WorldWideScience

Sample records for wholesale power markets

  1. Market Power in the German Wholesale Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Müsgens, Felix

    2004-01-01

    This paper quantifies the degree of market power in the German wholesale electricity market. A fundamental model is used to derive competitive marginal cost estimators which are compared with observed electricity prices. Marginal costs are calculated focusing on market fundamentals such as plant capacities, fuel prices, and load structures. In addition, international power exchange and dynamic effects like start-up costs and hydro storage plant dispatch are incorporated. The comparison of mar...

  2. 75 FR 31430 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice Establishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... technical conference regarding frequency regulation in the organized wholesale power markets, as previously announced.\\1\\ \\1\\ Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power...

  3. 75 FR 30812 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Further Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... of Proposed Rulemaking on Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets, as previously announced.\\1\\ \\1\\ Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency Compensation in the...

  4. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  5. 75 FR 29531 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...] Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical... conference will provide a forum to consider issues related to frequency regulation compensation in organized...

  6. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  7. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Futch, Matthew [IBM, Northcastle, NY (United States); Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Holtinnen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Orths, Antje [Energinet.dk (Denmark); Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Martin-Martinez, Sergio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Kukoda, S. [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Garcia, Glycon [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Mikkelsen, Kim M. [Global Green Growth Inst., Seoul (Korea); Yongqiang, Zhao [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China); Sandholt, Kaare [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  8. 76 FR 11177 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... barriers to the participation of all resource types in the wholesale ancillary services markets. The... matter their exact type, can and do bring to the RTO and ISO markets. Likewise, the Commission seeks... Power Markets AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  9. 75 FR 26225 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO/RTO Markets...

  10. 77 FR 27225 - Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Liberty Power Wholesale Supply, LLC's application for market...

  11. Optimization of Combine Heat and Power Plants in the Russian Wholesale Power Market Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the relevant problem to optimize the combine heat and power (CHP plants in the Russian wholesale power market conditions. Since 1975 the CHP plants specialists faced the problem of fuel rate or fuel cost reduction while ensuring the fixed level of heat and power production. The optimality criterion was the fuel rate or fuel cost which has to be minimized. Produced heat and power was paid by known tariff. Since the power market started in 2006 the power payment scheme has essentially changed: produced power is paid by market price. In such condition a new optimality criterion the paper offers is a profit which has to be maximized for the given time horizon. Depending on the optimization horizon the paper suggests four types of the problem urgency, namely: long-term, mid-term, short-term, and operative optimization. It clearly shows that the previous problem of fuel cost minimization is a special case of profit maximization problem. To bring the problem to the mixed-integer linear programming problem a new linear characteristic curves of steam and gas turbine are introduced. Error of linearization is 0.6%. The formal statement of the problem of short-term CHP plants optimization in the market conditions is offered. The problem was solved with IRM software (OpenLinkInternational for seven power plants of JSC “Quadra”: Dyagilevskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP-1, Lipetskaya CHP-2, Orlovskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP NWR, Tambovskaya CHP, and Smolenskaya CHP-2.The conducted computational experiment showed that a potential profit is between 1.7% and 4.7% of the fuel cost of different CHP plants and depends on the power plant operation conditions. The potential profit value is 2–3 times higher than analogous estimations, which were obtained solving fuel cost minimization problem. The perspectives of the work are formalization of mid-term and long-term CHP plants optimization problem and development of domestic software for the new problem

  12. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    dissertation, basic financial risk management concepts relevant for wholesale electric power markets are carefully explained and illustrated. In addition, the financial risk management problem in wholesale electric power markets is generalized as a four-stage process. Within the proposed financial risk management framework, the critical problem of financial bilateral contract negotiation is addressed. This dissertation analyzes a financial bilateral contract negotiation process between a generating company and a load-serving entity in a wholesale electric power market with congestion managed by locational marginal pricing. Nash bargaining theory is used to model a Pareto-efficient settlement point. The model predicts negotiation results under varied conditions and identifies circumstances in which the two parties might fail to reach an agreement. Both analysis and agent-based simulation are used to gain insight regarding how relative risk aversion and biased price estimates influence negotiated outcomes. These results should provide useful guidance to market participants in their bilateral contract negotiation processes.

  13. 75 FR 23759 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power... technical conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO...

  14. Modeling prices of wholesale market of electric energy and power by the example of the UPS of the Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhov V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article oversees forecasting model for deviations of the balancing market index and day-ahead market index according to the maximum similarity sample for different levels of approximation in the context of positive and negative time-series value. The model was being tested on the factual data of the Integrated Power system of the Ural, Wholesale market for electricity and power of Russian Federation. Describes the price formation on the day-ahead market and the balancing market index. The necessity to use accurate forecasting methods consumption and prices of electrical energy and power to reduce penalties when the electric power industry entities on the energy exchange. The testing of mathematical models to predict the balancing market index deviations and day-ahead market based on a sample of maximum similarity with certain approximation equations for positive and negative values gave the prediction error of 3.3%.

  15. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the influence of the demographic attributes of wholesales yam marketers on their marketing cost, data were collected from 80 respondents randomly selected from 10 yam markets in two Local Government Areas of Delta State. Results of data analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area ...

  16. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  17. Integrating wind output with bulk power operations and wholesale electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E. [Consulting in Electric-Industry Restructuring, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Wind farms have three characteristics that complicate their widespread application as an electricity resource: limited control, unpredictability and variability. Therefore the integration of wind output into bulk power electric systems is qualitatively different from that of other types of generators. The electric system operator must move other generators up or down to offset the time-varying wind fluctuations. Such movements raise the costs of fuel and maintenance for these other generators. Not only is wind power different, it is new. The operators of bulk power systems have limited experience in integrating wind output into the larger system. As a consequence, market rules that treat wind fairly - neither subsidizing nor penalizing its operation - have not yet been developed. The lack of data and analytical methods encourages wind advocates and sceptics to rely primarily on their biases and beliefs in suggesting how wind should be integrated into bulk power systems. This project helps fill this data and analysis gap. Specifically, it develops and applies a quantitative method for the integration of a wind resource into a large electric system. The method permits wind to bid its output into a short-term forward market (specifically, an hour-ahead energy market) or to appear in real time and accept only intrahour and hourly imbalance payments for the unscheduled energy it delivers to the system. Finally, the method analyses the short-term (minute-to-minute) variation in wind output to determine the regulation requirement the wind resource imposes on the electrical system. (author)

  18. 76 FR 67259 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... released for public comment a staff study evaluating the use of frequency response metrics as a tool to... incentive to provide high quality regulation service by tying a portion of the total compensation to a... modest software costs required to implement these market rules.\\59\\ \\59\\ PIOs May 2, 2011 Comments at P...

  19. Clean Restructuring: Design Elements for Low-Carbon Wholesale Markets and Beyond. A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Monisha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Valenzuela, Jose Maria [World Wildlife Fund, Mexico DF (Mexico); Mora, Hector Alejandro Beltran [Energy Regulatory Commission of Mexico, Mexico DF (United States); Moller Porst, Kim [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hasselager, Anders [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark); Friis-Jensen, Sandra [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vingaard, Mette [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wigand, Fabian [Ecofys, London (England); Tiedemann, Silvana [Ecofys, London (England); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Countries around the world are in various stages of reforming and restructuring their power systems to better meet development needs and decarbonization commitments. Changes in technology, business models, societal needs, and environmental goals are increasing pressure on countries to consider improvements to their power systems. This report addresses key issues associated with clean restructuring--the transition from traditional, vertically integrated utilities to competitive wholesale markets that rely increasingly on variable renewable electricity sources, demand response, and other clean energy options. The report also includes case studies from Mexico, Denmark, and Germany to provide real-world examples of clean restructuring from different perspectives.

  20. Correlations and clustering in wholesale electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianyu; Caravelli, Francesco; Ududec, Cozmin

    2018-02-01

    We study the structure of locational marginal prices in day-ahead and real-time wholesale electricity markets. In particular, we consider the case of two North American markets and show that the price correlations contain information on the locational structure of the grid. We study various clustering methods and introduce a type of correlation function based on event synchronization for spiky time series, and another based on string correlations of location names provided by the markets. This allows us to reconstruct aspects of the locational structure of the grid.

  1. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  2. The Future of Centrally-Organized Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrison, Jay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Breakman, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clements, Allison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The electricity grid in the United States is organized around a network of large, centralized power plants and high voltage transmission lines that transport electricity, sometimes over large distances, before it is delivered to the customer through a local distribution grid. This network of centralized generation and high voltage transmission lines is called the “bulk power system.” Costs relating to bulk power generation typically account for more than half of a customer’s electric bill.1 For this reason, the structure and functioning of wholesale electricity markets have major impacts on costs and economic value for consumers, as well as energy security and national security. Diverse arrangements for bulk power wholesale markets have evolved over the last several decades. The Southeast and Western United States outside of California have a “bilateral-based” bulk power system where market participants enter into long-term bilateral agreements — using competitive procurements through power marketers, direct arrangements among utilities or with other generation owners, and auctions and exchanges.

  3. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the socio-economic characteristics of wholesale tomato marketers with a view to identifying the marketing channels of tomato fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. Information was randomly collected with the aid of a well structured ...

  4. 75 FR 4310 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets Issued... electric markets to ensure that credit practices result in jurisdictional rates that are just and... electric markets.\\2\\ While this matter has been one of ongoing Commission interest, the recent turmoil in...

  5. Commercial Interactions in the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of

  6. 76 FR 10353 - Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Energy... locational exchanges of electric power should be permitted generically and circumstances under which the... seeks comment regarding circumstances in which locational exchanges of electric power should be...

  7. 77 FR 10506 - Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power; Notice Terminating Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Locational Exchanges of Wholesale Electric Power; Notice Terminating... treatment of locational exchanges of wholesale electric power. The Commission sought guidance as to the circumstances under which locational exchanges of wholesale electric power should be permitted generically and...

  8. COMPETITION ON THE WHOLESALE MEDICATION DISTRIBUTION MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholesale distribution of medicines in Romania was in the constant attention of the competition authority. In order to analyze the operation of the distribution system practiced in Romania, but also changes that may occur in this system on short and medium term, the Competition Council conducted a sector inquiry after which they found some malfunctioning mainly chained to distributors access to certain medications. Conducted on a sample of 23 pharmaceutical groups operating on the Romanian market and holding approximately 80% of the pharmaceutical market in Romania in 2009, the sector inquiry aimed at two objectives, namely: Legislation analysis with impact on the wholesale distribution of drugs; Market analysis of drug distribution.Following the findings of the high concentration of markets analyzed, due to significant market shares held by innovative drugs under investigation were analyzed also the penetration of generics in the market and the factors that led to this situation.

  9. Deposit Market Competition, Wholesale Funding, and Bank Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craig, B.R.; Dinger, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the long debate on the risk effects of bank competition and propose a new approach to the empirical estimation of the relation between deposit market competition and bank risk. Our approach accounts for the opportunity of banks to shift to wholesale funding when deposit

  10. Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Ma [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Fan, Zhang [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Menghua, Fan [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Jing, Li [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Haoyuan, Qu [State Grid Energy Research Institute

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the US electricity market has undergone several stages of reform, and gradually formed the market where the wholesale electricity price is determined by the supply and demand. The US electricity market also changes along with the rapid development of clean energy, forming a number of the market mechanisms that is specifically developed for clean energy power generation characteristics. On the basis of discussing the pricing mechanism of US electricity market, this paper analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch from the angle of market mechanism and dispatching decision, and puts forward the reference for clean energy dispatching in China.

  11. The importance of the wholesale markets for trade in agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzman Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is based on the importance of wholesale markets as special market institutions in trade in agro-industrial products. Based on communication knowledge about the retail market operations (wholesale gross markets, on the domestic market, as well as the importance given to wholesale markets in the developed countries from the aspect of trade, it is concluded that even domestic trade can increase selling these type of products at wholesale markets. The subject of research of this paper is concept of building wholesale markets as a substitute for retail trade (quantitative or wholesale gross markets for agro-industrial products. This paper aims to achieve such a level of knowledge that will enable making quality decisions starting from the interests of businesses, traders and customers (consumers.

  12. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  13. Welfare Impact of Virtual Trading on Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Virtual bidding has become a standard feature of multi-settlement wholesale electricity markets in the United States. Virtual bids are financial instruments that allow market participants to take financial positions in the Day-Ahead (DA) market that are automatically reversed/closed in the Real-Time (RT) market. Most U.S. wholesale electricity markets only have two types of virtual bids: a decrement bid (DEC), which is virtual load, and an increment offer (INC), which is virtual generation. In theory, financial participants create benefits by seeking out profitable bidding opportunities through arbitrage or speculation. Benefits have been argued to take the form of increased competition, price convergence, increased market liquidity, and a more efficient dispatch of generation resources. Studies have found that price convergence between the DA and RT markets improved following the introduction of virtual bidding into wholesale electricity markets. The improvement in price convergence was taken as evidence that market efficiency had increased and many of the theoretical benefits realized. Persistent price differences between the DA and RT markets have led to calls to further expand virtual bidding as a means to address remaining market inefficiencies. However, the argument that price convergence is beneficial is extrapolated from the study of commodity and financial markets and the role of futures for increasing market efficiency in that context. This viewpoint largely ignores details that differentiate wholesale electricity markets from other commodity markets. This dissertation advances the understanding of virtual bidding by evaluating the impact of virtual bidding based on the standard definition of economic efficiency which is social welfare. In addition, an examination of the impacts of another type of virtual bid, up-to-congestion (UTC) transactions is presented. This virtual product significantly increased virtual bidding activity in the PJM interconnection

  14. FORECASTING ELECTRICITY PRICES IN DEREGULATED WHOLESALE SPOT ELECTRICITY MARKET - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Godekere Panchakshara Murthy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new framework of competitive electricity markets, all power market participants need accurate price forecasting tools. Electricity price forecasts characterize significant information that can help captive power producer, independent power producer, power generation companies, power distribution companies or open access consumers in careful planning of their bidding strategies for maximizing their profits, benefits and utilities from long term, medium term and short term perspective. Short term spot electricity price forecasting techniques are either inspired from electrical engineering literature (i.e. load forecasting or from economics literature (i.e. game theory models and the time-series econometric models. In this study we investigate the emergence of spot electricity markets with particular emphasis on Indian electricity market which has never been done before and review selected finance and econometrics inspired literature and models for forecasting electricity spot prices in deregulated wholesale spot electricity markets.

  15. The role of emission permits and the uncertainty of a market power on the wholesale electricity markets. The capacity retention strategy; Le role des permis d'emission et de l'incertitude dans l'exercice d'un pouvoir de marche sur les marches de gros de l'electricite. La strategie de retention de capacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, O. [Montpellier-1 Univ., Faculte des Sciences Economiques, LASER-CREDEN, Lab. de Science Economique de Richter, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie, 34 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The wholesale electricity markets are theoretically inherently incomplete and imperfectly competitive. This aspect is confirmed by the various empirical demonstrations of horizontal market power exercising by the capacity retention strategy. In this article, we focus on the impact of implementing an emission permit market for this type of strategy. We show that under some circumstances, the existence of emission permits can provide additional incentives to electricity producers wanting to withhold capacity. Our thinking relies partly on the concept that uncertain of prices and future needs in terms of emission permits, firms can be encouraged to retain more permits in their portfolio to ensure additional flexibility and achieve high profits in the future. (author)

  16. Display, disposal, and order policies for fresh produce with a back storage at a wholesale market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Haijema, Rene; Liu, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    Traditional wholesalers of fresh produce in China display and sell all the products that they have brought to the wholesale market every day. Products left by the end of the day are deteriorated due to high temperatures at which products are displayed, and are thus sold at a low price or

  17. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Distributed resources can provide cost-effective reliability and energy services - in many cases, obviating the need for more expensive investments in wires and central station electricity generating facilities. Given the unique features of distributed resources, the challenge facing policymakers today is how to restructure wholesale markets for electricity and related services so as to reveal the full value that distributed resources can provide to the electric power system (utility grid). This report looks at the functions that distributed resources can perform and examines the barriers to them. It then identifies a series of policy and operational approaches to promoting DR in wholesale markets. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs - Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors, NREL/SR-560-32499; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501

  18. 75 FR 65942 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... December 31, 2009. 9. The Commission held a technical conference in January of 2009 to investigate the role... pursuant to the Commission's responsibility under section 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA).\\13\\ The... ``Financial Marketers,'' \\28\\ Citigroup Energy (Citigroup), J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation (J.P...

  19. Wholesale water market application for assured energy certificates allocation among hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao de um mercado atacadista de agua para reparticao dos certificados de energia assegurada entre usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Andre Dias

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to revise the methodology used in the calculation of assured energy certificates for hydro plants, in particular the relation among the objectives of reliability and market mechanisms with the certificates. The relationship between the economic signals provided by the market 'spot' of electricity with the certificates will be analyzed. It will be shown that the spot price payment does not provide the correct and necessary incentives for the energy certificates allocation in a cascade with agents belonging the different companies. Upstream reservoirs are not property compensated for the regulation of the energy production of the entire cascade and, as solution, alternative scheme to remunerate the water resources (wholesale water market) will be discussed. The assured energy certificates will be calculated with the proposed methodology and compared with nowadays practiced in the Brazilian system. (author)

  20. Transaction of long-term power purchasing contract by independent power providers in wholesale and retail competitive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In general, the restructuring starts with separation and division of power sector from the existing monopolist as the cases of Thailand and Malaysia. When the power provider is separated and divided, it becomes an independent power provider. The existing regional electricity provider carries out the supplying function to end-users buying electricity from several separated and divided providers. Therefore, the existing regional electricity providers give up the power generation business but become a demand monopolist in wholesale market. The competition system capable of applying during the separation period is the Generation Pool. With the Generation Pool, it is able to promote competition of power generation sector effectively and there is no need to have an extra step such as long-term power purchasing contract. In fact, Latin America and Chile have been managed the power market for more than 10 years with the competition system by the Generation Pool. 9 refs.

  1. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  2. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... (RTOs) \\2\\ with tariff provisions allowing demand response \\3\\ resources \\4\\ to participate in wholesale... (March 29, 2010), 130 FERC ] 61,213 (March 18, 2010). \\2\\ The following RTOs and ISOs have organized... energy markets, i.e., the day-ahead and real-time markets administered by ISOs and RTOs. Under the...

  3. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... wholesale energy markets and remove barriers to the participation of demand response resources, thus... meaningful demand-side participation.\\1\\ After nearly 3,800 pages of comments, a subsequent technical... energy markets by removing barriers to participation of demand response resources. For example, in Order...

  4. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  5. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...

  6. Competition in the Dutch electricity wholesale market : An empirical analysis over 2006-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the development of competition in the Dutch electricity wholesale market over 2006-2011. In this period domestic generation capacity, both centralized and decentralized, as well as the cross-border transmission capacity increased. Using hourly plant-level data of centralized units and

  7. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, null hypothesis was rejected. High costs of transportation, inadequate supply of frozen fish in the market were the major constraints in the frozen fish marketing. It is recommended that government should put in place policies that would enhance frozen fish marketers' access to loans in order to increase their gross ...

  8. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Operator, Inc. (NYISO), Morgan Stanley Capital Group Inc. (Morgan Stanley), Financial Marketers,\\7\\ the... New York Transmission Owners filed an answer.\\11\\ \\7\\ Financial Marketers are comprised of Energy... Cities, Six Cities, and Financial Marketers seek rehearing on the Commission's determination that each...

  9. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  10. Wholesale energy market in a smart grid. Dynamic modeling, stability, and robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani Bejestani, Arman

    2013-01-24

    The recent paradigm shift in the architecture of the smart grid is driven by the need to integrate Renewable Energy Resources (RER), the availability of information through communication networks, and an emerging policy of demand that is intertwined with pricing. A major component of this architecture is the design of electricity markets, which pertains to the optimal scheduling of power generation and reserve requirements. The challenge is to carry out this scheduling with a high level of integration of renewable generation sources, a formidable task due to intermittency and uncertainty. Introducing huge intermittency and uncertainty in the smart grid will demand a dynamic framework for addressing the operation, scheduling and financial settlements in the uncertain environment. The temporal components in scheduling generation are necessary due to increasing penetration of renewable sources, and increasing potential of adjustable demand via Demand Response (DR). The former brings issues of strong intermittency and uncertainty, and the latter brings a feedback structure, where demand can be modulated over a range of time-scales. Both of these components are dictating a new look at market mechanisms, with a controls viewpoint enabling a novel framework for analysis and synthesis. This dissertation provides static and dynamic models that capture the various aspects of electrical power systems, including the dynamics of market participants, the physical and technical constraints of power systems, and the uncertainty of RER. The proposed models shed new light on wholesale electricity market design, allowing an understanding to be gained of how to create markets, which enhance the stability of price profiles, and efficiency of the power systems, in the presence of uncertain demand and intermittent resources. The notion of market equilibrium in the presence of RER and DR is presented. The effects of uncertainties due to forecast errors in RER and variations due to DR on

  11. Occupational health in high altitudes stevedores: the workers of the wholesale markets from Huancayo, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Liliana; Dirección Ejecutiva de Medicina y Psicología del Trabajo, Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Psicóloga.; Gutiérrez, Rita; Psicología del Trabajo, Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Tecnóloga médica.; Cáceres, Walter; Dirección Ejecutiva de Medicina y Psicología del Trabajo, Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Collantes, Héctor; Dirección Ejecutiva de Medicina y Psicología del Trabajo, Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Beas, Julio; Dirección Ejecutiva de Medicina y Psicología del Trabajo, Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico traumatólogo.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Knowing the conditions of hygiene and safety of the stowage work process and their relationship with the health of workers engaged in this activity. Materials and methods. Observational study was performed in potato stevedores from wholesale markets of Huancayo, Peru (3350 m). Anthropometric evaluation was using international parameters; working conditions were assessed by direct observation, and ergonomic using the REBA and OWAS methods. We performed a clinical and traumatolo...

