultra-Wide Field of View Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Janout

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wide-field of view (UWFOV imaging systems are affected by various aberrations, most of which are highly angle-dependent. A description of UWFOV imaging systems, such as microscopy optics, security camera systems and other special space-variant imaging systems, is a difficult task that can be achieved by estimating the Point Spread Function (PSF of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for modeling the space-variant PSF of an imaging system using the Zernike polynomials wavefront description. The PSF estimation algorithm is based on obtaining field-dependent expansion coefficients of the Zernike polynomials by fitting real image data of the analyzed imaging system using an iterative approach in an initial estimate of the fitting parameters to ensure convergence robustness. The method is promising as an alternative to the standard approach based on Shack–Hartmann interferometry, since the estimate of the aberration coefficients is processed directly in the image plane. This approach is tested on simulated and laboratory-acquired image data that generally show good agreement. The resulting data are compared with the results of other modeling methods. The proposed PSF estimation method provides around 5% accuracy of the optical system model.

  2. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.

    1990-10-01

    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  3. Lesion detection in ultra-wide field retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) leads to irreversible vision loss. Diagnosis and staging of DR is usually based on the presence, number, location and type of retinal lesions. Ultra-wide field (UWF) digital scanning laser technology provides an opportunity for computer-aided DR lesion detection. High-resolution UWF images (3078×2702 pixels) may allow detection of more clinically relevant retinopathy in comparison with conventional retinal images as UWF imaging covers a 200° retinal area, versus 45° by conventional cameras. Current approaches to DR diagnosis that analyze 7-field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinal images provide similar results to UWF imaging. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7- field ETDRS fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe. The reason is that UWF images examine both the central retina and more peripheral regions. We propose an algorithm for automatic detection and classification of DR lesions such as cotton wool spots, exudates, microaneurysms and haemorrhages in UWF images. The algorithm uses convolutional neural network (CNN) as a feature extractor and classifies the feature vectors extracted from colour-composite UWF images using a support vector machine (SVM). The main contribution includes detection of four types of DR lesions in the peripheral retina for diagnostic purposes. The evaluation dataset contains 146 UWF images. The proposed method for detection of DR lesion subtypes in UWF images using two scenarios for transfer learning achieved AUC ≈ 80%. Data was split at the patient level to validate the proposed algorithm.

  4. Structure-From for Calibration of a Vehicle Camera System with Non-Overlapping Fields-Of in AN Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, A.; Stilla, U.

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle environment cameras observing traffic participants in the area around a car and interior cameras observing the car driver are important data sources for driver intention recognition algorithms. To combine information from both camera groups, a camera system calibration can be performed. Typically, there is no overlapping field-of-view between environment and interior cameras. Often no marked reference points are available in environments, which are a large enough to cover a car for the system calibration. In this contribution, a calibration method for a vehicle camera system with non-overlapping camera groups in an urban environment is described. A-priori images of an urban calibration environment taken with an external camera are processed with the structure-frommotion method to obtain an environment point cloud. Images of the vehicle interior, taken also with an external camera, are processed to obtain an interior point cloud. Both point clouds are tied to each other with images of both image sets showing the same real-world objects. The point clouds are transformed into a self-defined vehicle coordinate system describing the vehicle movement. On demand, videos can be recorded with the vehicle cameras in a calibration drive. Poses of vehicle environment cameras and interior cameras are estimated separately using ground control points from the respective point cloud. All poses of a vehicle camera estimated for different video frames are optimized in a bundle adjustment. In an experiment, a point cloud is created from images of an underground car park, as well as a point cloud of the interior of a Volkswagen test car is created. Videos of two environment and one interior cameras are recorded. Results show, that the vehicle camera poses are estimated successfully especially when the car is not moving. Position standard deviations in the centimeter range can be achieved for all vehicle cameras. Relative distances between the vehicle cameras deviate between

  5. Estimating tiger abundance from camera trap data: Field surveys and analytical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K. Ullas; Nichols, James D.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Automated photography of tigers Panthera tigris for purely illustrative purposes was pioneered by British forester Fred Champion (1927, 1933) in India in the early part of the Twentieth Century. However, it was McDougal (1977) in Nepal who first used camera traps, equipped with single-lens reflex cameras activated by pressure pads, to identify individual tigers and study their social and predatory behaviors. These attempts involved a small number of expensive, cumbersome camera traps, and were not, in any formal sense, directed at “sampling” tiger populations.

  6. Development of a wide-field fluorescence imaging system for evaluation of wound re-epithelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Walfre; Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Purschke, Martin; Wang, Ying; Tam, Josh; Anderson, R. Rox; Doukas, Apostolos

    2013-03-01

    Normal skin barrier function depends on having a viable epidermis, an epithelial layer formed by keratinocytes. The transparent epidermis, which is less than a 100 mum thick, is nearly impossible to see. Thus, the clinical evaluation of re-epithelialization is difficult, which hinders selecting appropriate therapy for promoting wound healing. An imaging system was developed to evaluate epithelialization by detecting endogenous fluorescence emissions of cellular proliferation over a wide field of view. A custom-made 295 nm ultraviolet (UV) light source was used for excitation. Detection was done by integrating a near-UV camera with sensitivity down to 300 nm, a 12 mm quartz lens with iris and focus lock for the UV regime, and a fluorescence bandpass filter with 340 nm center wavelength. To demonstrate that changes in fluorescence are related to cellular processes, the epithelialization of a skin substitute was monitored in vitro. The skin substitute or construct was made by embedding microscopic live human skin tissue columns, 1 mm in diameter and spaced 1 mm apart, in acellular porcine dermis. Fluorescence emissions clearly delineate the extent of lateral surface migration of keratinocytes and the total surface covered by the new epithelium. The fluorescence image of new epidermis spatially correlates with the corresponding color image. A simple, user-friendly way of imaging the presence of skin epithelium would improve wound care in civilian burns, ulcers and surgeries.

  7. Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy features in ultra-wide field retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. DR screening relies on retinal clinical signs (features). Opportunities for computer-aided DR feature detection have emerged with the development of Ultra-WideField (UWF) digital scanning laser technology. UWF imaging covers 82% greater retinal area (200°), against 45° in conventional cameras3 , allowing more clinically relevant retinopathy to be detected4 . UWF images also provide a high resolution of 3078 x 2702 pixels. Currently DR screening uses 7 overlapping conventional fundus images, and the UWF images provide similar results1,4. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7-field ETDRS) fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe4 . This is because UWF imaging allows examination of both the central retina and more peripheral regions, with the latter implicated in DR6 . We have developed an algorithm for automatic recognition of DR features, including bright (cotton wool spots and exudates) and dark lesions (microaneurysms and blot, dot and flame haemorrhages) in UWF images. The algorithm extracts features from grayscale (green "red-free" laser light) and colour-composite UWF images, including intensity, Histogram-of-Gradient and Local binary patterns. Pixel-based classification is performed with three different classifiers. The main contribution is the automatic detection of DR features in the peripheral retina. The method is evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation on 25 UWF retinal images with 167 bright lesions, and 61 other images with 1089 dark lesions. The SVM classifier performs best with AUC of 94.4% / 95.31% for bright / dark lesions.

  8. KMTNET: A Network of 1.6 m Wide-Field Optical Telescopes Installed at Three Southern Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Byeong-Gon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moo-Young; Yuk, Insoo

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) is a wide-field photometric system installed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Here, we present the overall technical specifications of the KMTNet observation system, test observation results, data transfer and image processing procedure, and finally, the KMTNet science programs. The system consists of three 1.6 m wide-field optical telescopes equipped with mosaic CCD cameras of 18k by 18k pixels. Each telescope provides a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. We have finished installing all three telescopes and cameras sequentially at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. This network of telescopes, which is spread over three different continents at a similar latitude of about -30 degrees, enables 24-hour continuous monitoring of targets observable in the Southern Hemisphere. The test observations showed good image quality that meets the seeing requirement of less than 1.0 arcsec in I-band. All of the observation data are transferred to the KMTNet data center at KASI via the international network communication and are processed with the KMTNet data pipeline. The primary scientific goal of the KMTNet is to discover numerous extrasolar planets toward the Galactic bulge by using the gravitational microlensing technique, especially earth-mass planets in the habitable zone. During the non-bulge season, the system is used for wide-field photometric survey science on supernovae, asteroids, and external galaxies.

  9. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  10. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  11. 1-Million droplet array with wide-field fluorescence imaging for digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S; Tovar, Armando R; Hsieh, Albert T; Lin, Robert; Pentoney, Stephen L; Yang, David L; Lee, Abraham P

    2011-11-21

    Digital droplet reactors are useful as chemical and biological containers to discretize reagents into picolitre or nanolitre volumes for analysis of single cells, organisms, or molecules. However, most DNA based assays require processing of samples on the order of tens of microlitres and contain as few as one to as many as millions of fragments to be detected. Presented in this work is a droplet microfluidic platform and fluorescence imaging setup designed to better meet the needs of the high-throughput and high-dynamic-range by integrating multiple high-throughput droplet processing schemes on the chip. The design is capable of generating over 1-million, monodisperse, 50 picolitre droplets in 2-7 minutes that then self-assemble into high density 3-dimensional sphere packing configurations in a large viewing chamber for visualization and analysis. This device then undergoes on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and fluorescence detection to digitally quantify the sample's nucleic acid contents. Wide-field fluorescence images are captured using a low cost 21-megapixel digital camera and macro-lens with an 8-12 cm(2) field-of-view at 1× to 0.85× magnification, respectively. We demonstrate both end-point and real-time imaging ability to perform on-chip quantitative digital PCR analysis of the entire droplet array. Compared to previous work, this highly integrated design yields a 100-fold increase in the number of on-chip digitized reactors with simultaneous fluorescence imaging for digital PCR based assays.

  12. Wide Band Low Noise Love Wave Magnetic Field Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittmann, Anne; Durdaut, Phillip; Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Schmalz, Julius; Spetzler, Benjamin; Meyners, Dirk; Sun, Nian X; McCord, Jeffrey; Gerken, Martina; Schmidt, Gerhard; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Faupel, Franz; Quandt, Eckhard

    2018-01-10

    We present a comprehensive study of a magnetic sensor system that benefits from a new technique to substantially increase the magnetoelastic coupling of surface acoustic waves (SAW). The device uses shear horizontal acoustic surface waves that are guided by a fused silica layer with an amorphous magnetostrictive FeCoSiB thin film on top. The velocity of these so-called Love waves follows the magnetoelastically-induced changes of the shear modulus according to the magnetic field present. The SAW sensor is operated in a delay line configuration at approximately 150 MHz and translates the magnetic field to a time delay and a related phase shift. The fundamentals of this sensor concept are motivated by magnetic and mechanical simulations. They are experimentally verified using customized low-noise readout electronics. With an extremely low magnetic noise level of ≈100 pT/[Formula: see text], a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a dynamic range of 120 dB, this magnetic field sensor system shows outstanding characteristics. A range of additional measures to further increase the sensitivity are investigated with simulations.

  13. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  14. A multiframe soft x-ray camera with fast video capture for the LSX field reversed configuration (FRC) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Soft x-ray pinhole imaging has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic for qualitative observation of impurity radiation from field reversed configuration plasmas. We used a four frame device, similar in design to those discussed in an earlier paper [E. A. Crawford, D. P. Taggart, and A. D. Bailey III, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2795 (1990)] as a routine diagnostic during the last six months of the Large s Experiment (LSX) program. Our camera is an improvement over earlier implementations in several significant aspects. It was designed and used from the onset of the LSX experiments with a video frame capture system so that an instant visual record of the shot was available to the machine operator as well as facilitating quantitative interpretation of intensity information recorded in the images. The camera was installed in the end region of the LSX on axis approximately 5.5 m from the plasma midplane. Experience with bolometers on LSX showed serious problems with ''particle dumps'' at the axial location at various times during the plasma discharge. Therefore, the initial implementation of the camera included an effective magnetic sweeper assembly. Overall performance of the camera, video capture system, and sweeper is discussed

  15. Design drivers for a wide-field multi-object spectrograph for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Benn, Chris R.; Carter, David; Dalton, Gavin B.; Trager, Scott C.; Feltzing, Sofia; Verheijen, M.A.W.; Jarvis, Matt; Percival, Will; Abrams, Don C.; Agocs, Tibor; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Cano, Diego; Evans, Chris; Helmi, Amina; Lewis, Ian J.; McLure, Ross; Peletier, Reynier F.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Sharples, Ray M.; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Walton, Nic; Westhall, Kyle B.

    Wide-field multi-object spectroscopy is a high priority for European astronomy over the next decade. Most 8-10m telescopes have a small field of view, making 4-m class telescopes a particularly attractive option for wide-field instruments. We present a science case and design drivers for a

  16. Wide-field high-performance geosynchronous imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, H. John; Jenstrom, Del; Wilson, Mark; Hinkal, Sanford; Kirchman, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Program and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are sponsoring the Advanced Geosynchronous Studies (AGS) to develop technologies and system concepts for Earth observation from geosynchronous orbit. This series of studies is intended to benefit both MTPE science and the NOAA GOES Program. Within the AGS program, advanced imager trade studies have investigated two candidate concepts for near-term advanced geosynchronous imagers. One concept uses a scan mirror to direct the line of sight from a 3-axis stabilized platform. Another eliminates the need for a scan mirror by using an agile spacecraft bus to scan the entire instrument. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the optical design trades and system issues encountered in evaluating the two scanning approaches. The imager design started with a look at first principles: what is the most efficient way to image the Earth in those numerous spectral bands of interest to MTPE scientists and NOAA weather forecasters. Optical design trades included rotating filter wheels and dispersive grating instruments. The design converged on a bandpass filter instrument using four focal planes to cover the spectral range 0.45 to 13.0 micrometers. The first imager design uses a small agile spacecraft supporting an afocal optical telescope. Dichroic beamsplitters feed refractive objectives to four focal planes. The detectors are a series of long linear and rectangular arrays which are scanned in a raster fashion over the 17 degree Earth image. The use of the spacecraft attitude control system to raster the imager field-of-view (FOV) back and forth over the Earth eliminates the need for a scan mirror. However, the price paid is significant energy and time required to reverse the spacecraft slew motions at the end of each scan line. Hence, it is desired to minimize the number of scan lines needed to cover the full Earth disk. This desire, coupled with the ground

  17. Streak electronic camera with slow-scanning storage tube used in the field of high-speed cineradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marilleau, J.; Bonnet, L.; Garcin, G.; Guix, R.; Loichot, R.

    The cineradiographic machine designed for measurements in the field of detonics consists of a linear accelerator associated with a braking target, a scintillator and a remote controlled electronic camera. The quantum factor of X-ray detection and the energetic efficiency of the scintillator are given. The electronic camera is built upon a deflection-converter tube (RCA C. 73 435 AJ) coupled by optical fibres to a photosensitive storage tube (TH-CSF Esicon) used in a slow-scanning process with electronic recording of the information. The different parts of the device are described. Some capabilities such as data processing numerical outputs, measurements and display are outlined. A streak cineradiogram of a typical implosion experiment is given [fr

  18. WISE: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Cohen, M.; Cutri, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Lonsdale, C.; Mainzer, A.; Mather, J.; McLean, I.; McMillan, R.; Mendez, B.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Walker, R.

    2009-01-01

    WISE will map the entire sky at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns with sensitivities of 0.12, 0.16. 0.65, and 2.6 mJy. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 rocket, rotating at a constant rate while a scan mirror freezes the line of sight during each exposure, covering the sky in 6 months following a one month checkout. Orbit to orbit overlap provides 8 or more exposures at each location. The instrument, provided by the Space Dynamics Laboratory, includes an all-reflective aluminum telescope with a 40 cm primary built by SSG-Tinsley, a solid hydrogen cryostat built by Lockheed-Martin's Advanced Technology Center, and 1024x1024 pixel Si:As and HgCdTe arrays built by DRS and Teledyne. Dichroic beamsplitters allow simultaneous images in the four bands over a 47'x47' field of view with 5" resolution to be obtained every 11 seconds. Ball Aerospace is providing the spacecraft, including a 500W fixed solar array, Li-ion battery, two star trackers, reaction wheels, and torque rods. The 50 GB per day of images are losslessly compressed, stored in flash memory, and downlinked at 100 Mbps four times per day using a fixed antenna and TDRSS satellites. The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center will process the data and deliver the image atlas and source catalog, with a preliminary release 6 months after the survey, and a final release 2 years after the survey. JPL manages the project for UCLA PI Ned Wright, and conducts mission operations. Education and Public Outreach is provided by UC Berkeley's Space Science Laboratory. WISE hardware is presently being integrated and tested, with launch scheduled in November 2009.

  19. Scintillation camera for establishing the coordinates of a radiation stimuli produced by a radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioni, J.; Klein, Y.; Inbar, D.

    1977-01-01

    A scintillation camera has a planar scintillating crystal that produces light events whose spatial distribution corresponds to the spatial distribution of the radiation stimuli causing such events, and a plurality of photomultipliers having photocathodes for receiving light from the crystal through a planar face thereof. Computing circuitry coupled to the photomultipliers computes the projection of a light event in the crystal on a reference axis by forming an analytical function of the outputs of the photomultipliers according to the spatial location of the light event in the crystal

  20. In vivo calcium imaging from dentate granule cells with wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Hayashi

    Full Text Available A combination of genetically-encoded calcium indicators and micro-optics has enabled monitoring of large-scale dynamics of neuronal activity from behaving animals. In these studies, wide-field microscopy is often used to visualize neural activity. However, this method lacks optical sectioning capability, and therefore its axial resolution is generally poor. At present, it is unclear whether wide-field microscopy can visualize activity of densely packed small neurons at cellular resolution. To examine the applicability of wide-field microscopy for small-sized neurons, we recorded calcium activity of dentate granule cells having a small soma diameter of approximately 10 micrometers. Using a combination of high numerical aperture (0.8 objective lens and independent component analysis-based image segmentation technique, activity of putative single granule cell activity was separated from wide-field calcium imaging data. The result encourages wider application of wide-field microscopy in in vivo neurophysiology.

  1. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  2. Colour-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds from wide-field electronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.; Walker, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Utilizing the good image quality and large field available with the 9-cm McMullan electronographic camera when attached to the Danish 1.54-m Ritchey-Chretien reflector at La Silla, Chile, a number of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds have been observed in order to determine their colour-magnitude diagrams with proper correction for the field star contribution. In Hodge 11, the first cluster to be reported from this programme, good measurements have been obtained of 180 stars in the annular field 34 <= R <= 71 arcsec of the cluster itself, and of 154 stars in a nearby control field of similar area, to a limit of V of the order of 22. (author)

  3. X-ray astronomy 2000: Wide field X-ray monitoring with lobster-eye telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inneman, A.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    The recently available first prototypes of innovative very wide field X-ray telescopes of Lobster-Eye type confirm the feasibility to develop such flight instruments in a near future. These devices are expected to allow very wide field (more than 1000 square degrees) monitoring of the sky in X-rays (up to 10 keV and perhaps even more) with faint limits. We will discuss the recent status of the development of very wide field X-ray telescopes as well as related scientific questions including expected major contributions such as monitoring and study of X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

  4. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.

  5. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  6. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  7. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types ≥T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 μm (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541–2250, is the closest at 2.8 +1.3 –0.6 pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541–2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of ∼4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of these objects

  8. Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Barinova, V. O.; Galkin, V. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Petrov, V. L.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed to obtain the temporal and spectral information of GRBs in the energy range of 10-3000 keV as well as to provide GRB triggers on several time scales (10 ms, 1 s and 20 s) for ground and space telescopes, including the UFFO and SHOK. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical detector boxes with axes shifted by 90° from each other. This configuration allows us to localize a GRB source in the sky with an accuracy of ˜ 2°. Each BDRG box contains a phoswich NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) scintillator detector. A thick CsI(Tl) crystal in size of \\varnothing 130 × 17 mm is placed underneath the NaI(Tl) as an active shield in the soft energy range and as the main detector in the hard energy range. The ratio of the CsI(Tl) to NaI(Tl) event rates at varying energies can be employed as an independent metric to distinguish legitimate GRB signals from false positives originating from electrons in near-Earth vicinities. The data from three detectors are collected in a BA BDRG information unit, which generates a GRB trigger and a set of data frames in output format. The scientific data output is ˜ 500 Mb per day, including ˜ 180 Mb of continuous data for events with durations in excess of 100 ms for 16 channels in each detector, detailed energy spectra, and sets of frames with ˜ 5 Mb of detailed information for each burst-like event. A number of pre-flight tests including those for the trigger algorithm and calibration were carried out to confirm the reliability of the BDRG for operation in space.

  9. Multiband CCD Image Compression for Space Camera with Large Field of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Space multiband CCD camera compression encoder requires low-complexity, high-robustness, and high-performance because of its captured images information being very precious and also because it is usually working on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. However, the traditional compression approaches, such as JPEG2000, 3D transforms, and PCA, have the high-complexity. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems-Image Data Compression (CCSDS-IDC algorithm decreases the average PSNR by 2 dB compared with JPEG2000. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity compression algorithm based on deep coupling algorithm among posttransform in wavelet domain, compressive sensing, and distributed source coding. In our algorithm, we integrate three low-complexity and high-performance approaches in a deeply coupled manner to remove the spatial redundant, spectral redundant, and bit information redundancy. Experimental results on multiband CCD images show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the traditional approaches.

  10. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  11. The NIKA2 Large Field-of-View Millimeter Continuum Camera for the 30-M IRAM Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    We have constructed and deployed a multi-thousands pixels dual-band (150 and 260 GHz, respectively 2mm and 1.15mm wavelengths) camera to image an instantaneous field-of-view of 6.5arc-min and configurable to map the linear polarization at 260GHz. We are providing a detailed description of this instrument, named NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Arrays 2), in particular focusing on the cryogenics, the optics, the focal plane arrays based on Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) and the readout electronics. We are presenting the performance measured on the sky during the commissioning runs that took place between October 2015 and April 2017 at the 30-meter IRAM (Institute of Millimetric Radio Astronomy) telescope at Pico Veleta, and preliminary science-grade results.

  12. Achieving sub-millimetre precision with a solid-state full-field heterodyning range imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Cree, M. J.; Payne, A. D.; Conroy, R. M.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a full-field solid-state range imaging system capable of capturing range and intensity data simultaneously for every pixel in a scene with sub-millimetre range precision. The system is based on indirect time-of-flight measurements by heterodyning intensity-modulated illumination with a gain modulation intensified digital video camera. Sub-millimetre precision to beyond 5 m and 2 mm precision out to 12 m has been achieved. In this paper, we describe the new sub-millimetre class range imaging system in detail, and review the important aspects that have been instrumental in achieving high precision ranging. We also present the results of performance characterization experiments and a method of resolving the range ambiguity problem associated with homodyne and heterodyne ranging systems.

  13. Mapping the Tidal Destruction of the Hercules Dwarf: A Wide-field DECam Imaging Search for RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garling, Christopher; Willman, Beth; Sand, David J.; Hargis, Jonathan; Crnojević, Denija; Bechtol, Keith; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Strader, Jay; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Nie, Jundan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin; Peng, Xiyan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized tidal disruption of the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD). Previous tidal disruption studies of the Hercules UFD have been hindered by the high degree of foreground contamination in the direction of the dwarf. We bypass this issue by using RR Lyrae stars, which are standard candles with a very low field-volume density at the distance of Hercules. We use wide-field imaging from the Dark Energy Camera on CTIO to identify candidate RR Lyrae stars, supplemented with observations taken in coordination with the Beijing–Arizona Sky Survey on the Bok Telescope. Combining color, magnitude, and light-curve information, we identify three new RR Lyrae stars associated with Hercules. All three of these new RR Lyrae stars lie outside its published tidal radius. When considered with the nine RR Lyrae stars already known within the tidal radius, these results suggest that a substantial fraction of Hercules’ stellar content has been stripped. With this degree of tidal disruption, Hercules is an interesting case between a visibly disrupted dwarf (such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy) and one in dynamic equilibrium. The degree of disruption also shows that we must be more careful with the ways we determine object membership when estimating dwarf masses in the future. One of the three discovered RR Lyrae stars sits along the minor axis of Hercules, but over two tidal radii away. This type of debris is consistent with recent models that suggest Hercules’ orbit is aligned with its minor axis.

  14. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  15. Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexander V; Dainty, Chris

    2007-08-01

    We propose a wide-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye in relation to its anatomical structure. The wide-field model incorporates a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which enables it to fulfill properties of two well-known schematic eye models, namely, Navarro's model for off-axis aberrations and Thibos's chromatic on-axis model (the Indiana eye). These two models are based on extensive experimental data, which makes the derived wide-field eye model also consistent with that data. A mathematical method to construct a GRIN lens with its iso-indicial contours following the optical surfaces of given asphericity is presented. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with three variants related to different age groups. The role of the GRIN structure in relation to the lens paradox is analyzed. The wide-field model with a GRIN lens can be used as a starting design for the eye inverse problem, i.e., reconstructing the optical structure of the eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. Anatomically more accurate age-dependent optical models of the eye could ultimately help an optical designer to improve wide-field retinal imaging.

  16. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  17. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  18. Depth-resolved incoherent and coherent wide-field high-content imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Peter T.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in depth-resolved wide-field imaging technique has enabled many high throughput applications in biology and medicine. Depth resolved imaging of incoherent signals can be readily accomplished with structured light illumination or nonlinear temporal focusing. The integration of these high throughput systems with novel spectroscopic resolving elements further enable high-content information extraction. We will introduce a novel near common-path interferometer and demonstrate its uses in toxicology and cancer biology applications. The extension of incoherent depth-resolved wide-field imaging to coherent modality is non-trivial. Here, we will cover recent advances in wide-field 3D resolved mapping of refractive index, absorbance, and vibronic components in biological specimens.

  19. Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.