  12. Marketing System of Fresh Friut and Vegetable: The Role of Modern and Wholesale Market in Jakarta and the Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar A. Napitupulu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetable in the context of the rapidly growing dynamic markets in Jakarta and the vicinity was studied. Unstructured interviews and observations of key persons, and panels were conducted, primarily in three main wholesale markets in Jakarta and the vicinity and some supermarkets. It was found that the availability of management services and associated facilities are not yet fully compatible with modern markets. Their role, therefore, in catering to the supermarkets is limited, in particular for vegetables due to requirements on quality and delivery schedules. In general, supermarkets procure their supply directly from production centers through special/dedicated suppliers, which currently amounts to about 1% to 5% of total production from production centers. If policy and conducive economic incentive are available, wholesale markets are not only domain of public investment anymore, but also private investments alike. The newly established wholesale markets show that they now have a higher rate of utilization than in the years before. It is therefore for the local government and the central government to furthers devise conducive policy and regulatory measures, and for the private to take this opportunity in terms of investment in developing the economy of the region. 

  13. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  14. A Bilevel Stochastic Dynamic Programming Model to Assess the Value of Information on Actual Food Quality at Wholesale Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fresh produce wholesale market, the market price is determined by the total demand and supply. The price is stochastic, and either wholesaler or retailer has few influence on it. In the wholesaler’s inventory decision, the price’s uncertainty plays an important role as well as the uncertainty from the demand side: the wholesaler makes his decision based on the retailer’s ordering, which is influenced by the stochastic market price and the distribution of the consumer’s demand. In addition, when at the wholesale stage, the products show a similar quality of similar appearance. With more efforts being input, the wholesaler could detect and record more additional information than that reflected from the appearance. Based on this, he can classify the quality into different levels. No experience shows how the wholesaler could use the underlying quality information and how much this information could improve his profit. To describe and explore this problem, a bilevel dynamic programming approach is employed. We evaluate different strategies of using the underlying information, show the features of the optimal policy, develop heuristics, and discuss the influence of factors such as quality and market price. We also develop the managerial principles for the practical use.

  15. The renewable energy sources market: proposal for its development and implications in the Wholesale Market Administrator; O mercado de energia eletrica de fontes incentivadas: proposta para sua expansao e implicacoes na camara de comercializacao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Alexandra Cristina Vidal

    2007-07-01

    This work approaches the insertion of the renewable energy sources - SHP, biomass, wind and solar - in the Brazilian power trading environment, more specifically in wholesale market administrator. Although the legislation created the special consumer in 1998, the lack of definition in the renewable energy trading process hindered this market development during years. However, to consider a solution for this implementation, it is important to know the current rules that conduct the power trading, therefore, identifying the possibilities of adjustment. Since this is a current subject, some proposals had been presented by sector agents through the Public Hearing 33/05. In this work, these proposals are also analyzed, so the presented solution considers the advantages and disadvantages of what was discussed by the market agents. Finally, the simulation of the proposed solution indicates its implementation viability and allows a critical analysis of the renewable energy sources market and the trading rules of the wholesale market administrator. (author)

  16. An Evaluation on the Socio-Demographic Aspects of Employees in the Wholesale Fish Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Rahmi YILDIRIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out intermittently in four major fish markets, Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and Trabzon between 2007 and 2011. A total of 151 employees, randomly selected were taken into consideration via face-to-face interviewing with questionnaire. The questionnaire includes age, marital status, work experience, duty, main job, supplementary work, run time, incomes, social insurance, smoke-alcohol consumptions and job security of the employee, and social conditions, workwear, meals, etc. of the markets. The handling procedures in wholesale fish markets are very important issue and these issues are concerning with education, level of knowledge and sociodemographic aspects of employees. However, determining of these knowledge levels is indispensable in terms of food safety.

  17. Modelling price and volatility inter-relationships in the Australian wholesale spot electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgs, Helen [Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Nathan campus, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, Brisbane 4111, Queensland (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    This paper examines the inter-relationships of wholesale spot electricity prices among the four regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM): namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria using the constant conditional correlation and Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) and Engle's (Engle, R., 2002. Dynamic conditional correlation: a sample class of multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 339-350.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH models. Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model which takes account of the Student t specification produces the best results. At the univariate GARCH(1,1) level, the mean equations indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in all four markets and little evidence of mean spillovers from the other lagged markets. In the dynamic conditional correlation equation, the highest conditional correlations are evident between the well-connected markets indicating the presence of strong interdependence between these markets with weaker interdependence between the not so well-interconnected markets. (author)

  18. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ning [Applied Economics and Management Department, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  19. Wholesale Distribution Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Edward; And Others

    Designed to assist in the preparation of high school students for entry-level positions in wholesale distribution, this module focuses on the following eight subject areas: orientation to wholesaling, careers, wholesale buying, receiving and materials handling, warehousing, wholesale selling, assembling and shipping, and finance and credit. Each…

  20. Entity’s Irregular Demand Scheduling of the Wholesale Electricity Market based on the Forecast of Hourly Price Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Russkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a hot issue to forecast electric power demand amounts and prices for the entities of wholesale electricity market (WEM, which are in capacity of a large user with production technology requirements prevailing over hourly energy planning ones. An electric power demand of such entities is on irregular schedule. The article analyses mathematical models, currently applied to forecast demand amounts and prices. It describes limits of time-series models and fundamental ones in case of hourly forecasting an irregular demand schedule of the electricity market entity. The features of electricity trading at WEM are carefully analysed. Factors that influence on irregularity of demand schedule of the metallurgical plant are shown. The article proposes method for the qualitative forecast of market price ratios as a tool to reduce a dependence on the accuracy of forecasting an irregular schedule of demand. It describes the differences between the offered method and the similar ones considered in research studies and scholarly works. The correlation between price ratios and relaxation in the requirements for the forecast accuracy of the electric power consumption is analysed. The efficiency function of forecast method is derived. The article puts an increased focus on description of the mathematical model based on the method of qualitative forecast. It shows main model parameters and restrictions the electricity market imposes on them. The model prototype is described as a programme module. Methods to assess an effectiveness of the proposed forecast model are examined. The positive test results of the model using JSC «Volzhsky Pipe Plant» data are given. A conclusion is drawn concerning the possibility to decrease dependence on the forecast accuracy of irregular schedule of entity’s demand at WEM. The effective trading tool has been found for the entities of irregular demand schedule at WEM. The tool application allows minimizing cost

  1. Market Prices in a Power Market with more than 50% Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    Denmark has the highest proportion of wind power in the world. Wind power provided a world record of 39.1% of the total annual Danish electricity consumption in 2014 with as much as 51.7% in Western Denmark. Many would argue that the present power markets are not designed for such high shares...... of wind power production and that it would be hard to get good and stable prices. However, analyses in this chapter show that the Nordic power market works, extreme events have been few, and the current infrastructure and market organization has been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so...... far. It is found that geographical bidding areas for the wholesale electricity market reflect external transmission constraints caused by wind power. The analyses in this chapter use hourly data from West Denmark—which has the highest share of wind energy in Denmark and which is a separate price area...

  2. Horticultural Loss Generated by Wholesalers: A Case Study of the Canning Vale Fruit and Vegetable Markets in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s economic climate, businesses need to efficiently manage their finite resources to maintain long-term sustainable growth, productivity, and profits. However, food loss produces large unacceptable economic losses, environmental degradation, and impacts on humanity globally. Its cost in Australia is estimated to be around AUS$8 billion each year, but knowledge of its extent within the food value chain from farm to fork is very limited. The present study examines food loss by wholesalers. A survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed; 35 wholesalers and processors replied and their responses to 10 targeted questions on produce volumes, amounts handled, reasons for food loss, and innovations applied or being considered to reduce and utilize food loss were analyzed. Reported food loss was estimated to be 180 kg per week per primary wholesaler and 30 kg per secondary wholesaler, or around 286 tonnes per year. Participants ranked “over supply” and “no market demand” as the main causes for food loss. The study found that improving grading guidelines has the potential to significantly reduce food loss levels and improve profit margins.

  3. Conceptual design and architecture of an informatics solution for smart trading on wholesale energy market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela BÂRA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents conceptual design and architecture of an informatics solution that aims to implement analytical models for optimization and forecasting the electricity demand and generation, simulation and what if analysis for efficient trading activities on wholesale energy markets in Romania. The informatics solution will be developed as a prototype on a cloud computing platform in order to allow easy access to energy providers and network operators.

  4. Power marketers: Let`s make a deal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-02-01

    Power marketers do not just want to belong to the electric industry; they want to change it forever. Their future depends upon it. Over 89 entities applied to become power marketers last year, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has acted on approximately half those applications so far. yet only a handful of companies currently are actively engaged in buying and selling electricity. Many are merely positioning themselves for the day when competition inevitably pushes beyond the $70-billion wholesale power market into the $200-billion retail market.

  5. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market; Wettbewerbskonforme Stromgrosshandelspreise. Eine Untersuchung der Verordnung ueber die Integritaet und Transparenz des Energiegrosshandelsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-07-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [German] Die Entwicklung der Stromgrosshandelspreise zeigte in den letzten Jahren einen sehr schwankenden Verlauf. Ausgangspunkt fuer die Gewaehrleistung wettbewerbskonformer Strompreise sind einheitliche Bestimmungen, die im gesamten Stromgrosshandel einen funktionierenden Wettbewerb etablieren, fuer mehr Transparenz am Markt sorgen und marktmissbraeuchliche Einflussnahmen auf den Grosshandelspreis verbieten. Die REMIT-Verordnung schafft als erstes unionsrechtliches Regelwerk hierzu einheitliche Vorgaben. Der Band untersucht zunaechst die Transparenz-, Wettbewerbs-, und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel vor Erlass der Verordnung. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die Transparenz- und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel idealerweise ausgestaltet sein sollten. Auf dieser Grundlage

  6. 77 FR 27763 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC EG12-31-000 USG Nevada...

  7. Market Monitor, development of the wholesale trade market of electricity 2005. Results; Marktmonitor, ontwikkeling van de groothandelsmarkt voor elektriciteit 2005. Resultaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, J.; Meijer, A.; Mulder, K.; Vermeulen, M.; De Kleijn, M.

    2006-06-15

    The Office of Energy Regulation carries out its legal task by means of a monitor, a practical tool to assess and analyze the wholesale market for electricity. Monitoring of the wholesale electricity market concerns continuous, accurate and structured following of developments in the market. The aim is to identify in time signals from the market that could lead to a decrease of competition and transparency. The starting point of the monitor for the wholesale electricity market is the selection of indicators which give insight in real competition, liquidity and transparency. [Dutch] De Directie Toezicht Energie (DTe) dient op basis van de Elektriciteitswet en Gaswet de mededinging te bevorderen in energiemarkten. DTe heeft hiertoe de wettelijke taak om deze markten nauwlettend te volgen en de Minister van Economische Zaken jaarlijks te rapporteren over de mate van daadwerkelijke marktwerking en doeltreffende mededinging op de verschillende energiemarkten.1 Daarbij dient DTe in de gaten te houden of de energiemarkten transparant en niet-discriminatoir zijn. In geliberaliseerde energiemarkten gekenmerkt door daadwerkelijke mededinging en voldoende transparantie, plukken eindafnemers waaronder consumenten uiteindelijk de vruchten van competitieve prijzen, een gedifferentieerd productaanbod en een kwalitatief goede dienstverlening. Het doel van deze monitor is om inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de markt te geven en tijdig knelpunten te signaleren die verdere ontwikkeling in de weg staan. De uitkomsten worden gebruikt om de oorzaken hiervan te onderzoeken en precieze maatregelen te adviseren om de marktwerking en mededinging te verbeteren waar nodig. Hierover zal later dit jaar gerapporteerd worden.

  8. Prohibition of the insider trading at the energy wholesale markets an entirely new world?; Insiderhandelsverbot auf den Energiegrosshandelsmaerkten eine voellig neue Welt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepping, Ulrike [E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Germany). Bereich Gesellschafts- und Finanzierungsrecht; Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Energy Trading SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    At 28th December, 2011, the regulation on the integrity and transparency of the energy wholesale market became effective. Thus, insider trading and manipulations of the market on the energy wholesale markets of the European Union are forbidden. The draft law on the market transparency law provides that violations are avenged as a criminal act or as an administrative offence. Headlines from the financial industry cover the serious situation of the threatening sanctions. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the prohibition of the insider trading.

  9. French wholesale electricity and gas markets in 2007. Monitoring report; Le fonctionnement des marches de gros francais de l'electricite et du gaz naturel en 2007. Rapport de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Settled on 24 March 2000, the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is an independent authority. CRE supports an efficient functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, to the advantage of final consumers. CRE ensures the absence of any discrimination, cross subsidy or obstacle to competition. CRE has examined the functioning of the wholesale markets for electricity and gas for the year 2007. The report discloses the results of a first set of analyses, as well as the next actions to be conducted in order to explain some observed behaviour. On the basis of analyses led on the electricity market, CRE observes that nuclear generation was marginal during 15% of the hours in 2007. Hydraulic generation was marginal during 25% of the hours, coal generation during 25% to 30% of the hours and oil generation during less than 2% of the hours in 2007. Finally, prices on the border markets were of high importance on the French prices which they determined during 20% to 25% of the hours of the year. On an efficient market, the price is driven by the marginal power plant among all those which contribute to satisfy the demand. Therefore the wholesale price formation is conditioned by the frequency of marginality of each generation sector and by the associated valuation of production. On the day-ahead market, when nuclear or hydraulic generation was marginal, the day-ahead price reflected the associated valuation which was decided by EDF. The level of this valuation was generally higher than the marginal generation cost of these plants. As a matter of fact, a producer, even market dominant, may legitimately seek to optimise its income, provided that there is no abuse of a dominant position or any price manipulation. Consequently, at this stage, the relevance of the valuation method for nuclear and hydraulic generation on the wholesale market is still to be checked. CRE has also demonstrated that generation transparency, even if it gradually increased, still needs to

  10. CHANGES ON THE MARKET OF WHOLESALE COMPANIES SELLING PLANTS AND FLOWERS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the number of plants and fl owers wholesale companies in Poland. Analyses focused on the number of fi rms engaged in wholesale trade and the structure of employment in these companies. The investigations also included the location of the analysed companies in relation to the number of people in each voivodeship. Research period covered the years 2002-2012. The fi rst year of the analysed period was referred to as of 100%. The dynamics of changes and average annual changes in the number of existing companies and start-ups were analysed. The Główny Urząd Statystyczny yearbooks, and i.a. the ones of the Polska Klasyfi kacja Działalności [the abbreviation in Polish: PKD], served as data sources. The performed investigations reveal that the number of fi rms of the discussed line of business in the investigated period increased very clearly and this rise took the form of a linear trend. What is more, the number of the wholesale companies in particular voivodeships matched the agglomerations of consumers.

  11. Co-Movement Analysis of Italian and Greek Electricity Market Wholesale Prices by Using a Wavelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Papaioannou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the co-evolution of the dynamics or co-movement of two electricity markets, the Italian and Greek, by studying the dynamics of their wholesale day-ahead prices, simultaneously in the time-frequency domain. Co-movement is alternatively referred as market integration in financial economics and markets are internationally integrated if the reward for risk is identical regardless the market one trades in. The innovation of this work is the application of wavelet analysis and more specifically the wavelet coherence to estimate the dynamic interaction between these two prices. Our method is compared to other generic econometric tools used in Economics and Finance namely the dynamic correlation and coherence analysis, to study the co-movement of variables of the type related to these two fields. Our study reveals valuable information that we believe will be extremely useful to the authorities as well as other agents participating in these markets to better prepare the national markets towards the European target model, a framework in which the two markets will be coupled.

  12. Electric power brokers and marketers alter the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, M.J. [Reid and Priest, Washington, DC (United States); Cordell, D.L. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Recent legislative and regulatory initiatives have significantly altered strategic assessments of the US power generation industry. The transmission access revolutions targeted by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) and fostered by FERC, coupled with movement to real-time pricing and information exchange, has created opportunities for new entrants to develop and shape services which meet the demands of newly formed niche power generation markets.As a result, power brokers and marketers have prospered under the march to deregulation and are emerging as major players in the power industry for the next several years. While their initial strategic focus has been on wholesale transactions, other strategic roles in international and domestic retail markets are envisioned for the future. The paper discusses power suppliers, power customers, the spot market, contract reformation, price versus quantity, and specialized experience.

  13. Marketing Power of Blogging

    OpenAIRE

    Edilbaeva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study blogging as a powerful marketing tool and find out the relevance of business blogging and blog advertising in local area. A blog is a marketing tool that can be used by many companies. Blogging has many different benefits. As an example it helps to present company values and communicate with customers. Blogging is a low cost marketing tool. In some cases, blogging can be a source of money. Companies that are interested in blogging as a social media-mar...

  14. Fuel prices scenario generation based on a multivariate GARCH model for risk analysis in a wholesale electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, C.; Barquin, J. [Universidad Pontifica Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a fuel prices scenario generator in the frame of a simulation tool developed to support risk analysis in a competitive electricity environment. The tool feeds different erogenous risk factors to a wholesale electricity market model to perform a statistical analysis of the results. As the different fuel series that are studied, such as the oil or gas ones, present stochastic volatility and strong correlation among them, a multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (GARCH) model has been designed in order to allow the generation of future fuel prices paths. The model makes use of a decomposition method to simplify the consideration of the multidimensional conditional covariance. An example of its application with real data is also presented. (author)

  15. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  16. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  17. Market Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Market Power Europe (MPE) constitutes an important contribution to the literature on the global role and actorness of the EU. In order to develop MPE as a theory, this contribution provides an assessment of how Russia, the USA and China have converged towards three EU trade policies in 2013....... The analysis finds that MPE fails to account for important dynamics related to externalization in the three cases. In order to improve MPE analytically, the article suggests that MPE should include three intervening variables to account for the EU’s ability to externalize its policies and act as MPE...

  18. NordREG report on the price peaks in the Nordic wholesale market during winter 2009-2010. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-15

    improvements is transparency. Based on the consultancy study and the feedback from some stakeholders, NordREG finds that it should be assessed whether the area bidding curves at Nord Pool Spot could be publicized to enhance the transparency of the market and to enable all the market participants to have access to the trading data. Transparency in the Nord Pool Spot bid data would enhance confidence in market developments. NordREG also proposes that the trading mechanisms at the Nord Pool Spot should be assessed. This assessment should especially focus on how to increase flexibility into the market, how to improve pricing and offering of peak load reserves to the Nord Pool Spot and how to improve possibilities to hedge area price risks. NordREG emphasizes that the development of the Nord Pool Spot trading mechanism and its transparency should be prepared together with the Nord Pool Spot. Finally, one of the key issues for ensuring a well-functioning electricity wholesale market is the optimal and sufficient transmission network with its cross-border interconnectors that support the wholesale electricity market. Traditionally the Nordic TSOs used to cooperate in the area of grid planning and produced Nordic Grid Master Plans. The Nordic Council of Energy Ministers has underlined the importance of continued Nordic grid planning. The 3rd Legislative Package raised the cooperation of TSOs on grid planning to the European level and as a task for the European TSO organisation ENTSO-E, which has organised regional groupings of TSOs to work on grid planning. ENTSO-E published the pilot Ten Year Network Development Plan in June 2010 and the process for preparing the next one is already underway. This planning work and the results of it that will materialise themselves through transmission network investments will have a significant impact on the functioning of the Nordic, Northern and the whole European electricity wholesale market and its integration. This work needs to be analyzed and

  19. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations...... events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power....

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  1. Power marketers flex at FERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, W.L.; Burkhart, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    Electric utilities beware. Power marketers are not only here to stay, but their ranks are growing. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) logged approximately 81 applications in 1994, compared to nine in 1993. About half have been acted on already. The fledgling industry is also staking out its regulatory territory. Notably, on December 14, the FERC ordered the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to provide nonfirm transmission service to AES Power Inc. of Atlanta, GA, a power marketing subsidiary of AES Corp.-to accommodate AES Power`s current and future bulk-power marketing transactions (Docket No. TX94-7-000). This marks the first time the FERC has granted a power marketer`s request to require wheeling from a federal power agency. As a power marketer, AES Power takes title to electric power that it purchases and sells for resale, thus qualifying as a public utility under the Federal Power Act. In its filing, AES Power sought nonfirm, point-to-point transmission service under an umbrella agreement that would establish the rates, terms, and conditions under which AES could request specific transactions without applying under section 211 each time. AES Power also sought assurances that it would not be charged more than other parties, including TVA itself, for comparable service. The power marketer agreed to be subject to a postage-stamp ceiling rate that gives TVA the flexibility to quote any rate up to the ceiling.

  2. Green certificates and market power in the Nordic power market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power on a Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) market can be used to affect an entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with this. One is that a small number...... principles and a numerical model based on that to investigate the Swedish TGC market operating in a setting of a common Nordic electricity market. The analysis shows that Swedish producers may exercise market power using the TGC-market but that this problem will be eliminated by opening the TGC-market...... of companies may have exclusive access to first rate sites for wind power generation. The other is that withdrawal of a small number of TGCs implies a multiple reduction of electricity consumption, with corresponding increases of end user prices. We formulate both an analytical model to investigate economic...

  3. Clean Restructuring: Design Elements for Low Carbon Wholesale Markets and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    Countries around the world are in various stages of power system reform and restructuring to more effectively meet development goals and decarbonization commitments. Changes in social dynamics, technology, business models, and environmental goals are increasing pressure for countries to consider improvements to their power systems. This brochure overviews the 21st Century Power Partnerships thought leadership report that explores the clean restructuring pathway in depth, envisions an end state, and articulates three main areas of consideration for decision makers embarking on a clean restructuring process. The report also details case studies from Germany, Denmark, and Mexico.

  4. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  5. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... ] 61,253, at P 19 and n.23 (2009) (``The Smart Grid concept envisions a power system architecture that... compensation structures, the Commission is concerned that some existing, inadequate compensation structures... pricing structures, before they will make an investment in demand response.'' \\31\\ Some participants have...

  6. Utility strategies - affiliated power marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, J.F. [Aquila Energy Corp., Omaha, NE (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The regulation of affiliated power marketers (APM) is discussed. Any electric utility affiliates that own or control generation must not have market power in the relevant market, which is defined as the utility`s first-tier markets. One can prove that its affiliates do not have generation dominance by: (a) showing that its entire generating capacity is committed under long term contract, (b) showing that its affiliates already are authorized to sell at market-based rates, or (c) submitting a market analysis which demonstrates that the affiliates do not possess generation market power. The electric utility affiliates must have a transmission tariff on file which provides for comparable transmission services. The APM must agree not to buy power from, or sell power to its electric utility affiliate without prior approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The APM must notify FERC if it sells power to, buys power from, or obtains transmission service from a utility that has any business relationship with any affiliates. Any non-sales services provided by the utility affiliates must not be priced below market value. Procedures must ensure that market information is not shared between the utility and the APM, or shared on a comparable basis with non-affiliates. A continuing obligation exists for the APM to notify FERC of any change in these criteria occurring after approval is granted. Concerns with these provisions and suggested improvements are discussed.

  7. Power marketers: Who are they, and what do they do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Convector Consulting NA Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Altman, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Although activity quintupled to 1.2 billion megawatt-hours in 1997, many electric industry participants still have only a vague idea of what the identity and role of power marketers are. Like the independent power producers before them, however, they should no longer be regarded merely as marginal side players. This article attempts to explain what power marketing is, who power marketers are, what they do, why they do it, and what is behind their explosive growth in the past few years. This article also explains what types of products and services they offer, why these products and services are in demand, and what are the fundamental drivers for this demand. Understanding the last item is particularly significant; namely, the rapid restructuring of the wholesale--soon to be followed by the retail--electricity markets in the United States. An equally important impetus for the industry`s growth is the passage of the highly significant Energy Policy Act in 1992 and, more recently, the promulgation of Orders 888 and 889 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 1996. In the absence of those, there would be no power marketing industry as it is known today.

  8. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  9. Acceleration of the development of TTF and the wholesale market for natural gas; Versnelling van de ontwikkeling van TTF en de groothandelsmarkt voor gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides the vision of the NMa/DTe (The Netherlands Competition Authority/The Office of Energy Regulation) on the question how the operations of the virtual gas marketplace TTF (Title Transfer Facility) and the wholesale market for gas can be improved at a higher pace and in such a way that the security of supply and the competition on the national gas market can be improved, with the Netherlands positioning themselves as the gas roundabout. Accelerating the development of the TTF and the gas wholesale market operations in general is necessary and feasible. By removing barriers in (detail) regulation and changing the manner of doing business on the low-calorific market structural progression can be achieved in the short term. In the medium and long term investments and the process of internationalization offer solutions. This way, the efforts of the market parties, GTS (Gas Transport Services) and the government enhance the security of supply and the market operations. [mk]. [Dutch] Voorliggend rapport geeft de visie van NMa/DTe op de vraag hoe de werking van gasmarktplaats TTF (Title Transfer Facility) en de groothandelsmarkt voor gas versneld verbeterd kan worden, zodanig dat de leveringszekerheid en de concurrentie op de nationale gasmarkt worden versterkt en Nederland zich positioneert als gasrotonde. Versnellen van de ontwikkeling van TTF en de werking van de groothandelsmarkt gas in het algemeen is noodzakelijk en mogelijk. Door het wegnemen van barrieres in onder andere (detail)regelgeving en door de manier van zakendoen op de laagcalorische markt te veranderen, kan op korte termijn structurele progressie worden geboekt. Op de middellange en langere termijn bieden investeringen en het internationaliseringproces uitkomst. Zo worden door inspanningen van marktpartijen, GTS (Gas Transport Services) en de overheid de leveringszekerheid en de marktwerking versterkt.

  10. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdmann Georg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the “Merit order effect of renewables”. According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  11. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georg

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the "Merit order effect of renewables". According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  12. Game Theory: An Application to Tanners and 'Pomo' Wholesalers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the tanners and 'pomo' wholesalers. The result of the analysis revealed that market share of hides was 30% to 70% for tanners and 'pomo' wholesalers respectively. There was relatively low competition between tanners and 'pomo' wholesalers in Nigeria.

  13. Wholesale Power to Hydrogen: Adaptive Trading Approaches in a Smart Grid Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Serkan; Unland, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Artificial Intelligence for Knowledge Management; International audience; Fossil based liquid fuels, primarily used in transportation systems, are likely to be replaced with renewable resources thanks to energy transition policies. However, shifting from stable energy production (using coal, natural gas) to highly volatile renewable production will bring a number of problems as well. On the other side, tremendous developments in solar and wind power technologies encourage energy inves...

  14. Market Design and Supply Security in Imperfect Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies oncapacity markets...... increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market...... instead of the energy market....

  15. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions auction clearing prices, and in

  16. Money, Markets and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The future science of Economics must be human-centered, value-based, inclusive, global in scope and evolutionary in perspective. It needs to be fundamentally interdisciplinary to reflect the increasingly complex sectoral interconnections that characterize modern society. It must also be founded on transdisciplinary principles of social existence and human development that constitute the theoretical foundation for all the human sciences. This paper examines three fundamental aspects of modern economy to illustrate the types of issues and perspectives relevant to a reformulation of Economics framed within a broader political, social, cultural, psychological and ecological context. It examines the social forces responsible for the present functioning of economies, which can be effectively addressed and controlled only when they are made conscious and explicit. Whatever the powers that have shaped its development in the past, the rightful aim of economic science is a system of knowledge that promotes the welfare and well-being of all humanity. Markets and money are instruments for the conversion of social potential into social power. They harness the power of organization to transform human energies into the capacity for social accomplishment. The distribution of rights and privileges in society determines how these social institutions function and who benefits. Freedom means access to social power and is only possible in the measure all forms of that power—political, economic and social—are equitably distributed. The current system is inherently biased in favor of privileged elites reinforcing domination by the more powerful. The emergence of the individual is the vanguard of social evolution and the widest manifestation of creative individuality is its pinnacle. This emergence can only be fully achieved in conditions of freedom and equality. Economic theory needs to make explicit the underlying forces determining the distribution of power and

  17. Market power behaviour in the danish food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and demonstrates an econometric approach to analysing food industry firms' market pricing behaviour within the framework of translog cost functions and based on firm-level accounts panel data. The study identifies effects that can be interpreted as firms' market power behaviour...... in output or input markets. The most robust indications of market power behaviour in output markets are found in the pork and poultry processing sectors, as well as for firms in the bakeries sector. On the other hand, the most robust market power behaviour indications regarding input markets are found...... for poultry processing. In general, the patterns with regard to market power behaviour seem to be more clearly identified in the processing sectors than in the distribution sectors....

  18. Operations Management in Short Term Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Ditte Mølgård

    is on a balancing market model like in the Nordic countries with high time resolution, and it takes extensive balancing rules into consideration. We look into how wind forecast errors can be handled in a system with a large and increasing amount of wind power and at what costs. The project was done in collaboration...... in the way the dynamic programming algorithm handles the integer variables leading to two different non-anticipativity assumptions. In the fourth chapter Open- and closed-loop equilibrium models for the day-ahead and balancing markets we look into how power producers act in market which is not perfectly...... competitive. Specifically, we look into the possibility of exercising market power when the electricity market consists of two sequential markets – the day-ahead market and the balancing market – and some power producers have access to both markets whereas others only can participate in the first market...

  19. Consumption, price asymmetries, transmission congestion and market power in the Norwegian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood

    2011-07-01

    The results from this dissertation add to the ongoing debate in Norway if NordPool spot should shift from zonal price scheme to the nodal price scheme. Academically, the individual papers provide a number of theoretical frameworks that are helpful in analyzing electricity markets around the world. The PhD dissertation investigates price determination process in the Norwegian electricity market and evaluates if the market works at perfectly competitive level or producers exercise market power to drive prices away from their marginal cost of production. Using aggregate hourly electricity supply and demand data, the empirical analysis carried out in this dissertation leads to the following conclusions. 1. Market power at the generation level is not a major problem for the Norwegian electricity market. On average, when we consider the events of binding transmission capacity as exogenous, the average markup in economic terms is small and has not exceeded one percent. 2. Producers can use the information on available transmission capacity between different price areas in Norway and restrict their output to induce transmission congestion in their price area to exercise market power. Average markup during such instances has remained high at 20 percent. 3. Transmission capacity in Norway is not being optimally utilized as import capacity remains at its lowest level during the hours when southern Norway is generally a net importer of electricity, when compared to the rest of the hours of the day. 4. A segment of electricity retailers in the Norwegian electricity market exercises its market power by controlling the pass-through of price changes in the wholesale market to the retail market for variable price contract consumers. The pass-through is asymmetric, whereby cost increase is transmitted completely and quickly when compared to the case of cost decrease. 5.The Daylight saving time (Summer time) policy is helpful in ensuring energy efficiency. It results in electricity

  20. Electric power market agent design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  1. An Analysis of Colombian Power Market Price Behavior from an Industrial Organization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Duarte Venslauskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory.  We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.  We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships.  The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices.  In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.

  2. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Nese, Gjermund

    2017-01-01

    A market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) is strongly interwoven in the electricity market in that the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of TGCs. Therefore, strategic interaction may result. We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning...... electricity and TGC markets, and focus on the role of market power (i.e., Stackelberg leadership). One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per-unit subsidies. Also, the model shows that TGCs may be an imprecise instrument for regulating the generation...

  3. Cournot games with network effects for electric power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Carl John

    The electric utility industry is moving from regulated monopolies with protected service areas to an open market with many wholesale suppliers competing for consumer load. This market is typically modeled by a Cournot game oligopoly where suppliers compete by selecting profit maximizing quantities. The classical Cournot model can produce multiple solutions when the problem includes typical power system constraints. This work presents a mathematical programming formulation of oligopoly that produces unique solutions when constraints limit the supplier outputs. The formulation casts the game as a supply maximization problem with power system physical limits and supplier incremental profit functions as constraints. The formulation gives Cournot solutions identical to other commonly used algorithms when suppliers operate within the constraints. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the theory. The results show that the maximization formulation will give system operators more transmission capacity when compared to the actions of suppliers in a classical constrained Cournot game. The results also show that the profitability of suppliers in constrained networks depends on their location relative to the consumers' load concentration.

  4. The price development on the German gas wholesale market. A convergence view; Die Preisentwicklung auf dem deutschen Gasgrosshandelsmarkt. Eine Konvergenzbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Stronzik, Marcus [Wissenschaftliches Institut fuer Infrastruktur und Kommunikationsdienste GmbH (WIK), Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2010-01-11

    In the following contribution a competition effect of the Entry-Exit-Model will be analyzed. A satifactory integration degree of recorded market sector results by application of different method of time series econometry, however still significant price differences exist, to be caused not only by transport cost. (GL)

  5. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on biogas yield and specific energy in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wholesale market wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Zeynali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic pre-treatment has been considered as an environmentally friendly process for enhancing the biodegradability of organic matter in anaerobic digestion. However the consumed energy during the pre-treatment is a matter of challenge especially where energy generation is the main purpose of a biogas plant. The aim of the present work was to study the efficiency of ultrasonic pre-treatment in enhancement of biogas production from fruits and vegetable wholesale market waste. Three sonication times (9, 18, 27 min operating at 20 kHz and amplitude of 80 μm were used on the substrate. The highest methane yield was obtained at 18 min sonication (2380 kJ kg−1 total solids while longer exposure to sonication led to lower methane yield. This amount of biogas was obtained in 12 d of batch time. The energy content of the biogas obtained from this reactor was two times of the input energy for sonication.

  6. Mapping of selected markets with Nodal pricing or similar systems. Australia, New Zealand and North American power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Vivi (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This report shows that the principals of nodal pricing can be implemented in different ways. A common denominator for markets with nodal pricing is a central market based nodal dispatch, where prices and flows are determined simultaneously close to real time. This stands apart from the European market design, which is based on a highly simplified version of the grid, and a physical point auction day ahead. Congestion management is handled by the TSO during the operational hour and not through the market as is the case in nodal pricing systems. Nodal pricing yields optimal dispatch and congestion management through the market, and as such an optimal utilisation of energy generation and network. However, whether this short term optimisation delivers the highest overall efficiency for the market in terms of competition in the wholesale and retail market, price discovery, possibilities for hedging, long term price signals etc. is difficult to determine. The markets investigated handle issues such as market power, risk management, investment signals and retail markets in very different ways. New Zealand and PJM are examples of markets with full nodal pricing, i.e. both generators and the demand side are exposed to nodal prices. The PJM market has more 'additional features' than the New Zealand market. Examples of these are separate capacity market to trigger investments in generation and generator price caps to deal with situations of market power. In addition PJM offers liquid and mature markets for risk management, such as aggregates of nodes where market participant can chose to be settled (rather than to be settled directly at the node). A general finding though, seems to be that risk management at peripheral nodes is challenging in nodal markets, particularly for independent retailers. In New Zealand generators and retailers were permitted to 'reintegrate' in order to cope with the nodal prices. The Australian market has central market based

  7. The operation of wholesale electricity, CO{sub 2} and natural gas markets in 2010-2011; Le fonctionnement des marches de gros de l'electricite, du CO{sub 2} et du gaz naturel en 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The first part analyses the electricity wholesale markets: development of the main wholesale market segments, electricity price, electricity production analysis and transparency of production data, transaction analysis. The second part analyses CO{sub 2} markets: evolution of the institutional framework and perspectives, exchanges volumes on the CO{sub 2} market, the CO{sub 2} price in Europe, fundamentals of the European CO{sub 2} market. The third part addresses the gas market: development of gas trade, gas price, gas infrastructures, supply and outlets for stake holders and new comers

  8. 76 FR 4554 - Notice of Establishment of the Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...; National Livestock Producers Association; National Meat Association; National Pork Producers Council; North... Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Service (AMS) is giving notice of the establishment of the Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking...

  9. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  10. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L [Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Wholesale Electricity Market Design. Understanding the Missing Money Problem. December 2013 - January 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papalexopoulos, A. [ECCO International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hansen, C. [ECCO International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Perrino, D. [ECCO International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Frowd, R. [ECCO International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    This project examined the impact of renewable energy sources, which have zero incremental energy costs, on the sustainability of conventional generation. This “missing money” problem refers to market outcomes in which infra-marginal energy revenues in excess of operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are systematically lower than the amortized costs of new entry for a marginal generator. The problem is caused by two related factors: (1) conventional generation is dispatched less, and (2) the price that conventional generation receives for its energy is lower. This lower revenue stream may not be sufficient to cover both the variable and fixed costs of conventional generation. In fact, this study showed that higher wind penetrations in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system could cause many conventional generators to become uneconomic.

  12. Market Power in Power Markets: Evidence from Forward Prices of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Jensen, Thomas Elgaard; Mølgaard, Rune

    power in the spot market, indicating that misuse of market power in the forward market accompanied that which took place in the spot market, according to this ruling. This is consistent with the hypothesis that Elsam used the forward market to disguise its spot market manipulation. The findings......We examine the forward market for electricity for indications of misuse of market power, using a unique data set on OTC price indications posted by Elsam A/S, the dominant producer in Western Denmark, which is one of the price areas under the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. The Danish Competition...... Council (the regulatory government agency) has ruled that Elsam has used its dominant position to obtain excessive spot prices over a period from July 2003 through December 2006. We show that significant forward premia exist, and that they are related both to spot market volatility and misuse of market...

  13. European Food and Drink Wholesalers and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.

  14. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  15. Marketing of wind power; Vermarktung von Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    With the integration of the fluctuating production in the system of power supply, there is the question about the impact on the electricity market. The special features of the commercialization of wind energy are: (1) The production exclusively takes place supply-dependent; (2) With fex exceptions, the supplied current is compensated according to the Renewable Energy Law; (3) The actual sale is performed by the operators of transmission systems; (4) The marginal cost are close to zero; (5) The day-ahead marketing solely based on a faulty prognosis. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the actors and the process of wind power marketing. The alternative of direct marketing and the associated barriers and opportunities are discussed. The impact of the marketing of wind power on pricing in the electricity market is shown by means of an empirical analysis. The compensation amounts are be quantified, and the resulting cost to the balance of the forecast error are estimated.

  16. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...... are penetrated, the size of the profit is strongly dependent on the type of flexibility considered. We also find that penetrating several markets makes profits surprisingly robust to spot price prediction errors....

  17. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egging, R.G. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Policy Studies Group; Gabriel, S.A. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity. (author)

  18. 76 FR 12887 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated... committee meeting. SUMMARY: This document announces the second meeting of the Wholesale Pork Reporting... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork price...

  19. 76 FR 23513 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated... committee meeting. SUMMARY: This document announces the third meeting of the Wholesale Pork Reporting... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork price...

  20. Development of Danish Wind Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency. In the early nineties favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid. As a result wind power was booming...... on the Danish home market and Danish turbines achieved a global market share of around 50 %....

  1. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  2. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  3. Power laws of wealth, market order volumes and market returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sorin; Richmond, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using the Generalized Lotka Volterra model adapted to deal with mutiagent systems we can investigate economic systems from a general viewpoint and obtain generic features common to most economies. Assuming only weak generic assumptions on capital dynamics, we are able to obtain very specific predictions for the distribution of social wealth. First, we show that in a ‘fair’ market, the wealth distribution among individual investors fulfills a power law. We then argue that ‘fair play’ for capital and minimal socio-biological needs of the humans traps the economy within a power law wealth distribution with a particular Pareto exponent α∼ {3}/{2}. In particular, we relate it to the average number of individuals L depending on the average wealth: α∼ L/( L-1). Then we connect it to certain power exponents characterizing the stock markets. We find that the distribution of volumes of the individual (buy and sell) orders follows a power law with similar exponent β∼α∼ {3}/{2}. Consequently, in a market where trades take place by matching pairs of such sell and buy orders, the corresponding exponent for the market returns is expected to be of order γ∼2 α∼3. These results are consistent with recent experimental measurements of these power law exponents (S. Maslov, M. Mills, Physica A 299 (2001) 234 for β; P. Gopikrishnan et al., Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 5305 for γ).

  4. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  5. NONSTRUCTURAL AND STATISTICAL NONPARAMETRIC MARKET POWER TESTS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Noelke, Corinna M.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    1999-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo experiments to assess the accuracy of two nonstructural and two statistical nonparametric market power tests. We implement these monopoly and monopsony market power tests using data from ten known market structures. The objective is to determine which test is most able to distinguish between market structures. The statistical nonparametric market power tests appear to be promising.

  6. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  7. Insurer Market Power Lowers Prices In Numerous Concentrated Provider Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    Using prices of hospital admissions and visits to five types of physicians, we analyzed how provider and insurer market concentration-as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-interact and are correlated with prices. We found evidence that in the range of the Department of Justice's and Federal Trade Commission's definition of a moderately concentrated market (HHI of 1,500-2,500), insurers have the bargaining power to reduce provider prices in highly concentrated provider markets. In particular, hospital admission prices were 5 percent lower and cardiologist, radiologist, and hematologist/oncologist visit prices were 4 percent, 7 percent, and 19 percent lower, respectively, in markets with high provider concentration and insurer HHI above 2,000, compared to such markets with insurer HHI below 2,000. We did not find evidence that high insurer concentration reduced visit prices for primary care physicians or orthopedists, however. The policy dilemma that arises from our findings is that there are no insurer market mechanisms that will pass a portion of these price reductions on to consumers in the form of lower premiums. Large purchasers of health insurance such as state and federal governments, as well as the use of regulatory approaches, could provide a solution. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Fluctuation traits of Litchi wholesale price in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F. F.; Qi, W. E.; Ouyang, X.