  20. Design of wide flat-topped low transverse field solenoid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xiaobing; Chen Nan; Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    A wide flat-topped low transverse error field solenoid magnet design for linear induction accelerator is presented. The design features non-uniform winding to reduce field fluctuation due to the magnets' gap, and homogenizer rings within the solenoid to greatly reduce the effects of winding errors. Numerical modeling of several designs for 12 MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA) in China Academy of Engineering Physics has demonstrated that by using these two techniques the magnetic field fluctuations in the accelerator gap can be reduced by 70% and the transverse error field can be reduced by 96.5%. (authors)

  1. Design, manufacturing and testing of a four-mirror telescope with a wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloesener, P.; Wolfs, F.; Lemagne, F.; Cola, M.; Flebus, C.; Blanchard, G.; Kirschner, V.

    2017-11-01

    Regarding Earth observation missions, it has become unnecessary to point out the importance of making available wide field of view optical instruments for the purpose of spectral imaging. Taking advantage of the pushbroom instrument concept with its linear field across the on-ground track, it is in particular relevant to consider front-end optical configurations that involve an all-reflective system presenting inherent and dedicated advantages such as achromaticity, unobscuration and compactness, while ensuring the required image quality over the whole field. The attractiveness of the concept must be balanced with respect to the state-of-the-art mirror manufacturing technologies as the need for fast, broadband and wide field systems increases the constraints put on the feasibility of each individual component. As part of an ESTEC contract, AMOS designed, manufactured and tested a breadboard of a four-mirror wide field telescope for typical Earth observation superspectral missions. The initial purpose of the development was to assess the feasibility of a telecentric spaceborne three-mirror system covering an unobscured rectangular field of view of 26 degrees across track (ACT) by 6 degrees along track (ALT) with a f-number of 3.5 and a focal length of 500 mm and presenting an overall image quality better than 100 nm RMS wavefront error within the whole field.

  2. Ultra-wide-field angiography improves the detection and classification of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Matthew M; Aaker, Grant D; Parlitsis, George; Cho, Minhee; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate patients with diabetic retinopathy using ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography and to compare the visualized retinal pathology with that seen on an overly of conventional 7 standard field (7SF) imaging. Two hundred and eighteen eyes of 118 diabetic patients who underwent diagnostic fluorescein angiography using the Optos Optomap Panoramic 200A imaging system were included. The visualized area of the retina, retinal nonperfusion, retinal neovascularization, and panretinal photocoagulation were quantified by two independent masked graders. The respective areas identified on the ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography image were compared with an overly of a modified 7SF image as outlined in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiograms imaging, on average, demonstrated 3.2 times more total retinal surface area than 7SF. When compared with 7SF, ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography showed 3.9 times more nonperfusion (P diabetic retinopathy. Improved retinal visualization may alter the classification of diabetic retinopathy and may therefore influence follow-up and treatment of these patients.

  3. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  4. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  5. Wide field monitoring of the X-ray sky using Rotation Modulation Collimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Wide field monitoring is of particular interest in X-ray astronomy due to the strong time-variability of most X-ray sources. Not only does the time-profiles of the persistent sources contain characteristic signatures of the underlying physical systems, but, additionally, some of the most intrigui...

  6. Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovskii, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru

  7. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  8. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  9. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10 5 M ☉ to 30% for galaxies with M > 10 7 M ☉ ) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  10. First results from the TOPSAT camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Paul; Tosh, Ian; Morris, Nigel; Burton, Gary; Cawley, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The TopSat camera is a low cost remote sensing imager capable of producing 2.5 metre resolution panchromatic imagery, funded by the British National Space Centre's Mosaic programme. The instrument was designed and assembled at the Space Science & Technology Department of the CCLRC's Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK, and was launched on the 27th October 2005 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia on a Kosmos-3M. The camera utilises an off-axis three mirror system, which has the advantages of excellent image quality over a wide field of view, combined with a compactness that makes its overall dimensions smaller than its focal length. Keeping the costs to a minimum has been a major design driver in the development of this camera. The camera is part of the TopSat mission, which is a collaboration between four UK organisations; QinetiQ, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), RAL and Infoterra. Its objective is to demonstrate provision of rapid response high resolution imagery to fixed and mobile ground stations using a low cost minisatellite. The paper "Development of the TopSat Camera" presented by RAL at the 5th ICSO in 2004 described the opto-mechanical design, assembly, alignment and environmental test methods implemented. Now that the spacecraft is in orbit and successfully acquiring images, this paper presents the first results from the camera and makes an initial assessment of the camera's in-orbit performance.

  11. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  12. Short-channel field-effect transistors with 9-atom and 13-atom wide graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Juan Pablo; Fairbrother, Andrew; Borin Barin, Gabriela; Shi, Wu; Lee, Kyunghoon; Wu, Shuang; Yong Choi, Byung; Braganza, Rohit; Lear, Jordan; Kau, Nicholas; Choi, Wonwoo; Chen, Chen; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Dumslaff, Tim; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fischer, Felix; Zettl, Alex; Ruffieux, Pascal; Yablonovitch, Eli; Crommie, Michael; Fasel, Roman; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-09-21

    Bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons and graphene nanoribbon heterostructures have promising electronic properties for high-performance field-effect transistors and ultra-low power devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors. However, the short length and wide band gap of these graphene nanoribbons have prevented the fabrication of devices with the desired performance and switching behavior. Here, by fabricating short channel (L ch  ~ 20 nm) devices with a thin, high-κ gate dielectric and a 9-atom wide (0.95 nm) armchair graphene nanoribbon as the channel material, we demonstrate field-effect transistors with high on-current (I on  > 1 μA at V d  = -1 V) and high I on /I off  ~ 10 5 at room temperature. We find that the performance of these devices is limited by tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts and we observe an increase in the transparency of the barrier by increasing the gate field near the contacts. Our results thus demonstrate successful fabrication of high-performance short-channel field-effect transistors with bottom-up synthesized armchair graphene nanoribbons.Graphene nanoribbons show promise for high-performance field-effect transistors, however they often suffer from short lengths and wide band gaps. Here, the authors use a bottom-up synthesis approach to fabricate 9- and 13-atom wide ribbons, enabling short-channel transistors with 10 5 on-off current ratio.

  13. Intraoperative Scintigraphy Using a Large Field-of-View Portable Gamma Camera for Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Initial Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C. Hall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated a novel technique, intraoperative 99 mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI imaging (neck and excised specimen (ES, using a large field-of-view portable gamma camera (LFOVGC, for expediting confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal. Methods. Twenty patients with MIBI-avid parathyroid adenomas were preoperatively administered MIBI and intraoperatively imaged prior to incision (neck and immediately following resection (neck and/or ES. Preoperative and intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone monitoring (IOPTH and pathology (path were also performed. Results. MIBI neck activity was absent and specimen activity was present in 13/20 with imaging after initial ES removal. In the remaining 7/20 cases, residual neck activity and/or absent ES activity prompted excision of additional tissue, ultimately leading to complete hyperfunctioning tissue excision. Postexcision LFOVGC ES imaging confirmed parathyroid adenoma resection 100% when postresection imaging qualitatively had activity (ES and/or no activity (neck. The mean ± SEM time saving using intraoperative LFOVGC data to confirm resection versus first IOPTH or path result would have been 22.0 ± 2 minutes (specimen imaging and 26.0 ± 3 minutes (neck imaging. Conclusion. Utilization of a novel real-time intraoperative LFOVGC imaging approach can provide confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal appreciably faster than IOPTH and/or path and may provide a valuable adjunct to parathyroid surgery.

  14. Quantitative investigation of a novel small field of view hybrid gamma camera (HGC) capability for sentinel lymph node detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John E; Bugby, Sarah L; Jambi, Layal K; Perkins, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The hybrid gamma camera (HGC) has been developed to enhance the localization of radiopharmaceutical uptake in targeted tissues during surgical procedures such as sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. To assess the capability of the HGC, a lymph node contrast (LNC) phantom was constructed to simulate medical scenarios of varying radioactivity concentrations and SLN size. Methods: The phantom was constructed using two clear acrylic glass plates. The SLNs were simulated by circular wells of diameters ranging from 10 to 2.5 mm (16 wells in total) in 1 plate. The second plate contains four larger rectangular wells to simulate tissue background activity surrounding the SLNs. The activity used to simulate each SLN ranged between 4 and 0.025 MBq. The activity concentration ratio between the background and the activity injected in the SLNs was 1 : 10. The LNC phantom was placed at different depths of scattering material ranging between 5 and 40 mm. The collimator-to-source distance was 120 mm. Image acquisition times ranged from 60 to 240 s. Results: Contrast-to-noise ratio analysis and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) measurements of the simulated SLNs were carried out for the images obtained. Over the range of activities used, the HGC detected between 87.5 and 100% of the SLNs through 20 mm of scattering material and 75–93.75% of the SLNs through 40 mm of scattering material. The FWHM of the detected SLNs ranged between 11.93 and 14.70 mm. Conclusion: The HGC is capable of detecting low accumulation of activity in small SLNs, indicating its usefulness as an intraoperative imaging system during surgical SLN procedures. Advances in knowledge: This study investigates the capability of a novel small-field-of-view (SFOV) HGC to detect low activity uptake in small SLNs. The phantom and procedure described are inexpensive and could be easily replicated and applied to any SFOV camera, to provide a comparison between systems with clinically relevant

  15. Research on Wide-field Imaging Technologies for Low-frequency Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, B. Q.; An, T.; Chen, X.; Wu, X. C.; Lu, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Wide-field imaging of low-frequency radio telescopes are subject to a number of difficult problems. One particularly pernicious problem is the non-coplanar baseline effect. It will lead to distortion of the final image when the phase of w direction called w-term is ignored. The image degradation effects are amplified for telescopes with the wide field of view. This paper summarizes and analyzes several w-term correction methods and their technical principles. Their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed after comparing their computational cost and computational complexity. We conduct simulations with two of these methods, faceting and w-projection, based on the configuration of the first-phase Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low frequency array. The resulted images are also compared with the two-dimensional Fourier transform method. The results show that image quality and correctness derived from both faceting and w-projection are better than the two-dimensional Fourier transform method in wide-field imaging. The image quality and run time affected by the number of facets and w steps have been evaluated. The results indicate that the number of facets and w steps must be reasonable. Finally, we analyze the effect of data size on the run time of faceting and w-projection. The results show that faceting and w-projection need to be optimized before the massive amounts of data processing. The research of the present paper initiates the analysis of wide-field imaging techniques and their application in the existing and future low-frequency array, and fosters the application and promotion to much broader fields.

  16. Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Contrast Imaging Based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)

  17. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  18. Wide-field optical coherence tomography based microangiography for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqin; Lee, Cecilia S.; Chao, Jennifer; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Thomas; Sharma, Utkarsh; Zhang, Anqi; Liu, Jin; Rezaei, Kasra; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Munsen, Richard; Kinyoun, James; Johnstone, Murray; van Gelder, Russell N.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allows for the evaluation of functional retinal vascular networks without a need for contrast dyes. For sophisticated monitoring and diagnosis of retinal diseases, OCTA capable of providing wide-field and high definition images of retinal vasculature in a single image is desirable. We report OCTA with motion tracking through an auxiliary real-time line scan ophthalmoscope that is clinically feasible to image functional retinal vasculature in patients, with a coverage of more than 60 degrees of retina while still maintaining high definition and resolution. We demonstrate six illustrative cases with unprecedented details of vascular involvement in retinal diseases. In each case, OCTA yields images of the normal and diseased microvasculature at all levels of the retina, with higher resolution than observed with fluorescein angiography. Wide-field OCTA technology will be an important next step in augmenting the utility of OCT technology in clinical practice.

  19. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  20. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - III. Wide-field effects of narrow-field arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Pandey, V. N.; Gehlot, B. K.

    2018-05-01

    Leakage of polarized Galactic diffuse emission into total intensity can potentially mimic the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR), as both of them might have fluctuating spectral structure. Although we are sensitive to the EoR signal only in small fields of view, chromatic side-lobes from further away can contaminate the inner region. Here, we explore the effects of leakage into the `EoR window' of the cylindrically averaged power spectra (PS) within wide fields of view using both observation and simulation of the 3C196 and North Celestial Pole (NCP) fields, two observing fields of the LOFAR-EoR project. We present the polarization PS of two one-night observations of the two fields and find that the NCP field has higher fluctuations along frequency, and consequently exhibits more power at high-k∥ that could potentially leak to Stokes I. Subsequently, we simulate LOFAR observations of Galactic diffuse polarized emission based on a model to assess what fraction of polarized power leaks into Stokes I because of the primary beam. We find that the rms fractional leakage over the instrumental k-space is 0.35 {per cent} in the 3C196 field and 0.27 {per cent} in the NCP field, and it does not change significantly within the diameters of 15°, 9°, and 4°. Based on the observed PS and simulated fractional leakage, we show that a similar level of leakage into Stokes I is expected in the 3C196 and NCP fields, and the leakage can be considered to be a bias in the PS.

  1. A description of a wide beam saddle field ion source used for nuclear target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Schiel, S.L.; Thomas, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    A description is given of a new, wide beam saddle field sputter source used for the preparation of targets applied in nuclear physics experiments. The ion source characteristics are presented and compared with published results obtained with other sources. Deposition rates acquired utilizing this source are given for a variety of target materials encountered in nuclear target production. New applications involving target thinning and ion milling are discussed

  2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  3. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  4. Wide field-of-view dual-band multispectral muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Melchor, J.; Spiliotis, P.; Taplin, L.

    2013-06-01

    Sensor technologies are undergoing revolutionary advances, as seen in the rapid growth of multispectral methodologies. Increases in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, and in breadth of spectral coverage, render feasible sensors that function with unprecedented performance. A system was developed that addresses many of the key hardware requirements for a practical dual-band multispectral acquisition system, including wide field of view and spectral/temporal shift between dual bands. The system was designed using a novel dichroic beam splitter and dual band-pass filter configuration that creates two side-by-side images of a scene on a single sensor. A high-speed CMOS sensor was used to simultaneously capture data from the entire scene in both spectral bands using a short focal-length lens that provided a wide field-of-view. The beam-splitter components were arranged such that the two images were maintained in optical alignment and real-time intra-band processing could be carried out using only simple arithmetic on the image halves. An experiment related to limitations of the system to address multispectral detection requirements was performed. This characterized the system's low spectral variation across its wide field of view. This paper provides lessons learned on the general limitation of key hardware components required for multispectral muzzle flash detection, using the system as a hardware example combined with simulated multispectral muzzle flash and background signatures.

  5. Relevance of wide-field autofluorescence imaging in Birdshot retinochoroidopathy: descriptive analysis of 76 eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffer, Anne-Laure Le; Boissonnot, Michèle; Gobert, Frédéric; Zenger, Anita; Wolf, Sebastian; Wolf, Ute; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte

    2014-09-01

    To study and classify retinal lesions in patients with birdshot disease using wide-field autofluorescence imaging and correlate them according to patients' visual status. A multicentre study was carried out on 76 eyes of 39 patients with birdshot disease, analysing colour images and under autofluorescence using the wide-field Optomap(®) imaging system. This was combined with a complete clinical exam and analysis of the macula with OCT. In over 80% of the eyes, a chorioretinal lesion has been observed under autofluorescence with a direct correlation between the extent of the lesion and visual status. The presence of macular hypo-autofluorescence was correlated with a decreased visual acuity, due to the presence of a macular oedema, active clinical inflammation or an epiretinal membrane. The hypo-autofluorescence observed correlated with the duration of the disease and the degree of inflammation in the affected eye, indicating a secondary lesion in the pigment epithelium in relation to the choroid. The pigment epithelium was affected in a diffuse manner, as in almost 50% of the eyes the wider peripheral retina was affected. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging could appear to be a useful examination when monitoring patients, to look for areas of macular hypo-autofluorescence responsible for an irreversible loss of vision. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  7. The Wide Field Imager of the International X-ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanescu, A., E-mail: astefan@hll.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Inst. f. anorganische und analytische Chemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bautz, M.W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Burrows, D.N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Milano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Fraser, G. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Heinzinger, K. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Herrmann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Kuster, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauf, T. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Lechner, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Majewski, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Meuris, A. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Murray, S.S. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) will be a joint X-ray observatory mission by ESA, NASA and JAXA. It will have a large effective area (3 m{sup 2} at 1.25 keV) grazing incidence mirror system with good angular resolution (5 arcsec at 0.1-10 keV) and will feature a comprehensive suite of scientific instruments: an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, a High Time Resolution Spectrometer, an X-ray Polarimeter, an X-ray Grating Spectrometer, a Hard X-ray Imager and a Wide-Field Imager. The Wide Field Imager (WFI) has a field-of-view of 18 ftx18 ft. It will be sensitive between 0.1 and 15 keV, offer the full angular resolution of the mirrors and good energy resolution. The WFI will be implemented as a 6 in. wafer-scale monolithical array of 1024x1024 pixels of 100x100{mu}m{sup 2} size. The DEpleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistors (DEPFET) forming the individual pixels are devices combining the functionalities of both detector and amplifier. Signal electrons are collected in a potential well below the transistor's gate, modulating the transistor current. Even when the device is powered off, the signal charge is collected and kept in the potential well below the gate until it is explicitly cleared. This makes flexible and fast readout modes possible.

  8. Cameras in mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha

    2006-04-01

    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  9. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  10. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  11. Picosecond camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, Michel

    A Kerr cell activated by infrared pulses of a model locked Nd glass laser, acts as an ultra-fast and periodic shutter, with a few p.s. opening time. Associated with a S.T.L. camera, it gives rise to a picosecond camera allowing us to study very fast effects [fr

  12. Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlauto, Laura; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta Jole Ildelfonsa; Chenais, Naïg Aurelia Ludmilla; Gilliéron, Samuel Charles Antoine; Vagni, Paola; Bevilacqua, Michele; Wolfensberger, Thomas J; Sivula, Kevin; Ghezzi, Diego

    2018-03-08

    Retinal prostheses have been developed to fight blindness in people affected by outer retinal layer dystrophies. To date, few hundred patients have received a retinal implant. Inspired by intraocular lenses, we have designed a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis (named POLYRETINA) capable of stimulating wireless retinal ganglion cells. Here we show that within a visual angle of 46.3 degrees, POLYRETINA embeds 2215 stimulating pixels, of which 967 are in the central area of 5 mm, it is foldable to allow implantation through a small scleral incision, and it has a hemispherical shape to match the curvature of the eye. We demonstrate that it is not cytotoxic and respects optical and thermal safety standards; accelerated ageing shows a lifetime of at least 2 years. POLYRETINA represents significant progress towards the improvement of both visual acuity and visual field with the same device, a current challenging issue in the field.

  13. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  14. Momentum reconstruction procedure for a nonfocusing spectrometer with wide-aperture analyzing magnet and nonuniform field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, L.S.; Malinina, L.V.; Strokovskij, E.A.; Augustyniak, W.; Farhi, L.; Kunne, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The SPES-4 spectrometer at SATURNE II has recently been equipped with a detection system working in coincidence with it. This system uses a wide-aperture dipole magnet. A method is described to determine the momentum vector and interaction vertex of the detected charged particle from its trajectory parameters measured outside the inhomogeneous field of the magnet. The feature of the set-up is that all detectors are placed outside the dipole field, while the target is inside the ∼ 1 T field and the incoming track is not measured. The feature of the method is that it is simple and fast, while it uses only the straight line part of the particle trajectory, which can be measured with sufficient accuracy

  15. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE WIDE-FIELD IMAGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Cooray, A.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Smidt, J. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Lam, A. C.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, K. [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies to a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.

  16. The NIKA2 large-field-of-view millimetre continuum camera for the 30 m IRAM telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; André, P.; Andrianasolo, A.; Aussel, H.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Bracco, A.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; De Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Driessen, E. F. C.; Evans, R.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Leggeri, J.-P.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Maury, A.; Monfardini, A.; Navarro, S.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Rigby, A.; Ritacco, A.; Romero, C.; Roussel, H.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Millimetre-wave continuum astronomy is today an indispensable tool for both general astrophysics studies (e.g. star formation, nearby galaxies) and cosmology (e.g. cosmic microwave background and high-redshift galaxies). General purpose, large-field-of-view instruments are needed to map the sky at intermediate angular scales not accessible by the high-resolution interferometers (e.g. ALMA in Chile, NOEMA in the French Alps) and by the coarse angular resolution space-borne or ground-based surveys (e.g. Planck, ACT, SPT). These instruments have to be installed at the focal plane of the largest single-dish telescopes, which are placed at high altitude on selected dry observing sites. In this context, we have constructed and deployed a three-thousand-pixel dual-band (150 GHz and 260 GHz, respectively 2 mm and 1.15 mm wavelengths) camera to image an instantaneous circular field-of-view of 6.5 arcmin in diameter, and configurable to map the linear polarisation at 260 GHz. Aims: First, we are providing a detailed description of this instrument, named NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Arrays 2), in particular focussing on the cryogenics, optics, focal plane arrays based on Kinetic Inductance Detectors, and the readout electronics. The focal planes and part of the optics are cooled down to the nominal 150 mK operating temperature by means of an adhoc dilution refrigerator. Secondly, we are presenting the performance measured on the sky during the commissioning runs that took place between October 2015 and April 2017 at the 30-m IRAM telescope at Pico Veleta, near Granada (Spain). Methods: We have targeted a number of astronomical sources. Starting from beam-maps on primary and secondary calibrators we have then gone to extended sources and faint objects. Both internal (electronic) and on-the-sky calibrations are applied. The general methods are described in the present paper. Results: NIKA2 has been successfully deployed and commissioned, performing in-line with expectations. In

  17. A Wide Field Auroral Imager (WFAI for low Earth orbit missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Bannister

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the solar wind interaction with Earth's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system requires an ability to observe the charged particle environment and auroral activity from the same platform, generating particle and photon image data which are matched in time and location. While unambiguous identification of the particles giving rise to the aurora requires a Low Earth Orbit satellite, obtaining adequate spatial coverage of aurorae with the relatively limited field of view of current space bourne auroral imaging systems requires much higher orbits. A goal for future satellite missions, therefore, is the development of compact, wide field-of-view optics permitting high spatial and temporal resolution ultraviolet imaging of the aurora from small spacecraft in low polar orbit. Microchannel plate optics offer a method of achieving the required performance. We describe a new, compact instrument design which can observe a wide field-of-view with the required spatial resolution. We report the focusing of 121.6 nm radiation using a spherically-slumped, square-pore microchannel plate with a focal length of 32 mm and an F number of 0.7. Measurements are compared with detailed ray-trace simulations of imaging performance. The angular resolution is 2.7±0.2° for the prototype, corresponding to a footprint ~33 km in diameter for an aurora altitude of 110 km and a spacecraft altitude of 800 km. In preliminary analysis, a more recent optic has demonstrated a full width at half maximum of 5.0±0.3 arcminutes, corresponding to a footprint of ~1 km from the same spacecraft altitude. We further report the imaging properties of a convex microchannel plate detector with planar resistive anode readout; this detector, whose active surface has a radius of curvature of only 100 mm, is shown to meet the spatial resolution and sensitivity requirements of the new wide field auroral imager (WFAI.

  18. A wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis is stable and well tolerated following chronic implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Joel; Nayagam, David A X; Allen, Penelope J; McKelvie, Penelope; Luu, Chi D; Ayton, Lauren N; Freemantle, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; Basa, Meri; McGowan, Ceara C; Shepherd, Robert K; Williams, Chris E

    2013-05-01

    The safety of chronic implantation of a retinal prosthesis in the suprachoroidal space has not been established. This study aimed to determine the safety of a wide-field suprachoroidal electrode array following chronic implantation using histopathologic techniques and electroretinography. A platinum electrode array in a wide silicone substrate was implanted unilaterally in the suprachoroidal space in adult cats (n = 7). The lead and connector were tunneled out of the orbit and positioned subcutaneously. Postsurgical recovery was assessed using fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG). Following 3 months of passive implantation, the animals were terminated and the eyes assessed for the pathologic response to implantation. The implant was mechanically stable in the suprachoroidal space during the course of the study. The implanted eye showed a transient increase in ERG response amplitude at 2 weeks, which returned to normal by 3 months. Pigmentary changes were observed at the distal end of the implant, near the optic disc. Histopathologic assessment revealed a largely intact retina and a thin fibrous capsule around the suprachoroidal implant cavity. The foreign body response was minimal, with sporadic presence of macrophages and no active inflammation. All implanted eyes were negative for bacterial or fungal infections. A midgrade granuloma and thick fibrous buildup surrounded the extraocular cable. Scleral closure was maintained in six of seven eyes. There were no staphylomas or choroidal incarceration. A wide-field retinal prosthesis was stable and well tolerated during long-term suprachoroidal implantation in a cat model. The surgical approach was reproducible and overall safe.

  19. Scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioni, J.; Klein, Y.; Inbar, D.

    1975-01-01

    The scintillation camera is to make pictures of the density distribution of radiation fields created by the injection or administration radioactive medicaments into the body of the patient. It contains a scintillation crystal, several photomultipliers and computer circuits to obtain an analytical function at the exits of the photomultiplier which is dependent on the position of the scintillations at the time in the crystal. The scintillation crystal is flat and spatially corresponds to the production site of radiation. The photomultipliers form a pattern whose basic form consists of at least three photomultipliers. They are assigned to at least two crossing parallel series groups where a vertical running reference axis in the crystal plane belongs to each series group. The computer circuits are each assigned to a reference axis. Each series of a series group assigned to one of the reference axes in the computer circuit has an adder to produce a scintillation dependent series signal. Furthermore, the projection of the scintillation on this reference axis is calculated. A series signal is used for this which originates from a series chosen from two neighbouring photomultiplier series of this group. The scintillation must have appeared between these chosen series. They are termed as basic series. The photomultiplier can be arranged hexagonally or rectangularly. (GG/LH) [de

  20. Review of Calibration Methods for Scheimpflug Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scheimpflug camera offers a wide range of applications in the field of typical close-range photogrammetry, particle image velocity, and digital image correlation due to the fact that the depth-of-view of Scheimpflug camera can be greatly extended according to the Scheimpflug condition. Yet, the conventional calibration methods are not applicable in this case because the assumptions used by classical calibration methodologies are not valid anymore for cameras undergoing Scheimpflug condition. Therefore, various methods have been investigated to solve the problem over the last few years. However, no comprehensive review exists that provides an insight into recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras. This paper presents a survey of recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras with perspective lens, including the general nonparametric imaging model, and analyzes in detail the advantages and drawbacks of the mainstream calibration models with respect to each other. Real data experiments including calibrations, reconstructions, and measurements are performed to assess the performance of the models. The results reveal that the accuracies of the RMM, PLVM, PCIM, and GNIM are basically equal, while the accuracy of GNIM is slightly lower compared with the other three parametric models. Moreover, the experimental results reveal that the parameters of the tangential distortion are likely coupled with the tilt angle of the sensor in Scheimpflug calibration models. The work of this paper lays the foundation of further research of Scheimpflug cameras.