    2017-07-01

    This paper chose the wholesale price of litchi as research object based on the daily data of 11 main sales markets in China -- Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hefei, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Chongqing from April 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016. After analyzing the fluctuation characteristics with BP filter method and H-P filter method, and the fluctuation trends of litchi wholesale price in China obtained by BP filter are roughly consistent with the trends obtained by H-P filter. The main conclusions are as follows: there is strong cyclicality in the fluctuation of litchi wholesale price; the period of fluctuations of litchi wholesale prices are not repeatable; litchi wholesale price fluctuates asymmetrically in one fluctuation cycle.

  9. Beware of false green power marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    A warning was sounded to make people aware of false marketers of `green power`. These are companies that purchase excess power from existing sources, including nuclear, coal and large-scale hydro, and resell it at inflated prices to unsuspecting consumers. These consumers believe that they are buying power from renewable sources. With large amounts of money at stake, there are many new opportunities for unscrupulous companies to take advantage of the good intentions of environmentally conscious customers. Therefore, before making a commitment to purchase power from companies that claim to be enviro-friendly, it is important to check out the facts and be aware of how the industry works.

  10. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  11. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2004-01-01

    of “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets”. The project was started in 2002 and is funded by the EU’s 5th Research programme on energy and environment. Risø National Laboratory isco-ordinator of the project and partners include SINTEF, Kungliga Tekniska Högskola, University of Stuttgart......, VTT, Nord Pool Consult, Technical University of Denmark, ELSAM A/S and Elkraft-System A/S. This report is Deliverable 3.2 of the project. Thereport describes the power markets in the Nordic countries and Germany, together with the market models to be implemented in the Wilmar Planning modelling tool...... developed in the project. The starting points for the design of the power market models are thefunctioning of the electricity markets in Germany and in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These two power markets are thoroughly described in the first part of the report. A qualitative...

  12. Market Power in the Czech Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řepková Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the market power in the Czech banking sector during the period 2000 2010. In order to measure the degree of market power in the Czech banking sector, the authors used the Lerner index, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index and the concentration ratio. The Lerner index is applied to data from 15 banks, which covers about 90% of the Czech banking market. The paper describes the theoretical framework of the competition, especially the Lerner index and measures of concentration. Authors also compute separate Lerner index for the Czech credit market and the Czech deposit market. The estimations of the Lerner index do not confirm either monopoly or perfect competition structure in the Czech banking sector over the period analyzed. The competition decreased in the period 2000-2005 which was affected by the decrease in the price of funds and capital. However, the competition increased in the period 2005-2010, and it was influenced by the increase in the price of funds and capital. From the value obtained from the Lerner index, it was found that the lowest competition was in the deposit market.

  13. Competition in the power markets of Northern Europe; Konkurranse i kraftmarkedene i Nord-Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses the question whether a working wholesale market for electricity will develop in Northern Europe despite the differences in external conditions and in industrial structure. A recent EC directive and the approach towards a liberalization of the European energy markets direct attention to increased integration and trade with electricity. It is unclear whether the directive will have the intended impact. Norway, Sweden and Finland have deregulated their power markets, while Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands still have a monopolistic market structure. The most important difference between the deregulated and the monopolistic systems is that in the deregulated system the technical network activities are separated out and regulated while the suppliers compete in a market. The technical properties of network operation and the systems properties of the network imply advantages under large-scale operation that indicate that network operation is a natural monopoly which must be regulated. However, there are few essential large-scale advantages in the production of electric power. Thus, business based on competition implies that transmission and distribution should be regulated and that competition is allowed in those parts of the trade that do not profit from large-scale operation. International power trade is not necessarily a goal in itself. If transporting the energy carriers used in power production is cheaper than electric power, then the power plants should be placed where the demand is. In the development of the national systems, requirements have been imposed on the power sector in addition to cost-efficiency. Hence there is great variation in production structure and costs among countries, which provides a basis for profitable trade. In fact, there is a great potential for increased efficiency by increasing the trade among the EC countries. 23 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... important. Product quality comes in third followed by trustworthiness of the supplier and marketing support offered. Price and quality plus marketing support offered seem to be relatively more important to wholesalers than retailers. The majority of Eastern European retailers use central buying departments....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  15. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  16. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power......We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...

  17. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power......We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...

  18. Power system models - A description of power markets and outline of market modelling in Wilmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P.; Morthors, P.E.; Nielsen, L.H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C.; Snader, K.; Swider, D. [Univ. of Stuttgart, IER (Germany); Ravn, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-12-01

    This report is Deliverable 3.2 of the Wilmar project. The report describes the power markets in the Nordic countries and Germany, together with the market models to be implemented in the Wilmar Planning model-ling tool developed in the project. (au)

  19. Modernização das embalagens da mandioquinha-salsa e sua comercialização no atacado paulista Modernization of packages and commercialization of arracacha at the São Paulo's wholesale market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A CEAGESP em São Paulo é o maior mercado de mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil, influenciando a formação de preço e o modo de comercialização do produto nos outros mercados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comercialização da mandioquinha-salsa no mercado atacadista de São Paulo e descrever as embalagens usadas atualmente para o produto. O levantamento foi realizado por meio de visitas a beneficiadores que abastecem o mercado paulista localizados nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e atacadistas da CEAGESP entre 2001 e 2002. Na CEAGESP pelo menos 25 permissionários negociavam mandioquinha-salsa, podendo ser divididos em três grupos de acordo com o volume do produto comercializado: pequenos (18 atacadistas, até 50 caixas "K"/dia; médios (5 atacadistas, 50-200 caixas "K"/dia; e grandes (2 atacadistas, mais de 200 caixas "K"/dia. Além da tradicional caixa "K", foram identificadas outras cinco embalagens no atacado, sendo duas plásticas (contentor de 32 kg e caixa "CC23" de 23 kg de capacidade e três de papelão ("caixeta" de 12 kg, caixa de 22 kg e caixa do Carrefour com 16 kg de capacidade. O peso líquido das embalagens variou em função do material usado, sendo 0,7 kg (caixas de papelão, 2,0 kg (caixas de plástico e 3,2 kg (caixa "K". As caixas plásticas apresentaram o maior custo unitário (R$ 5,00, mas são mais duráveis; o custo das caixas de papelão variou de R$ 1,50 a R$ 2,00 e a caixa "K" foi a mais barata (R$ 0,80. As caixas de papelão e de plástico são recomendadas para raízes de melhor qualidade e preço, como as classes "3A", "B" e "Extra B".The CEAGESP wholesale market in São Paulo is the most important trade center for horticultural products in Brazil. A survey was done on the commercialization of arracacha and types of packing used at the São Paulo's wholesale market. Data was collected from 2000 to 2002 through visits to packinghouses in Minas Gerais and São Paulo States and the CEAGESP

  20. The sector restructuring and the consequences on the planning and the marketing studies of the electric power distributors; A reestruturacao setorial e os reflexos sobre o planejamento e os estudos de mercado das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudo, Eduardo

    2001-05-15

    After the restructuring of the Brazilian power sector during the 1990's a new set of rules and players (regulators, traders, etc.) was introduced. This situation resulted in significantly impacting the distribution companies in terms of market risks and commercial opportunities. Electric power market assessments that provide fundamental information to the system and tariff planning groups can also be used to support the distribution companies in analyzing various questions within the new rules that have been created. These questions include such items as: how much energy should be contracted in the future in the wholesale market?; how much opportunity is available in offering commercial services to the customer?. This work describes the main changes that have occurred due to the restructuring, such as: the privatization process, a wholesale market implementation, rules for energy trading, and planning and regulatory process. The main challenges for distribution companies as a result of these changes are identified, especially focusing on energy trading in retail and wholesale markets. The process of electric power market assessments is presented and describing the accepted methodology used for demand forecasting for distribution companies. Information required by distribution companies in order to deal with the market challenges are specified - e.g. energy trading, market risks and customer relationship. It is concluded there is a need to obtain detailed information about consumers and to develop market forecast for specific time frame. It must take into consideration all the issues around the retail market - the study needs to analyze the basic factors that impact customer consumption. In order to improve the electric market assessment, it has been useful to apply specific models. After reviewing the existing tools for electric power market assessments (analysis and forecast), it has been found that the models that combined methods of end use analysis with

  1. 75 FR 15429 - Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc;. Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc;. Notice of Filing March 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2008, Dynegy Power Marketing, Inc., Dynegy Power Corp., El Segundo Power LLC, Long Beach Generation LLC, Cabrillo Power I LLC and Cabrillo Power II LLC (collectively Dynegy) hereby...

  2. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction t....... In the Bertrand case, welfare is the same with all or no consumers on smart meters.......We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  3. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  4. A workflow for SHPs regulatory compliance in the wholesale market metering system; Workflow para adequacao regulatoria da medicao de faturamento em PCHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Danilo Ulisses Soares; Vidal, Fernando de Moura; Mariano, Alex [Way2 Servicos de Tecnologia S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: way2@way2.com.br

    2011-07-15

    CCEE regulatory compliance is a critical and necessary process to the beginning of the commercial operation of generation plants. Even when this stage is completed, the small-team nature of a PCH work crew, their rushed work pace and typical turnover on the matter of their role at the plant make difficult the task of monitoring the demands and processes, which increases the penalty risk. The current article analyses CCEE commercial procedures (PdCs) and ONS Network Procedures, emphasizing activities and workflow which are in compliancy to regulation. Primarily the asset registering process is described in details, from project elaboration and approval until CCEE final validation. After that, the article summarizes all criteria for penalties application regarding wholesale energy metering compliance, missing data and audit channel Unavailability. Besides that, there is a focus on a workflow definition in order to mitigate penalties risk. (author)

  5. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  6. Do we need a power exchange if there are enough power marketers ?

    OpenAIRE

    SMEERS, Yves; WEI, Jing-Yuan

    1997-01-01

    Decentralization in electricity restructuring is a growing trend that Power Marketers are ex- pected to take advantage of. We consider a market composed of Power Marketers, an Indepen- dent System Operator, generators and retailers. Power Marketers behave a` la Cournot-Nash and the ISO implements a Transmission Capacity Reservation market a` la FERC. Retailers are price taker. Generators’ behavior is only reflected in the purchase costs of the Power Marketers. Their behavior is thus not reall...

  7. Dropped out or pushed out? Insurance market exit and provider market power in Medicare Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelech, Daria

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how provider and insurer market power affect which markets an insurer chooses to operate in. A 2011 policy change required that certain private insurance plans in Medicare form provider networks de novo; in response, insurers cancelled two-thirds of the affected plans. Using detailed data on pre-policy provider and insurer market structure, I compare markets where insurers built networks to those they exited. Overall, insurers in the most concentrated hospital and physician markets were 9 and 13 percentage points more likely to exit, respectively, than those in the least concentrated markets. Conversely, insurers with more market power were less likely to exit than those with less, and an insurer's market power had the largest effect on exit in concentrated hospital markets. These findings suggest that concentrated provider markets contribute to insurer exit and that insurers with less market power have more difficulty surviving in concentrated provider markets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  9. Social marketing: dimensions of power and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S

    1982-01-01

    The effective us of marketing strategies by nonprofit organizations necessitates involvement in political activities, i.e., mobilizing power to influence others. Most nonprofit groups and marketing experts who work for nonprofit groups are not sufficiently aware of the value of using the tactics of politics to win support for their causes. The experiences of a voluntary group which used politics and power to develop a program aimed at assisting unemployed black youth were presented. The group wanted to establish a workshop to provide training for hard core unemployed youth. The group needed to raise funds to set up the workshop. The 1st step was to identify a target group of potential donors, and then to develop a strategy for selling their product, i.e., the worthiness of the workshop project. The group decided to direct its fund raising activities toward organizations in the community rather than individuals. The market was segmented, and the product was presented differently to differ groups. Initially, the voluntary group was powerless. Political tactics were subsequently used to legitimate the group and its product. A network of influencial sympathizers, primarily clergymen and politicians, was established. This network helped the group garner the support of the targeted donor organizations. The threat of sanctions was used to gain support for the project, but sanctions were applied with considerable care. For example, the support of local politicians was obtained partially by implicitly threatening them with the possibility of bad publicity if they failed to promote the project. Voluntary organizations are not immune to internal conflict and competition. In introducing a marketing perspective into a voluntary organization, internal politics must be taken into account. In the case presented here, the marketer had to decide who in the organization to align himself with and then develop strategies to increase his influence and the influence of his allies. In

  10. Analysis of relationships between hourly electricity price and load in deregulated real-time power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.L.; Wu, Y.K. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Power Systems Research Group

    2004-07-01

    Risk management in the electric power industry involves measuring the risk for all instruments owned by a company. The value of many of these instruments depends directly on electricity prices. In theory, the wholesale price in a real-time market should reflect the short-run marginal cost. However, most markets are not perfectly competitive, therefore by understanding the degree of correlation between price and physical drivers, electric traders and consumers can manage their risk more effectively and efficiently. Market data from two power-pool architectures, both pre-2003 ISO-NE and Australia's NEM, have been studied. The dynamic character of electricity price is mean-reverting, and consists of intra-day and weekly variations, seasonal fluctuations, and instant jumps. Parts of them are affected by load demands. Hourly signals on both price and load are divided into deterministic and random components with a discrete Fourier transform algorithm. Next, the real-time price-load relationship for periodic and random signals is examined. In addition, time-varying volatility models are constructed on random price and random load with the GARCH model, and the correlation between them analysed. Volatility plays a critical role on evaluating option pricing and risk management. (author)

  11. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien, E-mail: julien.chevallier@dauphine.f [Universite Paris Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2010-08-15

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  12. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices. An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien [Universite Paris Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2010-08-15

    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content. (author)

  13. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Pinson, Pierre; Kazempour, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day......-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding...... flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making...

  14. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  15. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power operations with power marketing agencies. 209.141 Section 209.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation... generating facilities with the power marketing agencies. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all...

  16. Bidding Strategy for Deregulated Power Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Load and Price forecasting play a vital role in enhancing the energy-efficient and reliable operation of electricity companies. This paper proposes a bidding strategy based on Short-Term Load Forecasting and Short-Term Price Forecasting technique used in the deregulated electricity market. The main aim of the proposed approach is to forecast load and price so as to enhance the efficiency of the power system. The input variables which are taken into account include the past load, weather and calendar data and price bidding on an hourly basis. A comparison of the accuracy of fuzzy, artificial neural network and state estimation technique is performed on the two datasets of the electricity markets of IEEE Reliability Test System and Haryana State Load Dispatch Centre. The forecasted load and price aids in increasing the profits by judiciously utilizing the generators with less cost in periods of high demand. Price forecasts are used to determine the cost of electric power and hence, plan the budget according to the consumption of power over the scheduled interval.

  17. Market aspects of smart power grids development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Makowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids herald a revolution in the power sector. The centralized and passive power grid model known for over a century is before our very eyes assuming a completely brand new shape: of an active and dynamic network with an increasingly relevant role of consumers – prosumers, who are offered brand new products and services. Such an active development is possible due to a number of factors, such as: 1. Synergy of ICT with power engineering – these disciplines are becoming an indispensable element of the modern power grid’s operation, 2. The European Union’s regulations in the area of reduction of CO2 emission and improved energy efficiency, as well as identification of Smart Grids as one of the optimum tools, 3. Growth, thanks to continuously increasing expenditures, public awareness of the purchase and rational use of energy. However, the Smart Grid development and ICT implementation in the power sector also carry a risk in the matter of setting up system and process links between the systems of concerned energy market players, which should be mitigated by development of technical standards, methods and principles of good cooperation between the concerned parties. Mitigation of the risk, and as a consequence, effective Smart Grids development will provide conditions for dynamic development of new roles and mechanisms on the energy market. Offering modern products and services to consumers and prosumers, and effective implementation on a national scale of demand management mechanisms will be a source of multidimensional benefits of a functional and financial nature, and will also have a positive impact on the National Lower Grid’s security.

  18. Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products...

  19. A Successful Broker Agent for Power TAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Liefers (Bart); J. Hoogland (Jasper); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Power TAC simulates a smart grid energy market. In this simulation, broker agents compete for customers on a tariff market and trade energy on a wholesale market. It provides a platform for testing strategies of broker agents against other strategies. In this paper we describe the

  20. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  1. Being in Balance: Economic Efficiency in the Dutch Power Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Huurman; R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine economic efficiency in the Dutch power market, an important pillar for successful creation of a competitive and non-discriminatory free power market. We examine historical time series of prices and volumes on the Dutch balancing market where energy companies are

  2. 75 FR 4805 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,039] Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...,000 MWh of electricity per year) from the Commission's jurisdiction.\\3\\ However, section 201(b)(2... collect ``information about the availability and prices'' of natural gas and electricity sold at wholesale...

  3. Positioning marketing in the hospital's power structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, D

    1984-08-01

    Although hospitals are increasingly recognizing the importance of marketing, many have difficulty assimilating what has been primarily an industrial concern into a health care environment. The author explains the function of marketing in health care, the outlook and expectations of a good marketing executive, and why hospital management and the medical staff may have difficulty accepting marketing and the expectations of the marketing executive.

  4. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  5. Debt and market power challenges return: Responses to set-back taking shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The reaction of the energy sector to the recent re-entry of the Ontario government into the commodity side of the electricity business with its announcement of a residential power price freeze and accompanying adjustments to the energy regime in Ontario is discussed. John Brace, the President of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) predicts that the action has created an urgent need for power generators and other players to work closely together to sort out the implications and put new mechanisms in place to allow the system to function properly and to create pressures to bring things back into balance. While popular with residential consumers, the government action sparked significant criticism across the energy industry and has upset traditional allegiances among groups which have supported the establishment of a competitive market, such as the Toronto Board of Trade, Stakeholders Alliance for Competition, (SAC), and the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario. The Toronto Board of Trade reacted by urging the province to (1) abandon the proposal to introduce a price freeze; (2) respect the independent role and mandate of the Ontario Energy Board in regulating the market and determining electricity prices; (3) provide for active and ongoing involvement by the private sector in developing new supply; and (4) include a strong educational and communications component in its conservation program. The SAC questioned the long-term benefits of the government's move and envisaged serious danger to Ontario's ability to develop new generation capacity. It recommended government action on encouraging more electricity supply in Ontario; continued decontrol of Ontario Power Generation (OPG, the former Ontario Hydro) assets; keeping intact the basic open market; and ensuring the continued financial well-being of local distribution companies. The Ontario Energy Association (OEA) also expressed its concern over the serious

  6. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  7. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  8. The Liberating Power of Commercial Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of commercial marketing on personal autonomy. Several philosophers argue that marketing conflicts with ideals of autonomy or, at best, is neutral to these ideals. After qualifying our concept of marketing and introducing the distinctions between (i......) divergent and convergent marketing and (ii) being autonomous and acting autonomously, we demonstrate the heretofore unnoticed positive impact of marketing on autonomy. Specifically, we argue that (i) convergent marketing has a significant potential to reinforce autonomous action and (ii) divergent marketing...

  9. Podridão peduncular e qualidade de mangas 'Tommy atkins' procedentes do mercado atacadista de Campina Grande-PB Stalk rot and quality of 'Tommy atkins' mangos from the wholesale market of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbs Cintra de Souza Gomes

    2010-12-01

    one of the largest producers of mango (Mangifera indica L. in the world. However, significant losses are observed in all stages of production chain, mainly in the retail market, which are correlated almost entirety to incidence of fungal diseases. In this way, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of natural infection of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of stem-end rot, and postharvest quality of 'Tommy Atkins' mangos, traded in the wholesale market of the Central de Abastecimento (EMPASA from Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. To determine natural incidence of the disease it was collected 40 fruits at mature-green maturity stage from four different wholesale marketing stores at EMPASA that were sent to Laboratory of Phytopathology (CCA/UFPB. After sanitization, fruits were kept at room conditions (28 ± 2 ºC and RH 75 ± 6% during eight days, determining first symptoms and signals of the pathogen. The characteristics of quality were determined by collecting 10 fruits from each wholesale marketing store. Fruits were transported to the Laboratory of Biology and Postharvest Technology (CCA/UFPB, where it was evaluated Soluble Solids (SS, Titratable Acidity (TA, SS/TA, and pH. Data were subjected to variance analysis of and means compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. Mango commercialized in the wholesale market of EMPASA, Campina Grande, showed low SS and high TA contents characterizing fruit at the beginning of maturation. Fruits showed 88.9% of natural incidence of stalk rot in the eighth day of storage, which is deleterious for retail quality of fruits, characterizing a causal factor for the higher postharvest losses.