  1. Wide-field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry: Bringing High Resolution to the Far- Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitx, David

    Wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry combines spatial and spectral interferometric data to provide integral field spectroscopic information over a wide field of view. This technology breaks through a mission cost barrier that stands in the way of resolving spatially and measuring spectroscopically at far-infrared wavelengths objects that will lead to a deep understanding of planetary system and galaxy formation processes. A space-based far-IR interferometer will combine Spitzer s superb sensitivity with a two order of magnitude gain in angular resolution, and with spectral resolution in the thousands. With the possible exception of detector technology, which is advancing with support from other research programs, the greatest challenge for far-IR interferometry is to demonstrate that the interferometer will actually produce the images and spectra needed to satisfy mission science requirements. With past APRA support, our team has already developed the highly specialized hardware testbed, image projector, computational model, and image construction software required for the proposed effort, and we have access to an ideal test facility.

  2. Simple concept for a wide-field lensless digital holographic microscope using a laser diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinda-Ougba A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wide-field, lensless digital holographic microscopy is a new microscopic imaging technique for telemedicine and for resource limited setting [1]. In this contribution we propose a very simple wide-field lensless digital holographic microscope using a laser diode. It is based on in-line digital holography which is capable to provide amplitude and phase images of a sample resulting from numerical reconstruction. The numerical reconstruction consists of the angular spectrum propagation method together with a phase retrieval algorithm. Amplitude and phase images of the sample with a resolution of ∽2 µm and with ∽24 mm2 field of view are obtained. We evaluate our setup by imaging first the 1951 USAF resolution test chart to verify the resolution. Second, we record holograms of blood smear and diatoms. The individual specimen can be easily identified after the numerical reconstruction. Our system is a very simple, compact and low-cost possibility of realizing a microscope capable of imaging biological samples. The availability of the phase provide topographic information of the sample extending the application of this system to be not only for biological sample but also for transparent microstructure. It is suitable for fault detection, shape and roughness measurements of these structures.

  3. Optical system design of CCD star sensor with large aperture and wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Jiang, Lun; Li, Ying-chao; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-10-01

    The star sensor is one of the sensors which are used to determine the spatial attitude of the space vehicle. An optical system of star sensor with large aperture and wide field of view was designed in this paper. The effective focal length of the optics was 16mm, and the F-number is 1.2, the field of view of the optical system is 20°.The working spectrum is 500 to 800 nanometer. The lens system selects a similar complicated Petzval structure and special glass-couple, and get a high imaging quality in the whole spectrum range. For each field-of-view point, the values of the modulation transfer function at 50 cycles/mm is higher than 0.3. On the detecting plane, the encircled energy in a circle of 14μm diameter could be up to 80% of the total energy. In the whole range of the field of view, the dispersion spot diameter in the imaging plane is no larger than 13μm. The full field distortion was less than 0.1%, which was helpful to obtain the accurate location of the reference star through the picture gotten by the star sensor. The lateral chromatic aberration is less than 2μm in the whole spectrum range.

  4. Wide-field two-photon microscopy with temporal focusing and HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Elijah Y. S.; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy is achieved through spatial-temporal focusing and has been demonstrated previously. The advantage of this method is that a large area may be imaged without scanning resulting in higher throughput of the imaging system. Because it is a widefield technique, the optical sectioning effect is considerably poorer than with conventional spatial focusing two-photon microscopy. Here we propose wide-field two-photon microscopy based on spatio-temporal focusing and employing background rejection based on the HiLo microscope principle. We demonstrate the effects of applying HiLo microscopy to widefield temporally focused two-photon microscopy.

  5. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  6. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  7. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  8. Electrolocation-based underwater obstacle avoidance using wide-field integration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimble, Kedar D; Faddy, James M; Humbert, J Sean

    2014-01-01

    Weakly electric fish are capable of efficiently performing obstacle avoidance in dark and navigationally challenging aquatic environments using electrosensory information. This sensory modality enables extraction of relevant proximity information about surrounding obstacles by interpretation of perturbations induced to the fish’s self-generated electric field. In this paper, reflexive obstacle avoidance is demonstrated by extracting relative proximity information using spatial decompositions of the perturbation signal, also called an electric image. Electrostatics equations were formulated for mathematically expressing electric images due to a straight tunnel to the electric field generated with a planar electro-sensor model. These equations were further used to design a wide-field integration based static output feedback controller. The controller was implemented in quasi-static simulations for environments with complicated geometries modelled using finite element methods to demonstrate sense and avoid behaviours. The simulation results were confirmed by performing experiments using a computer operated gantry system in environments lined with either conductive or non-conductive objects acting as global stimuli to the field of the electro-sensor. The proposed approach is computationally inexpensive and readily implementable, making underwater autonomous navigation in real-time feasible. (paper)

  9. Optical design of a Michelson wide-field multiple-aperture telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaing, Frederic; Sorrente, Beatrice; Fleury, Bruno; Laubier, David

    2004-02-01

    Multiple-Aperture Optical Telescopes (MAOTs) are a promising solution for very high resolution imaging. In the Michelson configuration, the instrument is made of sub-telescopes distributed in the pupil and combined by a common telescope via folding periscopes. The phasing conditions of the sub-pupils lead to specific optical constraints in these subsystems. The amplitude of main contributors to the wavefront error (WFE) is given as a function of high level requirements (such as field or resolution) and free parameters, mainly the sub-telescope type, magnification and diameter. It is shown that for the periscopes, the field-to-resolution ratio is the main design driver and can lead to severe specifications. The effect of sub-telescopes aberrations on the global WFE can be minimized by reducing their diameter. An analytical tool for the MAOT design has been derived from this analysis, illustrated and validated in three different cases: LEO or GEO Earth observation and astronomy with extremely large telescopes. The last two cases show that a field larger than 10 000 resolution elements can be covered with a very simple MAOT based on Mersenne paraboloid-paraboloid sub-telescopes. Michelson MAOTs are thus a solution to be considered for high resolution wide-field imaging, from space or ground.

  10. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  11. FNTD radiation dosimetry system enhanced with dual-color wide-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrod, M.S.; Fomenko, V.V.; Bartz, J.A.; Ding, F.

    2014-01-01

    At high neutron and photon doses Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs) require operation in analog mode and the measurement results depend on individual crystal color center concentration (coloration). We describe a new method for radiation dosimetry using FNTDs, which includes non-destructive, automatic sensitivity calibration for each individual FNTD. In the method presented, confocal laser scanning fluorescent imaging of FNTDs is combined with dual-color wide field imaging of the FNTD. The calibration is achieved by measuring the color center concentration in the detector through fluorescence imaging and reducing the effect of diffuse reflection on the lapped surface of the FNTD by imaging with infra-red (IR) light. The dual-color imaging of FNTDs is shown to provide a good estimation of the detector sensitivity at high doses of photons and neutrons, where conventional track counting is impeded by track overlap. - Highlights: • New method and optical imaging head was developed for FNTD used at high doses. • Dual-color wide-field imaging used for color center concentration measurement. • Green fluorescence corrected by diffuse reflection used for sensitivity correction. • FNTD dose measurements performed in analog processing mode

  12. Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network Visualized Using Wide-Field Montage Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Tomoko; Ishibazawa, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Taiji; Yokota, Harumasa; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2016-07-01

    We quantitatively analyzed the features of a radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network visualized using wide-field montage optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in healthy human eyes. Twenty eyes of 20 healthy subjects were recruited. En face 3 × 3-mm OCT angiograms of multiple locations in the posterior pole were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti, and wide-field montage images of the RPC were created. To evaluate the RPC density, the montage images were binarized and skeletonized. The correlation between the RPC density and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by an OCT circle scan was investigated. The RPC at the temporal retina was detected as far as 7.6 ± 0.7 mm from the edge of the optic disc but not around the perifoveal area within 0.9 ± 0.1 mm of the fovea. Capillary-free zones beside the first branches of the arterioles were significantly (P optic disc edge were 13.6 ± 0.8, 11.9 ± 0.9, and 10.4 ± 0.9 mm-1. The RPC density also was correlated significantly (r = 0.64, P network. The RPC is present in the superficial peripapillary retina in proportion to the RNFL thickness, supporting the idea that the RPC may be the vascular network primarily responsible for RNFL nourishment.

  13. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-08

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.

  14. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  15. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  16. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  17. Wide-field two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Li, Guo; Wang, Lidai; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Maslov, Konstantin; Engelbach, John A.; Garbow, Joel R.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an emerging technique that directly images optical absorption in tissue at high spatial resolution. To date, the majority of OR-PAM systems are based on single focused optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, limiting the wide-field imaging speed. While one-dimensional multifocal OR-PAM (1D-MFOR-PAM) has been developed, the potential of microlens and transducer arrays has not been fully realized. Here, we present the development of two-dimensional multifocal optical-resolution photoacoustic computed microscopy (2D-MFOR-PACM), using a 2D microlens array and a full-ring ultrasonic transducer array. The 10 × 10 mm2 microlens array generates 1800 optical foci within the focal plane of the 512-element transducer array, and raster scanning the microlens array yields optical-resolution photoacoustic images. The system has improved the in-plane resolution of a full-ring transducer array from ≥100 µm to 29 µm and achieved an imaging time of 36 seconds over a 10 × 10 mm2 field of view. In comparison, the 1D-MFOR-PAM would take more than 4 minutes to image over the same field of view. The imaging capability of the system was demonstrated on phantoms and animals both ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24322226

  18. Deployment of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Good, John M.; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; Kriel, Herman; Ramsey, Jason; Bryant, Randy; Elliot, Linda; Fowler, Jim; Häuser, Marco; Landiau, Martin; Leck, Ron; Odewahn, Stephen; Perry, Dave; Savage, Richard; Schroeder Mrozinski, Emily; Shetrone, Matthew; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; Damm, George; Gebhardt, Karl; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Martin, Jerry; Armandroff, Taft; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2016-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope, located in West Texas at the McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker, which moves the four-mirror corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. We have completed a major multi-year upgrade of the HET that has substantially increased the pupil size to 10 meters and the field of view to 22 arcminutes by replacing the corrector, tracker, and prime focus instrument package. The new wide field HET will feed the revolutionary integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX§), a new low resolution spectrograph (LRS2), an upgraded high resolution spectrograph (HRS2), and later the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF). The upgrade is being commissioned and this paper discusses the completion of the installation, the commissioning process and the performance of the new HET.

  19. Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Craniotomy-based window implants are commonly used for microscopic imaging, in head-fixed rodents, however their field of view is typically small and incompatible with mesoscopic functional mapping of cortex. New Method We describe a reproducible and simple procedure for chronic through-bone wide-field imaging in awake head-fixed mice providing stable optical access for chronic imaging over large areas of the cortex for months. Results The preparation is produced by applying clear-drying dental cement to the intact mouse skull, followed by a glass coverslip to create a partially transparent imaging surface. Surgery time takes about 30 minutes. A single set-screw provides a stable means of attachment for mesoscale assessment without obscuring the cortical field of view. Comparison with Existing Methods We demonstrate the utility of this method by showing seed-pixel functional connectivity maps generated from spontaneous cortical activity of GCAMP6 signals in both awake and anesthetized mice. Conclusions We propose that the intact skull preparation described here may be used for most longitudinal studies that do not require micron scale resolution and where cortical neural or vascular signals are recorded with intrinsic sensors. PMID:27102043

  20. Three-reflections telescope proposal as flat-field anastigmat for wide field observations at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M.; Lemaître, G.; Viotti, R.; La Padula, C.; Comte, G.; Blanc, M.; Boer, M.

    It is now evident that the exceptional seeing at Dome C will allow, in the next years, to pursue astronomical programs with conditions better than at any other observatory in the world, and very close to space experiments. Considering a new type of wide-field telescope, particular astronomical programs could be well optimized for observations at Dome C such as surveys for the discovery and follow up of near-Earth asteroids, search for extra-solar planets using transit or micro-lensing events, and stellar luminosity variations. We propose to build a 1.5 2m class three-reflections telescope, with 1 1.5degree FOV, four times shorter than an equivalent Schmidt telescope, and providing a flat field without requiring a triplet- or quadruplet-lens corrector since its design is anastigmatic. We present the preliminary optical tests of such designs: MINITRUST1 and 2 are two 45cm identical prototypes based in France and Italy, and manufactured using active optics techniques.

  1. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented.

  2. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  3. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: telescope design and simulated performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics missions by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, the team has been working with the WFIRST Science Definition Team to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the current interim reference mission point design of the payload, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slit-less spectroscopy science channels. We also present the first results of Structural/Thermal/Optical performance modeling of the telescope point design.

  4. Commissioning of a medical accelerator photon beam Monte Carlo simulation using wide-field profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, J; Franco, L; Gomez, F; Iglesias, A; Lobato, R; Mosquera, J; Pazos, A; Pardo, J; Pombar, M; RodrIguez, A; Sendon, J

    2004-01-01

    A method for commissioning an EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation of medical linac photon beams through wide-field lateral profiles at moderate depth in a water phantom is presented. Although depth-dose profiles are commonly used for nominal energy determination, our study shows that they are quite insensitive to energy changes below 0.3 MeV (0.6 MeV) for a 6 MV (15 MV) photon beam. Also, the depth-dose profile dependence on beam radius adds an additional uncertainty in their use for tuning nominal energy. Simulated 40 cm x 40 cm lateral profiles at 5 cm depth in a water phantom show greater sensitivity to both nominal energy and radius. Beam parameters could be determined by comparing only these curves with measured data

  5. Wide-Field Imaging of Single-Nanoparticle Extinction with Sub-nm2 Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lukas M.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2018-03-01

    We report on a highly sensitive wide-field imaging technique for quantitative measurement of the optical extinction cross section σext of single nanoparticles. The technique is simple and high speed, and it enables the simultaneous acquisition of hundreds of nanoparticles for statistical analysis. Using rapid referencing, fast acquisition, and a deconvolution analysis, a shot-noise-limited sensitivity down to 0.4 nm2 is achieved. Measurements on a set of individual gold nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter using this method yield σext=(10.0 ±3.1 ) nm2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations and well above the background fluctuations of 0.9 nm2 .

  6. Commissioning of a medical accelerator photon beam Monte Carlo simulation using wide-field profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Franco, L [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gomez, F [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lobato, R [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mosquera, J [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pombar, M [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); RodrIguez, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sendon, J [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2004-11-07

    A method for commissioning an EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation of medical linac photon beams through wide-field lateral profiles at moderate depth in a water phantom is presented. Although depth-dose profiles are commonly used for nominal energy determination, our study shows that they are quite insensitive to energy changes below 0.3 MeV (0.6 MeV) for a 6 MV (15 MV) photon beam. Also, the depth-dose profile dependence on beam radius adds an additional uncertainty in their use for tuning nominal energy. Simulated 40 cm x 40 cm lateral profiles at 5 cm depth in a water phantom show greater sensitivity to both nominal energy and radius. Beam parameters could be determined by comparing only these curves with measured data.

  7. Social Work Programs' Use of the World Wide Web to Facilitate Field Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Finn

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing a systems model, this study presents a content analysis of the Websites of social work academic programs in the United States. A sample of 292 academic programs was extracted from the Baccalaureate Programs' Directors' (BPD online directory of CSWE-accredited social work programs. Of these, 119 were MSW or MSW/BSW programs; the remaining 173 were BSW programs. Although many aspects of Website content were examined, field curriculum was the central focus of this study. The results demonstrate the wide variety of information included on the Websites. MSW and MSW/BSW program Websites offer more information than BSW programs. However, most programs are not making use of the Internet to obtain feedback, create interaction, or provide support. A variety of model Websites are offered to assist social work academic programs develop and maintain their own Websites.

  8. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD Hα SURVEY OF NEARBY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Moss, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field Hα imaging survey of eight nearby (z = 0.02-0.03) Abell clusters. We have measured Hα fluxes and equivalent widths for 465 galaxies, of which 360 are new detections. The survey was designed to obtain complete emission-line-selected inventories of star-forming galaxies in the inner regions of these clusters, extending to star formation rates below 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 . This paper describes the observations, data processing, and source identification procedures, and presents an Hα and R-band catalog of detected cluster members and other candidates. Future papers in the series will use these data to study the completeness of spectroscopically based star formation surveys, and to quantify the effects of cluster environment on the present-day populations of star-forming galaxies. The data will also provide a valuable foundation for imaging surveys of redshifted Hα emission in more distant clusters.

  9. Leaf Area Index Estimation Using Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data in an Agriculture Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangqin; Gu, Xingfa; Meng, Qingyan; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Xiang; Wei, Zheng; Jia, Kun; Wang, Chunmei

    2017-07-08

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type. The radiative transfer model was firstly used to simulate the physical relationship between canopy reflectance and LAI under different soil and vegetation conditions, and then the training sample dataset was formed. Then, neural networks (NNs) were used to develop the LAI estimation algorithm using the training sample dataset. Green, red and near-infrared band reflectances of GF-1 WFV data were used as the input variables of the NNs, as well as the corresponding LAI was the output variable. The validation results using field LAI measurements in the agriculture region indicated that the LAI estimation algorithm could achieve satisfactory results (such as R² = 0.818, RMSE = 0.50). In addition, the developed LAI estimation algorithm had potential to operationally generate LAI datasets using GF-1 WFV land surface reflectance data, which could provide high spatial and temporal resolution LAI data for agriculture, ecosystem and environmental management researches.

  10. Wide field of view CT and acromioclavicular joint instability: A technical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, David R; Troupis, John M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin

    2015-06-01

    A 21-year-old female with a traumatic shoulder injury is investigated and managed for symptoms relating to this injury. Pathology at the acromioclavicular joint is detected clinically; however, clinical examination and multiple imaging modalities do not reach a unified diagnosis on the grading of this acromioclavicular joint injury. When management appropriate to that suggested injury grading fail to help the patient's symptoms, further investigation methods were utilised. Wide field of view, dynamic CT (4D CT) is conducted on the patient's affected shoulder using a 320 × 0.5 mm detector multislice CT. Scans were conducted with a static table as the patient completed three movements of the affected shoulder. Capturing multiple data sets per second over a z-axis of 16 cm, measurements of the acromioclavicular joint were made, to show dynamic changes at the joint. Acromioclavicular (AC) joint translations were witnessed in three planes (a previously unrecognised pathology in the grading of acromioclavicular joint injuries). Translation in multiple planes was also not evident on careful clinical examination of this patient. AC joint width, anterior-posterior translation, superior-inferior translation and coracoclavicular width were measured with planar reconstructions while volume-rendered images and dynamic sequences aiding visual understanding of the pathology. Wide field of view dynamic CT (4D CT) is an accurate and quick modality to diagnose complex acromioclavicular joint injury. It provides dynamic information that no other modality can; 4D CT shows future benefits for clinical approach to diagnosis and management of acromioclavicular joint injury, and other musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. WIDE FIELD CO MAPPING IN THE REGION OF IRAS 19312+1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi [Department of Astronomy and Geodesy, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ladeyschikov, Dmitry A.; Sobolev, Andrej M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zhang, Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yung, Bosco H. K., E-mail: nakashima.junichi@gmail.com [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of wide field CO mapping in the region of IRAS 19312+1950. This Infrared Astronomical Satellite ( IRAS ) object exhibits SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser emission, and is embedded in a chemically rich molecular component, the origin of which is still unknown. In order to reveal the entire structure and gas mass of the surrounding molecular component for the first time, we have mapped a wide region around IRAS 19312+1950 in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0, {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 and C{sup 18}O J = 1–0 lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In conjunction with archival CO maps, we investigated a region up to 20′ × 20′ in size around this IRAS object. We calculated the CO gas mass assuming local thermal equilibrium, the stellar velocity through the interstellar medium assuming an analytic model of bow shock, and the absolute luminosity, using the latest archival data and trigonometric parallax distance. The derived gas mass (225 M {sub ⊙}–478 M {sub ⊙}) of the molecular component and the relatively large luminosity (2.63 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}) suggest that the central SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser source is a red supergiant rather than an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star or post-AGB star.

  12. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  13. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  14. Wide field of view common-path lateral-shearing digital holographic interference microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Trivedi, Vismay; Mahajan, Swapnil; Patel, Nimit; Joglekar, Mugdha; Chhaniwal, Vani; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of living cells provides important information about the cell morphology and its time variation. Off-axis, digital holographic interference microscopy is an ideal tool for 3-D imaging, parameter extraction, and classification of living cells. Two-beam digital holographic microscopes, which are usually employed, provide high-quality 3-D images of micro-objects, albeit with lower temporal stability. Common-path digital holographic geometries, in which the reference beam is derived from the object beam, provide higher temporal stability along with high-quality 3-D images. Self-referencing geometry is the simplest of the common-path techniques, in which a portion of the object beam itself acts as the reference, leading to compact setups using fewer optical elements. However, it has reduced field of view, and the reference may contain object information. Here, we describe the development of a common-path digital holographic microscope, employing a shearing plate and converting one of the beams into a separate reference by employing a pin-hole. The setup is as compact as self-referencing geometry, while providing field of view as wide as that of a two-beam microscope. The microscope is tested by imaging and quantifying the morphology and dynamics of human erythrocytes. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Dual-conjugate adaptive optics for wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, Jörgen; Knutsson, Per; Popovic, Zoran; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2009-03-16

    We present analysis and preliminary laboratory testing of a real-time dual-conjugate adaptive optics (DCAO) instrument for ophthalmology that will enable wide-field high resolution imaging of the retina in vivo. The setup comprises five retinal guide stars (GS) and two deformable mirrors (DM), one conjugate to the pupil and one conjugate to a plane close to the retina. The DCAO instrument has a closed-loop wavefront sensing wavelength of 834 nm and an imaging wavelength of 575 nm. It incorporates an array of collimator lenses to spatially filter the light from all guide stars using one adjustable iris, and images the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources on a single detector. Zemax simulations were performed at 834 nm and 575 nm with the Navarro 99 and the Liou- Brennan eye models. Two correction alternatives were evaluated; conventional single conjugate AO (SCAO, using one GS and a pupil DM) and DCAO (using multiple GS and two DM). Zemax simulations at 575 nm based on the Navarro 99 eye model show that the diameter of the corrected field of view for diffraction-limited imaging (Strehl >or= 0.8) increases from 1.5 deg with SCAO to 6.5 deg using DCAO. The increase for the less stringent condition of a wavefront error of 1 rad or less (Strehl >or= 0.37) is from 3 deg with SCAO to approximately 7.4 deg using DCAO. Corresponding results for the Liou-Brennan eye model are 3.1 deg (SCAO) and 8.2 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.8, and 4.8 deg (SCAO) and 9.6 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.37. Potential gain in corrected field of view with DCAO is confirmed both by laboratory experiments on a model eye and by preliminary in vivo imaging of a human eye. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  16. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare, E-mail: amilazzo@ncmir.ucsd.edu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lanman, Jason [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Klienfelder, Stuart [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Xuong, Nguyen-Huu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  17. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Moldovan, Grigore; Lanman, Jason; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C.; Klienfelder, Stuart; Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kirkland, Angus I.; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2010-01-01

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  18. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras; Aplicabilidade do fantoma hydra para realizacao dos testes de uniformidade de campo em gama camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L., E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H., E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br, E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV

  19. A Comprehensive Study of ULIRGs in the Herschel Very Wide Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haojing

    Extreme starbursting galaxies exist at all redshifts, and most of them are so heavily obscured by dust that they are Ultra-Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (ULIRGs) while being faint in optical to near-IR. The latest example is at record-high z=6.337, approaching the end of the reionization. There have been numerous suggestions that understanding ULIRG is critical in constructing a comprehensive picture of galaxy formation history. These range from the hypothesis three decades ago that the ULIRG phase is the prelude to QSO and large ellipticals, to the recent tentative evidence that ULIRG could make a large (if not dominant) contribution to the global star formation rate density (GSFRD) at z>1. However, the exact nature of ULIRG and their role in galaxy assembly still remain illusive, largely due to the limited sample size and the severe source confusion problem in the far-IR (FIR). The very wide field surveys by Herschel have provided the best opportunity to date to systematically study ULIRG beyond the local universe, most importantly because of their wide coverage and high sensitivity to probe large volumes to high redshifts and the multiple FIR bands that allow for direct measurement of the IR luminosities. We propose to construct the largest possible ULIRG sample in these fields at all redshifts, and to study the evolution of ULIRGs. We will concentrate on the HerMES, the H-ATLAS and the HerS programs whose data are already public. While the confusion problem still persists in these Herschel data, we have demonstrated that it is possible to directly use the position priors from optical images to decompose the candidate contributors to a given Herschel source if its S/N suffices (Yan et al. 2014). This is a significant improvement over previous studies where higher-resolution mid-IR (mostly Spitzer MIPS 24-micron) data had to be used as the proxies to the FIR source locations, because (1) such proxy images also suffer from the blending problem in the first place and

  20. Cycloid scanning for wide field optical coherence tomography endomicroscopy and angiography in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G.