  10. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  11. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-08-15

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  12. Hidden wholesale: The drug diffusing capacity of online drug cryptomarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Décary-Hétu, David

    2016-09-01

    In spite of globalizing processes 'offline' retail drug markets remain localized and - in recent decades - typically 'closed', in which dealers sell primarily to known customers. We characterize drug cryptomarkets as 'anonymous open' marketplaces that allow the diffusion of drugs across locales. Where cryptomarket customers make stock-sourcing purchases for offline distribution, the cryptomarket may indirectly serve drug users who are not themselves cryptomarket customers, thereby increasing the drug diffusing capacity of these marketplaces. Our research aimed to identify wholesale activity on the first major cryptomarket, Silk Road 1. Data were collected 13-15 September 2013. A bespoke web crawler downloaded content from the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road 1. This generated data on 1031 vendors and 10,927 drug listings. We estimated monthly revenues to ascertain the relative importance of wholesale priced listings. Wholesale-level revenue generation (sales for listings priced over USD $1000.00) accounted for about a quarter of the revenue generation on SR1 overall. Ecstasy-type drugs dominated wholesale activity on this marketplace, but we also identified substantial wholesale transactions for benzodiazepines and prescription stimulants. Less important, but still generating wholesale revenue, were cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin. Although vendors on the marketplace were located in 41 countries, wholesale activity was confined to only a quarter of these, with China, the Netherlands, Canada and Belgium prominent. The cryptomarket may function in part as a virtual broker, linking wholesalers with offline retail-level distributors. For drugs like ecstasy, these marketplaces may link vendors in producer countries directly with retail level suppliers. Wholesale activity on cryptomarkets may serve to increase the diffusion of new drugs - and wider range of drugs - in offline drug markets, thereby indirectly serving drug users who are not cryptomarket

  13. Modeling market power in Korea's emerging power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Nam-sung [Korean Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-dong, Yuseong-ku, Daejeon 305-380, Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: nsahn@kepri.re.kr; Niemeyer, Victor [Electric Power Research Institute, 3412 Hillview Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The Korean power market is being formed from the unbundled generation, transmission and distribution assets of Korea Electric Power Corporation. The KEPCO generation has been allocated to six independent gencos with a combined generating capacity of 46,629 MW in 2002. This gave an 11% margin over the peak load that year (41,921 MW). One of the concerns for any power market is whether individual participants can increase profits (and prices) by withholding generation from the market. To address this concern, a Cournot-based model of Korean power system was created and applied to a set of loads representing the load duration curve for Korea's system loads in 2002. Our simulation results show a strong possibility for exercise of market power to increase market price in Korean market. Under tight market conditions, even 1 GW of withholding can cause a large increase in market price. If loads unexpectedly grow faster than the 5% recent experience, the gencos will have the collective ability and incentive to spike prices further. Vesting contracts can reduce the incentive to act strategically. Requiring that the gencos offer 50% of their capacity in long-term forward contracts greatly reduces the payoff to act strategically, and requiring vesting for 75% of their capacity results in prices that are essentially the same as the competitive equilibrium. Depending on the price for the vesting contracts, this policy can reduce the incentives to add new generation by gencos or the competitive fringe. Another approach to reducing the effects of market power is establishing demand-response programs, simulated here by increasing the elasticity of overall demand. These programs can reduce the incentives to withhold capacity, but to a lesser degree than vesting contracts. The genco with the greatest ability to influence prices through withholding is the largest, KNHP. However, acting on its own, without the support of the other gencos, its ability to raise prices is limited

  14. Market Imperfections on the power markets in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period. These imperfe......Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period....... These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, and can also have political characteristics. It is important to recognise and incorporate the market imperfections in the liberalisation policy and analysis. Otherwise, the purposes of the liberalisation and other energy policy goals may...... not be achieved. The aim of this paper is to survey market imperfections and their influence on the liberalisation processes in northern Europe...

  15. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  16. Market power and price structure in the electricity market; Markedsmakt og prisstruktur i kraftmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates the importance of market power on price formation and price structure in the Norwegian electricity market. A simple oligopoly model is used to show how the equilibrium is affected by demand, distribution of capacity between two major suppliers, and marginal production costs, given that the suppliers do not cooperate. Two important conclusions can be drawn from the calculations: (1) a high concentration on the supply side does not necessarily lead to essential market power, and (2) market power may contribute to increased stability and predictability. The main conclusion is that market power can be positive for society and it is not uniquely associated with a high concentration on the supply side. If emphasis is placed on stability and predictability, market power should not be defined as deviation from prices under free competition but rather should be related to the requirement that the suppliers should not obtain unreasonably high profit with unreasonably little utilization of capacity. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach......, functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...

  18. Assessment of business activity of the organizations wholesale trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Alekseevna Soroka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues related to the assessment of business activity of the enterprises in public service sphere. The importance of this problem is in the fact that an assessment of business activity is the basis for optimal management decisions to improve the efficiency of economic activities, sustainable development both of businesses in general and wholesale trade enterprises in particular. Wholesale trade enterprises fulfill a function of sales divisions and departments for the purchase of resources. An assessment of business activity of wholesale trade organizations, circumspected fulfillment of its functions by an organization, formation of complex long-term competitive advantages lead to increased production, restoration of economic connections and inter-regional integration of the consumer market, improve the efficiency of the trading process and sustainable development of the region as a whole

  19. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesecke, S.; Schaper-Rinkel

    2010-01-01

    The internationalization, concentration and differentiation of retailing is challenging the traditional retail and wholesale sector organisation and its distribution structures that firms have employed to get goods and services to market. With the intensification of competition and speed of change

  20. Power marketers can serve the evolving electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, K.D.

    1996-06-01

    Power marketing has been around for a long time in one form or another, yet many traditional electric power industry participants argue that all a power marketer can do is to bring chaos to the market, and with that, a loss of control of the system and a future of unreliable electric service. However, electric power marketers not only can provide a wide range of new products and services, but they are also essential to the development of a more competitive and efficient industry. The paper defines the role of the power marketer. As one has seen in the telecommunications and natural gas industries, the framework of the industry will dramatically change; but, with that change will emerge a number of new competitors, each developing their own niches to create value and service for existing and future players in the marketplace. Power marketers will play a significant role in shaping the electric power industry of the future -- aggressively pursuing these opportunities and creating value through risk intermediation, marketing expertise, and application of new ways of thinking. In the end, one will see a more flexible, efficient, and reliable marketplace in which the driving forces will be competition and market forces rather than the regulatory forces of command and control.

  1. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  2. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  3. Development of Power Market in India—Opportunities and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, Jyoti P.; Banerjee, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Electricity market in India has come a long way since its nascent origin in circa 1999. Electricity trading began through inter-regional bulk power transfer from the surplus region in eastern India to deficit regions in western India in 1999. This has led to the emergence of electricity traders...... introduced in July 2008. Power exchanges are electronic platforms where anonymous price discovery happens based on supply and demand for power in the short term. The short-term electricity trade has reached 7.58 billion units (9.84 % of total generation) in March 2012 with a market size of approximately US......$ 4 billion. The short-term market includes power contracts of less than 1-year period, through traders or directly by the distribution utilities, “Day-Ahead” contracts through power exchanges and unscheduled interchange (UI) power trades. This has led to the development of an efficient trading market...

  4. Market Power in Bilateral Oligopoly Markets with Nonexpendable Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funaki, Y.; Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We consider price-fee competition in bilateral oligopolies with perfectly-divisible goods, non-expandable infrastructures, concentrated agents on both sides, and constant marginal costs. We define and characterize stable market outcomes. Buyers exclusively trade with the supplier with whom

  5. Marketing Power Tools for Building Better Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Karen Denard

    This paper proposes use of marketing methods to improve college health services and enhance their perceived value. Ten key marketing principles are defined: (1) value of the service as seen by the target population; (2) exchange clients perceive benefits received as exceeding perceived costs; (3) competition offering a better product than the…

  6. America's Seniors: Marketers Are Underestimating Their Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Catherine

    Society has stereotyped the elderly as those who are unable, dependent, institutionalized, and handicapped in various other ways. Stereotyping older people in this manner allows them to be cast aside in the market as well. The marketing community should concentrate more on this thriving aggregate, for they have disposable income--some for the…

  7. Hotel Brand Websites, OTA’s, Meta Search and Wholesalers: A Distribution Dilemma Within The Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Cohen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As technology and powerful meta search channels increase, wholesale hotel room rates are now being sold publicly online. Now, hotels have the challenge of keeping strong relationships with wholesalers while keeping sales competitive on their brand website and online travel agencies.

  8. Hotel Brand Websites, OTA’s, Meta Search and Wholesalers: A Distribution Dilemma Within The Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Cohen

    2017-01-01

    As technology and powerful meta search channels increase, wholesale hotel room rates are now being sold publicly online. Now, hotels have the challenge of keeping strong relationships with wholesalers while keeping sales competitive on their brand website and online travel agencies.

  9. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  10. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...

  11. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R. (LBL); Fang, J.; Porter, K.; Houston, A. (NREL)

    1999-02-26

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted.

  12. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  13. A review of international green power markets: recent experience, trends, and market drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Lori; Wüstenhagen, Rolf; Aabakken, Jorn

    2002-01-01

    Green power marketing-the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources-has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. Almost two million customers worldwide buy green power today. This paper reviews green power marketing activity in Australia, Canada, Japan, the US, and in a number of countries in Europe to gain an understanding of consumer demand for electricity generated from renewable sources. It also examines key factors that i...

  14. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), Linden VFT, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets, LLC...

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power on Market Quantities and Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Zugno, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In view of the increasing penetration of wind power in a number of power systems and markets worldwide, we discuss some of the impacts that wind energy may have on market quantities and cross-border power flows. These impacts are uncovered through statistical analyses of actual market and flow data...... in Europe. Due to the dimensionality and nonlinearity of these effects, the necessary concepts of dimension reduction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), as well as nonlinear regression are described. Example application results are given for European cross-border flows, as well as for the impact...... of load and wind power forecasts on Danish and German electricity markets....

  16. Restructured electric power systems analysis of electricity markets with equilibrium models

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market deregulation is driving the power energy production from a monopolistic structure into a competitive market environment. The development of electricity markets has necessitated the need to analyze market behavior and power. Restructured Electric Power Systems reviews the latest developments in electricity market equilibrium models and discusses the application of such models in the practical analysis and assessment of electricity markets.

  17. Your School's Web Site-A Powerful Tool for Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Michael W.; Collier, Karen J.; Hoya, Charlotte, G.

    2001-01-01

    A successful marketing plan requires a conceptual framework, the ability to target an audience effectively, and the strategy for positioning the school organization appropriately. A website can be a powerful marketing tool if it focuses on what users want and provides it in an organized, accessible fashion. (MLH)

  18. PRICE DISCRIMINATION AND MARKET POWER: A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Smirnova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contemporary theoretical and empirical research in the field of impact assessment of market power and conclusions about the possibilities of the company to implement price discrimination in different market structures. The results of the analysis allow to evaluate current approaches to antitrust regulation of price discrimination.

  19. Status and economics of fish markets in Rajshahi City Corporation of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Istiaque Hossain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the existing fish distribution and marketing systems, assess marketing costs and margins and identify constraints of fish marketing systems. Methods: Data were collected from three different markets by fishermen, commission agents, wholesalers, retailers, day laborers etc. through questionnaire interviews and participatory approach during June to September, 2013. Results: Four types of marketing channel were identified from farmers to consumers in all the three fish markets through a number of intermediaries. The daily supply of total fish in Binodpur Market, Talaimari Market and Shaheb Market was estimated 0.8-1 ton, 0.2-0.3 ton and 8-8.1 ton, respectively. Virtually, most of the fish (75% is imported from outside; the local supply amount is only 25%. The total marketing cost of wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 8.58 and $ 6.47 per day, respectively. The average marketing margin of the wholesalers and retailers of the three markets were $ 0.18 and $ 0.25 per kg respectively. Income of fisherman, wholesaler, retailer and day laborer was estimated at $ 350, $ 9.75, $ 6.48, and $ 1.69, respectively. Conclusions: Traders have broadly improved their food consumption, standards of living, purchasing power, choice and ability as an economic sector.

  20. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    1999-08-18

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term ''green power'' generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all US consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the end of 1999, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As of July 1999, consumers can choose to purchase competitively marketed green power in California, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this Information Brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in both competitive and regulated market settings, as well as other pertinent data and information, are included.

  1. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  2. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...

  3. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming...... based rather than funded by subsidies. Consequently the Smart Grid provides a business opportunity for so-called Virtual Power Plants. A Virtual Power Plant is an independent commercial operator, which provides Smart Grid capabilities to flexible consumers. This means that the Virtual Power Plant...... is the technical and commercial entity in charge of mobilization and control of flexible consumers. This Thesis addresses some of the challenges relating to the Smart Grid and Virtual Power Plant visions with special attention to flexibility, value creation and portfolio coordination. The term flexibility...

  4. 75 FR 17913 - Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... power marketing agency within the DOE that markets and delivers Federal wholesale electric power... cultural ] resources, traditional cultural properties, or other resources important to the tribes. These... interactions, and applicable natural and cultural resources laws and regulations. The public is encouraged to...

  5. Market aspects of smart power grids development

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Makowski

    2012-01-01

    Smart Grids herald a revolution in the power sector. The centralized and passive power grid model known for over a century is before our very eyes assuming a completely brand new shape: of an active and dynamic network with an increasingly relevant role of consumers – prosumers, who are offered brand new products and services. Such an active development is possible due to a number of factors, such as: 1. Synergy of ICT with power engineering – these disciplines are becoming an indispensabl...

  6. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC... that on June 15, 2011, Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC...

  7. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC..., 2011, Astoria Generating Company, NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine...

  8. Agora Energiewende (2016). The power market pentagon. A pragmatic power market design for Europe's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Matthias; Redl, Christian; Steigenberger, Markus; Graichen, Patrick

    2016-04-15

    As consequence of Europe's climate and energy agenda, the European Union will generate some 50 percent of its electricity from renewables by 2030. By 2050, the EU's power system will have to be completely carbon-free. Solar photovoltaics and wind power - driven by significant cost reductions - will almost certainly contribute the biggest share of the zero-carbon technologies. Given the specific characteristics of wind power and photovoltaics (intermittent generation, high capital costs, very low variable costs), they will fundamentally change both market operations and the market design framework. Decarbonisation rests on continuous investments in these technologies. Usually it is expected that the energy market will deliver these investments, in combination with the emissions trading system. But is this view, based on simple textbook economics, enough to enable the required investments under real world conditions? In this paper, we argue that this rather theoretical view to power market design is not the way forward. Instead, a more pragmatic approach is needed, that takes into account the complex practical, political, and economic challenges of the transition towards a carbon-free power system. Thus, we propose to think of the future European market design as a Power Market Pentagon.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ORGANIZATION FORMS OF WHOLESALE TRADE ENTERPRISES IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Vashchekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new conditions of wholesale business in Russia, formed by the economicreforms, led the formation and development of qualitatively different tradingactivity forms, new organization types,which involves reconsideration of traditional wholesale enterprises modelingconcepts. In the near future market willbe dominated with wholesale and retail associations. Competing with each other, they will gradually grow by the additionof small commercial enterprises. Thereis also the emergence of not previouslyencountered universal dual-use forms of trade organization resulting from thepenetration of network technologies in management.

  10. Market Power and Risk of Price Uncertainty (A Case Study of Date Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad nabi shahiki tash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Date is as one of the important items of the agricultural production in Iran as Iran's share of global production was 14.1% in 2012 and rank of production increased to second in the world too. In recent years, price uncertainty in date market has increased due to changes in government policies on date prices pattern, from a guaranteed buying pattern to negotiated price pattern. According to the importance of this industry in the country and issues that are always in marketing and market making of agricultural products in developing countries, This paper seeks to measure marketing margins in the industry due to the product's market power and price volatility, and to achieve this goal, the main idea of this paper based on the study Brorsen et al (11. This paper provides a conceptual and empirical framework for analyzing marketing margins in a date market facing output price uncertainty in Iran. Present study evaluated marketing margins into component reflecting the marginal cost of the processing industry, oligopoly price distortions, and an output risk component. The empirical finding is that, while marketing margin is about 33%, the coefficient for oligopoly is more than the coefficient for oligopsony. In the other words, there is an asymmetric monopoly power among buyers and sellers, Also the estimated coefficient for price risk based on exponential GARCH approach indicates, this factor would affect the marketing margin about 7 percent, if all other factors remain constant.

  11. Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Systems Using Power Market Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Cardenal, S. J.; Mo, B.; Riegels, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroeconomic models have been used to determine policies for efficient allocation of scarce water resources. Hydropower benefits are typically represented through exogenous electricity prices, but these do not consider the effect that the power market can have on the hydropower release policy...... and vice versa. To improve the representation of hydropower benefits in hydroeconomic models, an application of stochastic dynamic programming, known as the water value method, was used to maximize irrigation benefits while minimizing the costs of power generation within a power market. The method yields...

  12. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market...

  13. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Myotis Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  14. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Raven Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  15. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate...

  16. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  17. Oil market power and United States national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  18. Evaluating transfer capability of economic-driven power markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    in the present economic-driven electricity markets. A mathematical model of a multi-objective optimization (MOOP) technique has been adopted and presented here for transfer capability studies; which can be helpful for power system planning and operation procedures. The newly-developed algorithm is being tested......The on-going restructuring of electric power utilities poses great challenges for power system engineers to plan and operate power systems as economical and reliable as possible. This paper discusses an important issue, which has been usually neglected, when quantifying active power transfer levels...

  19. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC... (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill...

  20. Processes of concentration of wholesale trade in poland in the light of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Strojny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing role of trade as the integrator of distribution channels has been observed in Poland recently. Retail companies have gained a competitive advantage in relationships with both  suppliers and recipients. The natural questions are, how the situation of the wholesale trade looks at present in such a situation and what prospects it has for the future. The main aim of this paper is to identify and describe the influence of new conditions on the development of the wholesale trade as part of the supply chain. The hypothesis was assumed that this development is determined by processes related to the concentration of trade companies, which were also visiblerecently in Poland. Methods: The main concentration processes in Polish trade were identified based on a literature review and previous research. Then, based on the results of a survey and data obtained from the Central Statistical Office, the influence of these trends on the development of wholesale trade was evaluated. The further directions of changes in Polish wholesale trade were also indicated. Empirical research was conducted by the use of a direct interview with a random sample of 108 wholesale companies, both independent  and as part of chains. The research focused on wholesalers' opinions of market trends and integration processes in Polish wholesale trade and cover the  years 2014-15. Results: The results show the key market processes with regard to trade concentration. The biggest threats to the development of the wholesale trade are the processes of the horizontal concentration in retail. The concentration of retail companies leads to a shortening of the distribution channels and direct purchases from producers omitting the wholesale stage. Despite these threats, wholesalers describe their situation as good, and their opinion can be confirmed in data provided by the Central Statistical Office. Conclusions: The market processes identified must be taken into

  1. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  2. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  3. A multi-regional framework for China's electric power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijun

    2000-10-01

    China faces the challenging task of substantially increasing its generation of electricity within economic, energy, political, and environmental constraints. Some of the most immediate issues are the decentralization of the utility decision making process, the creation of electricity markets over large geographic areas, the establishment of pricing mechanisms, and the maintenance of reasonable levels of air quality. This research develops a multi-regional optimization model to analyze these issues in the North China Power System. The model minimizes the total delivery cost of electric power for a multi-regional grid subject to the constraints of power flow, generation and transmission capacities and emission limits. Benders' decomposition is used to decompose the model into a two-level structure an inter-regional Power exchange module and an intra-regional power dispatch and transmission module The intra-regional market contains the least cost power dispatch based on bids from generators bidding and on users, insurance of their power consumption, all within local emission limits. The inter-regional market balances power exchange among regions. The results indicate that a decentralized, competitive electricity market has significant economic and environmental benefits to the entire region. Regional competition brings more cheap electric power from remote regions to urban demand centers. The expansion of power exchange reduces sulfur emissions without significantly increasing cost. The results demonstrate that without congestion, the nodal and transmission prices can be effectively separated, an important criterion for decentralization and competition. Transmission prices are related only to the wire and topological characteristics of the network. The effects of electricity loop flow on transmission prices are reflected through a multiplier that is specific to each loop. A priori calculation of the congestion and loop multipliers under congestion is possible with

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  5. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  7. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  8. Optimal contracts for wind power producers in electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is focused on optimal contracts for an independent wind power producer in conventional electricity markets. Starting with a simple model of the uncertainty in the production of power from a wind turbine farm and a model for the electric energy market, we derive analytical expressions for optimal contract size and corresponding expected optimal profit. We also address problems involving overproduction penalties, cost of reserves, and utility of additional sensor information. We obtain analytical expressions for marginal profits from investing in local generation and energy storage. ©2010 IEEE.

  9. Marketing implications of the shift in power of the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, J M; Rayburn, L G

    1995-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, hospitals are installing financial controls. Hospital marketers are also engaging in external promotional and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with increasing uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in health care professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants and physicians, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Marketing should also develop an internal marketing program to reach these power influencers. Scarce resource coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Previously, the physician was the major source of hospital power. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. Marketers should acknowledge that this places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  10. Economic market design and planning for electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mili, Lamine

    2010-01-01

    Discover cutting-edge developments in electric power systems. Stemming from cutting-edge research and education activities in the field of electric power systems, this book brings together the knowledge of a panel of experts in economics, the social sciences, and electric power systems. In ten concise and comprehensible chapters, the book provides unprecedented coverage of the operation, control, planning, and design of electric power systems. It also discusses:. A framework for interdisciplinary research and education;. Modeling electricity markets;. Alternative economic criteria and proactiv.

  11. Operation of Modern Distribution Power Systems in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao

    , DG units, loads and electricity price are studied. Further, the effect of energy storage systems will be considered, and an optimal operation strategy for energy storage devices in a large scale wind power system in the electricity market is proposed. The western Danish power system, which has large...... maximum profit of the BESS is proposed. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studied. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are then proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV owners. Furthermore......In this dissertation, the characteristics of a distribution system under a dynamic electricity-pricing, load management system and under a large number of power electronic interfaced distributed generation units are investigated. The operation characteristics of a power system with wind turbines...

  12. Market Power and Collusion on Interconnection Phone Market in Tunisia: What Lessons from International Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Sami DEBBICHI; Walid HICHRI

    2014-01-01

    We try in this paper to characterize the state of mobile phone market in Tunisia. Our study is based on a survey of foreign experience (Europe) in detecting collusive behavior and a comparison of the critical threshold of collusion between operators in developing countries like Tunisia. The market power is estimated based on the work of Parker Roller (1997) and the assumption of "Balanced Calling Pattern". We use then the model of Friedman (1971) to compare the critical threshold of collusion...

  13. A New DC Power Flow Model for Q Flow Analysis for use in Reactive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sarmila Har Beagam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DC Power Flow method is widely used for active power flow analysis in deregulated power system. DC Power Flow model is a constant matrix, non-iterative model which is built into DC Optimal Power Flow model for market clearing and settlement of real power market. As of now, there are few papers available in DC Power Flow model for reactive power flow analysis .Hence, this paper introduces a pure Q market and proposes a new DC Q flow model (DCQF which can be built into a DC Optimal Q flow model for market clearing and settlement of pure Q market. In addition to the DCQF method, to obtain accurate result satisfying a specified mismatch tolerance, an Iterative QF method is also proposed whose results match exactly with the solution obtained using FDPF method. The DCQF method and Iterative QF method are tested on Ward and Hale 6-Bus System, IEEE-30 Bus System and Indian Utility 119-Bus System. The bus voltage magnitude computed using the proposed DCQF method is compared with the accurate solution obtained using Iterative QF method (proposed/Fast Decoupled Power Flow method for a mismatch tolerance of 0.1 MVAr. The maximum error value obtained is acceptable even for security analysis. The proposed DCQF and Iterative QF method are faster when compared to FDPF method.

  14. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Conformed Criteria...

  15. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Conformed...

  16. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of its...

  17. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  18. After the crisis: which future for the competitive power market of Ontario?; Apres la crise: quel avenir pour le marche concurrentiel d'electricite de l'Ontario?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, P

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the power distribution system of Ontario (Canada) and the crisis that followed the opening of the electricity market on May 1, 2002 in Ontario. The author explains the process of reforms of the power market, the re-structuration of Ontario Hydro company and the occurrence of new energy companies (73 new retailers), the launching of a wholesale market, the reasons of the crisis (25% average rise of electricity prices) and the lessons to be learned from. In front of this situation, a freezing of electricity prices to their level prior to May 2002 and a reimbursement of the difference paid by consumers since May 2002 have been decided by the government up to 2006. (J.S.)

  19. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to ...

  20. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods ...

  1. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  2. Digital Portfolios: Powerful Marketing Tool for Communications Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A digital portfolio is a powerful marketing tool for young people searching for employment in the communication or interactive media fields. With a digital portfolio, students can demonstrate their skills at working with software tools, demonstrate appropriate use of materials, explain technical procedures, show an understanding of processes and…

  3. Opening the black box: Internal capital markets and managerial power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, M.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the internal capital markets of a multinational conglomerate, using a unique panel data set of planned and actual allocations to business units and a survey of unit CEOs. Following cash windfalls, more powerful managers obtain larger allocations and increase investment substantially more

  4. The Dark Side of Bank Wholesale Funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.; Ratnovksi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial banks increasingly use short-term wholesale funds to supplement traditional retail deposits. Existing literature mainly points to the "bright side" of wholesale funding: sophisticated financiers can monitor banks, disciplining bad ones but refinancing solvent ones. This paper models a

  5. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  6. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Trading Relationship Performance and Market Power in Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon

    The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation, mode......, policy maker and firm managers (e.g. exporters, processors) could reduce post-harvest losses through contract farming but only if they provide the necessary services and timely market access for farmers.......The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation...... and livelihood. The overall objective of this PhD study was to investigate the intermediaries’ power over farmers and its effects on trading relationship performance between them. Two farms survey were conducted, the first one was carried out in the Adana region in Turkey and had an explorative focus aiming...

  8. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...... state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate...

  9. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  12. Interaction between product market and labour market power: Evidence from France, Belgium and Chili

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavente, J.M.; Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.

    2009-01-01

    This article jointly estimates price-cost mark-ups and union bargaining power of manufacturing firms in France, Belgium and Chile. Our GMM results provide strong evidence of price-cost mark-ups being underestimated when labour market imperfections are ignored, corresponding to the omission of the

  13. Rebalancing the Market Power. Manufacturer and Retailer Brands in the German Food Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielig Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The German food retail market is considered to be one of the most competitive markets worldwide. A narrow oligopoly of domestic retail chains dominates competition at the national and regional levels, driven mostly by price competition and extensive market coverage. As a result, market entrance for potential newcomers is highly restricted, even for such global players like Wal-Mart, which retreated in 2006 after nine years of substantial financial losses in Germany. There have been discernable attempts by the domestic incumbents to rebalance the traditional “task division”, affecting the range of customers choices as well as retail brands. However, within ten years the share of large retailers brands earnings in the total food retail market increased from 21.8 percent to 38.8 percent in 2012, as “house brands” optimized their assortment, increased their independence from main suppliers and squeezed out competitors. The empirical analysis presented below describes the role played by different retail brands in German food retail market as measured by their market power, and considers its political implications.

  14. 76 FR 23583 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), will apply the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power Marketing Initiative (PMI), as modified in this notice, to...

  15. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1995-12-01

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attention on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.

  16. About the development strategies of power plant in energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinea, Adelaida Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims at identifying and assessing the revenues and costs incurred by various modernization and modernization-development strategies for a power plant in order to optimize the electric and thermal energy are produced and to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the main performance indicators. The Romanian energy system and the energy market have gone a long transition way, from the vertically integrated model, the responsibility for the delivery of the electricity comes exclusively to a state monopoly, to a decentralized system, characterized by the decentralization of production and transport, respectively distribution activities. Romania chose the liberal market model where the relations between the actors in the market - producers and suppliers free to make sales and purchase transactions for electrical energy - are mostly governed by contracts, which may be either bilaterally negotiated or are already regulated. Therefore, the importance of understanding the development trend of the Romanian energy market lies in its economic effects upon the solutions which could be adopted for the evolution of the cogeneration power plant in question.

  17. An Integrated Design approach to Power Systems: from Power Flows to Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhonmesh

    Power system is at the brink of change. Engineering needs, economic forces and environmental factors are the main drivers of this change. The vision is to build a smart electrical grid and a smarter market mechanism around it to fulfill mandates on clean energy. Looking at engineering and economic issues in isolation is no longer an option today; it needs an integrated design approach. In this thesis, I shall revisit some of the classical questions on the engineering operation of power systems that deals with the nonconvexity of power flow equations. Then I shall explore some issues of the interaction of these power flow equations on the electricity markets to address the fundamental issue of market power in a deregulated market environment. Finally, motivated by the emergence of new storage technologies, I present an interesting result on the investment decision problem of placing storage over a power network. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that modern optimization and game theory can provide unique insights into this complex system. Some of the ideas carry over to applications beyond power systems.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  20. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  1. System and market integration of wind power in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has more than 10 years’ of experience with a wind share of approximately 20 per cent. During these 10 years, electricity markets have been subject to developments with a key focus on integrating wind power as well as trading electricity with neighbouring countries. This article introduces...... been financed solely by the electricity consumers, while maintaining production prices below the EU average. The net influence from wind power has been as low as 1e3 per cent of the consumer price. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Provision of Renewable Energy using Green Certificates: Market Power and Limit Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-07-01

    We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results from the analysis is that the certificate system faced with market power basically may collapse into a system of per unit subsidies (author)

  3. 75 FR 53688 - Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...-000] Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Constellation Mystic Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Marketing LLC Covanta Power, LLC; Notice of Filing February 2, 2010. Take notice that, on February 1, 2010, Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta Power...

  5. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  6. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V. [and others

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  7. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies within...

  8. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  9. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The...

  10. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has...

  11. Competition and Market Power in the Romanian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Căpraru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper analyses the competition degree among Romanian banks during 2005- 2015. We determine the bank-level competition for loans and deposits using efficiency-adjusted Lerner index, while Boone indicator shows how competitive these two markets are. Marginal costs (MC are estimated with a Fourier flexible form cost function with two bank products, that generate the largest portion of revenues, (i.e. loans and deposits and three input prices (i.e. labour, funds and physical capital. We use DFA for efficiency-improved Lerner index and Generalized Method of Moments with one-, two- or three-year lagged values of marginal costs as instrumental variables for Boone indicator. The results are compared to the values of HHI and C5, provided by European Central Bank. Overall, bank competition in Romania improves as a direct result of decreasing market power and concentration. On the loan market, we can notice that starting with 2014 banks have changed their behaviour by focusing more on optimizing their portfolios through a complex process of balance sheet cleaning, instead of acquiring additional market share and be more competitive.

  12. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  13. The Power of Weather: Some Empirical Evidence on Predicting Day-ahead Power Prices through Day-ahead Weather Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); C. Zhou (Chen); C. Huurman

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature the effects of weather on electricity sales are well-documented. However, studies that have investigated the impact of weather on electricity prices are still scarce (e.g. Knittel and Roberts, 2005), partly because the wholesale power markets have only recently been

  14. Principal Component Analysis - A Powerful Tool in Computing Marketing Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research regarding a powerful multivariate data analysis method which can be used by the researchers in order to obtain valuable information for decision makers that need to solve the marketing problem a company face with. The literature stresses the need to avoid the multicollinearity phenomenon in multivariate analysis and the features of Principal Component Analysis (PCA in reducing the number of variables that could be correlated with each other to a small number of principal components that are uncorrelated. In this respect, the paper presents step-by-step the process of applying the PCA in marketing research when we use a large number of variables that naturally are collinear.

  15. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  16. Green power and the liberalisation of the UK electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Technology Policy Group

    1999-01-01

    The UK electricity market is being opened up to full competition in stages, starting in September 1998. This radical change means that consumers can contract with suppliers of their choice, rather than just with their local Regional Electricity Companies. It also makes it possible for purveyors of renewable energy to offer green power from renewable energy sources direct to consumers, although they are likely, at least initially, to have to be charged a premium price. While some hope that this new green power market will expand so that renewable energy technology can begin to make a significant contribution to the UK's electricity supplies, there are several problems with this new scheme, not least the fact that it relies on the voluntary support of altruistic consumers. Can they be relied on to provide sufficient surplus to fund the expansion of renewables? Shouldn't this be the responsibility of the government? Or the energy companies? Some renewable energy proponents even fear that, since liberalisation may drive down the price of conventional electricity, renewables will be left looking expensive, and, far from expanding, could be wiped out entirely. This paper explores the potential and limits of the green market approach to renewable energy development, and looks at some of the alternative, or complementary, approaches that might be used to help stimulate the development and use of renewable energy technologies. In this paper the term liberalisation is used to mean giving consumers the opportunity to buy electricity from whom they please by removing restraints on competition. In the US the term deregulation is sometimes used. However, liberalisation is not necessarily synonymous with abandoning regulation. Nevertheless, there is clearly a debate over how much freedom should be given to the market, and how much regulation should be relaxed. (author)

  17. The Structural Power of Enterprises: Beyond the Notion of Market Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sliwinska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the conceptualisation of the notion of enterprises’ structural power. It allows to draw the attention to the process of diversification of enterprises and building of complex and multidimensional ownership structures as possible sources of the increase in the companies’ power and the possibility of its use and abuse in order to limit the competition and perform better on the market. The concept of structural power is a part of the scientific discussion on the sources and possibilities of using enterprises’ market power, and fits into the current research on one of the fundamental problems of economic theory: how to protect competition internationally and, therefore, determine the limit when the natural and desirable behaviour of enterprises aimed at increasing their international competitiveness begins to distort competition and adversely affect economic development. The analysis shows that the potential influence on other market participants may arise not only from the firm’s position on the relevant market and other factors related to its specificity, but also from the various types of linkages between firms.

  18. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail ... some European countries during the crisis raising tax rates and tax burdens, the trend in which overall revenue ..... Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence of Listed Sugar Companies of Pakistan, Global Journal of ...

  19. A market survey of geothermal wellhead power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The market potential for a portable geothermal wellhead power conversion device is assessed. Major study objectives included identifying the most promising applications for such a system, the potential impediments confronting their industrialization, and the various government actions needed to overcome these impediments. The heart of the study was a series of structured interviews with key decision-making individual in the various disciplines of the geothermal community. In addition, some technical and economic analyses of a candidate system were performed to support the feasibility of the basic concept.

  20. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  1. Appendix M: GPRA05 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The model projects green power-capacity additions through both green power marketing programs in deregulated markets, and utility green pricing programs in regulated markets.

  2. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  3. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin H; Akazawa, Manabu; Dararath, Eav; Kiet, Heng B; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Yoshida, Naoko; Kimura, Kazuko

    2011-11-11

    Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were.During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates.Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs/containers and who consider their

  4. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  5. Analysis of Strategic Wind Power Participation in Energy Market using MASCEM simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    technology, suggests that wind power plants may participate in both energy and ancillary services markets with strategic behavior to improve their benefits. Thus, wind power generation with strategic behavior may have impact on market equilibrium and pricing. This paper evaluates the impact of a proportional...... offering strategy for wind power plants to participate in both energy and ancillary services markets. MASCEM (Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets) is used to simulate and validate the impact of wind power plants in market equilibrium. A case study based on real and recent data...

  6. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  7. 76 FR 71015 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Firm Electric Service (FES) contracts associated with the current Marketing Plan expire. The 2021 PMI extends the current Marketing Plan, with amendments to key marketing plan principles. Western's proposed... proposal. Key Marketing Plan principles discussed with firm power customers included: Contract Term...

  8. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  9. WHOLESALER TO RETAILER GOODS FORWARDING CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg NIKIFOROV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the development of logistics controlling through the prism of collaboration between wholesale companies and retail chains have been considered. The nature and structure of cargo transportation by the wholesale company to the retail chain have been analysed. The key transportation processes have been identified and the reliance on transportation drivers-forwarders for their effectiveness has been determined. The study has resulted in the program-mathematical approach to the transportation controlling automation used by the wholesale company to deliver goods to the retail chain as well as the mathematical model of the system information flow. The practical recommendations for the mathematical software implementation using the AWS Forwarder software product as an example have been illustrated.

  10. Power plant investment cycles in liberalised markets. A model of the German electricity generation market; Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen in liberalisierten Maerkten. Ein Modell des deutschen Stromerzeugungsmarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidosch, Lars

    2008-07-01

    In the course of the next ten to fifteen years almost half of Germany's installed power plant capacity will need to be replaced by the construction of new facilities. The power plant investments required for this will be made in an environment marked by liberalisation and competition. This is the context of the present article, which analyses the causes behind the cyclical behaviour of power plant investment and identifies factors that influence it. Cycles in this connection are defined as recurring oscillations in power plant capacity and electricity prices. The authors also propose measures that could dampen the cyclical course of power plant investment over time. One of the major outcomes of the present model calculations is that the power production market, similarly to other capital-intensive branches of industry, is expected to experience strong price fluctuations in the future as well. As it has been framed up to now, the German electricity wholesale market will not be able to prevent the occurrence investment cycles in power plant construction. One way to counteract investment cycles would be to greatly expand the time horizon of the liquid spot market through greater activity on the part of trading firms. [German] In den naechsten 10 bis 15 Jahren sind in Deutschland und Europa sowie weltweit knapp die Haelfte der installierten Kraftwerksleistung zu ersetzen bzw. neu zu errichten. Die hierfuer erforderlichen Kraftwerksinvestitionen finden heute unter den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen der Liberalisierung und des Wettbewerbs statt. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Ursachen von Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen analysiert und deren Einflussfaktoren aufgezeigt. Zyklen werden als wiederkehrende Schwankungen der Kraftwerkskapazitaeten und Strompreise definiert. Zusaetzlich werden Massnahmen vorgeschlagen, die eine Zyklenbildung bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen abschwaechen koennen. Zunaechst erfolgt eine Untersuchung unter welchen Bedingungen

  11. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  12. 76 FR 47180 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE) published the proposed 2021 Power Marketing Initiative... Region. The meetings provided all firm power customers the opportunity to review current marketing plan...

  13. 76 FR 56428 - Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 6, 2011, pursuant to sections 210, 211, and 212 of the Federal Power..., Southern Cross Transmission, LLC (SCT) and Pattern Power Marketing LLC (PPM) jointly filed an application...

  14. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    In this paper, we compare the investment timing and the optimal level of investment for a strategic firm and a social planner that have a one-time opportunity to invest in different types of electricity generators. Different technology choices entail different revenue streams and hence a different...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...

  15. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri

    2012-07-01

    We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

  16. Hydraulic plant generation forecasting in Colombian power market using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Julian [Computer Science Department, Carrera 80 No. 65-223 Bloque M8A, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper an ANFIS model (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) is proposed to forecast the monthly ideal generation of an agent with a hydraulic plant within the Colombian power market. The proposed model considers several factors as the plant's reservoir level, the expected hydraulic contributions of the rivers which feed it, and the expected weather conditions represented by the SST anomaly forecast in Nino 3.4 zone. The fitness of such model is measured with real data of a particular agent from period 2002-2007 and it is compared against a multiple linear regression model. The obtained results show a considerable decrease of the mean percentage error, which is an evidence of its validity and possible application to other agents. (author)

  17. Empirical evaluation of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Capitán Herráiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased, though such a premium is not significant (only around 2% above the average of Settlement Prices. In the period considered (August 2006 to September 2008, monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium correlations (negative with variance of spot prices during delivery period and positive with skewness of spot prices during delivery period. Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development and with further integration of European Regional Power Markets.

  18. The Risk Assessment Study for Electric Power Marketing Competitiveness Based on Cloud Model and TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Wang, Yi; Lin, Shuaishuai

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of the energy internet and the deepening of the electric power reform, the traditional marketing mode of electric power does not apply to most of electric power enterprises, so must seek a breakthrough, however, in the face of increasingly complex marketing information, how to make a quick, reasonable transformation, makes the electric power marketing competitiveness assessment more accurate and objective becomes a big problem. In this paper, cloud model and TOPSIS method is proposed. Firstly, build the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation index system. Then utilize the cloud model to transform the qualitative evaluation of the marketing data into quantitative values and use the entropy weight method to weaken the subjective factors of evaluation index weight. Finally, by TOPSIS method the closeness degrees of alternatives are obtained. This method provides a novel solution for the electric power marketing competitiveness evaluation. Through the case analysis the effectiveness and feasibility of this model are verified.

  19. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include a general system map and maps by geographic markets. The information required by this statement... information: (1) Statement A—geographic market. This statement must describe the geographic markets for... statement must explain why the applicant's method for selecting the geographic markets is appropriate. (2...

  20. Media & Marketing--A Powerful New Alliance for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Robert S.

    This book presents a step-by-step account of how to work with print and electronic media to achieve higher education marketing results. Chapters examine how to be the media/marketing person on campus, develop a media and marketing plan, gain access to the press and market the institution through news and the media, and getting higher education…

  1. 75 FR 63805 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Census Bureau will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses... wholesale distributors, the Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end... manufacturers' sales branches and offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce...

  2. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the... wholesale, it clearly cannot qualify as a retail and service establishment. It must be remembered, however... purposes of the statutory definition of the term “retail or service establishment”. Similarly, a showing...

  3. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... are such that the separated (integrated) duopoly with wholesale trade performs best (worst) in terms of welfare.Keywords: Electricity, Investments, Generating Capacities, Vertical Integration, Monopoly and Competition.JEL-Classification: D42, D43, D44, L11, L12, L13...

  4. 47 CFR 51.607 - Wholesale pricing standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wholesale pricing standard. 51.607 Section 51.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.607 Wholesale pricing standard. The wholesale rate that an incumbent LEC may charge...

  5. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...