    2018-01-01

    Devices that perform wide field-of-view (FOV) precision optical scanning are important for endoscopic assessment and diagnosis of luminal organ disease such as in gastroenterology. Optical scanning for in vivo endoscopic imaging has traditionally relied on one or more proximal mechanical actuators, limiting scan accuracy and imaging speed. There is a need for rapid and precise two-dimensional (2D) microscanning technologies to enable the translation of benchtop scanning microscopies to in vivo endoscopic imaging. We demonstrate a new cycloid scanner in a tethered capsule for ultrahigh speed, side-viewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) endomicroscopy in vivo. The cycloid capsule incorporates two scanners: a piezoelectrically actuated resonant fiber scanner to perform a precision, small FOV, fast scan and a micromotor scanner to perform a wide FOV, slow scan. Together these scanners distally scan the beam circumferentially in a 2D cycloid pattern, generating an unwrapped 1 mm × 38 mm strip FOV. Sequential strip volumes can be acquired with proximal pullback to image centimeter-long regions. Using ultrahigh speed 1.3 μm wavelength swept-source OCT at a 1.17 MHz axial scan rate, we imaged the human rectum at 3 volumes/s. Each OCT strip volume had 166 × 2322 axial scans with 8.5 μm axial and 30 μm transverse resolution. We further demonstrate OCT angiography at 0.5 volumes/s, producing volumetric images of vasculature. In addition to OCT applications, cycloid scanning promises to enable precision 2D optical scanning for other imaging modalities, including fluorescence confocal and nonlinear microscopy. PMID:29682598

  1. Refined adaptive optics simulation with wide field of view for the E-ELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebbo, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Refined simulation tools for wide field AO systems (such as MOAO, MCAO or LTAO) on ELTs present new challenges. Increasing the number of degrees of freedom (scales as the square of the telescope diameter) makes the standard simulation's codes useless due to the huge number of operations to be performed at each step of the Adaptive Optics (AO) loop process. This computational burden requires new approaches in the computation of the DM voltages from WFS data. The classical matrix inversion and the matrix vector multiplication have to be replaced by a cleverer iterative resolution of the Least Square or Minimum Mean Square Error criterion (based on sparse matrices approaches). Moreover, for this new generation of AO systems, concepts themselves will become more complex: data fusion coming from multiple Laser and Natural Guide Stars (LGS / NGS) will have to be optimized, mirrors covering all the field of view associated to dedicated mirrors inside the scientific instrument itself will have to be coupled using split or integrated tomography schemes, differential pupil or/and field rotations will have to be considered, etc. All these new entries should be carefully simulated, analysed and quantified in terms of performance before any implementation in AO systems. For those reasons I developed, in collaboration with the ONERA, a full simulation code, based on iterative solution of linear systems with many parameters (use of sparse matrices). On this basis, I introduced new concepts of filtering and data fusion (LGS / NGS) to effectively manage modes such as tip, tilt and defocus in the entire process of tomographic reconstruction. The code will also eventually help to develop and test complex control laws (Multi-DM and multi-field) who have to manage a combination of adaptive telescope and post-focal instrument including dedicated deformable mirrors. The first application of this simulation tool has been studied in the framework of the EAGLE multi-object spectrograph

  2. Systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable storage media for wide-field interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G. (Inventor); Leisawitz, David T. (Inventor); Rinehart, Stephen A. (Inventor); Memarsadeghi, Nargess (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable storage media for wide field imaging interferometry. The method includes for each point in a two dimensional detector array over a field of view of an image: gathering a first interferogram from a first detector and a second interferogram from a second detector, modulating a path-length for a signal from an image associated with the first interferogram in the first detector, overlaying first data from the modulated first detector and second data from the second detector, and tracking the modulating at every point in a two dimensional detector array comprising the first detector and the second detector over a field of view for the image. The method then generates a wide-field data cube based on the overlaid first data and second data for each point. The method can generate an image from the wide-field data cube.

  3. Breast-specific gamma-imaging: molecular imaging of the breast using 99mTc-sestamibi and a small-field-of-view gamma-camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Phan, Trinh D; Blanchard, Deborah A; Miley, Abbe

    2009-12-01

    Breast-specific gamma-imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging, is breast scintigraphy using a small-field-of-view gamma-camera and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. There are many different types of breast cancer, and many have characteristics making them challenging to detect by mammography and ultrasound. BSGI is a cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific technique that complements other imaging modalities currently being used to identify malignant lesions in the breast. Using the current Society of Nuclear Medicine guidelines for breast scintigraphy, Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital began conducting BSGI, breast scintigraphy with a breast-optimized gamma-camera. In our experience, optimal imaging has been conducted in the Breast Center by a nuclear medicine technologist. In addition, the breast radiologists read the BSGI images in correlation with the mammograms, ultrasounds, and other imaging studies performed. By modifying the current Society of Nuclear Medicine protocol to adapt it to the practice of breast scintigraphy with these new systems and by providing image interpretation in conjunction with the other breast imaging studies, our center has found BSGI to be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The development of a small-field-of-view gamma-camera, designed to optimize breast imaging, has resulted in improved detection capabilities, particularly for lesions less than 1 cm. Our experience with this procedure has proven to aid in the clinical work-up of many of our breast patients. After reading this article, the reader should understand the history of breast scintigraphy, the pharmaceutical used, patient preparation and positioning, imaging protocol guidelines, clinical indications, and the role of breast scintigraphy in breast cancer diagnosis.

  4. Nerve Fiber Flux Analysis Using Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Liang; Liu, Li; Huang, David

    2018-02-01

    To devise a method to quantify nerve fibers over their arcuate courses over an extended peripapillary area using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Participants were imaged with 8 × 8-mm volumetric OCT scans centered at the optic disc. A new quantity, nerve fiber flux (NFF), represents the cross-sectional area transected perpendicular to the nerve fibers. The peripapillary area was divided into 64 tracks with equal flux. An iterative algorithm traced the trajectory of the tracks assuming that the relative distribution of the NFF was conserved with compensation for fiber connections to ganglion cells on the macular side. Average trajectory was averaged from normal eyes and use to calculate the NFF maps for glaucomatous eyes. The NFF maps were divided into eight sectors that correspond to visual field regions. There were 24 healthy and 10 glaucomatous eyes enrolled. The algorithm converged on similar patterns of NFL tracks for all healthy eyes. In glaucomatous eyes, NFF correlated with visual field sensitivity in the arcuate sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.53-0.62). Focal nerve fiber loss in glaucomatous eyes appeared as uniform tracks of NFF defects that followed the expected arcuate fiber trajectory. Using an algorithm based on the conservation of flux, we derived nerve fiber trajectories in the peripapillary area. The NFF map is useful for the visualization of focal defects and quantification of sector nerve fiber loss from wide-area volumetric OCT scans. NFF provides a cumulative measure of volumetric loss along nerve fiber tracks and could improve the detection of focal glaucoma damage.

  5. Discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variables with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Langer, N.; Stringfellow, G. S.; Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Grebel, E. K.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    We report the discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) stars via detection of circular shells (typical of confirmed and candidate LBVs) and follow-up spectroscopy of their central stars. The shells were detected at 22 μm in the archival data of the Mid-Infrared All Sky Survey carried out with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Follow-up optical spectroscopy of the central stars of the shells conducted with the renewed Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) showed that their spectra are very similar to those of the well-known LBVs P Cygni and AG Car, and the recently discovered candidate LBV MN112, which implies the LBV classification for these stars as well. The LBV classification of both stars is supported by detection of their significant photometric variability: one of them brightened in the R and I bands by 0.68 ± 0.10 and 0.61 ± 0.04 mag, respectively, during the last 13-18 years, while the second one (known as Hen 3-1383) varies its B, V, R, I and Ks brightnesses by ≃0.5-0.9 mag on time-scales from 10 d to decades. We also found significant changes in the spectrum of Hen 3-1383 on a time-scale of ≃3 months, which provides additional support for the LBV classification of this star. Further spectrophotometric monitoring of both stars is required to firmly prove their LBV status. We discuss a connection between the location of massive stars in the field and their fast rotation, and suggest that the LBV activity of the newly discovered candidate LBVs might be directly related to their possible runaway status. a USNO B-1 (Monet et al. 2003); bDENIS; c2MASS; dSALT; ePROMPT.

  6. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  7. ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography findings. Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test used for comparisons of nonparametric continuous variables. All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (five of the five eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard fundus autofluorescence centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). The UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography abnormalities. The UWFFAF along with optical coherence tomography can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy patients.

  8. Evaluation of glutaraldehyde and povidone iodine for sterilization of wide-field contact vitrectomy lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T; Sharma, S; Singh, J; Rao, V; Chalam, K V

    2001-01-01

    Wide-field vitrectomy contact lenses are currently sterilized with ethylene oxide gas, and other lenses with autoclaving. To maintain a large inventory or possibly run the risk of loss of lens quality with repeated autoclaving, glutaraldehyde 2% and povidone iodine 5% solution were evaluated as possible sterilizing agents. Ethylene oxide presterilized lenses were contaminated with known concentrations (10(5) organisms/mL) of bacteria (S. epidemidis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis), and fungi (A. flavus, C. albicans) for 5 minutes. The test lenses were treated with glutaraldehyde or povidone iodine for 5, 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes, and controls with sterilized water for a similar duration. Following treatment, both test and control lenses were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. The swabs were cultured for bacteria (tryptone soya broth 48 hours), and fungi (Saubourd's dextrose broth 5 days). The culture was negative for both glutaraldehyde- and povidone iodine-treated lenses against all organisms at all time points except B subtilis, which needed 120 minutes treatment. Two hours contact time with glutaraldehyde 2% or providone iodine 5% can sterilize vitrectomy contact lenses against common bacteria and fungi without affecting lens quality.

  9. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu; Tham, Douglas; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  11. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu

    2011-06-24

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  13. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  14. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  15. Novel computer-based endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia

    1995-05-01

    We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.

  16. Advanced Wide-Field Interferometric Microscopy for Nanoparticle Sensing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Oguzhan

    Nanoparticles have a key role in today's biotechnological research owing to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. While metallic, polymer, and semiconductor based artificial nanoparticles are widely used as labels or targeted drug delivery agents, labeled and label-free detection of natural nanoparticles promise new ways for viral diagnostics and therapeutic applications. The increasing impact of nanoparticles in bio- and nano-technology necessitates the development of advanced tools for their accurate detection and characterization. Optical microscopy techniques have been an essential part of research for visualizing micron-scale particles. However, when it comes to the visualization of individual nano-scale particles, they have shown inadequate success due to the resolution and visibility limitations. Interferometric microscopy techniques have gained significant attention for providing means to overcome the nanoparticle visibility issue that is often the limiting factor in the imaging techniques based solely on the scattered light. In this dissertation, we develop a rigorous physical model to simulate the single nanoparticle optical response in a common-path wide-field interferometric microscopy (WIM) system. While the fundamental elements of the model can be used to analyze nanoparticle response in any generic wide-field imaging systems, we focus on imaging with a layered substrate (common-path interferometer) where specular reflection of illumination provides the reference light for interferometry. A robust physical model is quintessential in realizing the full potential of an optical system, and throughout this dissertation, we make use of it to benchmark our experimental findings, investigate the utility of various optical configurations, reconstruct weakly scattering nanoparticle images, as well as to characterize and discriminate interferometric nanoparticle responses. This study investigates the integration of advanced optical schemes in WIM with two

  17. Scintillating camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasbloem, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a scintillating camera and in particular to an apparatus for determining the position coordinates of a light pulse emitting point on the anode of an image intensifier tube which forms part of a scintillating camera, comprising at least three photomultipliers which are positioned to receive light emitted by the anode screen on their photocathodes, circuit means for processing the output voltages of the photomultipliers to derive voltages that are representative of the position coordinates; a pulse-height discriminator circuit adapted to be fed with the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers for gating the output of the processing circuit when the amplitude of the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers lies in a predetermined amplitude range, and means for compensating the distortion introduced in the image on the anode screen

  18. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  19. Relative camera localisation in non-overlapping camera networks using multiple trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present an automatic camera calibration algorithm using multiple trajectories in a multiple camera network with non-overlapping field-of-views (FOV). Visible trajectories within a camera FOV are assumed to be measured with respect to the camera local co-ordinate system.

  20. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H 2 O and CH 4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51–054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f λ , so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH 3 . These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722–05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  1. Towards an automatic wind speed and direction profiler for Wide Field adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, G.; Turchi, A.; Masciadri, E.; Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.

    2018-05-01

    Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) systems are among the most sophisticated adaptive optics (AO) systems available today on large telescopes. Knowledge of the vertical spatio-temporal distribution of wind speed (WS) and direction (WD) is fundamental to optimize the performance of such systems. Previous studies already proved that the Gemini Multi-Conjugated AO system (GeMS) is able to retrieve measurements of the WS and WD stratification using the SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) technique and to store measurements in the telemetry data. In order to assess the reliability of these estimates and of the SLODAR technique applied to such complex AO systems, in this study we compared WS and WD values retrieved from GeMS with those obtained with the atmospheric model Meso-NH on a rich statistical sample of nights. It has previously been proved that the latter technique provided excellent agreement with a large sample of radiosoundings, both in statistical terms and on individual flights. It can be considered, therefore, as an independent reference. The excellent agreement between GeMS measurements and the model that we find in this study proves the robustness of the SLODAR approach. To bypass the complex procedures necessary to achieve automatic measurements of the wind with GeMS, we propose a simple automatic method to monitor nightly WS and WD using Meso-NH model estimates. Such a method can be applied to whatever present or new-generation facilities are supported by WFAO systems. The interest of this study is, therefore, well beyond the optimization of GeMS performance.

  2. Tracker controls development and control architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jason R.; Beno, Joe; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade, the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory are developing a precision tracker system - a 15,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 14 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). This level of system complexity and emphasis on fail-safe operation is typical of large modern telescopes and numerous industrial applications. Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, a highly versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that easily links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential. The Matlab/Simulink simulation environment, coupled with dSPACE controller hardware, was selected for controls development and realization. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. Custom designed position feedback loops, supplemented by feed forward force commands for enhanced performance, and algorithms to accommodate self-locking gearboxes (for safety), reside in dSPACE. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of software and hardware, design choices and analysis, and supporting simulations (primarily Simulink).

  3. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  4. Electronics for a prototype variable field of view PET camera using the PMT-quadrant-sharing detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wong, Wai-Hoi; Zhang, N.; Wang, J.; Uribe, J.; Baghaei, H.; Yokoyama, S.

    1999-06-01

    Electronics for a prototype high-resolution PET camera with eight position-sensitive detector modules has been developed. Each module has 16 BGO (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/) blocks (each block is composed of 49 crystals). The design goals are component and space reduction. The electronics is composed of five parts: front-end analog processing, digital position decoding, fast timing, coincidence processing and master data acquisition. The front-end analog circuit is a zone-based structure (each zone has 3/spl times/3 PMTs). Nine ADCs digitize integration signals of an active zone identified by eight trigger clusters; each cluster is composed of six photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A trigger corresponding to a gamma ray is sent to a fast timing board to obtain a time-mark, and the nine digitized signals are passed to the position decoding board, where a real block (four PMTs) can be picked out from the zone for position decoding. Lookup tables are used for energy discrimination and to identify the gamma-hit crystal location. The coincidence board opens a 70-ns initial timing window, followed by two 20-ns true/accidental time-mark lookup table windows. The data output from the coincidence board can be acquired either in sinogram mode or in list mode with a Motorola/IRONICS VME-based system.

  5. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  6. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  7. Rock glaciers Gruben, Muragl and Murtel, Switzerland: Area-wide flow fields, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Besides their thermal and mechanical properties, rock glaciers are essentially defined by their kinematics. Knowledge of the permafrost flow field provides important...

  8. Magnetic Fields In NGC 6946 Using Wide-Band Radio Polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Anna; Heald, George; Wilcots, Eric M.; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    Magnetic fields are important ingredients in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They accelerate cosmic rays, affect star formation, and regulate the redistribution of matter and energy. Despite their ubiquitous presence, the growth and coevolution of magnetic fields with galactic processes are not

  9. PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelz, Andreas; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Roth, Martin M.; Bauer, Svend M.; Becker, Thomas; Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Laux, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into the existing Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph. The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a large

  10. Clustering of quasars in a wide luminosity range at redshift 4 with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Wide-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanqiu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bosch, James; Enoki, Motohiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nagashima, Masahiro; Niida, Mana; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Onoue, Masafusa; Oogi, Taira; Ouchi, Masami; Schulze, Andreas; Shirasaki, Yuji; Silverman, John D.; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Toba, Yoshiki; Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We examine the clustering of quasars over a wide luminosity range, by utilizing 901 quasars at \\overline{z}_phot˜ 3.8 with -24.73 Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) S16A Wide2 date release and 342 more luminous quasars at 3.4 Digital Sky Survey that fall in the HSC survey fields. We measure the bias factors of two quasar samples by evaluating the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) between the quasar samples and 25790 bright z ˜ 4 Lyman break galaxies in M1450 < -21.25 photometrically selected from the HSC dataset. Over an angular scale of 10.0" to 1000.0", the bias factors are 5.93+1.34-1.43 and 2.73+2.44-2.55 for the low- and high-luminosity quasars, respectively, indicating no significant luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ˜ 4. It is noted that the bias factor of the luminous quasars estimated by the CCF is smaller than that estimated by the auto-correlation function over a similar redshift range, especially on scales below 40.0". Moreover, the bias factor of the less-luminous quasars implies the minimal mass of their host dark matter halos is 0.3-2 × 1012 h-1 M⊙, corresponding to a quasar duty cycle of 0.001-0.06.

  11. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT 1 photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until ∼1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of Δ[Fe/H] = +0.3 ± 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average ∼0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  12. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT{sub 1} photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until {approx}1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of {Delta}[Fe/H] = +0.3 {+-} 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average {approx}0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  13. Visualizing spatial and temporal heterogeneity of single molecule rotational diffusion in a glassy polymer by defocused wide-field imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uji-i, Hiroshi; Melnikov, Sergey M.; Deres, Ania; Bergamini, Giacomo; Schryver, Frans De; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Enderlein, Jörg; Hofkens, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Defocused wide-field fluorescence microscopy was used to follow the 3D molecular rotational diffusion of a fluorescent probe molecule in a polymer thin film. The technique allows for visualizing the molecular reorientation both in-plane and out-of-plane. The local environmental change driven by

  14. Optical registration of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong-yang; Hao, Yan-hui; Xu, Peng-mei; Wang, Dong-jie; Ma, Li-na; Zhao, Ying-long

    2018-02-01

    For the high precision requirement of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera optical registration, optical registration of dual channel for CCD and EMCCD is achieved by the high magnification optical registration system. System integration optical registration and accuracy of optical registration scheme for spaceborne low light remote sensing camera with short focal depth and wide field of view is proposed in this paper. It also includes analysis of parallel misalignment of CCD and accuracy of optical registration. Actual registration results show that imaging clearly, MTF and accuracy of optical registration meet requirements, it provide important guarantee to get high quality image data in orbit.

  15. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-09

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community.

  16. Parfocal wide field near infrared grism design and fabrication for WFIRST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WFIRST will have Hubble image quality with 100x the field area of HST/WFC3. It requires both imaging and, working in the same optical train, a grism allowing...

  17. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  18. Integrating Field-Centered, Project Based Activities with Academic Year Coursework: A Curriculum Wide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."

  19. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  20. SU-G-IeP4-09: Method of Human Eye Aberration Measurement Using Plenoptic Camera Over Large Field of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yang; Wang, Ruixing; Ma, Haotong; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The measurement based on Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor(WFS), obtaining both the high and low order wave-front aberrations simultaneously and accurately, has been applied in the detection of human eyes aberration in recent years. However, Its application is limited by the small field of view (FOV), slight eye movement leads the optical bacon image exceeds the lenslet array which result in uncertain detection error. To overcome difficulties of precise eye location, the capacity of detecting eye wave-front aberration over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann WFS accurately and simultaneously is demanded. Methods: Plenoptic camera’s lenslet array subdivides the aperture light-field in spatial frequency domain, capture the 4-D light-field information. Data recorded by plenoptic cameras can be used to extract the wave-front phases associated to the eyes aberration. The corresponding theoretical model and simulation system is built up in this article to discuss wave-front measurement performance when utilizing plenoptic camera as wave-front sensor. Results: The simulation results indicate that the plenoptic wave-front method can obtain both the high and low order eyes wave-front aberration with the same accuracy as conventional system in single visual angle detectionand over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann systems. Meanwhile, simulation results show that detection of eye aberrations wave-front in different visual angle can be achieved effectively and simultaneously by plenoptic method, by both point and extended optical beacon from the eye. Conclusion: Plenoptic wave-front method possesses the feasibility in eye aberrations wave-front detection. With larger FOV, the method can effectively reduce the detection error brought by imprecise eye location and simplify the eye aberrations wave-front detection system comparing with which based on Shack-Hartmann WFS. Unique advantage of the plenoptic method lies in obtaining

  1. SU-G-IeP4-09: Method of Human Eye Aberration Measurement Using Plenoptic Camera Over Large Field of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yang; Wang, Ruixing; Ma, Haotong; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The measurement based on Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor(WFS), obtaining both the high and low order wave-front aberrations simultaneously and accurately, has been applied in the detection of human eyes aberration in recent years. However, Its application is limited by the small field of view (FOV), slight eye movement leads the optical bacon image exceeds the lenslet array which result in uncertain detection error. To overcome difficulties of precise eye location, the capacity of detecting eye wave-front aberration over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann WFS accurately and simultaneously is demanded. Methods: Plenoptic camera’s lenslet array subdivides the aperture light-field in spatial frequency domain, capture the 4-D light-field information. Data recorded by plenoptic cameras can be used to extract the wave-front phases associated to the eyes aberration. The corresponding theoretical model and simulation system is built up in this article to discuss wave-front measurement performance when utilizing plenoptic camera as wave-front sensor. Results: The simulation results indicate that the plenoptic wave-front method can obtain both the high and low order eyes wave-front aberration with the same accuracy as conventional system in single visual angle detectionand over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann systems. Meanwhile, simulation results show that detection of eye aberrations wave-front in different visual angle can be achieved effectively and simultaneously by plenoptic method, by both point and extended optical beacon from the eye. Conclusion: Plenoptic wave-front method possesses the feasibility in eye aberrations wave-front detection. With larger FOV, the method can effectively reduce the detection error brought by imprecise eye location and simplify the eye aberrations wave-front detection system comparing with which based on Shack-Hartmann WFS. Unique advantage of the plenoptic method lies in obtaining

  2. A generalized measurement equation and van Cittert-Zernike theorem for wide-field radio astronomical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, T. D.; Woan, G.

    2009-05-01

    We derive a generalized van Cittert-Zernike (vC-Z) theorem for radio astronomy that is valid for partially polarized sources over an arbitrarily wide field of view (FoV). The classical vC-Z theorem is the theoretical foundation of radio astronomical interferometry, and its application is the basis of interferometric imaging. Existing generalized vC-Z theorems in radio astronomy assume, however, either paraxiality (narrow FoV) or scalar (unpolarized) sources. Our theorem uses neither of these assumptions, which are seldom fulfiled in practice in radio astronomy, and treats the full electromagnetic field. To handle wide, partially polarized fields, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) electric field (Jones vector) formalism of the standard `Measurement Equation' (ME) of radio astronomical interferometry to the full three-dimensional (3D) formalism developed in optical coherence theory. The resulting vC-Z theorem enables full-sky imaging in a single telescope pointing, and imaging based not only on standard dual-polarized interferometers (that measure 2D electric fields) but also electric tripoles and electromagnetic vector-sensor interferometers. We show that the standard 2D ME is easily obtained from our formalism in the case of dual-polarized antenna element interferometers. We also exploit an extended 2D ME to determine that dual-polarized interferometers can have polarimetric aberrations at the edges of a wide FoV. Our vC-Z theorem is particularly relevant to proposed, and recently developed, wide FoV interferometers such as Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and Square Kilometer Array (SKA), for which direction-dependent effects will be important.

  3. Star Formation at z~6: i-Dropouts in the Advanced Camera for Surveys Guaranteed Time Observation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Rosati, P.; Lidman, C.; Broadhurst, T.; Franx, M.; Ford, H. C.; Magee, D.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Meurer, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Hartig, G. F.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Martel, A. R.; Menanteau, F.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2003-10-01

    Using an i-z dropout criterion, we determine the space density of z~6 galaxies from two deep ACS GTO fields with deep optical-IR imaging. A total of 23 objects are found over 46 arcmin2, or ~0.5+/-0.1 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~27.3 (6 σ), or a completeness-corrected ~0.5+/-0.2 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~26.5 (including one probable z~6 active galactic nucleus). Combining deep ISAAC data for our RDCS 1252-2927 field (JAB~25.7 and Ks,AB~25.0 5 σ) and NICMOS data for the Hubble Deep Field-North (J110,AB and H160,AB~27.3, 5 σ), we verify that these dropouts have relatively flat spectral slopes, as one would expect for star-forming objects at z~6. Compared with the average-color (β=-1.3) U-dropout in the Steidel et al. z~3 sample, i-dropouts in our sample range in luminosity from ~1.5L* (zAB~25.6) to ~0.3L* (zAB~27.3) with the exception of one very bright candidate at z850,AB~24.2. The half-light radii vary from 0.09" to 0.21", or 0.5 kpc to 1.3 kpc. We derive the z~6 rest-frame UV luminosity density (or star formation rate density) by using three different procedures. All three procedures use simulations based on a slightly lower redshift (z~5) V606-dropout sample from Chandra Deep Field-South ACS images. First, we make a direct comparison of our findings with a no-evolution projection of this V-dropout sample, allowing us to automatically correct for the light lost at faint magnitudes or lower surface brightnesses. We find 23%+/-25% more i-dropouts than we predict, consistent with no strong evolution over this redshift range. Adopting previous results to z~5, this works out to a mere 20%+/-29% drop in the luminosity density from z~3 to z~6. Second, we use the same V-dropout simulations to derive a detailed selection function for our i-dropout sample and compute the UV-luminosity density [(7.2+/-2.5)×1025 ergs s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3 down to zAB~27]. We find a 39%+/-21% drop over the same redshift range (z~3-6), consistent with the first estimate. This is our

  4. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  5. Untangling the magnetic fields in spiral galaxy NGC 6946 with wide-band polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Anna; Heald, George; Wilcots, Eric M.; Gould Zweibel, Ellen

    We present 13 cm polarization observations of nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946. These data provide a new perspective into the magnetic field structure of this galaxy. Previous observations show strong depolarization between 6 cm and 22 cm, and we show that the morphology of the 13 cm polarization

  6. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  7. Normalization for sparse encoding of odors by a wide-field interneuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria; Cassenaer, Stijn; Nowotny, Thomas; Laurent, Gilles

    2011-05-06

    Sparse coding presents practical advantages for sensory representations and memory storage. In the insect olfactory system, the representation of general odors is dense in the antennal lobes but sparse in the mushroom bodies, only one synapse downstream. In locusts, this transformation relies on the oscillatory structure of antennal lobe output, feed-forward inhibitory circuits, intrinsic properties of mushroom body neurons, and connectivity between antennal lobe and mushroom bodies. Here we show the existence of a normalizing negative-feedback loop within the mushroom body to maintain sparse output over a wide range of input conditions. This loop consists of an identifiable "giant" nonspiking inhibitory interneuron with ubiquitous connectivity and graded release properties.