  6. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  7. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  8. Impact of Energy Transition in Germany on the Nordic Power Market – A Blessing or Curse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Connolly, David

    2015-01-01

    The European energy policy emphasizes the establishment of EU-wide internal energy markets as a reliable solution in increasing the security of supply, optimal use of internal energy resources, and improved economic competitiveness. With respect to the power sector, the EU’s strategy is to further...... integrate and harmonize regional markets towards a pan-European power market with a single pricing algorithm. The impacts of such power market couplings on the interconnected countries are complex, which concerns market participants in different levels, from consumers and producers to grid operators......, for example. The Nordic power market together with three other cross-border power exchanges launched the North-Western Europe (NWE) dayahead price coupling project in 2014, which further bundles electricity prices in the Nordics with continental Europe, including Germany. The recent dramatic growth...

  9. Environmental regulation of a power market investment in an international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-01

    This document examines the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects, energy conservation, a natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbine and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and in general the environmental costs of these emissions are not optimally reflected in market prices. A theory of second best optimal regulation is developed for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate considerably from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, it is found optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  11. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  12. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284... costs between the applicant's cost-based services and its market-based services. (b) A storage service... Commission within 10 days of acquiring knowledge of significant changes occurring in its market power status...

  13. Trust in marketing's use of information from sales : the moderating role of power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszey, Tamara; Biemans, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to improve marketing managers' use of information from sales. The authors propose and empirically test the link between cross-functional trust and marketing's use of information from sales, and whether this effect is contingent on marketing's power within the firm.

  14. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  15. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal......, and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...

  16. Mathematical models and methods for analysis of distributed power generation on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    in advance as opposed to purchasing the needed volumes in the intra-day balancing market. The thesis itself provides an introduction to the Nordic power system and market with emphasis on the Danish situation. After presenting a few classic topics in power system operation, the situation post...

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    2000-08-04

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term green power generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all U.S. consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the year 2000, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in competitive and regulated market settings is included.

  19. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  20. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  1. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by...... applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate...... that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system...

  2. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  3. Long-term contract auctions and market power in regulated power industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soledad Arellano, M. [School of Government, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Penalolen, Santiago (Chile); Serra, Pablo [Department of Economics, Universidad de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 257, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-04-15

    A number of countries with oligopolistic power industries have used marginal cost pricing to set the price of energy for small customers. This course of action, however, does not necessarily ensure an efficient outcome when competition is imperfect. The purpose of this paper is to study how the auction of long-term contracts could reduce market power. We do so in a two-firm, two-technology, linear-cost, static model where demand is summarized by a price inelastic load curve. In this context we show that the larger the proportion of total demand auctioned in advance, the lower are both the contract and the average spot price of energy. (author)

  4. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  5. An Empirical Analysis of a Dominant Firm’s Market Power in a Restructured Electricity Market, A Case Study of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-05

    market. Consequently, much of the literature uses a Cournot model, which will be described later, to analyze market power. In contrast, Colorado...states where one firm owns a dominant share of the generation, market power would seem to be a greater concern. The Cournot model, which was the market...quantity supplied to the market. This type of oligopolistic competition produces a Cournot equilibrium. In the Cournot model with two firms (i and

  6. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  7. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  8. Economics Of Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wholesalers earned positive net returns of N2,700.00 per 100kg of oil bean seeds from marketing operations while the retails earned positive net returns of N540.00 per 20kg oil bean seeds marketing operation. These earnings are very commensurate with wholesalers and retailers' marketing services. The determined ...

  9. Market power in tradable emission markets. A laboratory testbed for emission trading in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, Timothy N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States); Gangadharan, Lata [Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Duke, Charlotte [Economics Branch, Natural Resources and the Environment, Level 13, 8 Nicholson St, East Melbourne, Vic. 3002 (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    In theory, competitive emission permit markets minimize total abatement costs. Permit markets are often imperfectly competitive, however, and may be thin and dominated by large firms. The dominant firm(s) could exercise market power and increase other firms' costs of pollution control, while reducing their own emission control costs. This paper reports a testbed laboratory experiment to examine whether a dominant firm can exercise market power in a permit market organized using the double auction trading institution. Our parameters approximate the abatement costs of sources in a proposed tradable emissions market for the reduction of nitrogen in the Port Phillip Watershed in Victoria, Australia. We vary across treatments the initial allocation of permits to sources, so that in one treatment the seller of permits is a monopolist and in another treatment the market is duopolistic. We also vary the information that subjects have about the number and abatement costs of their competitors. We find that prices and seller profits are higher and efficiency is lower on average in the monopoly sessions compared with the duopoly sessions, but the differences are not substantial and are not statistically significant due to pronounced variation across sessions. Moreover, prices, profits and transaction volumes are usually much closer to the competitive equilibrium (CE) than the monopoly equilibrium.

  10. Strategy of investment in electricity sources--Market value of a power plant and the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, R.; Hnydiuk-Stefan, A.; Buryn, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of the investment strategy analysis in different electricity sources. New methodology and theory of calculating the market value of the power plant and value of the electricity market supplied by it are presented. The financial gain forms the most important criteria in the assessment of an investment by an investor. An investment strategy has to involve a careful analysis of each considered project in order that the right decision and selection will be made while various components of the projects will be considered. The latter primarily includes the aspects of risk and uncertainty. Profitability of an investment in the electricity sources (as well as others) is offered by the measures applicable for the assessment of the economic effectiveness of an investment based on calculations e.g. power plant market value and the value of the electricity that is supplied by a power plant. The values of such measures decide on an investment strategy in the energy sources. This paper contains analysis of exemplary calculations results of power plant market value and the electricity market value supplied by it.

  11. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-16

    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  12. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  13. INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: A MARKET INFORMATION PROVIDER OR A SEED OF MARKET POWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika G. GERASYMENKO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of informative advertising in creation and augment of market power as well as the ability of an advertiser to maximize the value of its economic rent. Informative advertising is considered to be a merit good unlike a persuasive one that is mostly associated with a bad. But analysis of the advertisement breakdown in Ukraine shows that the share of price advertisements, which are the most beneficial for the public, is negligible today. Further still those advertisements are mostly situated in the sectors, where price competition is the least strong. Another kind of informative advertising – differentiating advertising – turns from an instrument of informing consumers into the vehicle of manipulation of consumer choice. Using the blind tests the author has compared the quality and the prices of the range of advertised goods and has found out a low level of correlation between the variables. That means that informative advertising serves a function of informing consumers inefficiently. At the same time phantom differentiation and misleading advertising proliferation as well as informative advertising concentration on experience and credible goods instead search ones testify to effective serving a function of maximizing advertiser welfare.

  14. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...) beginning with the Federal fiscal year 2025. Western's Firm Electric Service (FES) contracts associated with..., with amendments to key marketing plan principles. Western's proposed 2025 PMI was published in the... for consideration in the 2025 PMI proposal. Key marketing plan principles discussed with FES customers...

  15. Nordic Market report 2010. Development in the Nordic Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources, with a very high share of hydropower. Hydropower accounts for virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, making the level of precipitation vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. Climatic conditions such as, significantly colder winters than any other European country also influence consumption in the Nordic region, as many households are electrically heated. Overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region in 2009 was marked by decreasing consumption in every market - from a decrease of 1,5% in Denmark to a decrease of 5,5% in Finland. The Nordic transmission grid connects almost the entire region into one synchronous power system enabling increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity, but congestion occurs. Congestions between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The key future challenge for transmission network operations both in the Nordic area, and as well on the European level will be to facilitate the functioning of the pan-European wholesale electricity markets. The Nordic wholesale power market is well functioning. The volume traded at Nord Pool in 2009 was about the same share of total consumption as that of 2008. Although trading at Nord Pool is voluntary, significantly more power is traded on the power exchange than bilaterally. During 2009 average spot prices at Nord Pool were lower than prices in 2008 due to both lower demand and generation costs for thermal power plants for most of 2009. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on integration has started. Throughout 2009 retail prices in the Nordic region were lower than in 2008

  16. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  18. Design of Competitive Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The design of electricity markets, from pioneers like England and Wales, the Nordic countries, parts of the US, to the more recent additions in Eastern Europe, Africa and South America, carry a lot of similarities. At the same time, there are also distinct differences in the choices made. Is it possible at this stage to conclude that one design works better than the others? In that case - what seems to be working and what remains to be solved? Other important topics to study within this field are optimal investments in interconnection capacities, integration of electricity markets, market power and demand response. The following presentations from the conference are available at the conference web site: Session 1: Market and Politics - from a bird's eye perspective: How liberalised have liberalised electricity markets become?; What is Driving Investments in the Power Sector; Electricity Market Design in the U.S.A.: More Market Or More Politics?; Politics of Energy Policy and Marketing of Energy Markets in the EU - Driving Forces Behind EU Energy Policy and Market Development; Session 2: Experiences from Different Models of Market Design: Using Forward Markets to Improve Electricity Market Design: examples from USA and Colombia; The Texas Deregulated Electricity Market; The Nordic Market Design - A Model For Others?; Designing Wholesale Electricity Markets: Integration with System Operations; Are the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements Future-Proof?; Session 3: Aspects of Liberalization and its Consequences for - Investments in Interconnection Capacity: Optimal investments in interconnectors and transmission capacity: Lessons from NorNed and the East-West interconnector; Transmission regulation of an integrated energy market; - Integration of Electricity Markets: The Integration of Electricity Markets in Ireland; What would be the ideal support scheme for wind power, in the context of large-scale wind integration and a regional electricity

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  1. Transmission-constrained oligopoly in the Japanese electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Makoto [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    We simulate the Japanese wholesale electricity market as a transmission-constrained Cournot market using a linear complementarity approach. First, we investigate the effects of upgrading the bottleneck transmission line between the eastern and western regions, focusing on the mitigation of transmission congestion. Although increasing the bottleneck capacity would lead to welfare gains, they might not be substantial particularly when transmission capacity costs are taken into account. Second, we examine the effects of splitting the largest electric power company, which is located in the eastern region, focusing on the mitigation of market power. Splitting the largest company into two companies would lead to a 25% reduction in the eastern price, and a 50% reduction in deadweight loss. The divestiture of the largest company would have a significant effect of mitigating market power in the Japanese electricity market. (author)

  2. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate...

  3. Observatory of the electric power and gas markets. 16 February 2005; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 16 fevrier 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    Since July 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). It completes the information already published by CRE: practical information for eligible customers: consumer guide, list of suppliers, communications regarding markets running, CRE annual activity report. (author)

  4. Evolving natural gas markets: LNG possibilities for a hydrothermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Tiago B.; Resende, Joao P.; Costa, Agnes M. [Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The latest advancements in the natural gas - NG industry have brought new opportunities for the resource's application, especially in the power industry. On the one hand, rapid growth in demand and falling costs of transportation over long distances, particularly as liquefied natural gas - LNG, should lead to a more integrated NG world market. On the other, the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth of independent power producers - IPPs using NG as a fuel for generating peak load power have increased the demand for more flexible NG supply contracts. These factors have allowed a shift in the timing of investment and contract negotiation in NG market. Traditionally, firms searched for trading partners and signed long-term contracts before investing in infrastructure. In the evolving LNG market, producers invest in infrastructure before they have buyers for all their expected outputs, while buyers undertake investment before having firm contracts for all their expected NG needs. These technological and market changes may foster greater participation of a fully flexible NG power plants in the Brazilian electricity market. Nowadays, thermal power long-term capacity contracts customized and negotiated in the local electricity pool (ACR) require power producer to award guarantees of NG firm supply, substantially increasing their cost. A combination of flexible LNG supply contracts and electricity pool contracts may present a solution to the lack of competitiveness of NG power plants in the Brazilian power industry. (author)

  5. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.

  6. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  7. Market entry, power, pharmacokinetics: what makes a successful drug innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Susanne; Helmstädter, Axel

    2017-09-20

    Depending on the timing of market entry, radical innovations can be distinguished from incremental innovations. Whereas a radical innovation typically is the first available derivative of a drug class, incremental innovations are launched later and show a certain benefit compared with the radical innovation. Here, we use historical market data relating to pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other drug-related properties to investigate which derivatives within certain drug classes have been most successful on the market. Based on our investigations, we suggest naming the most successful drugs 'overtaking innovation', because they often exceed the market share of all the other derivatives. Seven drug classes showed that the overtaking innovation is never a radical innovation, but rather an early incremental innovation, with advantages in manageability and/or tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal offering and allocation policies for wind power in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Jensen, Tue Vissing; Mazzi, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    Proliferation of wind power generation is increasingly making this power source an important asset in designs of energy and reserve markets. Intuitively, wind power producers will require the development of new offering strategies that maximize the expected profit in both energy and reserve marke...

  9. Interpretations of the Concept of Sustainability Amongst the UK’s Leading Food and Drink Wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory review of the interpretations of the concept of sustainability amongst the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers, as revealed by the sustainability agendas and achievements reported on their corporate websites. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper begins with short introductions to sustainability, corporate sustainability and sustainability reporting, and food and drinks wholesaling within the UK. The empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ corporate websites. Findings and implications – There are marked variations in the extent to which the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues, but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermined its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. Limitations – The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality – Within the food and drinks supply chain, wholesalers have a pivotal role at the interface between producers, manufacturers, retail and service providers, and as such they can play in promoting sustainability. However, the role of the UK’s wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature, so this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing.

  10. From the ecological niche to the mass market with 'Green Power Marketing' - 1{sup st} European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2001; Mit 'Green Power Marketing' von der Oeko-Nische zum Massenmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2001 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. European perspectives and trends in the USA are discussed and examples of green power marketing in the USA and Holland are given. Marketing issues and price policies are discussed, as are labelling strategies and customer perception of 'Green Power' issues. Also, sales issues including e-marketing, power-market rules and certificate trading are dealt with.

  11. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  12. Power grid operation in a market environment economic efficiency and risk mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncerta nty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities ...

  13. The Powerful Triangle of Marketing Data, Managerial Judgment, and Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); A. Smidts (Ale); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we conceptualize the impact of information technology on marketing decision-making. We argue that developments in information technology affect the performance of marketing decision-makers through different routes. Advances in information technology enhance the

  14. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, we turn...... sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power....... to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of CO2 emissions in the power sector exists for boilers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategic behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility...

  15. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  16. Nuclear Power: The Market Test. Worldwatch Paper 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including…

  17. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N.

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  18. Trade credit supply, market power and the matching of trade credit terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, D.; Klapper, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the decision of firms to extend trade credit to customers and its relation with their financing decisions. We use a novel firm-level database with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms and payment history of trade credit

  19. Mechanisms for efficient investments and optimal zones in regional power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is result of research different cross-border electricity trading mechanisms impact. Focus is on investments in generation and transmission power system facilities in regional market. Assumptions include efficient market coupling mechanism (with more bidding zones, use of additional investment indicators (like social welfare and congestion cost and security of supply issues (capacity mechanisms. There is discussion on cost benefits analysis for particular market participants and there is possibility of risk reduction for regional power system expansion. It is shown current state-of-the-art, problems and trends in solving some aspects of market integration and investment issues. In some cases smaller and well defined bidding areas are absolutely essential in order to ensure system security and economic efficiency. There is no single criterion for power system expansion but it is possible to use combination of incentive schemes and possible through one index for cross-border trade. Risk management for cross-border electricity trading through several areas needs to be upgraded with use of financial transmission rights like weighted average area prices, respectively. Regional power system security is closely associated with timely investments in energy supply in line with economic development and environmental needs. Security of supply indicator is deriving an estimation of security of supply improvement from the market based simulation results when a generation or transmission investment project is implemented. All researched makes market integration and investments in Europe more efficient and gives more correct signals to market participants in regional market.

  20. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-05-15

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  1. The identification of technology regimes in banking : Implications for the market power-fragility nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, M.; Poghosyan, T.

    Neglecting the existence of different technologies in banking can contaminate efficiency, market power, and other performance measures. By simultaneously estimating (i) technology regimes conditional on exogenous factors, (ii) efficiency conditional on risk management, and (iii) Lerner indices of

  2. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  3. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  4. Day-to-Day Market Power and Efficiency in Tradable Mobility Credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An active transportation and demand management framework focusing on tradable mobility credits (TMC is integrated into an agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS platform. In this framework, it is conceived that an auction market within which mobility credits can be transferred between buyers and sellers is constructed in general. The idea of ABMS is extensively incorporated to mimic system users’ daily route choices as well as market-related micro-economical decision making process under TMC circumstance. Users are able to form individual propensities towards available bid/ask choices by reinforcement learning principles. The integrated platform offers a brand new insight view of microscopic aspect of the daily operations of credit transfer market, which has hardly been obtained by prior analytical models. Day-to-day traffic dynamics and market dynamics can be captured. Besides, market MOEs, including convergence, stability, efficiency and relative market powers of buyers and sellers under different market policies are investigated.

  5. Valoração dos atributos de qualidade do tomate de mesa: um estudo com atacadistas da CEAGESP Valuation of the quality attributes of tomato for fresh market: a study with CEAGESP wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina L de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grande variação no valor do tomate de mesa, do mesmo grupo varietal, mesma classificação e no mesmo dia de comercialização, no mercado atacadista da CEAGESP, tem entre suas causas mais importantes a diferença de qualidade nos atributos destes frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi criar uma ferramenta de avaliação dos atributos de qualidade considerados importantes para o tomate de mesa e, a partir da avaliação, apontar os mais relevantes na diferença de valor praticado na comercialização da CEAGESP. Primeiramente, foram levantados os principais atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate de mesa a partir de entrevista com agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP. A partir deste levantamento, foi criado um gabarito de avaliação visual da qualidade. Por fim, foram levantados os lotes de tomate de mesa de preço máximo e os de preço mínimo para três classificações (graúdo, médio e miúdo comercializados no mesmo dia, avaliando-se os seus atributos de qualidade por dois sistemas: sistema I - avaliação dos atributos de qualidade por meio de notas de desempenho de acordo com o gabarito, e o sistema II - levantamento da frequência de ocorrência de cada atributo avaliado no lote de tomate. Os atributos que determinam a qualidade do tomate, segundo os agentes de comercialização de tomate da CEAGESP, são: o tamanho (tipo ou calibre, a coloração do fruto, a ausência de defeitos, durabilidade, embalagem e sabor. Os atributos determinantes na variação de preços avaliados pelo sistema I são embalagens paletizáveis e embalagens que proporcionem um adequado empilhamento, enquanto que, para o sistema II, estes atributos são: frutos sem danos superficiais de casca e proteção adequada da embalagem contra injúrias mecânicas.The great variation in the value of tomato from the same variety group, same classification and on the same day of marketing, registered by the Terminal Market of CEAGESP, were related to

  6. Electricity spot price forecasting in free power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, J.; Laitinen, E.K. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Deregulation has brought many changes to the electricity market. Freedom of choice has been granted to both the consumers and the utilities. Consumers may choose the seller of their energy. Utilities have a wider array of sources to acquire their electricity from. Also the types of sales contracts used are changing to fill the needs of this new situation. The consumers` right to choose has introduced a new risk uncertainty of volume, which was not true during the times of monopoly. As sold volume is unsure and the energy is not sold on same terms as it is bought, a price risk has to be dealt with also. The electric utility has to realize this, select a risk level that suits its business strategy and optimize its actions according to the selected risk level. The number of participants will grow as the electricity market integrates into a common market for Scandinavia and even Europe. Big customers are also taking a more active role in the market, further increasing the number of participants. This makes old bilateral arrangements outdated. New tools are needed to control the new business environment. The goal of this project has been to develop a theoretical model to predict the price in the Finnish electricity exchange, El-Ex Oy. An extensive literature review was conducted in order to (1) examine the solutions in deregulation of electricity markets in other countries, esp. in Norway and UK, (2) find similarities and differences in electricity exchange and exchanges generally and (3) find major sources of problems and inefficiency in the market

  7. Forbearance, Regulation, and Market Power in Natural Gas Storage: The Case of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.; Ware, R.; Wetston, H.

    2007-07-01

    In late 2006 the Ontario Energy Board rendered a landmark decision to forbear from the price regulation of natural gas storage services. This paper examines the key issues and provides some economic analysis of the evidence. The decision followed a proceeding during which evidence was given on whether the market for storage is competitive or is subject to significant market power possessed by dominant and incumbent utility firms in the province. Intervenors in the proceeding were in broad agreement on the use of standard concepts from North American antitrust analysis of merger reviews: identification of the relevant product and geographic markets, analysis of market structure within the relevant market, and assessment of barriers to entry. A critical issue at the hearing was the extent of the geographic market; a broad market encompassing U.S. storage facilities in neighbouring states supports a finding of competition, whereas a narrower geographic market restricted to Ontario makes market power more likely. Since gas storage is only as functional as the pipelines connected to it, evidence was directed at assessing the availability of pipeline capacity in both primary and secondary markets. (auth)

  8. Integration of Hydropower in a Competitive power market model for water-energy scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Carrion-Sanchez, Laura; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    for the management of both water and energy resources, and should be assessed. We propose a coupled water-energy modeling approach in which a hydrological model imposes the water constraints on the power system model; hydropower generation is bid to the power market based on the hydrological state of the system....... The hydropower bidding strategy showed reasonable performance when tested in a simplified model of a competitive power market.......Hydrological systems and power systems are strongly linked: water is needed for most electricity generation technologies, and electricity is required for all stages of water usage. Growing water and energy demands, and potential climate changes suggest this relationship will become more important...