  8. Poster – 13: Evaluation of an in-house CCD camera film dosimetry imaging system for small field deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalonde, Michel; Alexander, Kevin; Olding, Tim; Schreiner, L. John; Kerr, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiochromic film dosimetry is a standard technique used in clinics to verify modern conformal radiation therapy delivery, and sometimes in research to validate other dosimeters. We are using film as a standard for comparison as we improve high-resolution three-dimensional gel systems for small field dosimetry; however, precise film dosimetry can be technically challenging. We report here measurements for fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of film measurements with a novel in-house readout system. We show that radiochromic film can accurately and reproducibly validate FSRT deliveries and also benchmark our gel dosimetry work. Methods: VMAT FSRT plans for metastases alone (PTV MET ) and whole brain plus metastases (WB+PTV MET ) were delivered onto a multi-configurational phantom with a sheet of EBT3 Gafchromic film inserted mid-plane. A dose of 400 cGy was prescribed to 4 small PTV MET structures in the phantom, while a WB structure was prescribed a dose of 200 cGy in the WB+PTV MET iterations. Doses generated from film readout with our in-house system were compared to treatment planned doses. Each delivery was repeated multiple times to assess reproducibility. Results and Conclusions: The reproducibility of film optical density readout was excellent throughout all experiments. Doses measured from the film agreed well with plans for the WB+PTV MET delivery. But, film doses for PTV MET only deliveries were significantly below planned doses. This discrepancy is due to stray/scattered light perturbations in our system during readout. Corrections schemes will be presented.

  9. Poster – 13: Evaluation of an in-house CCD camera film dosimetry imaging system for small field deliveries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalonde, Michel; Alexander, Kevin; Olding, Tim; Schreiner, L. John; Kerr, Andrew T. [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario at KGH, Queen’s University (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Radiochromic film dosimetry is a standard technique used in clinics to verify modern conformal radiation therapy delivery, and sometimes in research to validate other dosimeters. We are using film as a standard for comparison as we improve high-resolution three-dimensional gel systems for small field dosimetry; however, precise film dosimetry can be technically challenging. We report here measurements for fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of film measurements with a novel in-house readout system. We show that radiochromic film can accurately and reproducibly validate FSRT deliveries and also benchmark our gel dosimetry work. Methods: VMAT FSRT plans for metastases alone (PTV{sub MET}) and whole brain plus metastases (WB+PTV{sub MET}) were delivered onto a multi-configurational phantom with a sheet of EBT3 Gafchromic film inserted mid-plane. A dose of 400 cGy was prescribed to 4 small PTV{sub MET} structures in the phantom, while a WB structure was prescribed a dose of 200 cGy in the WB+PTV{sub MET} iterations. Doses generated from film readout with our in-house system were compared to treatment planned doses. Each delivery was repeated multiple times to assess reproducibility. Results and Conclusions: The reproducibility of film optical density readout was excellent throughout all experiments. Doses measured from the film agreed well with plans for the WB+PTV{sub MET} delivery. But, film doses for PTV{sub MET} only deliveries were significantly below planned doses. This discrepancy is due to stray/scattered light perturbations in our system during readout. Corrections schemes will be presented.

  10. EMBRACE@Nançay: an ultra wide field of view prototype for the SKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchinsky, S.A.; Censier, B.; Serylak, M.; Renaud, P.; Taffoureau, C.; Olofsson, A.O.H.; Karastergiou, A.

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in radio receiving technology is underway with the development of densely packed phased arrays for radio astronomy. This technology can provide an exceptionally large field of view, while at the same time sampling the sky with high angular resolution. Such an instrument, with a field of view of over 100 square degrees, is ideal for performing fast, all-sky, surveys, such as the ''intensity mapping'' experiment to measure the signature of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in the HI mass distribution at cosmological redshifts. The SKA, built with this technology, will be able to do a billion galaxy survey. I will present a very brief introduction to radio interferometry, as well as an overview of the Square Kilometre Array project. This will be followed by a description of the EMBRACE prototype and a discussion of results and future plans

  11. Crystal-field investigations of rare-earth-doped wide band gap semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Muller, S; Wahl, U

    Crystal field investigations play a central role in the studies of rare earth doped semiconductors. Optical stark level spectroscopy and lattice location studies of radioactive rare earth isotopes implanted at ISOLDE have provided important insight into these systems during the last years. It has been shown that despite a major site preference of the probe atoms in the lattice, several defect configurations do exist. These sites are visible in the optical spectra but their origin and nature aren't deducible from these spectra alone. Hyperfine measurements on the other hand should reveal these defect configurations and yield the parameters necessary for a description of the optical properties at the atomic scale. In order to study the crystal field with this alternative approach, we propose a new concept for perturbed $\\gamma\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) experiments at ISOLDE based on digital signal processing in contrast to earlier analog setups. The general functionality of the spectrometer is explained ...

  12. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    Camera attribution plays an important role in digital image forensics by providing the evidence and distinguishing characteristics of the origin of the digital image. It allows the forensic analyser to find the possible source camera which captured the image under investigation. However, in real-world applications, these approaches have faced many challenges due to the large set of multimedia data publicly available through photo sharing and social network sites, captured with uncontrolled conditions and undergone variety of hardware and software post-processing operations. Moreover, the legal system only accepts the forensic analysis of the digital image evidence if the applied camera attribution techniques are unbiased, reliable, nondestructive and widely accepted by the experts in the field. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutionary trend of image source camera attribution approaches from fundamental to practice, in particular, with the application of image processing and data mining techniques. Extracting implicit knowledge from images using intrinsic image artifacts for source camera attribution requires a structured image mining process. In this paper, we attempt to provide an introductory tutorial on the image processing pipeline, to determine the general classification of the features corresponding to different components for source camera attribution. The article also reviews techniques of the source camera attribution more comprehensively in the domain of the image forensics in conjunction with the presentation of classifying ongoing developments within the specified area. The classification of the existing source camera attribution approaches is presented based on the specific parameters, such as colour image processing pipeline, hardware- and software-related artifacts and the methods to extract such artifacts. The more recent source camera attribution approaches, which have not yet gained sufficient attention among image forensics

  13. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Candidate clusters in 4 CFHTLS T0007 Wide fields (Sarron+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarron, F.; Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.

    2018-06-01

    We have updated the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI, Mazure et al., 2007A&A...467...49M) and applied it to the CFHTLS final data release T0007 photometric redshift (hereafter photo-z, symbol zphot) catalogues. The original AMACFI algorithm was already applied to the CFHTLS in previous studies: Mazure et al. (2007A&A...467...49M) for the Deep1 field, Adami et al. (2010, Cat. J/A+A/509/A81) for the T0004 data release, and Durret et al. (2011, Cat. J/A+A/535/A65) for the Wide fields of the T0006 data release. (2 data files).

  15. Diffusion of πsup(+-) mesons on D, 3He, 4He with a streamer self-shunted camera in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, A.; Angelescu, T.; Balea, O.; Balestra, F.; Busso, L.; Garfagnini, R.

    1975-01-01

    A streamer self-shunted camera has been developed with the study of interactions of πsup(+-) mesons on D, 3 He, 4 He. The camera can operate at high beam currents (10 sup(5)/10sup(6)ssup(-1)), so processes with small cross sections can be studied

  16. Wide-field time-resolved luminescence imaging and spectroscopy to decipher obliterated documents in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mototsugu; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Akao, Yoshinori; Higashikawa, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We applied a wide-field time-resolved luminescence (TRL) method with a pulsed laser and a gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) for deciphering obliterated documents for use in forensic science. The TRL method can nondestructively measure the dynamics of luminescence, including fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes, which prove to be useful parameters for image detection. First, we measured the TRL spectra of four brands of black porous-tip pen inks on paper to estimate their luminescence lifetimes. Next, we acquired the TRL images of 12 obliterated documents at various delay times and gate times of the ICCD. The obliterated contents were revealed in the TRL images because of the difference in the luminescence lifetimes of the inks. This method requires no pretreatment, is nondestructive, and has the advantage of wide-field imaging, which makes it is easy to control the gate timing. This demonstration proves that TRL imaging and spectroscopy are powerful tools for forensic document examination.

  17. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  18. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  19. A method of camera calibration with adaptive thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Yan, Shu-hua; Wang, Guo-chao; Zhou, Chun-lei

    2009-07-01

    In order to calculate the parameters of the camera correctly, we must figure out the accurate coordinates of the certain points in the image plane. Corners are the important features in the 2D images. Generally speaking, they are the points that have high curvature and lie in the junction of different brightness regions of images. So corners detection has already widely used in many fields. In this paper we use the pinhole camera model and SUSAN corner detection algorithm to calibrate the camera. When using the SUSAN corner detection algorithm, we propose an approach to retrieve the gray difference threshold, adaptively. That makes it possible to pick up the right chessboard inner comers in all kinds of gray contrast. The experiment result based on this method was proved to be feasible.

  20. Fiber-Coupled Wide Field of View Optical Receiver for High Speed Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddath, Shannon N.

    Research groups at NASA Glenn Research Center are interested in improving data rates on the International Space Station (ISS) using a free-space optical (FSO) link. However, known flexure of the ISS structure is expected to cause misalignment of the FSO link. Passive-control designs for mitigating misalignment are under investigation, including using a fiber-bundle for improved field of view. The designs must overcome the obstacle of coupling directly to fiber, rather than a photodetector, as NASA will maintain the use of small form-factor pluggable optical transceivers (SFPs) in the ISS network. In this thesis, a bundle-based receiver capable of coupling directly to fiber is designed, simulated, and tested in lab. Two 3-lens systems were evaluated for power performance in the lab, one with a 20 mm focal length aspheric lens and the other with a 50 mm focal length aspheric lens. The maximum output power achieved was 8 muW.

  1. Wide field X-ray telescopes: Detecting X-ray transients/afterglows related to gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul; Rezek, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited field of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70ies but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster eye type are presented and discussed. Optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  2. Wide-field LOFAR-LBA power-spectra analyses: Impact of calibration, polarization leakage and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, Bharat K.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.

    2018-05-01

    Contamination due to foregrounds, calibration errors and ionospheric effects pose major challenges in detection of the cosmic 21 cm signal in various Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiments. We present the results of a study of a field centered on 3C196 using LOFAR Low Band observations, where we quantify various wide field and calibration effects such as gain errors, polarized foregrounds, and ionospheric effects. We observe a `pitchfork' structure in the power spectrum of the polarized intensity in delay-baseline space, which leaks into the modes beyond the instrumental horizon. We show that this structure arises due to strong instrumental polarization leakage (~30%) towards Cas A which is far away from primary field of view. We measure a small ionospheric diffractive scale towards CasA resembling pure Kolmogorov turbulence. Our work provides insights in understanding the nature of aforementioned effects and mitigating them in future Cosmic Dawn observations.

  3. Performance analysis for gait in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon

    2008-01-01

    This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...

  4. Anti-Stokes effect CCD camera and SLD based optical coherence tomography for full-field imaging in the 1550nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredzinski, Lukasz; Connelly, Michael J.

    2012-06-01

    Full-field Optical coherence tomography is an en-face interferometric imaging technology capable of carrying out high resolution cross-sectional imaging of the internal microstructure of an examined specimen in a non-invasive manner. The presented system is based on competitively priced optical components available at the main optical communications band located in the 1550 nm region. It consists of a superluminescent diode and an anti-stokes imaging device. The single mode fibre coupled SLD was connected to a multi-mode fibre inserted into a mode scrambler to obtain spatially incoherent illumination, suitable for OCT wide-field modality in terms of crosstalk suppression and image enhancement. This relatively inexpensive system with moderate resolution of approximately 24um x 12um (axial x lateral) was constructed to perform a 3D cross sectional imaging of a human tooth. To our knowledge this is the first 1550 nm full-field OCT system reported.

  5. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  6. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  7. Development and prequalification of a medium-accuracy wide-field pattern recognition starsensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Peter; de Boom, Kees; Meier, H.; Andre, G.

    1993-10-01

    A development of a medium accuracy, CCD based starsensor, intended for use on the new generation of communication satellites is in progress. The sensor aims at an accuracy of 0.06 degree(s) in a FOV of 30 degree(s) X 40 degree(s). The sensor is designed to detect stars with a brightness of mvia EQM is ongoing now. Intended to be versatile in applications for telecommunication and other missions, a unit is developed which is adaptive and has low recurring cost. The PRS concept is based on new MPP CCD technology. This technology brings passive thermal control without Peltier elements within reach. The electronics accommodated inside the PRS sensorheads is miniaturized by large scale integration by using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Surface Mount Technology (SMT). For cost reasons no microprocessor was implemented. This paper describes the main design features of the PRS, the selection and testing of appropriate CCD, performance characteristics of the system and test results obtained from the PRS breadboard system.

  8. Wide-field surface plasmon microscopy of nano- and microparticles: features, benchmarking, limitations, and bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of nano- and micro-particles is an important task for chemical analytics, food industry, biotechnology, environmental monitoring and many other fields of science and industry. For this purpose, a method based on the detection and analysis of minute signals in surface plasmon resonance images due to adsorption of single nanopartciles was developed. This new technology allows one a real-time detection of interaction of single nano- and micro-particles with sensor surface. Adsorption of each nanoparticle leads to characteristic diffraction image whose intensity depends on the size and chemical composition of the particle. The adsorption rate characterizes volume concentration of nano- and micro-particles. Large monitored surface area of sensor enables a high dynamic range of counting and to a correspondingly high dynamic range in concentration scale. Depending on the type of particles and experimental conditions, the detection limit for aqueous samples can be below 1000 particles per microliter. For application of method in complex media, nanoparticle images are discriminated from image perturbations due to matrix components. First, the characteristic SPRM images of nanoparticles (templates) are collected in aqueous suspensions or spiked real samples. Then, the detection of nanoparticles in complex media using template matching is performed. The detection of various NPs in consumer products like cosmetics, mineral water, juices, and wines was shown at sub-ppb level. The method can be applied for ultrasensitive detection and analysis of nano- and micro-particles of biological (bacteria, viruses, endosomes), biotechnological (liposomes, protein nanoparticles for drug delivery) or technical origin.

  9. Curved sensors for compact high-resolution wide-field designs: prototype demonstration and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambion, Bertrand; Gaschet, Christophe; Behaghel, Thibault; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Caplet, Stéphane; Gétin, Stéphane; Henry, David; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfried; Lombardo, Simona; Ferrari, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent years, a huge interest has grown for curved electronics, particularly for opto-electronics systems. Curved sensors help the correction of off-axis aberrations, such as Petzval Field Curvature, astigmatism, and bring significant optical and size benefits for imaging systems. In this paper, we first describe advantages of curved sensor and associated packaging process applied on a 1/1.8'' format 1.3Mpx global shutter CMOS sensor (Teledyne EV76C560) into its standard ceramic package with a spherical radius of curvature Rc=65mm and 55mm. The mechanical limits of the die are discussed (Finite Element Modelling and experimental), and electro-optical performances are investigated. Then, based on the monocentric optical architecture, we proposed a new design, compact and with a high resolution, developed specifically for a curved image sensor including optical optimization, tolerances, assembly and optical tests. Finally, a functional prototype is presented through a benchmark approach and compared to an existing standard optical system with same performances and a x2.5 reduction of length. The finality of this work was a functional prototype demonstration on the CEA-LETI during Photonics West 2018 conference. All these experiments and optical results demonstrate the feasibility and high performances of systems with curved sensors.

  10. All-weather calibration of wide-field optical and NIR surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, David L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Saha, Abhijit; Claver, Jenna; Claver, Chuck [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States); DePoy, Darren [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ivezić, Željko; Jones, Lynne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Smith, R. Chris [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Stubbs, Christopher W., E-mail: daveb@slac.stanford.edu [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The science goals for ground-based large-area surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a percent or better. This performance will need to be achieved with data taken over the course of many years, and often in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a strategy to achieve precise internal calibration of imaging survey data taken in less than 'photometric' conditions, and reports results of an observational study of the techniques needed to implement this strategy. We find that images of celestial fields used in this case study with stellar densities ∼1 arcmin{sup –2} and taken through cloudless skies can be calibrated with relative precision ∼0.5% (reproducibility). We report measurements of spatial structure functions of cloud absorption observed over a range of atmospheric conditions, and find it possible to achieve photometric measurements that are reproducible to 1% in images that were taken through cloud layers that transmit as little as 25% of the incident optical flux (1.5 magnitudes of extinction). We find, however, that photometric precision below 1% is impeded by the thinnest detectable cloud layers. We comment on implications of these results for the observing strategies of future surveys.

  11. Localization and Mapping Using a Non-Central Catadioptric Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, M.; Armenakis, C.

    2018-05-01

    This work details the development of an indoor navigation and mapping system using a non-central catadioptric omnidirectional camera and its implementation for mobile applications. Omnidirectional catadioptric cameras find their use in navigation and mapping of robotic platforms, owing to their wide field of view. Having a wider field of view, or rather a potential 360° field of view, allows the system to "see and move" more freely in the navigation space. A catadioptric camera system is a low cost system which consists of a mirror and a camera. Any perspective camera can be used. A platform was constructed in order to combine the mirror and a camera to build a catadioptric system. A calibration method was developed in order to obtain the relative position and orientation between the two components so that they can be considered as one monolithic system. The mathematical model for localizing the system was determined using conditions based on the reflective properties of the mirror. The obtained platform positions were then used to map the environment using epipolar geometry. Experiments were performed to test the mathematical models and the achieved location and mapping accuracies of the system. An iterative process of positioning and mapping was applied to determine object coordinates of an indoor environment while navigating the mobile platform. Camera localization and 3D coordinates of object points obtained decimetre level accuracies.

  12. ROBUST PERSON TRACKING WITH MULTIPLE NON-OVERLAPPING CAMERAS IN AN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hellwig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to combine multiple cameras for a robust tracking of persons in an outdoor environment. Although surveillance is a well established field, many algorithms apply various constraints like overlapping fields of view or precise calibration of the cameras to improve results. An application of these developed systems in a realistic outdoor environment is often difficult. Our aim is to be widely independent from the camera setup and the observed scene, in order to use existing cameras. Thereby our algorithm needs to be capable to work with both overlapping and non-overlapping fields of views. We propose an algorithm that allows flexible combination of different static cameras with varying properties. Another requirement of a practical application is that the algorithm is able to work online. Our system is able to process the data during runtime and to provide results immediately. In addition to seeking flexibility in the camera setup, we present a specific approach that combines state of the art algorithms in order to be robust to environment influences. We present results that indicate a good performance of our introduced algorithm in different scenarios. We show its robustness to different types of image artifacts. In addition we demonstrate that our algorithm is able to match persons between cameras in a non-overlapping scenario.

  13. Wide-field imaging of birefringent synovial fluid crystals using lens-free polarized microscopy for gout diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Lee, Seung Yoon Celine; Zhang, Yun; Furst, Daniel; Fitzgerald, John; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    Gout is a form of crystal arthropathy where monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit and elicit inflammation in a joint. Diagnosis of gout relies on identification of MSU crystals under a compensated polarized light microscope (CPLM) in synovial fluid aspirated from the patient’s joint. The detection of MSU crystals by optical microscopy is enhanced by their birefringent properties. However, CPLM partially suffers from the high-cost and bulkiness of conventional lens-based microscopy, and its relatively small field-of-view (FOV) limits the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis. Here we present a lens-free polarized microscope which adopts a novel differential and angle-mismatched polarizing optical design achieving wide-field and high-resolution holographic imaging of birefringent objects with a color contrast similar to that of a standard CPLM. The performance of this computational polarization microscope is validated by imaging MSU crystals made from a gout patient’s tophus and steroid crystals used as negative control. This lens-free polarized microscope, with its wide FOV (>20 mm2), cost-effectiveness and field-portability, can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis, reduce costs, and can be deployed even at the point-of-care and in resource-limited clinical settings.

  14. Optical system design with wide field of view and high resolution based on monocentric multi-scale construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Hu; Xiao, Nan; Shen, Yang; Xue, Yaoke

    2018-03-01

    With the development of related technology gradually mature in the field of optoelectronic information, it is a great demand to design an optical system with high resolution and wide field of view(FOV). However, as it is illustrated in conventional Applied Optics, there is a contradiction between these two characteristics. Namely, the FOV and imaging resolution are limited by each other. Here, based on the study of typical wide-FOV optical system design, we propose the monocentric multi-scale system design method to solve this problem. Consisting of a concentric spherical lens and a series of micro-lens array, this system has effective improvement on its imaging quality. As an example, we designed a typical imaging system, which has a focal length of 35mm and a instantaneous field angle of 14.7", as well as the FOV set to be 120°. By analyzing the imaging quality, we demonstrate that in different FOV, all the values of MTF at 200lp/mm are higher than 0.4 when the sampling frequency of the Nyquist is 200lp/mm, which shows a good accordance with our design.

  15. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-01-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K s images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  16. Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2009-09-10

    An actively stabilized interferometer with a constant optical path difference is a key element in long-term astronomical observation, and resolving interference fringe ambiguities is important to produce high-precision results for the long term. We report a simple and reliable method of resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer by measuring the interference visibility of a noncollimated single-frequency laser beam. Theoretical analysis shows that the interference visibility is sensitive to a subfringe phase shift, and a wide range of beam arrangements is suitable for real implementation. In an experimental demonstration, a Michelson interferometer has an optical path difference of 7 mm and a converging monitoring beam has a numerical aperture of 0.045 with an incidental angle of 17 degrees. The resolution of visibility measurements corresponds to approximately 1/16 fringe in the interferometer phase shift. The fringe ambiguity-free region is extended over a range of approximately 100 fringes.

  17. New in-flight calibration adjustment of the Nimbus 6 and 7 earth radiation budget wide field of view radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. L.; House, F. B.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Jacobowitz, H.; Maschhoff, R. H.; Hickey, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight calibration adjustments are developed to process data obtained from the wide-field-of-view channels of Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 after the failure of the Nimbus-7 longwave scanner on June 22, 1980. The sensor characteristics are investigated; the satellite environment is examined in detail; and algorithms are constructed to correct for long-term sensor-response changes, on/off-cycle thermal transients, and filter-dome absorption of longwave radiation. Data and results are presented in graphs and tables, including comparisons of the old and new algorithms.

  18. INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EXOPLANETS HD 209458b AND XO-1b USING THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA-3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McCullough, Peter; Crouzet, Nicolas [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Agol, Eric; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haynes, Korey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Magic, Zazralt [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Mandell, Avi M.; Clampin, Mark [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    Exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS is currently ambiguous because different observational groups claim different results from the same data, depending on their analysis methodologies. Spatial scanning with HST/WFC3 provides an opportunity to resolve this ambiguity. We here report WFC3 spectroscopy of the giant planets HD 209458b and XO-1b in transit, using spatial scanning mode for maximum photon-collecting efficiency. We introduce an analysis technique that derives the exoplanetary transmission spectrum without the necessity of explicitly decorrelating instrumental effects, and achieves nearly photon-limited precision even at the high flux levels collected in spatial scan mode. Our errors are within 6% (XO-1) and 26% (HD 209458b) of the photon-limit at a resolving power of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 70, and are better than 0.01% per spectral channel. Both planets exhibit water absorption of approximately 200 ppm at the water peak near 1.38 {mu}m. Our result for XO-1b contradicts the much larger absorption derived from NICMOS spectroscopy. The weak water absorption we measure for HD 209458b is reminiscent of the weakness of sodium absorption in the first transmission spectroscopy of an exoplanet atmosphere by Charbonneau et al. Model atmospheres having uniformly distributed extra opacity of 0.012 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} account approximately for both our water measurement and the sodium absorption. Our results for HD 209458b support the picture advocated by Pont et al. in which weak molecular absorptions are superposed on a transmission spectrum that is dominated by continuous opacity due to haze and/or dust. However, the extra opacity needed for HD 209458b is grayer than for HD 189733b, with a weaker Rayleigh component.

  19. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  20. Low field magnetoresistance in a 2D topological insulator based on wide HgTe quantum well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshanetsky, E B; Kvon, Z D; Gusev, G M; Mikhailov, N N; Dvoretsky, S A

    2016-09-01

    Low field magnetoresistance is experimentally studied in a two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in both diffusive and quasiballistic samples fabricated on top of a wide (14 nm) HgTe quantum well. In all cases a pronounced quasi-linear positive magnetoresistance is observed similar to that found previously in diffusive samples based on a narrow (8 nm) HgTe well. The experimental results are compared with the main existing theoretical models based on different types of disorder: sample edge roughness, nonmagnetic disorder in an otherwise coherent TI and metallic puddles due to locally trapped charges that act like local gate on the sample. The quasiballistic samples with resistance close to the expected quantized values also show a positive low-field magnetoresistance but with a pronounced admixture of mesoscopic effects.

  1. Wide Field-of-View Fluorescence Imaging with Optical-Quality Curved Microfluidic Chamber for Absolute Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Khan Shourav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  2. Evaluation of a high-resolution, breast-specific, small-field-of-view gamma camera for the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brem, R.F.; Kieper, D.A.; Rapelyea, J.A.; Majewski, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to review the state of the art in nuclear medicine imaging of the breast (scintimammography) and to evaluate a novel, high-resolution, breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with 58 breast lesions in whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a HRBGC prototype. Nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal/benign) or positive (suspicious/malignant) by two radiologists, blinded to mammographic and histologic results with both the conventional and high-resolution. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: Included in this study were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. Specificity of both systems was 93.3% (28/30). In the 18 nonpalpable cancers, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and HRBGC, respectively. In cancers ≤ 1cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four of the cancers (median size, 8.5 mm) detected with the HRBGC were missed by the conventional camera Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breasts lesions with a high resolution, breast-specific gamma camera results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer with greater improvement demonstrated in nonpalpable and ≤1 cm cancers

  3. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to ov...

  4. Wide-Field Landers Temporary Keratoprosthesis in Severe Ocular Trauma: Functional and Anatomical Results after One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Nowomiejska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate longitudinal functional and anatomical results after combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP using a wide-field Landers intraoperative temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP in patients with vitreoretinal pathology and corneal opacity due to severe ocular trauma. Material and Methods. Medical records of 12 patients who had undergone PPV/PKP/KP due to severe eye trauma were analyzed. Functional (best-corrected visual acuity and anatomic outcomes (clarity of the corneal graft, retinal attachment, and intraocular pressure were assessed during the follow-up (mean 16 months. Results. Final visual acuities varied from NLP to CF to 2 m. Visual acuity improved in 7 cases, was unchanged in 4 eyes, and worsened in 1 eye. The corneal graft was transparent during the follow-up in 3 cases and graft failure was observed in 9 eyes. Silicone oil was used as a tamponade in all cases and retina was reattached in 92% of cases. Conclusions. Combined PPV and PKP with the use of wide-field Landers TKP allowed for surgical intervention in patients with vitreoretinal pathology coexisting with corneal wound. Although retina was attached in most of the cases, corneal graft survived only in one-fourth of patients and final visual acuities were poor.

  5. Retinal pigment epithelium findings in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Christopher; Ritter, Markus; Blum, Robert; Zotter, Stefan; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2014-11-01

    To investigate pigmentation characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography compared with intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Five patients (10 eyes) with previously genetically diagnosed albinism and 5 healthy control subjects (10 eyes) were imaged by a wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system (scan angle: 40 × 40° on the retina), sensitive to melanin contained in the RPE, based on the polarization state of backscattered light. Conventional intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence examinations were performed. Retinal pigment epithelium-pigmentation was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively based on depolarization assessed by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. This study revealed strong evidence of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to specifically image melanin in the RPE. Depolarization of light backscattered by the RPE in patients with albinism was reduced compared with normal subjects. Heterogeneous RPE-specific depolarization characteristics were observed in patients with albinism. Reduction of depolarization observed in the light backscattered by the RPE in patients with albinism corresponds to expected decrease of RPE pigmentation. The degree of depigmentation of the RPE is possibly associated with visual acuity. Findings suggest that different albinism genotypes result in heterogeneous levels of RPE pigmentation. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography showed a heterogeneous appearance of RPE pigmentation in patients with albinism depending on different genotypes.

  6. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  7. Effects of spatial and spectral frequencies on wide-field functional imaging (wifi) characterization of preclinical breast cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Choi, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy to study breast cancer is the use of the preclinical model. These models provide a physiologically relevant and controlled environment in which to study both response to novel treatments and the biology of the cancer. Preclinical models, including the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model, are very amenable to optical imaging and to this end, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument that is perfectly suited to studying tumor metabolism in preclinical models. WiFI combines two optical imaging modalities, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm x 5 cm) field of view. Using SFDI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are determined, which are then used to extract tissue chromophore concentrations in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. In the current study, we employ Monte Carlo simulations of SFDI light propagation in order to characterize the penetration depth of light in both the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model. Preliminary results suggest that different spatial frequency and wavelength combinations have different penetration depths, suggesting the potential depth sectioning capability of the SFDI component of WiFI.

  8. Image Mosaicking Approach for a Double-Camera System in the GaoFen2 Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Based on the Big Virtual Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng; Jin, Shuying; Wang, Mi; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhipeng

    2017-06-20

    The linear array push broom imaging mode is widely used for high resolution optical satellites (HROS). Using double-cameras attached by a high-rigidity support along with push broom imaging is one method to enlarge the field of view while ensuring high resolution. High accuracy image mosaicking is the key factor of the geometrical quality of complete stitched satellite imagery. This paper proposes a high accuracy image mosaicking approach based on the big virtual camera (BVC) in the double-camera system on the GaoFen2 optical remote sensing satellite (GF2). A big virtual camera can be built according to the rigorous imaging model of a single camera; then, each single image strip obtained by each TDI-CCD detector can be re-projected to the virtual detector of the big virtual camera coordinate system using forward-projection and backward-projection to obtain the corresponding single virtual image. After an on-orbit calibration and relative orientation, the complete final virtual image can be obtained by stitching the single virtual images together based on their coordinate information on the big virtual detector image plane. The paper subtly uses the concept of the big virtual camera to obtain a stitched image and the corresponding high accuracy rational function model (RFM) for concurrent post processing. Experiments verified that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaicking while maintaining the geometric accuracy.

  9. Using DSLR cameras in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Zuluaga, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; García-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    In Digital Holography (DH), the size of the bidimensional image sensor to record the digital hologram, plays a key role on the performance of this imaging technique; the larger the size of the camera sensor, the better the quality of the final reconstructed image. Scientific cameras with large formats are offered in the market, but their cost and availability limit their use as a first option when implementing DH. Nowadays, DSLR cameras provide an easy-access alternative that is worthwhile to be explored. The DSLR cameras are a wide, commercial, and available option that in comparison with traditional scientific cameras, offer a much lower cost per effective pixel over a large sensing area. However, in the DSLR cameras, with their RGB pixel distribution, the sampling of information is different to the sampling in monochrome cameras usually employed in DH. This fact has implications in their performance. In this work, we discuss why DSLR cameras are not extensively used for DH, taking into account the problem reported by different authors of object replication. Simulations of DH using monochromatic and DSLR cameras are presented and a theoretical deduction for the replication problem using the Fourier theory is also shown. Experimental results of DH implementation using a DSLR camera show the replication problem.

  10. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    possess versatile and unique readout capabilities that have established their utility in scientific and especially for radiation field applications. A detector for neutron radiography based on a cooled CID camera offers some capabilities, as follows: - Extended linear dynamic range up to 109 without blooming or streaking; - Arbitrary pixel selection and nondestructive readout makes it possible to introduce a high degree of exposure control to low-light viewing of static scenes; - Read multiple areas of interest of an image within a given frame at higher rates; - Wide spectral response (185 nm - 1100 nm); - CIDs tolerate high radiation environments up to 3 Mrad integrated dose; - The contiguous pixel structure of CID arrays contributes to accurate imaging because there are virtually no opaque areas between pixels. (author)

  11. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  12. Phenology-based Spartina alterniflora mapping in coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinquan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Spartina alterniflora is an aggressive invasive plant species that replaces native species, changes the structure and function of the ecosystem across coastal wetlands in China, and is thus a major conservation concern. Mapping the spread of its invasion is a necessary first step for the implementation of effective ecological management strategies. The performance of a phenology-based approach for S. alterniflora mapping is explored in the coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using a time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) imagery. First, a time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was constructed to evaluate the phenology of S. alterniflora. Two phenological stages (the senescence stage from November to mid-December and the green-up stage from late April to May) were determined as important for S. alterniflora detection in the study area based on NDVI temporal profiles, spectral reflectance curves of S. alterniflora and its coexistent species, and field surveys. Three phenology feature sets representing three major phenology-based detection strategies were then compared to map S. alterniflora: (1) the single-date imagery acquired within the optimal phenological window, (2) the multitemporal imagery, including four images from the two important phenological windows, and (3) the monthly NDVI time series imagery. Support vector machines and maximum likelihood classifiers were applied on each phenology feature set at different training sample sizes. For all phenology feature sets, the overall results were produced consistently with high mapping accuracies under sufficient training samples sizes, although significantly improved classification accuracies (10%) were obtained when the monthly NDVI time series imagery was employed. The optimal single-date imagery had the lowest accuracies of all detection strategies. The multitemporal analysis demonstrated little reduction in the overall accuracy compared with the

  13. Development of an intense negative hydrogen ion source with a wide-range of external magnetic filter field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1994-09-01

    An intense negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, which has a strong external magnetic filter field in the wide area of 35 cm x 62 cm produced by a pair of permanent magnet rows located with 35.4 cm separation. The filter strength is 70 G in the center and the line-integrated filter strength is 850 G cm, which keeps the low electron temperature in the extraction region. Strong cusp magnetic field, 1.8 kG on the chamber surface, is generated for improvement of the plasma confinement. These resulted in the high arc efficiency at the low operational gas pressure. A 16.2 A of the H - ion current with the energy of 47 keV was obtained at the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW at the gas pressure of 3.8 mTorr in the cesium-mode operation. The magnetic field in the extraction gap is also strong, 450 G, for the electron suppression. The ratio of the extraction to the negative ion currents was less than 2.2 at the gas pressure of 3 mTorr. The two-stage acceleration was tried, and a 13.6 A of the H - ion beam was accelerated to 125 keV. (author)

  14. A Wide-Field, Broadband Imaging Survey of Butcher-Oemler Cluster Cl 0024+1654: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexov, A.; Silva, D. R.; Pierce, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Wide-field (20'×20') UBVI images of intermediate-redshift (z=0.39), Butcher-Oemler cluster Cl 0024+1654 have been obtained. These data probe the rest-frame mid-UV properties over a much larger area than previous studies of Cl 0024+1654. Using these data, a multicolor catalog of nonstellar objects, assumed to be galaxies, has been constructed and analyzed. Using statistical arguments, the observed galaxy sample is separated into field and cluster populations. The basic photometric properties of these populations are presented and discussed. The ``dropout'' objects (i.e., objects undetected in one or more photometric bands) in our catalog are also discussed. A description of the final UBVI images, as well as the object catalog, is provided in an appendix. In a second appendix the use of SExtractor in crowded fields, such as the core of Cl 0024+1654, is discussed. The specific issues of the mid-UV properties of red envelope cluster galaxies, as well as the possible detection of a faint blue cluster population, are discussed in a forthcoming companion paper by Silva, Alexov, & Pierce. The observations described were conducted at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  15. Making Ceramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  16. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  17. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  18. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  19. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  20. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...

  1. Comparative study between fundus autofluorescence and red reflectance imaging of choroidal nevi using ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Miguel Angel; Leila, Mahmoud; Teixidor, Teresa; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2015-06-01

    To explore the utility of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and red reflectance (RR) imaging using ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope in choroidal nevi. Retrospective observational case study reviewing clinical data, color, FAF, and RR images of patients with choroidal nevi and comparing the findings. The ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope uses green laser 532 nm and red laser 633 nm that enabled FAF and RR imaging, respectively in separate channels. Superimposition of both images yielded a composite color image. The study included 46 eyes of 45 patients. Nevi were unilateral in 44 patients (98%). Forty-one nevi (89.1%) were located temporally between the macula and the equator. All nevi (100%) were deeply pigmented. The most frequent surface changes were lipofuscin pigments, zones of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and retinal pigment epithelium pigment clumps in 31 (67.3%), 18 (39.1%), and 8 eyes (17.3%), respectively. Color photographs were superior to FAF in detecting nevus boundaries and surface changes. Red reflectance correlated strongly with color images, although the nevus boundaries and surface changes were better delineated in RR mode. Red reflectance was superior to FAF in delineating the boundaries and surface changes of the nevus; clear visibility (3+) for RR versus no or poor visibility (0/1+) for FAF. Nevertheless, the areas of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy were better delineated in FAF mode; clear visibility (3+) for FAF versus poor visibility (1+) for FAF. Red reflectance imaging is more sensitive than conventional photography for follow-up of choroidal nevi. Fundus autofluorescence should be considered only as a complementary tool to RR imaging.

  2. Ultra-wide field imaging system and traditional retinal examinations for screening fundus changes after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Jin, Hai-Ying; Lu, Wu-Yi; Zhao, Pei-Quan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of non-mydriatic ultra-wide field imaging system, mydriatic slit-lamp lens (Volk +90 D) and mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror contact lens examinations in screening fundus lesions among patients after cataract surgery. Non-mydriatic images were obtained with an Optomap panoramic 200Tx (Optomap 200Tx) 3d after surgery and graded by a blinded ophthalmologist. A mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination was performed by another blinded retinal specialist on the same day. A third blinded retinal specialist examined patients two weeks after surgery using a Goldmann three-mirror contact lens. In total, 160 patients (184 eyes) were examined, and 66, 69, and 75 cases of retinal lesion(s) were identified using the Optomap 200Tx, slit-lamp lens, and Goldmann three-mirror contact lens, respectively. In 13 cases, fundus changes were sight-threatening. The results obtained by Optomap 200Tx examination and by mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination have good consistency (P=0.375, Kappa=0.942). The mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror lens examination revealed more fundus lesions but are consistent with Optomap 200Tx (P=0.004, Kappa=0.897) and mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination (P=0.031, Kappa=0.932). Early post-operative fundus screening in cataract patients is extremely important and necessary to prevent further vision loss. Wide-field imaging is a feasible and convenient tool for fundus examination that can be used as a primary screening method among patients after cataract surgery.

  3. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope-ProtoEXIST1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J., E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, B.; Grindlay, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H. [Washington University in St. Louis and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Apple, J.; Cleveland, W.H. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8x8 array of closely tiled 2 cmx2 cmx0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8x8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm{sup 2} active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9{sup o}x9{sup o} (and 19{sup o}x19{sup o} for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20'. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cmx26 cmx2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as {>=}100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for {approx}1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4{sup o} off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2{sigma} in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The

  4. Active feedback wide-field optical low-coherence interferometry for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo June; Choi, Hae Young; Lee, Byeong Ha; Na, Jihoon; Eom, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    A novel optical interferometric scheme for ultrahigh-speed three-dimensional morphometry is proposed. The system is based on wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) but with optically chopped illumination. The chopping frequency is feedback-controlled to be always matched with the Doppler frequency of the OCT interferometer, which provides an efficient page-wide demodulation suitable for ultrahigh-speed volumetric imaging. To compensate the unwanted variation in the OCT Doppler frequency of the system, the illumination frequency is phase-locked with an auxiliary laser interferometer which shares the reference arm with the OCT interferometer. The two-dimensional (2D) interference signals projected on the 2D array pixels of a 200 Hz CCD are accumulated during one imaging frame of the CCD. Then, each pixel of the CCD demodulates the OCT signal automatically. Owing to the proposed active frequency-locked illumination scheme, the demodulation does not depend on the variation in the axial scanning speed. Volumetric topograms or/and tomograms of several samples were achieved and rendered with a sensitivity of 58 dB at an axial scan speed of 0.805 mm s −1

  5. Solution-Processed Wide-Bandgap Organic Semiconductor Nanostructures Arrays for Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Yi, Mingdong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wenjun; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the development of organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory device based on isolated and ordered nanostructures (NSs) arrays of wide-bandgap (WBG) small-molecule organic semiconductor material [2-(9-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)thiophene]3 (WG 3 ) is reported. The WG 3 NSs are prepared from phase separation by spin-coating blend solutions of WG 3 /trimethylolpropane (TMP), and then introduced as charge storage elements for nonvolatile OFET memory devices. Compared to the OFET memory device with smooth WG 3 film, the device based on WG 3 NSs arrays exhibits significant improvements in memory performance including larger memory window (≈45 V), faster switching speed (≈1 s), stable retention capability (>10 4 s), and reliable switching properties. A quantitative study of the WG 3 NSs morphology reveals that enhanced memory performance is attributed to the improved charge trapping/charge-exciton annihilation efficiency induced by increased contact area between the WG 3 NSs and pentacene layer. This versatile solution-processing approach to preparing WG 3 NSs arrays as charge trapping sites allows for fabrication of high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices, which could be applicable to a wide range of WBG organic semiconductor materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  7. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  8. Event detection intelligent camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szappanos, A.; Kocsis, G.; Molnar, A.; Sarkozi, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new camera system 'event detection intelligent camera' (EDICAM) is being developed for the video diagnostics of W-7X stellarator, which consists of 10 distinct and standalone measurement channels each holding a camera. Different operation modes will be implemented for continuous and for triggered readout as well. Hardware level trigger signals will be generated from real time image processing algorithms optimized for digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures. At full resolution a camera sends 12 bit sampled 1280 x 1024 pixels with 444 fps which means 1.43 Terabyte over half an hour. To analyse such a huge amount of data is time consuming and has a high computational complexity. We plan to overcome this problem by EDICAM's preprocessing concepts. EDICAM camera system integrates all the advantages of CMOS sensor chip technology and fast network connections. EDICAM is built up from three different modules with two interfaces. A sensor module (SM) with reduced hardware and functional elements to reach a small and compact size and robust action in harmful environment as well. An image processing and control unit (IPCU) module handles the entire user predefined events and runs image processing algorithms to generate trigger signals. Finally a 10 Gigabit Ethernet compatible image readout card functions as the network interface for the PC. In this contribution all the concepts of EDICAM and the functions of the distinct modules are described

  9. A Motionless Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Omniview, a motionless, noiseless, exceptionally versatile camera was developed for NASA as a receiving device for guiding space robots. The system can see in one direction and provide as many as four views simultaneously. Developed by Omniview, Inc. (formerly TRI) under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, the system's image transformation electronics produce a real-time image from anywhere within a hemispherical field. Lens distortion is removed, and a corrected "flat" view appears on a monitor. Key elements are a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD), image correction circuitry and a microcomputer for image processing. The system can be adapted to existing installations. Applications include security and surveillance, teleconferencing, imaging, virtual reality, broadcast video and military operations. Omniview technology is now called IPIX. The company was founded in 1986 as TeleRobotics International, became Omniview in 1995, and changed its name to Interactive Pictures Corporation in 1997.

  10. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  11. Multimode simulations of a wide field of view double-Fourier far-infrared spatio-spectral interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Colm P.; Lightfoot, John; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Donohoe, Anthony; Savini, Giorgio; Juanola-Parramon, Roser; The Fisica Consortium, On Behalf Of

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of 50-m class space-based observatories, subarcsecond astronomy spanning the full far-infrared wavelength range will require space-based long-baseline interferometry. The long baselines of up to tens of meters are necessary to achieve subarcsecond resolution demanded by science goals. Also, practical observing times command a field of view toward an arcminute (1‧) or so, not achievable with a single on-axis coherent detector. This paper is concerned with an application of an end-to-end instrument simulator PyFIInS, developed as part of the FISICA project under funding from the European Commission's seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). Predicted results of wide field of view spatio-spectral interferometry through simulations of a long-baseline, double-Fourier, far-infrared interferometer concept are presented and analyzed. It is shown how such an interferometer, illuminated by a multimode detector can recover a large field of view at subarcsecond angular resolution, resulting in similar image quality as that achieved by illuminating the system with an array of coherent detectors. Through careful analysis, the importance of accounting for the correct number of higher-order optical modes is demonstrated, as well as accounting for both orthogonal polarizations. Given that it is very difficult to manufacture waveguide and feed structures at sub-mm wavelengths, the larger multimode design is recommended over the array of smaller single mode detectors. A brief note is provided in the conclusion of this paper addressing a more elegant solution to modeling far-infrared interferometers, which holds promise for improving the computational efficiency of the simulations presented here.

  12. Practical target location and accuracy indicator in digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Gentaro; Chikatsu, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    Recently, pixel numbers and functions of consumer grade digital camera are amazingly increasing by modern semiconductor and digital technology, and there are many low-priced consumer grade digital cameras which have more than 10 mega pixels on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, digital photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras is enormously expected in various application fields. There is a large body of literature on calibration of consumer grade digital cameras and circular target location. Target location with subpixel accuracy had been investigated as a star tracker issue, and many target location algorithms have been carried out. It is widely accepted that the least squares models with ellipse fitting is the most accurate algorithm. However, there are still problems for efficient digital close range photogrammetry. These problems are reconfirmation of the target location algorithms with subpixel accuracy for consumer grade digital cameras, relationship between number of edge points along target boundary and accuracy, and an indicator for estimating the accuracy of normal digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras. With this motive, an empirical testing of several algorithms for target location with subpixel accuracy and an indicator for estimating the accuracy are investigated in this paper using real data which were acquired indoors using 7 consumer grade digital cameras which have 7.2 mega pixels to 14.7 mega pixels.

  13. Simple and versatile modifications allowing time gated spectral acquisition, imaging and lifetime profiling on conventional wide-field microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Robert; Beeby, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An inverted microscope has been adapted to allow time-gated imaging and spectroscopy to be carried out on samples containing responsive lanthanide probes. The adaptation employs readily available components, including a pulsed light source, time-gated camera, spectrometer and photon counting detector, allowing imaging, emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements. Each component is controlled by a suite of software written in LabVIEW and is powered via conventional USB ports. (technical note)

  14. TRANSFORMATION ALGORITHM FOR IMAGES OBTAINED BY OMNIDIRECTIONAL CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Lazarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional optoelectronic systems find their application in areas where a wide viewing angle is critical. However, omnidirectional optoelectronic systems have a large distortion that makes their application more difficult. The paper compares the projection functions of traditional perspective lenses and omnidirectional wide angle fish-eye lenses with a viewing angle not less than 180°. This comparison proves that distortion models of omnidirectional cameras cannot be described as a deviation from the classic model of pinhole camera. To solve this problem, an algorithm for transforming omnidirectional images has been developed. The paper provides a brief comparison of the four calibration methods available in open source toolkits for omnidirectional optoelectronic systems. Geometrical projection model is given used for calibration of omnidirectional optical system. The algorithm consists of three basic steps. At the first step, we calculate he field of view of a virtual pinhole PTZ camera. This field of view is characterized by an array of 3D points in the object space. At the second step the array of corresponding pixels for these three-dimensional points is calculated. Then we make a calculation of the projection function that expresses the relation between a given 3D point in the object space and a corresponding pixel point. In this paper we use calibration procedure providing the projection function for calibrated instance of the camera. At the last step final image is formed pixel-by-pixel from the original omnidirectional image using calculated array of 3D points and projection function. The developed algorithm gives the possibility for obtaining an image for a part of the field of view of an omnidirectional optoelectronic system with the corrected distortion from the original omnidirectional image. The algorithm is designed for operation with the omnidirectional optoelectronic systems with both catadioptric and fish-eye lenses

  15. Reducing the Variance of Intrinsic Camera Calibration Results in the ROS Camera_Calibration Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Geoffrey Nelson

    The intrinsic calibration of a camera is the process in which the internal optical and geometric characteristics of the camera are determined. If accurate intrinsic parameters of a camera are known, the ray in 3D space that every point in the image lies on can be determined. Pairing with another camera allows for the position of the points in the image to be calculated by intersection of the rays. Accurate intrinsics also allow for the position and orientation of a camera relative to some world coordinate system to be calculated. These two reasons for having accurate intrinsic calibration for a camera are especially important in the field of industrial robotics where 3D cameras are frequently mounted on the ends of manipulators. In the ROS (Robot Operating System) ecosystem, the camera_calibration package is the default standard for intrinsic camera calibration. Several researchers from the Industrial Robotics & Automation division at Southwest Research Institute have noted that this package results in large variances in the intrinsic parameters of the camera when calibrating across multiple attempts. There are also open issues on this matter in their public repository that have not been addressed by the developers. In this thesis, we confirm that the camera_calibration package does indeed return different results across multiple attempts, test out several possible hypothesizes as to why, identify the reason, and provide simple solution to fix the cause of the issue.

  16. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  17. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  18. In vivo wide-field multispectral dosimeter for use in ALA-PpIX based photodynamic therapy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRochelle, Ethan P. M.; Davis, Scott C.; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Actinic Kertoses (AK) using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment, which is generally effective, yet response rates vary. The origin of the variability is not well characterized, but may be related to inter-patient variability in the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). While fiber-based point probe systems provide a method for measuring PpIX production, these measurements have demonstrated large spatial and inter-operator variability. Thus, in an effort to improve patient-specific dosimetry and treatment it is important to develop a robust system that accounts for spatial variability and reduces the chance of operator errors. To address this need, a wide-field multispectral imaging system was developed that is capable of quantifying maps of PpIX in both liquid phantoms and in vivo experiments, focusing on high sensitivity light signals. The system uses both red and blue excitation to elicit a fluorescent response at varying skin depths. A ten-position filter wheel with bandpass filters ranging from 635nm to 710nm are used to capture images along the emission band. A linear least-square spectral fitting algorithm provides the ability to decouple background autofluorescence from PpIX fluorescence, which has improved the system sensitivity by an order of magnitude, detecting nanomolar PpIX concentrations in liquid phantoms in the presence of 2% whole blood and 2% intralipid.

  19. THE LOW-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PSR J0437–4715 OBSERVED WITH THE MURCHISON WIDE-FIELD ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Ord, S. M.; Tremblay, S. E.; Tingay, S. J.; Oronsaye, S.; Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Van Straten, W.; Briggs, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Bernardi, G. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Goeke, R.; Hewitt, J. N. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Greenhill, L. J.; Kasper, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); and others

    2014-08-20

    We report on the detection of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437–4715 with the Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) at a frequency of 192 MHz. Our observations show rapid modulations of pulse intensity in time and frequency that arise from diffractive scintillation effects in the interstellar medium (ISM), as well as prominent drifts of intensity maxima in the time-frequency plane that arise from refractive effects. Our analysis suggests that the scattering screen is located at a distance of ∼80-120 pc from the Sun, in disagreement with a recent claim that the screen is closer (∼10 pc). Comparisons with higher frequency data from Parkes reveal a dramatic evolution of the pulse profile with frequency, with the outer conal emission becoming comparable in strength to that from the core and inner conal regions. As well as demonstrating the high time resolution science capabilities currently possible with the MWA, our observations underscore the potential to conduct low-frequency investigations of timing-array millisecond pulsars, which may lead to increased sensitivity in the detection of nanoHertz gravitational waves via the accurate characterization of ISM effects.

  20. Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-03-01

    With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

  1. Argus+: The Future of Wide-Field, Spectral-Line Imaging at 3-mm with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald; Frayer, David; Lockman, Felix; O'Neil, Karen; White, Steven; Argus+ Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. Observers also have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz, including CO, 13CO, C18O, SiO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and CS. The small number of pixels in Argus limits its ability to map many of the most interesting objects whose extent exceeds many arc-minutes. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. We present our plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5’x5’, and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects.

  2. Development of a Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL) II: Improving Measurement of Lengths of Detected Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Youp; Choi, Jin; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Jang-Hyun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    As described in the previous paper (Park et al. 2013), the detector subsystem of optical wide-field patrol (OWL) provides many observational data points of a single artificial satellite or space debris in the form of small streaks, using a chopper system and a time tagger. The position and the corresponding time data are matched assuming that the length of a streak on the CCD frame is proportional to the time duration of the exposure during which the chopper blades do not obscure the CCD window. In the previous study, however, the length was measured using the diagonal of the rectangle of the image area containing the streak; the results were quite ambiguous and inaccurate, allowing possible matching error of positions and time data. Furthermore, because only one (position, time) data point is created from one streak, the efficiency of the observation decreases. To define the length of a streak correctly, it is important to locate the endpoints of a streak. In this paper, a method using a differential convolution mask pattern is tested. This method can be used to obtain the positions where the pixel values are changed sharply. These endpoints can be regarded as directly detected positional data, and the number of data points is doubled by this result.

  3. Towards an ultra-thin medical endoscope: multimode fibre as a wide-field image transferring medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriš, Miroslav; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Multimode optical fibres are attractive for biomedical and industrial applications such as endoscopes because of the small cross section and imaging resolution they can provide in comparison to widely-used fibre bundles. However, the image is randomly scrambled by propagation through a multimode fibre. Even though the scrambling is unpredictable, it is deterministic, and therefore the scrambling can be reversed. To unscramble the image, we treat the multimode fibre as a linear, disordered scattering medium. To calibrate, we scan a focused beam of coherent light over thousands of different beam positions at the distal end and record complex fields at the proximal end of the fibre. This way, the inputoutput response of the system is determined, which then allows computational reconstruction of reflection-mode images. However, there remains the problem of illuminating the tissue via the fibre while avoiding back reflections from the proximal face. To avoid this drawback, we provide here the first preliminary confirmation that an image can be transferred through a 2x2 fibre coupler, with the sample at its distal port interrogated in reflection. Light is injected into one port for illumination and then collected from a second port for imaging.

  4. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  5. Optical design for CETUS: a wide-field 1.5m aperture UV payload being studied for a NASA probe class mission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert; Robert Woodruff, Goddard Space Flight Center, Kendrick Optical Consulting

    2018-01-01

    We are developing a NASA Headquarters selected Probe-class mission concept called the Cosmic Evolution Through UV Spectroscopy (CETUS) mission, which includes a 1.5-m aperture diameter large field-of-view (FOV) telescope optimized for UV imaging, multi-object spectroscopy, and point-source spectroscopy. The optical system includes a Three Mirror Anastigmatic (TMA) telescope that simultaneously feeds three separate scientific instruments: the near-UV (NUV) Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) with a next-generation Micro-Shutter Array (MSA); the two-channel camera covering the far-UV (FUV) and NUV spectrum; and the point-source spectrograph covering the FUV and NUV region with selectable R~ 40,000 echelle modes and R~ 2,000 first order modes. The optical system includes fine guidance sensors, wavefront sensing, and spectral and flat-field in-flight calibration sources. This paper will describe the current optical design of CETUS.

  6. Optical Design of the Camera for Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael; Clark, Kristin; Primeau, Brian; Dalpiaz, Michael; Lennon, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The optical design of the wide field of view refractive camera, 34 degrees diagonal field, for the TESS payload is described. This fast f/1.4 cryogenic camera, operating at -75 C, has no vignetting for maximum light gathering within the size and weight constraints. Four of these cameras capture full frames of star images for photometric searches of planet crossings. The optical design evolution, from the initial Petzval design, took advantage of Forbes aspheres to develop a hybrid design form. This maximized the correction from the two aspherics resulting in a reduction of average spot size by sixty percent in the final design. An external long wavelength pass filter was replaced by an internal filter coating on a lens to save weight, and has been fabricated to meet the specifications. The stray light requirements were met by an extended lens hood baffle design, giving the necessary off-axis attenuation.

  7. Accurate estimation of camera shot noise in the real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Rostislav S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays digital cameras are essential parts of various technological processes and daily tasks. They are widely used in optics and photonics, astronomy, biology and other various fields of science and technology such as control systems and video-surveillance monitoring. One of the main information limitations of photo- and videocameras are noises of photosensor pixels. Camera's photosensor noise can be divided into random and pattern components. Temporal noise includes random noise component while spatial noise includes pattern noise component. Temporal noise can be divided into signal-dependent shot noise and signal-nondependent dark temporal noise. For measurement of camera noise characteristics, the most widely used methods are standards (for example, EMVA Standard 1288). It allows precise shot and dark temporal noise measurement but difficult in implementation and time-consuming. Earlier we proposed method for measurement of temporal noise of photo- and videocameras. It is based on the automatic segmentation of nonuniform targets (ASNT). Only two frames are sufficient for noise measurement with the modified method. In this paper, we registered frames and estimated shot and dark temporal noises of cameras consistently in the real-time. The modified ASNT method is used. Estimation was performed for the cameras: consumer photocamera Canon EOS 400D (CMOS, 10.1 MP, 12 bit ADC), scientific camera MegaPlus II ES11000 (CCD, 10.7 MP, 12 bit ADC), industrial camera PixeLink PL-B781F (CMOS, 6.6 MP, 10 bit ADC) and video-surveillance camera Watec LCL-902C (CCD, 0.47 MP, external 8 bit ADC). Experimental dependencies of temporal noise on signal value are in good agreement with fitted curves based on a Poisson distribution excluding areas near saturation. Time of registering and processing of frames used for temporal noise estimation was measured. Using standard computer, frames were registered and processed during a fraction of second to several seconds only. Also the

  8. A Wide-Field Photometric Survey for Extratidal Tails Around Five Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2010-02-01

    Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo. Based on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. This is part of the

  9. 3D galaxy clustering with future wide-field surveys: Advantages of a spherical Fourier-Bessel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys are extremely promising to help in addressing the major challenges of cosmology, in particular in understanding the nature of the dark universe. The strength of these surveys, naturally described in spherical geometry, comes from their unprecedented depth and width, but an optimal extraction of their three-dimensional information is of utmost importance to best constrain the properties of the dark universe. Aims: Although there is theoretical motivation and novel tools to explore these surveys using the 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) power spectrum of galaxy number counts Cℓ(k,k'), most survey optimisations and forecasts are based on the tomographic spherical harmonics power spectrum C(ij)_ℓ. The goal of this paper is to perform a new investigation of the information that can be extracted from these two analyses in the context of planned stage IV wide-field galaxy surveys. Methods: We compared tomographic and 3D SFB techniques by comparing the forecast cosmological parameter constraints obtained from a Fisher analysis. The comparison was made possible by careful and coherent treatment of non-linear scales in the two analyses, which makes this study the first to compare 3D SFB and tomographic constraints on an equal footing. Nuisance parameters related to a scale- and redshift-dependent galaxy bias were also included in the computation of the 3D SFB and tomographic power spectra for the first time. Results: Tomographic and 3D SFB methods can recover similar constraints in the absence of systematics. This requires choosing an optimal number of redshift bins for the tomographic analysis, which we computed to be N = 26 for zmed ≃ 0.4, N = 30 for zmed ≃ 1.0, and N = 42 for zmed ≃ 1.7. When marginalising over nuisance parameters related to the galaxy bias, the forecast 3D SFB constraints are less affected by this source of systematics than the tomographic constraints. In addition, the rate of increase of the

  10. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H 2 O and CH 4 absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  11. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  12. Dynamic registration of an optical see-through HMD into a wide field-of-view rotorcraft flight simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viertler, Franz; Hajek, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the challenge of helicopter flight in degraded visual environments, current research considers headmounted displays with 3D-conformal (scene-linked) visual cues as most promising display technology. For pilot-in-theloop simulations with HMDs, a highly accurate registration of the augmented visual system is required. In rotorcraft flight simulators the outside visual cues are usually provided by a dome projection system, since a wide field-of-view (e.g. horizontally > 200° and vertically > 80°) is required, which can hardly be achieved with collimated viewing systems. But optical see-through HMDs do mostly not have an equivalent focus compared to the distance of the pilot's eye-point position to the curved screen, which is also dependant on head motion. Hence, a dynamic vergence correction has been implemented to avoid binocular disparity. In addition, the parallax error induced by even small translational head motions is corrected with a head-tracking system to be adjusted onto the projected screen. For this purpose, two options are presented. The correction can be achieved by rendering the view with yaw and pitch offset angles dependent on the deviating head position from the design eye-point of the spherical projection system. Furthermore, it can be solved by implementing a dynamic eye-point in the multi-channel projection system for the outside visual cues. Both options have been investigated for the integration of a binocular HMD into the Rotorcraft Simulation Environment (ROSIE) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Pros and cons of both possibilities with regard on integration issues and usability in flight simulations will be discussed.

  13. SFR test fixture for hemispherical and hyperhemispherical camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, John M.

    2017-08-01

    Optical testing of camera systems in volume production environments can often require expensive tooling and test fixturing. Wide field (fish-eye, hemispheric and hyperhemispheric) optical systems create unique challenges because of the inherent distortion, and difficulty in controlling reflections from front-lit high resolution test targets over the hemisphere. We present a unique design for a test fixture that uses low-cost manufacturing methods and equipment such as 3D printing and an Arduino processor to control back-lit multi-color (VIS/NIR) targets and sources. Special care with LED drive electronics is required to accommodate both global and rolling shutter sensors.

  14. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  15. A Compton camera application for the GAMOS GEANT4-based framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arce, P. [Department of Basic Research, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Judson, D.S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dormand, J.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Sweeney, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-11

    Compton camera systems can be used to image sources of gamma radiation in a variety of applications such as nuclear medicine, homeland security and nuclear decommissioning. To locate gamma-ray sources, a Compton camera employs electronic collimation, utilising Compton kinematics to reconstruct the paths of gamma rays which interact within the detectors. The main benefit of this technique is the ability to accurately identify and locate sources of gamma radiation within a wide field of view, vastly improving the efficiency and specificity over existing devices. Potential advantages of this imaging technique, along with advances in detector technology, have brought about a rapidly expanding area of research into the optimisation of Compton camera systems, which relies on significant input from Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper, the functionality of a Compton camera application that has been integrated into GAMOS, the GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations, is described. The application simplifies the use of GEANT4 for Monte-Carlo investigations by employing a script based language and plug-in technology. To demonstrate the use of the Compton camera application, simulated data have been generated using the GAMOS application and acquired through experiment for a preliminary validation, using a Compton camera configured with double sided high purity germanium strip detectors. Energy spectra and reconstructed images for the data sets are presented.

  16. Simulations of the x-ray imaging capabilities of the silicon drift detectors (SDD) for the LOFT wide-field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Y.; Campana, R.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Detector (LAD), carrying an unprecedented effective area of 10 m^2, is complemented by a coded-mask Wide Field Monitor, in charge of monitoring a large fraction of the sky potentially accessible to the LAD, to provide the history and context for the sources observed by LAD and to trigger its observations...... on their most interesting and extreme states. In this paper we present detailed simulations of the imaging capabilities of the Silicon Drift Detectors developed for the LOFT Wide Field Monitor detection plane. The simulations explore a large parameter space for both the detector design and the environmental...

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  18. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  19. The Argus+ Project: Wide-field, high-resolution 3mm molecular imaging with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.

    2018-06-01

    Argus+ is a large format radio camera system for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) that will carry out high-fidelity spectroscopic mapping in the molecule-rich 3mm band. The project builds on the success of the prototype 16-pixel Argus 3mm receiver. Argus+ will be nine copies of Argus in a single dewer, with lower noise amplifiers, for an increase of a factor of ten in mapping speed. The Argus+ project includes a dedicated spectrometer and improvements to the GBT metrology that will more than double the amount of useful observing time at 3mm. With a footprint of 6'x6’, 144 pixels, an angular resolution of 6″ to 8″, and the sensitivity of a filled aperture, Argus+ will map fundamental transitions of important species over hundreds of square arc-min with a spatial dynamic range of 104 to 105. The Argus+ project includes two legacy surveys: a survey of molecules in the Gould Belt molecular clouds, and a survey of dense gas in nearby galaxies. These will be carried out by the scientific community and will be defined through a series of workshops. The Project has a strong educational component and will involve undergraduates at every stage. It will be incorporated into new and existing outreach programs, and will produce materials for the Green Bank Science Center. Argus+ will be operated as an open skies facility of the Green Bank Observatory, with the majority of its use being allocated through the normal proposal review process.

  20. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2012-01-01

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  2. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  3. Be Foil ''Filter Knee Imaging'' NSTX Plasma with Fast Soft X-ray Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.C. Stratton; S. von Goeler; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; L.E. Zakharov

    2005-01-01

    A fast soft x-ray (SXR) pinhole camera has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This paper presents observations and describes the Be foil Filter Knee Imaging (FKI) technique for reconstructions of a m/n=1/1 mode on NSTX. The SXR camera has a wide-angle (28 o ) field of view of the plasma. The camera images nearly the entire diameter of the plasma and a comparable region in the vertical direction. SXR photons pass through a beryllium foil and are imaged by a pinhole onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber optic faceplate. An electrostatic image intensifier demagnifies the visible image by 6:1 to match it to the size of the charge-coupled device (CCD) chip. A pair of lenses couples the image to the CCD chip

  4. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  5. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Martin [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bailey, J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASC cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.

  6. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  7. Automatic multi-camera calibration for deployable positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Maria; Karlsson, Mikael; Rudner, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance with automated positioning and tracking of subjects and vehicles in 3D is desired in many defence and security applications. Camera systems with stereo or multiple cameras are often used for 3D positioning. In such systems, accurate camera calibration is needed to obtain a reliable 3D position estimate. There is also a need for automated camera calibration to facilitate fast deployment of semi-mobile multi-camera 3D positioning systems. In this paper we investigate a method for automatic calibration of the extrinsic camera parameters (relative camera pose and orientation) of a multi-camera positioning system. It is based on estimation of the essential matrix between each camera pair using the 5-point method for intrinsically calibrated cameras. The method is compared to a manual calibration method using real HD video data from a field trial with a multicamera positioning system. The method is also evaluated on simulated data from a stereo camera model. The results show that the reprojection error of the automated camera calibration method is close to or smaller than the error for the manual calibration method and that the automated calibration method can replace the manual calibration.

  8. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source (HTPD 08 paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M; Schneider, M B

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  9. Acceptance/Operational Test Report for Tank 241-AN-104 camera and camera purge control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This Acceptance/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) will document the satisfactory operation of the camera purge panel, purge control panel, color camera system and associated control components destined for installation. The final acceptance of the complete system will be performed in the field. The purge panel and purge control panel will be tested for its safety interlock which shuts down the camera and pan-and-tilt inside the tank vapor space during loss of purge pressure and that the correct purge volume exchanges are performed as required by NFPA 496. This procedure is separated into seven sections. This Acceptance/Operational Test Report documents the successful acceptance and operability testing of the 241-AN-104 camera system and camera purge control system

  10. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  11. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  12. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-Wavelength Wide-Field Coronal Spectropolarimeter for the Study of the Dynamics and the Magnetic Fields of the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Tremendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the Twenty-First century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP) instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs), which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important for our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employs large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six CELs simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  13. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-wavelength wide-field coronal spectropolarimeter for the study of the dynamics and the magnetic fields of the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haosheng eLin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available remendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the 21st century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs, which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important {bf of} our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employees large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase of the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six coronal emission lines simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  14. Common aperture multispectral spotter camera: Spectro XR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Freiman, Dov; Diamant, Idan; Giladi, Shira; Leibovich, Maor

    2017-10-01

    The Spectro XRTM is an advanced color/NIR/SWIR/MWIR 16'' payload recently developed by Elbit Systems / ELOP. The payload's primary sensor is a spotter camera with common 7'' aperture. The sensor suite includes also MWIR zoom, EO zoom, laser designator or rangefinder, laser pointer / illuminator and laser spot tracker. Rigid structure, vibration damping and 4-axes gimbals enable high level of line-of-sight stabilization. The payload's list of features include multi-target video tracker, precise boresight, strap-on IMU, embedded moving map, geodetic calculations suite, and image fusion. The paper describes main technical characteristics of the spotter camera. Visible-quality, all-metal front catadioptric telescope maintains optical performance in wide range of environmental conditions. High-efficiency coatings separate the incoming light into EO, SWIR and MWIR band channels. Both EO and SWIR bands have dual FOV and 3 spectral filters each. Several variants of focal plane array formats are supported. The common aperture design facilitates superior DRI performance in EO and SWIR, in comparison to the conventionally configured payloads. Special spectral calibration and color correction extend the effective range of color imaging. An advanced CMOS FPA and low F-number of the optics facilitate low light performance. SWIR band provides further atmospheric penetration, as well as see-spot capability at especially long ranges, due to asynchronous pulse detection. MWIR band has good sharpness in the entire field-of-view and (with full HD FPA) delivers amount of detail far exceeding one of VGA-equipped FLIRs. The Spectro XR offers level of performance typically associated with larger and heavier payloads.

  15. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  16. Cu incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) composites: An efficient electron field emitter over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sk Faruque; Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2018-03-01

    The effect of temperature on the electron field emission properties of copper incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (a-Cu:DLC) thin films have been reported. The a-Cu:DLC thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and silicon substrate by the radio frequency sputtering process. The chemical composition of the films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the micro structure was established using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The sp2 and sp3 bonding ratio in the a-Cu:DLC have been analyzed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy studies. The material showed excellent electron field emission properties; which was optimized by varying the copper atomic percentage and temperature of the films. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced significantly by copper incorporation as well as temperature and a detailed explanation towards emission mechanism has been provided.

  17. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 8} rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  18. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10 6 - 10 8 rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  19. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...

  20. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  1. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each detector ring or offset ring includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and a plurality of scintillation crystals are positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring is offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. The offset detector ring geometry reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  2. Assessment of a landfill methane emission screening method using an unmanned aerial vehicle mounted thermal infrared camera – A field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, A. G.; Larsen, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-mounted thermal infrared (TIR) camera’s ability to delineate landfill gas (LFG) emission hotspots was evaluated in a field test at two Danish landfills (Hedeland landfill and Audebo landfill). At both sites, a test area of 100 m2 was established and divided into a...

  3. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-05

    in 50 L trash cans. Oak leaves of Quercus alba (L.) and Q. rubra (L.) were used because this infusion elicits oviposition responses from container...105 ha in area (Fig. 2), whereas, the control site was in Union Beach , NJ (40.2650 lat., - 74.71026 long.) and spanned 181 ha. Both the treatment and...people/km2) than Union Beach (1384.7 people/km2). We initially intended to assess pyriproxyfen-based area-wide autodissemination by treating 25% of an

  4. Low power multi-camera system and algorithms for automated threat detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Van Buer, Darrel J.; Martin, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    A key to any robust automated surveillance system is continuous, wide field-of-view sensor coverage and high accuracy target detection algorithms. Newer systems typically employ an array of multiple fixed cameras that provide individual data streams, each of which is managed by its own processor. This array can continuously capture the entire field of view, but collecting all the data and back-end detection algorithm consumes additional power and increases the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of the package. This is often unacceptable, as many potential surveillance applications have strict system SWaP requirements. This paper describes a wide field-of-view video system that employs multiple fixed cameras and exhibits low SWaP without compromising the target detection rate. We cycle through the sensors, fetch a fixed number of frames, and process them through a modified target detection algorithm. During this time, the other sensors remain powered-down, which reduces the required hardware and power consumption of the system. We show that the resulting gaps in coverage and irregular frame rate do not affect the detection accuracy of the underlying algorithms. This reduces the power of an N-camera system by up to approximately N-fold compared to the baseline normal operation. This work was applied to Phase 2 of DARPA Cognitive Technology Threat Warning System (CT2WS) program and used during field testing.

  5. Wide-field optical detection of nanoparticles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nanolenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; McLeod, Euan; Luo, Wei; Greenbaum, Alon; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Hennequin, Yves; Allier, Cédric P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-03-01

    The direct observation of nanoscale objects is a challenging task for optical microscopy because the scattering from an individual nanoparticle is typically weak at optical wavelengths. Electron microscopy therefore remains one of the gold standard visualization methods for nanoparticles, despite its high cost, limited throughput and restricted field-of-view. Here, we describe a high-throughput, on-chip detection scheme that uses biocompatible wetting films to self-assemble aspheric liquid nanolenses around individual nanoparticles to enhance the contrast between the scattered and background light. We model the effect of the nanolens as a spatial phase mask centred on the particle and show that the holographic diffraction pattern of this effective phase mask allows detection of sub-100 nm particles across a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we report on-chip detection of individual polystyrene nanoparticles, adenoviruses and influenza A (H1N1) viral particles.

  6. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  7. Ultrahigh sensitivity endoscopic camera using a new CMOS image sensor: providing with clear images under low illumination in addition to fluorescent images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hisae; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshiyuki; Fukuyo, Tsuneo; Chiba, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We developed a new ultrahigh-sensitive CMOS camera using a specific sensor that has a wide range of spectral sensitivity characteristics. The objective of this study is to present our updated endoscopic technology that has successfully integrated two innovative functions; ultrasensitive imaging as well as advanced fluorescent viewing. Two different experiments were conducted. One was carried out to evaluate the function of the ultrahigh-sensitive camera. The other was to test the availability of the newly developed sensor and its performance as a fluorescence endoscope. In both studies, the distance from the endoscopic tip to the target was varied and those endoscopic images in each setting were taken for further comparison. In the first experiment, the 3-CCD camera failed to display the clear images under low illumination, and the target was hardly seen. In contrast, the CMOS camera was able to display the targets regardless of the camera-target distance under low illumination. Under high illumination, imaging quality given by both cameras was quite alike. In the second experiment as a fluorescence endoscope, the CMOS camera was capable of clearly showing the fluorescent-activated organs. The ultrahigh sensitivity CMOS HD endoscopic camera is expected to provide us with clear images under low illumination in addition to the fluorescent images under high illumination in the field of laparoscopic surgery.

  8. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  9. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  10. Slice-based supine-to-standing posture deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results with wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Tan, L.; Shao, Q.; Li, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhao, C.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2013-01-01

    Standing Chinese adult anatomical models are obtained from supine-postured cadaver slices. This paper presents the dosimetric differences between the supine and the standing postures over wide band frequencies and various incident configurations. Both the body level and the tissue/organ level differences are reported for plane wave and the 3T magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. The influence of posture on the whole body specific absorption rate and tissue specified specific absorption rate values is discussed. . (authors)

  11. NONLINEAR OPTICAL EFFECTS: Four-wave resonant parametric interaction with signal phase conjugation in a wide-band pump field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Iskanderov, N. A.

    1987-08-01

    An analysis is made of the reduction of the fluctuations introduced in the intensity of the phase conjugate wave and of the reduction in the time for establishment of quasisteady conjugation conditions and in the relaxation time of the intensity of the conjugate wave after switching on of the pump fields in the case of stochastic excitation of a transition. It is shown that, in principle, it is possible to generate a narrow-band pump-induced component of the conjugate wave spectrum.

  12. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  13. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  14. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  15. European research and commercialisation activities in the field of tissue engineering and liver support in world wide competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, U; Bushnaq, H; Yalcin, E

    1998-02-01

    Tissue engineering is seen as an interesting field of technology which could improve medical therapy and could also be considered as a commercial opportunity for the European biotechnological industry. Research in the state of the art of science using the MedLine and the Science Citation Index databases, in the patent situation and of the industry dealing with tissue engineering was done. A special method, based on the Science Citation Index Journal Citation Report 1993, for evaluating scientific work was defined. The main countries working in the field of tissue engineering were evaluated in regard to their scientific performance and their patents. The R&D of German industry was investigated as an exemplary European country. Out of all activities, different tissues were rated with respect to the attention received from research and industry and with regard to the frequency in which patents were applied for. USA, Germany and Japan rank first in most tissues, especially liver. After comparing German patents with the German scientific and industrial work, it seems that the potential in German patents and research is underestimated by German industry and inefficiently exploited.

  16. Camera network video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rameswar; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K.

    2017-05-01

    Networks of vision sensors are deployed in many settings, ranging from security needs to disaster response to environmental monitoring. Many of these setups have hundreds of cameras and tens of thousands of hours of video. The difficulty of analyzing such a massive volume of video data is apparent whenever there is an incident that requires foraging through vast video archives to identify events of interest. As a result, video summarization, that automatically extract a brief yet informative summary of these videos, has attracted intense attention in the recent years. Much progress has been made in developing a variety of ways to summarize a single video in form of a key sequence or video skim. However, generating a summary from a set of videos captured in a multi-camera network still remains as a novel and largely under-addressed problem. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing videos in a camera network, we introduce a novel representative selection approach via joint embedding and capped l21-norm minimization. The objective function is two-fold. The first is to capture the structural relationships of data points in a camera network via an embedding, which helps in characterizing the outliers and also in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a capped l21-norm to model the sparsity and to suppress the influence of data outliers in representative selection. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the structure, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. Extensive experiments on standard multi-camera datasets well demonstrate the efficacy of our method over state-of-the-art methods.

  17. A hands-free region-of-interest selection interface for solo surgery with a wide-angle endoscope: preclinical proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyunghwa; Choi, Hyunseok; Hong, Hanpyo; Adikrishna, Arnold; Jeon, In-Ho; Hong, Jaesung

    2017-02-01

    A hands-free region-of-interest (ROI) selection interface is proposed for solo surgery using a wide-angle endoscope. A wide-angle endoscope provides images with a larger field of view than a conventional endoscope. With an appropriate selection interface for a ROI, surgeons can also obtain a detailed local view as if they moved a conventional endoscope in a specific position and direction. To manipulate the endoscope without releasing the surgical instrument in hand, a mini-camera is attached to the instrument, and the images taken by the attached camera are analyzed. When a surgeon moves the instrument, the instrument orientation is calculated by an image processing. Surgeons can select the ROI with this instrument movement after switching from 'task mode' to 'selection mode.' The accelerated KAZE algorithm is used to track the features of the camera images once the instrument is moved. Both the wide-angle and detailed local views are displayed simultaneously, and a surgeon can move the local view area by moving the mini-camera attached to the surgical instrument. Local view selection for a solo surgery was performed without releasing the instrument. The accuracy of camera pose estimation was not significantly different between camera resolutions, but it was significantly different between background camera images with different numbers of features (P solo surgeries without a camera assistant.

  18. Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Profiles within Maize Canopy under in-Field Rainwater Harvesting with Wide and Narrow Runoff Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological measurements were used to evaluate heat and water vapor to describe the transpiration (Ev and soil evaporation (Es processes for wide and narrow runoff strips under in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH system. The resulting sigmoid-shaped water vapor (ea in wide and narrow runoff strips varied in lower and upper parts of the maize canopy. In wide runoff strips, lapse conditions of ea extended from lowest measurement level (LP to the upper middle section (MU and inversion was apparent at the top of the canopy. The virtual potential temperature (θv profile showed no difference in middle section, but the lower and upper portion (UP had lower  in narrow, compared to wide, strips, and LP-UP changes of 0.6 K and 1.2 K were observed, respectively. The Ev and Es within the canopy increased the ea concentration as determined by the wind order of magnitude. The ea concentration reached peak at about 1.6 kPa at a range of wind speed value of 1.4–1.8 m∙s−1 and 2.0–2.4 m∙s−1 for wide and narrow treatments, respectively. The sparse maize canopy of the wide strips could supply more drying power of the air in response to atmospheric evaporative demand compared to narrow strips. This is due to the variation in air flow in wide and narrow runoff strips that change gradients in ea for evapotranspiration processes.

  19. The XMM-Newton Wide-field Survey in the Cosmos Field (XMM-COSMOS) : Demography and Multiwavelength Properties of Obscured and Unobscured Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Fiore, F.; Hasinger, G.; Mainieri, V.; Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Hao, H.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Treister, E.; Trump, J. D.; Vignali, C.; Zamojski, M.; Aldcroft, T.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Finoguenov, A.; Fruscione, A.; Garilli, B.; Impey, C. D.; Iovino, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leborgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y. -J.; Perez-Montero, E.; de Ravel, L.; Sanders, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Tanaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; de la Torre, S.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the final optical identifications of the medium-depth (~60 ks), contiguous (2 deg2) XMM-Newton survey of the COSMOS field. XMM-Newton has detected ~1800 X-ray sources down to limiting fluxes of ~5 × 10-16, ~3 × 10-15, and ~7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, and 5-10 keV

  20. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

  1. Wide-range and fast thermally-tunable silicon photonic microring resonators using the junction field effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Lentine, Anthony; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas; Pomerene, Andrew; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-10-03

    Tunable silicon microring resonators with small, integrated micro-heaters which exhibit a junction field effect were made using a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic foundry fabrication process. The design of the resistive tuning section in the microrings included a "pinched" p-n junction, which limited the current at higher voltages and inhibited damage even when driven by a pre-emphasized voltage waveform. Dual-ring filters were studied for both large (>4.9 THz) and small (850 GHz) free-spectral ranges. Thermal red-shifting was demonstrated with microsecond-scale time constants, e.g., a dual-ring filter was tuned over 25 nm in 0.6 μs 10%-90% transition time, and with efficiency of 3.2 μW/GHz.

  2. Active optics and the axisymmetric case: MINITRUST wide-field three-reflection telescopes with mirrors aspherized from tulip and vase forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulie, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires larger size telescopes. Compared to the catadioptric Schmidt, the optical properties of a three mirror telescope provides significant advantages. (1) The flat field design is anastigmatic at any wavelength, (2) the system is extremely compact -- four times shorter than a Schmidt -- and, (3) compared to a Schmidt with refractive corrector -- requiring the polishing of three optical surfaces --, the presently proposed Modified-Rumsey design uses all of eight available free parameters of a flat fielded anastigmatic three mirror telescope for mirrors generated by active optics methods. Compared to a Rumsey design, these parameters include the additional slope continuity condition at the primary-tertiary link for in-situ stressing and aspherization from a common sphere. Then, active optics allows the polishing of only two spherical surfaces: the combined primary-tertiary mirror and the secondary mirror. All mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. This compact system is of interest for space and ground-based astronomy and allows to built larger wide-field telescopes such as demonstrated by the design and construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° FOV, consisting of an in-situ stressed double vase form primary-tertiary and of a stress polished tulip form secondary. Optical tests of these telescopes, showing diffraction limited images, are presented.

  3. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  4. Electron-tracking Compton gamma-ray camera for small animal and phantom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuki, Shigeto, E-mail: kabuki@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, Gradulate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Hiroo [Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakamoto, Yuji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Michiaki [Department of Physics, Gradulate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Radioisotopes Research Labaoratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi; Kunieda, Etuso; Nakahara, Tadaki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Kohara, Ryota; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nakazawa, Tetsuo; Shirahata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Etsuji [Application Development Office, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Chiba 277-0804 (Japan); Ogawa, Koichi [Department of Electronic Informatics, Faculty of Engineering, Hosei University, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for medical use. Our ETCC has a wide energy dynamic range (200-1300 keV) and wide field of view (3 sr), and thus has potential for advanced medical use. To evaluate the ETCC, we imaged the head (brain) and bladder of mice that had been administered with F-18-FDG. We also imaged the head and thyroid gland of mice using double tracers of F-18-FDG and I-131 ions.

  5. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  6. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  7. Evidence for non-axisymmetry in M 31 from wide-field kinematics of stars and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitsch, M.; Fabricius, M. H.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Blaña, M.; Gerhard, O.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. As the nearest large spiral galaxy, M 31 provides a unique opportunity to study the structure and evolutionary history of this galaxy type in great detail. Among the many observing programs aimed at M 31 are microlensing studies, which require good three-dimensional models of the stellar mass distribution. Possible non-axisymmetric structures like a bar need to be taken into account. Due to M 31's high inclination, the bar is difficult to detect in photometry alone. Therefore, detailed kinematic measurements are needed to constrain the possible existence and position of a bar in M 31. Methods: We obtained ≈220 separate fields with the optical integral-field unit spectrograph VIRUS-W, covering the whole bulge region of M 31 and parts of the disk. We derived stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions from the stellar absorption lines, as well as velocity distributions and line fluxes of the emission lines Hβ, [O III] and [N I]. Our data supersede any previous study in terms of spatial coverage and spectral resolution. Results: We find several features that are indicative of a bar in the kinematics of the stars, we see intermediate plateaus in the velocity and the velocity dispersion, and correlation between the higher moment h3 and the velocity. The gas kinematics is highly irregular, but is consistent with non-triaxial streaming motions caused by a bar. The morphology of the gas shows a spiral pattern, with seemingly lower inclination than the stellar disk. We also look at the ionization mechanisms of the gas, which happens mostly through shocks and not through starbursts. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.This research was supported by the DFG cluster of excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe".Full Tables B.4-B.7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A38

  8. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  9. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Balletti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a easy to handle, (b capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  10. WIDE-FIELD VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF M31: A UNIQUE PROBE OF THE IONIZED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF A NEARBY GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, John S.; Argo, Megan K.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Miller-Jones, James; Tingay, Steven J.; Deller, Adam; Middelberg, Enno

    2013-01-01

    The Very Long Baseline Array was used at 1.6 GHz to observe a target field 50' in diameter including the core of M31. Novel very long baseline interferometry correlation techniques were used to observe 200 sources simultaneously, of which 16 were detected. We classify all 16 as background active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray properties and arcsecond- and mas-scale morphology. The detected sources were then analyzed for evidence of scatter-broadening due to the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) of M31. The detection of a compact background source only 0.25 kpc projected distance from M31* places a constraint on the extent of any extreme scattering region associated with the center of M31. However, the two sources closest to the core show evidence of scatter broadening consistent with that which would be seen for a compact source if it were observed through the inner disk of our Galaxy, at the inclination of M31. We interpret this as a detection of the ionized ISM of M31 along two lines of sight. With the increases in bandwidth and sensitivity envisaged for future long-baseline interferometers, this should prove to be a remarkably powerful technique for understanding the ionized ISM in external galaxies.

  11. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  12. 1550 nm superluminescent diode and anti-Stokes effect CCD camera based optical coherence tomography for full-field optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredzinski, Lukasz; Connelly, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising non-invasive imaging technology capable of carrying out 3D high-resolution cross-sectional images of the internal microstructure of examined material. However, almost all of these systems are expensive, requiring the use of complex optical setups, expensive light sources and complicated scanning of the sample under test. In addition most of these systems have not taken advantage of the competitively priced optical components available at wavelength within the main optical communications band located in the 1550 nm region. A comparatively simple and inexpensive full-field OCT system (FF-OCT), based on a superluminescent diode (SLD) light source and anti-stokes imaging device was constructed, to perform 3D cross-sectional imaging. This kind of inexpensive setup with moderate resolution could be easily applicable in low-level biomedical and industrial diagnostics. This paper involves calibration of the system and determines its suitability for imaging structures of biological tissues such as teeth, which has low absorption at 1550 nm.

  13. Reconsidering the advantages of the three-dimensional representation of the interferometric transform for imaging with non-coplanar baselines and wide fields of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M. P.; Young, A.; Davidson, D. B.

    2017-07-01

    Radio telescopes with baselines that span thousands of kilometres and with fields of view that span tens of degrees have been recently deployed, such as the Low Frequency Array, and are currently being developed, such as the Square Kilometre Array. Additionally, there are proposals for space-based instruments with all-sky imaging capabilities, such as the Orbiting Low Frequency Array. Such telescopes produce observations with three-dimensional visibility distributions and curved image domains. In most work to date, the visibility distribution has been converted to a planar form to compute the brightness map using a two-dimensional Fourier transform. The celestial sphere is faceted in order to counter pixel distortion at wide angles, with each such facet requiring a unique planar form of the visibility distribution. Under the above conditions, the computational and storage complexities of this approach can become excessive. On the other hand, when using the direct Fourier transform approach, which maintains the three-dimensional shapes of the visibility distribution and celestial sphere, the non-coplanar visibility component requires no special attention. Furthermore, as the celestial samples are placed directly on the curved surface of the celestial sphere, pixel distortion at wide angles is avoided. In this paper, a number of examples illustrate that under these conditions (very long baselines and very wide fields of view) the costs of the direct Fourier transform may be comparable to (or even lower than) methods that utilise the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform.

  14. Computer-aided discovery of debris disk candidates: A case study using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T.; Pankratius, V.; Eckman, L.; Seager, S.

    2018-04-01

    Debris disks around stars other than the Sun have received significant attention in studies of exoplanets, specifically exoplanetary system formation. Since debris disks are major sources of infrared emissions, infrared survey data such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey (WISE) catalog potentially harbors numerous debris disk candidates. However, it is currently challenging to perform disk candidate searches for over 747 million sources in the WISE catalog due to the high probability of false positives caused by interstellar matter, galaxies, and other background artifacts. Crowdsourcing techniques have thus started to harness citizen scientists for debris disk identification since humans can be easily trained to distinguish between desired artifacts and irrelevant noises. With a limited number of citizen scientists, however, increasing data volumes from large surveys will inevitably lead to analysis bottlenecks. To overcome this scalability problem and push the current limits of automated debris disk candidate identification, we present a novel approach that uses citizen science results as a seed to train machine learning based classification. In this paper, we detail a case study with a computer-aided discovery pipeline demonstrating such feasibility based on WISE catalog data and NASA's Disk Detective project. Our approach of debris disk candidates classification was shown to be robust under a wide range of image quality and features. Our hybrid approach of citizen science with algorithmic scalability can facilitate big data processing for future detections as envisioned in future missions such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

  15. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  16. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  17. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  18. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  19. ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2009-04-01

    We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

  20. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  1. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  2. Comparison of polarimetric cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...polarimetric camera, remote sensing, space systems 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 93 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...2016. Hermann Hall, Monterey, CA. The next data in Figure 37. were collected on 01 December 2016 at 1226 PST on the rooftop of the Marriot Hotel in

  3. Calibration Procedures in Mid Format Camera Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnicka, F.; Kemper, G.; Geissler, S.

    2012-07-01

    A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU), the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and camera can be applied

  4. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES IN MID FORMAT CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pivnicka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU, the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and

  5. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 – W2 ≥ 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]–[4.6] ≥0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 ± 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg 2 to a depth of W2 ∼ 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 μJy at 4.6 μm, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  6. a Spatio-Spectral Camera for High Resolution Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livens, S.; Pauly, K.; Baeck, P.; Blommaert, J.; Nuyts, D.; Zender, J.; Delauré, B.

    2017-08-01

    Imaging with a conventional frame camera from a moving remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) is by design very inefficient. Less than 1 % of the flying time is used for collecting light. This unused potential can be utilized by an innovative imaging concept, the spatio-spectral camera. The core of the camera is a frame sensor with a large number of hyperspectral filters arranged on the sensor in stepwise lines. It combines the advantages of frame cameras with those of pushbroom cameras. By acquiring images in rapid succession, such a camera can collect detailed hyperspectral information, while retaining the high spatial resolution offered by the sensor. We have developed two versions of a spatio-spectral camera and used them in a variety of conditions. In this paper, we present a summary of three missions with the in-house developed COSI prototype camera (600-900 nm) in the domains of precision agriculture (fungus infection monitoring in experimental wheat plots), horticulture (crop status monitoring to evaluate irrigation management in strawberry fields) and geology (meteorite detection on a grassland field). Additionally, we describe the characteristics of the 2nd generation, commercially available ButterflEYE camera offering extended spectral range (475-925 nm), and we discuss future work.

  7. A SPATIO-SPECTRAL CAMERA FOR HIGH RESOLUTION HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Livens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Imaging with a conventional frame camera from a moving remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS is by design very inefficient. Less than 1 % of the flying time is used for collecting light. This unused potential can be utilized by an innovative imaging concept, the spatio-spectral camera. The core of the camera is a frame sensor with a large number of hyperspectral filters arranged on the sensor in stepwise lines. It combines the advantages of frame cameras with those of pushbroom cameras. By acquiring images in rapid succession, such a camera can collect detailed hyperspectral information, while retaining the high spatial resolution offered by the sensor. We have developed two versions of a spatio-spectral camera and used them in a variety of conditions. In this paper, we present a summary of three missions with the in-house developed COSI prototype camera (600–900 nm in the domains of precision agriculture (fungus infection monitoring in experimental wheat plots, horticulture (crop status monitoring to evaluate irrigation management in strawberry fields and geology (meteorite detection on a grassland field. Additionally, we describe the characteristics of the 2nd generation, commercially available ButterflEYE camera offering extended spectral range (475–925 nm, and we discuss future work.

  8. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  9. Combined use of a field-plate and narrow p-barriers for a wide-pitch ohmic-side readout of the BELLE double-sided SVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Matsuda, T.

    1997-01-01

    We explored wide-pitch ohmic-side structures for the BELLE SVD, where we proposed a field-plate structure combined with narrow p-barriers in between the readout electrodes of 90, 113, 180, and 226 μm-pitch detectors. The effect of the p-barriers was studied with a numerical model to trace the carrier trajectories. The charge collection and sharing properties were examined in practice for prototype small-size detectors with an IR pulse shining from either the junction side or the ohmic side. The channel separation capabilities were also shown to be appropriate under nominal operation conditions. (orig.)

  10. An automated wide-field time-gated optically sectioning fluorescence lifetime imaging multiwell plate reader for high-content analysis of protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibhai, Dominic; Kumar, Sunil; Kelly, Douglas; Warren, Sean; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; McGinty, James; Talbot, Clifford; Murray, Edward J.; Stuhmeier, Frank; Neil, Mark A. A.; Dunsby, Chris; French, Paul M. W.

    2011-03-01

    We describe an optically-sectioned FLIM multiwell plate reader that combines Nipkow microscopy with wide-field time-gated FLIM, and its application to high content analysis of FRET. The system acquires sectioned FLIM images in fluorescent protein. It has been applied to study the formation of immature HIV virus like particles (VLPs) in live cells by monitoring Gag-Gag protein interactions using FLIM FRET of HIV-1 Gag transfected with CFP or YFP. VLP formation results in FRET between closely packed Gag proteins, as confirmed by our FLIM analysis that includes automatic image segmentation.

  11. Camera Control and Geo-Registration for Video Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James W.

    With the use of large video networks, there is a need to coordinate and interpret the video imagery for decision support systems with the goal of reducing the cognitive and perceptual overload of human operators. We present computer vision strategies that enable efficient control and management of cameras to effectively monitor wide-coverage areas, and examine the framework within an actual multi-camera outdoor urban video surveillance network. First, we construct a robust and precise camera control model for commercial pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) video cameras. In addition to providing a complete functional control mapping for PTZ repositioning, the model can be used to generate wide-view spherical panoramic viewspaces for the cameras. Using the individual camera control models, we next individually map the spherical panoramic viewspace of each camera to a large aerial orthophotograph of the scene. The result provides a unified geo-referenced map representation to permit automatic (and manual) video control and exploitation of cameras in a coordinated manner. The combined framework provides new capabilities for video sensor networks that are of significance and benefit to the broad surveillance/security community.

  12. Reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation over a wide temperature window in Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2018-05-01

    Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 (0 ≤ x ≤ 14) alloys are reported to exhibit a magnetostructural transition from weakly-magnetic martensite to ferromagnetic austenite over a rather wide temperature window ranging from 200 K to 380 K. Simultaneously a large magnetization change Δσ of up to 105 Am2 kg-1 is obtained at the martensitic transformation. A reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is realized, resulting in a large magnetocaloric effect related to the high magnetic entropy change with a broad working temperature span. This work shows how it is possible to effectively tailor the magnetostructural transition in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys so as to achieve a reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation and associated functionalities.

  13. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  14. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  15. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  16. Simulated predictions for H I at z = 3.35 with the Ooty Wide Field Array - I. Instrument and the foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthi, Visweshwar Ram; Chatterjee, Suman; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Bharadwaj, Somnath

    2017-11-01

    Foreground removal is the most important step in detecting the large-scale redshifted H I 21-cm signal. Modelling foreground spectra is challenging and is further complicated by the chromatic response of the telescope. We present a multifrequency angular power spectrum (MAPS) estimator for use in a survey for redshifted H I 21-cm emission from z ˜ 3.35 and demonstrate its ability to accurately characterize the foregrounds. This survey will be carried out with the two wide-field interferometer modes of the upgraded Ooty Radio Telescope, called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA), at 326.5 MHz. We have tailored the two-visibility correlation for OWFA to estimate the MAPS and test it with simulated foregrounds. In the process, we describe a software model that encodes the geometry and the details of the telescope and simulates a realistic model for the bright radio sky. This article presents simulations that include the full chromatic response of the telescope in addition to the frequency dependence intrinsic to the foregrounds. We find that the visibility correlation MAPS estimator recovers the input angular power spectrum accurately and that the instrument response to the foregrounds dominates the systematic errors in the recovered foreground power spectra.

  17. Accuracy of deep learning, a machine-learning technology, using ultra-wide-field fundus ophthalmoscopy for detecting rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsugi, Hideharu; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Enno, Hiroki; Ishitobi, Naofumi

    2017-08-25

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a serious condition that can lead to blindness; however, it is highly treatable with timely and appropriate treatment. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of RRD is crucial. In this study, we applied deep learning, a machine-learning technology, to detect RRD using ultra-wide-field fundus images and investigated its performance. In total, 411 images (329 for training and 82 for grading) from 407 RRD patients and 420 images (336 for training and 84 for grading) from 238 non-RRD patients were used in this study. The deep learning model demonstrated a high sensitivity of 97.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 94.2-100%] and a high specificity of 96.5% (95% CI, 90.2-100%), and the area under the curve was 0.988 (95% CI, 0.981-0.995). This model can improve medical care in remote areas where eye clinics are not available by using ultra-wide-field fundus ophthalmoscopy for the accurate diagnosis of RRD. Early diagnosis of RRD can prevent blindness.

  18. CamOn: A Real-Time Autonomous Camera Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Jhala, Arnav Harish

    2009-01-01

    This demonstration presents CamOn, an autonomous cam- era control system for real-time 3D games. CamOn employs multiple Artificial Potential Fields (APFs), a robot motion planning technique, to control both the location and orienta- tion of the camera. Scene geometry from the 3D environment...... contributes to the potential field that is used to determine po- sition and movement of the camera. Composition constraints for the camera are modelled as potential fields for controlling the view target of the camera. CamOn combines the compositional benefits of constraint- based camera systems, and improves...

  19. Design of Microwave Camera for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2008-01-01

    is then used to reconstruct an image, which consists of a spatial distribution of the complex permittivity in the imaging domain. Using this image the cancer tissue can be detected due to its dielectric property contrast compared to normal tissue. The instrument employs a multichannel high sensitive...... superheterodyne architecture, enabling parallel coherent measurements. In this way, mechanical scanning, which is commonly used in measurements of an electromagnetic field distribution, is avoided. The system presented is the first reported 3D microwave breast imaging camera with parallel signal detection....... The hardware operates in the frequency range 0.3 – 3 GHz. The noise floor is below -140 dBm over the bandwidth of the system. The dynamic range depends on the available incident power range and is limited by the channel to channel isolation of 140 dB. The work presented in this thesis encompasses a wide range...

  20. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  1. Design and tests of a portable mini gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F.; Benlloch, J.M.; Escat, B.; Pavon, N.; Porras, E.; Kadi-Hanifi, D.; Ruiz, J.A.; Mora, F.J.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-01-01

    Design optimization, manufacturing, and tests, both laboratory and clinical, of a portable gamma camera for medical applications are presented. This camera, based on a continuous scintillation crystal and a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube, has an intrinsic spatial resolution of ≅2 mm, an energy resolution of 13% at 140 keV, and linearities of 0.28 mm (absolute) and 0.15 mm (differential), with a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter. Our camera can image small organs with high efficiency and so it can address the demand for devices of specific clinical applications like thyroid and sentinel node scintigraphy as well as scintimammography and radio-guided surgery. The main advantages of the gamma camera with respect to those previously reported in the literature are high portability, low cost, and weight (2 kg), with no significant loss of sensitivity and spatial resolution. All the electronic components are packed inside the minigamma camera, and no external electronic devices are required. The camera is only connected through the universal serial bus port to a portable personal computer (PC), where a specific software allows to control both the camera parameters and the measuring process, by displaying on the PC the acquired image on 'real time'. In this article, we present the camera and describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration. Laboratory and clinical tests are presented together with diagnostic capabilities of the gamma camera

  2. Investigating the Suitability of Mirrorless Cameras in Terrestrial Photogrammetric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incekara, A. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Delen, A.; Acar, A.

    2017-11-01

    Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) which are commonly referred as mirrored cameras are preferred for terrestrial photogrammetric applications such as documentation of cultural heritage, archaeological excavations and industrial measurements. Recently, digital cameras which are called as mirrorless systems that can be used with different lens combinations have become available for using similar applications. The main difference between these two camera types is the presence of the mirror mechanism which means that the incoming beam towards the lens is different in the way it reaches the sensor. In this study, two different digital cameras, one with a mirror (Nikon D700) and the other without a mirror (Sony a6000), were used to apply close range photogrammetric application on the rock surface at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Ayazaga Campus. Accuracy of the 3D models created by means of photographs taken with both cameras were compared with each other using difference values between field and model coordinates which were obtained after the alignment of the photographs. In addition, cross sections were created on the 3D models for both data source and maximum area difference between them is quite small because they are almost overlapping. The mirrored camera has become more consistent in itself with respect to the change of model coordinates for models created with photographs taken at different times, with almost the same ground sample distance. As a result, it has been determined that mirrorless cameras and point cloud produced using photographs obtained from these cameras can be used for terrestrial photogrammetric studies.

  3. New design for the UCO/Lick Observatory CCD guide camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhi; Stover, Richard J.

    1996-03-01

    A new CCD based field acquisition and telescope guiding camera is being designed and built at UCO/Lick Observatory. Our goal is a camera which is fully computer controllable, compact in size, versatile enough to provide a wide variety of image acquisition modes, and able to operate with a wide variety of CCD detectors. The camera will improve our remote-observing capabilities since it will be easy to control the camera and obtain images over the Observatory computer network. To achieve the desired level of operating flexibility, the design incorporates state-of-the-art technologies such as high density, high speed programmable logic devices and non-volatile static memory. Various types of CCDs can be used in this system without major modification of the hardware or software. Though fully computer controllable, the camera can be operated as a stand-alone unit with most operating parameters set locally. A stand-alone display subsystem is also available. A thermoelectric device is used to cool the CCD to about -45c. Integration times can be varied over a range of 0.1 to 1000 seconds. High speed pixel skipping in both horizontal and vertical directions allows us to quickly access a selected subarea of the detector. Three different read out speeds allow the astronomer to select between high-speed/high-noise and low-speed/low-noise operation. On- chip pixel binning and MPP operation are also selectable options. This system can provide automatic sky level measurement and subtraction to accommodate dynamically changing background levels.

  4. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  5. Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willstrop, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.

  6. Video Chat with Multiple Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    The dominant paradigm for video chat employs a single camera at each end of the conversation, but some conversations can be greatly enhanced by using multiple cameras at one or both ends. This paper provides the first rigorous investigation of multi-camera video chat, concentrating especially on the ability of users to switch between views at either end of the conversation. A user study of 23 individuals analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of permitting a user to switch between views at...

  7. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  8. A filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lojacono, Xavier; Maxim, Voichita; Peyrin, Francoise; Prost, Remy [Lyon Univ., Villeurbanne (France). CNRS, Inserm, INSA-Lyon, CREATIS, UMR5220; Zoglauer, Andreas [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for Compton Camera detectors of particles. Compared to iterative methods, widely used for the reconstruction of images from Compton camera data, analytical methods are fast, easy to implement and avoid convergence issues. The method we propose is exact for an idealized Compton camera composed of two parallel plates of infinite dimension. We show that it copes well with low number of detected photons simulated from a realistic device. Images reconstructed from both synthetic data and realistic ones obtained with Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. (orig.)

  9. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  10. Positron emission tomography