  9. Nordic market report 2009 : Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  10. Nordic market report 2009. Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  11. Research on Simulation Requirements and Business Architecture of Automated Demand Response in Power Sales Side Market Liberalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Songsong

    2018-01-01

    With the gradual reform of the electricity market, the power sale side liberalization has become the focus of attention as the key task of reform. The open power market provides a good environment for DR (Demand Response). It is of great significance to research the simulation requirements and business architecture of ADR (Automatic Demand Response) in power sale side market liberalization. Firstly, this paper analyzes the simulation requirements of ADR. Secondly, it analyzes the influence factors that the business development of ADR from five aspects after power sale side market liberalization. Finally, Based on ADR technology support system, the business architecture of ADR after power sale side market liberalization is constructed.

  12. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  13. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to...

  14. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...... operation strategy for a Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) in relation to the hourly electricity price in order to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may...

  15. Photovoltaic village power application: Assessment of the near-term market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.; Scudder, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    The village power application represents a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in both the government and commercial sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for village power systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 12 MW min and a foreign market of about 10 GW exists.

  16. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    A grass roots evaluation of the market potential was carried out for photovoltaic applications in remote villages in the U. S. and its possessions. An estimate of almost 14 MWp available for conversion from a potential to a real market was defined. The total power potential was based on the energy needs of almost 400 sites reported by Federal agencies and inputs from over 100 Indian tribes. The methodology used, the results achieved, and some recommendations of how to convert this domestic market potential into a real market are detailed.

  17. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  18. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site (www.cre.fr). It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  19. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  20. The competition in the electric power market: an institutional complex construction; A competicao no mercado eletrico: uma complexa construcao institucional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2007-07-01

    This analysis take into consideration the following aspects: the introduction of competition in the electric power market; the ideal and the real in electric power sector; the trade-off between competition and coordination; the specificities of the commodity electric power and his demand; the electric power - a contract market; a special future market - the electric power market; the bilateral relationship in the electric power market; non-stockpile of the commodity; volatile characteristic of the commodity: interdependency of the agents and volatile characteristic; volatile characteristics and institutions; the electric power market - an institutional construction; the risks management and a competition in a market of very particular commodity; competition, autonomy, and exceeding capacity; the reformulation diversity; and the reformulation future.

  1. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  2. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market; Anforderungen und Einsatz dezentraler Kraftwerke im veraenderten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  3. 77 FR 24941 - Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and Providing Direction on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and... vertical market power.\\10\\ As discussed ] below, we find that Vantage Wind satisfies the Commission's... its power to its power purchasers. Vantage Wind further states that none of Polsky Energy, Invenergy...

  4. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    The research work presented in this thesis discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the context of new operating paradigms in deregulated power systems, proposing appropriate policy solutions. An integrated two-level framework for reactive power management is set forth, which is both suitable for a competitive market and ensures a secure and reliable operation of the associated power system. The framework is generic in nature and can be adopted for any electricity market structure. The proposed hierarchical reactive power market structure comprises two stages: procurement of reactive power resources on a seasonal basis, and real-time reactive power dispatch. The main objective of the proposed framework is to provide appropriate reactive power support from service providers at least cost, while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider, with respect to system security, are obtained by solving a loadability-maximization problem subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage and thermal limits. Second, the selected set of generators is determined by solving an optimal power flow (OPF)-based auction. This auction maximizes a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, and considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. The main objective of the proposed reactive power dispatch model is to minimize the total payment burden on the Independent System Operator (ISO), which is associated with reactive power dispatch. The real power generation is

  5. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  6. Marriage Market, Parents' Bargaining Powers, and Children's Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cheolsung Park

    2004-01-01

    Whether the family makes decisions as a unit or through a collective decision making process has been tested elsewhere by examining whether the income pooling hypothesis holds or by examining whether premarital assets have significant effects on household consumptions. The results, however, may be confounded by endogeneity of the income and asset variables. This paper suggests that the marriage market conditions, summarized by the sex ratio, can be used to test the household models and that t...

  7. Impact of Optimal Storage Allocation on Price Volatility in Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumzadeh, Amin; Nekouei, Ehsan; Alpcan, Tansu; Chattopadhyay, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that the fast growing expansion of wind power generation may lead to extremely high levels of price volatility in wholesale electricity markets. Storage technologies, regardless of their specific forms e.g. pump-storage hydro, large-scale or distributed batteries, are capable of alleviating the extreme price volatility levels due to their energy usage time shifting, fast-ramping and price arbitrage capabilities. In this paper, we propose a stochastic bi-level optimization ...

  8. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  9. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  10. Wind Generation in the Future Competitive California Power Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop improved methods for assessing the viability of wind generation in competitive electricity markets. The viability of a limited number of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development, and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using a site-specific development cost calculation and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is to develop data characterizing wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models, such as Elfin, that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission (CE C) in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, the Elfin model is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Under best guess assumptions, including prohibition of new nuclear and coal capacity, moderate increase in gas prices and some decline in

  11. Windonomics. Empirical essays on the economics of wind power in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauritzen, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The following chapters in this dissertation take up three topics surrounding the interaction of wind power investment in Denmark and the functioning of the deregulated Nordic electricity market. The first two chapters take up the issue of how wind power a affects prices in the deregulated market. I find that electricity price variation in the spot market is lower in days with more wind power. In the following chapter I extend this analysis to see how wind power in Denmark affects prices in neighbouring hydro power dominated Norway. I find that wind power affects the magnitude of trade between the countries asymmetrically - dependent on the net direction of trade. I also find that wind power has a slight but statistically significant negative effect on prices in Norway, likely due to a slackening of hydro power producers supply constraints. The last chapter starts with the observation that most turbines are scrapped in order to make room for a newer turbine. An opportunity cost that comes from the interaction of scarce land resources, technological change and government policy is then a dominant reason for the scrapping of wind turbines. This leads to the implication that turbines located on windier, better situated land have a higher risk of being scrapped. Policy is also shown to have a strong and in some respects unexpected effect on scrappings. Over the last two decades two major trends have taken place in power markets around the world. The first has been a movement towards market based power systems. Vertically integrated power companies have been split into component generation, transmission and retailing companies. Generation and retailing have been opened to competition. Increasingly, regulated prices and bilateral trade are being replaced by regulated markets that establish prices through auction mechanisms. The second trend has been investment in renewable and intermittent energy sources - notably wind power. What started as

  12. A unifying energy-based approach to stability of power grids with market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegink, Tjerk; De Persis, Claudio; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a unifying energy-based approach is provided to the modeling and stability analysis of power systems coupled with market dynamics. We consider a standard model of the power network with a third-order model for the synchronous generators involving voltage dynamics. By applying the

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  14. Analysis of biomass co-firing systems in Taiwan power markets using linear complementarity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chun-An [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rutgers University, 96 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hsu, Shao-Yiu [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400, N Charles St, Ames-313, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wen, Tzai-Hung, E-mail: wenthung@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Biomass co-firing systems in power plants generate electric power by the simultaneous combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. The co-firing process reduces investment costs by converting biomass energy into electricity in existing conventional power plants. Biomass co-firing significantly reduces carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions in power generation. To meet the increase in biomass demand, this paper has considered systematic energy crop production, which is expected to increase in the near future. Our aim is to analyze biomass co-firing systems in the Taiwanese electricity market. In this paper, we study two emerging biomass feedstocks: switchgrass and Miscanthus. We focus on the impact of energy crop co-firing on carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions for electricity generation. A Nash-Cournot competition model, which simulates potential biomass co-firing scenarios, is formulated for power markets. A case study conducted in the Taiwanese electricity market showed that biomass co-firing lowers total electricity demand and sale. Miscanthus is more economical than switchgrass in terms of the production cost and the land required to generate biopower for the same levels of biomass co-firing. - Highlights: > Biomass co-firing system in electricity market is analyzed in this paper. > The research studies the impact of two energy crops in co-firing system. > This paper conducts a case study of co-firing system in Taiwan power markets.

  15. Migration, the Chinese wholesale trade and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the historical-social context of Spain, the ethnic-national identities of Chinese immigrants are not free from hierarchisation, given that they can tend to be sources of recognition and prestige, though also of discrimination. In recent decades, the presenceof Chinese people has become alternately or simultaneously an ambiguous resource to be celebrated by certain hegemonic groups as something positive in accordance with their cultural and economic contributions (“entrepreneurs”, “model traders”, or a dissonance thatis sufficiently complex to be accepted within the country. This article focuses on analysing Chinese immigrants working in the area of wholesale trading in the city of Madrid, and bears in mind the social processes by which these groups were constituted as different in cultural terms in the heart of social relations of inequality; it also examines to what extent and under what conditions these processes end up forming part of these traders’ self-image, determine

  16. The Power of Weather: Some Empirical Evidence on Predicting Day-ahead Power Prices through Day-ahead Weather Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ravazzolo, Francesco; Zhou, Chen; Huurman, C.

    2007-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'Computational Statistics & Data Analysis' . In the literature the effects of weather on electricity sales are well-documented. However, studies that have investigated the impact of weather on electricity prices are still scarce (e.g. Knittel and Roberts, 2005), partly because the wholesale power markets have only recently been deregulated. We introduce the weather factor into well-known forecasting models to study its impact. We find that we...

  17. 76 FR 12104 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Power Marketing Initiative (2021 PMI). Western's Firm Electric Service (FES) contracts associated with... plan, with amendments, to key marketing plan principles. This Federal Register notice initiates Western... 2021 PMI proposal. Key Marketing Plan principles discussed with firm power customers included: Contract...

  18. Appendix M - GPRA06 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into green power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and various forms of biomass. The Green Power market is an increasingly important element of the national renewable energy contribution, with changes in the regulatory and legislative environment and the recent dramatic changes in natural gas prices slowly altering the size of this opportunity.

  19. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  20. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-09-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  2. Powering change in low-income energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Garside, Ben

    2011-06-15

    Market-based interventions to improve access to energy rarely benefit the poorest, especially if they are driven by specific technologies or external agendas, such as climate change mitigation. Failure to understand local needs and preferences results in inappropriate goods and services and low uptake. Yet business can deliver low-carbon technologies to the 'bottom billion' and support sustainable development. To do so, they must work more closely with government agencies, development practitioners and local communities in designing and delivering products and services. Impact should be measured in terms of development benefits, not products sold or carbon emissions saved.

  3. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  4. Study on electricity markets in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra FLOREA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we detail about the components of the wholesale electricity market in Romania: Market for Bilateral Contracts (Central Market with continuous double negotiation of bilateral electric energy contracts (CM - OTC, Centralized Market for bilateral electric energy contracts, Day-Ahead Market (DAM, Inter-Daily Market (IM, Balancing Market (BM, Centralized Market for universal service (CMUS. In addition, for each type of market we generated diagrams with the main business processes.

  5. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  6. Congestion-Driven Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Wind Power Generation in Spot Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi, Mohammd

    2017-01-01

    The integration of a massive number of large-scale wind turbines brought about urgent technical challenge to power transmission network operators in terms of secure power supply and energy dispatching optimization. In this paper, an optimal framework is proposed for transmission expansion planning in a deregulated power market environment. The level of congestion in the network is utilized as the driving signal for the need of network expansion. A compromise between the congestion cost and th...

  7. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  8. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  9. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the fundamental concepts of the marketing and distribution field, including the operations of wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of three units: (1) The Marketing Process, (2) Wholesaling, and (3) Retailing. Each unit begins with a…

  12. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice......, the proposed method is potentially useful for designing market rules and evaluating different design options. Following works is underway on application and simulation of proposed method using the realistic distribution system of Bornholm Island in Denmark....

  13. The Forbes 400, the Pareto power-law and efficient markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Levy, M.; Malcai, O.; Solomon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities at the top end of the wealth distribution in the United States are examined using the Forbes 400 lists of richest Americans, published between 1988 and 2003. It is found that the wealths are distributed according to a power-law (Pareto) distribution. This result is explained using a simple stochastic model of multiple investors that incorporates the efficient market hypothesis as well as the multiplicative nature of financial market fluctuations.

  14. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, D.; Steingass, H.; Nolfi, J.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture was studied. Information is presented on technical and economically feasible applications, and assessments of the business, government and financial climate for photovoltaic sales. It is concluded that the market for stand-alone systems will be large because of the availability of captial and the high premium placed on high reliability, low maintenance power systems. Various specific applications are described, mostly related to agriculture.

  15. A Unified Trading Model Based on Robust Optimization for Day-Ahead and Real-Time Markets with Wind Power Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuewen Jiang; Meisen Chen; Shi You

    2017-01-01

    In a conventional electricity market, trading is conducted based on power forecasts in the day-ahead market, while the power imbalance is regulated in the real-time market, which is a separate trading scheme...

  16. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Salgado, Joel [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A. [Laboratorio de Sintesis Quimica y Electroquimica, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014. (author)

  17. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A.

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014.

  18. Predicted and verified evolution of power-law exponent in product market

    CERN Document Server

    Hisano, Ryohei; Mizuno, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Power-law distributions constitute a generic empirical statistical regularity found in many complex systems. A recently developed theory finds that the interplay between one of the most universal ingredient, i.e., stochastic proportional growth, and stochastic birth and death processes, leads to generic power law distributions together with a non-universal exponent which depends explicitly on the characteristics of growth, birth and death. In particular, the theory rationalizes Zipf's law and explains deviations from it, for instance for the distribution of firm and of city sizes. Here, we report the first complete test of the theory, based on the empirical analysis from a real world complex phenomenon, namely the dynamics of market shares in the consumer electronics market. We estimate directly from the data the average growth rate of market shares, their standard deviation, the birth rates as well as the "death" hazard rate of products. When plugged in the theory, this predicts the power law exponent of the...

  19. Electric power and gas markets; Marches de l'electricite et du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These two days organized by EFE in Paris, dealt with the european market of the gas and the electrical power. The first day developed the actual situation and the tendencies. The french market deregulation, the possibility of a united market and the energy transportation sector are discussed. The second day dealt with the new commercial technologies, the convergence of Gas and Electricity and the competing in a change world, the opportunities of the NTIC (new technologies of the information and communication). (A.L.B.)

  20. Market structure and concentration in German power generation; Marktstrukturen und Konzentration in der deutschen Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.G.; Lang, C. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaft

    2005-12-15

    Despite intensive discussions about the background of the late strong rises of electricity tariff, there is no current information on hand about market structure and concentration of German power generation. The most recent report of the European Commission refers to the year 2001 and is not able to paint a realistic picture of today situation an the German electricity market. It is therefore worth it to take a close look at the current state of market structure and concentration. The concentration of electric utilities appears to have increased further but the stress of competition from foreign competitors rose only little.

  1. The effects of insurance carrier market power on dentists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Jackson; Guay, Albert H; House, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Market power among dental insurance carriers is a carrier's ability to reimburse dentists at rates below what would exist in more competitive areas. Competition among carriers for dentists' participation in their networks protects dentists from highly discounted fees. The authors examined the extent to which dental insurance carriers facing less competition increase fee discounts. The authors selected a sample of dentists from listings of general practitioners. They identified 219 metropolitan areas and contacted 11,542 dentists in those areas by mail, telephone or both. A total of 8,017 dentists completed surveys (a response rate of 69.46 percent). The authors' key focus was the possible relationship between carrier market power and the size of the fee discount. The authors compared discounts across metropolitan areas with their differing levels of insurance coverage and carrier market shares. Carrier market power was directly related to the sizes of fee discounts. The larger discounts were found where there was significant dental insurance coverage and few carriers providing this coverage. Dentists' net incomes were significantly less in areas with larger fee discounts. Dental insurance carrier market power leads to increased fee discounts. These higher discounts reduce dentists' earnings. Although the larger discounts may result in lower overall patient costs, this patient benefit is temporary. Ultimately, the number of practicing dentists in these communities will decrease as dentists seek improved practicing conditions elsewhere. This reduction will lead to overall fee increases until the earning potential of dentists is restored.

  2. Wind Power Plant Market and Operation Interaction. Principles for Information and Energy Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Joergen; Karlsson, Per [Lund Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation; Johnsson, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    This paper specifies principle structures for energy management system (EMS) and information enabling market-based operation of wind power plants (WPP). The structure provides the means for condensing the necessary information for future needs and demands on operation of new large WPP. New technical solutions for wind power give the possibility to provide a number of services to energy market actors such as energy and ancillary services to the power system. The structure should facilitate the expansion of new WPP, where a new WPP should be possible to connect to an existing structure and then automatically adapt to the system. If real-time trading and operation may become reality, the management mechanism from contract to physical power transaction might get faster and become an important advantage for generating units based on renewals. The automated process puts demands on the interface for both market interaction and operation interaction with the market actors. Uniform information structures and communication interfaces and automation of functions for market management, planning and production control are one step towards a 'plug-and-produce' solution.

  3. Photovoltaic power systems market identification and analysis. Final report, January 1977--February 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes the work done by InterTechnology/Solar Corporation, its consultants, Mobil Tyco Solar Energy Corporation and the University of Delaware Institute for Energy Conversion, and its consultants, during the marketing analysis of near and intermediate term photovoltaic power applications. To obtain estimates of the domestic and foreign market potential for photovoltaically powered devices two approaches were used. First, the study was identifying then screening all possible photovoltaic power supply applications. This approach encompassed the first two tasks of the study: (1) a survey of the current uses of photovoltaic systems, both domestic and international, and a projection of the usage of those systems into the future; and (2) a new idea generation task which attempted to come up with new ways of using photovoltaic power. Second, the study required in-depth analysis of key near-term and intermediate-term photovoltaic applications identified during the first phase to obtain reasonable estimates of photovoltaic market potential. This process encompassed the third and fourth tasks of the analysis: (3) refinement of ideas generated in Task 2 so that certain products/applications could be identified, the product defined and a market survey carried out; and (4) development of a detailed product scenario which forecasts sales, barriers to market acceptance, and technical innovationsrequired for proper introduction of the products. The work performed and findings of each task are presented.

  4. Market power consolidation and M&A success: A study of US-American and German utility takeovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fraunhoffer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wave of mergers and acquisitions (M&A was observed in the North American and European energy utilities market. We analyze the impact of these M&A transactions on market power, studying 139 takeovers of energy utilities by applying event study methodology. Stock price reactions of acquiring and target firms as well as of their competitors are used to detect changes of market power. While we do not find any significant results pointing in this direction for transactions in the US, our findings indicate that the potential to increase market power is indeed an important motive for takeovers within the German energy utilities market.

  5. A model of market power in electricity industries subject to peak load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Maria-Soledad [Center for Applied Economics (CEA), Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile, Republica 701, Santiago (Chile); Serra, Pablo [Department of Economics, University of Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 257, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-10-15

    This paper studies the exercise of market power in price-regulated electricity industries under peak-load pricing and merit order dispatching, but where investment decisions are taken by independent generating companies. Within this context, we show that producers can exercise market power by under-investing in base-load capacity, compared to the welfare-maximizing configuration. We also show that when there is free entry with an exogenous fixed entry cost that is later sunk, more intense competition results in higher welfare but fewer firms. (author)

  6. POWER for reproductive health: results from a social marketing campaign promoting female and male condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.

  7. 76 FR 16394 - Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... for commodities with low demand price- responsiveness, like electricity, than in markets with high... this regard, we note that there are fundamental differences between the Commission's process and that...

  8. Wholesale Price Discrimination between High Street Retailers and Online Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Aiura

    2007-01-01

    We analyze wholesale pricing and retail pricing when a monopolistic manufacturer sells its product to a high street retailer and an online electronic retailer, which have different selling qualities and marginal selling costs. We observe that (1) the wholesale price for an online electronic retailer is higher than that for a high street retailer if an online electronic retailer's selling cost advantage is greater than its selling quality disadvantage for all consumers buying products, and (2)...

  9. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  10. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  11. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  13. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  14. Wind power deployment in the Swedish-Norwegian tradable electricity certificate market

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Thea; Stubsjøen, Erik Stavne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the market-based common Swedish-Norwegian tradable electricity certificate support scheme for investments in new electricity generating capacity from renewable energy sources, with a particular focus on deployment of wind power in Norway. We evaluate the costs of onshore wind power projects in the pipeline and their potential to contribute to the quantitative target of adding new renewable electricity generation corresponding to 26.4 TWh per year by 2020. W...

  15. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  16. Offshore wind power plants. Market trends and challenges; Offshore-Windkraftwerke. Marktentwicklung und Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Martin [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany); Reimers, Britta [TU Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-10-15

    The European offshore market is undergoing a critical phase. While grid connection and grid expansion problems in Germany make the situation of investors uncertain, Britain stopped its financial incentives programme, which also resulted in uncertainty. Successful expansion can only be achieved if the specific power generation cost can be cut. Apart from a cost comparison between onshore and offshore wind power, the article also presents options for cost reduction.

  17. Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Billings, S. A.

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the dynamics of many time series including observations in foreign exchange markets exhibit scaling behaviours. A simple new statistical approach, derived from the concept of the continuous wavelet transform correlation function (WTCF), is proposed for the evaluation of power-law properties from observed data. The new method reveals that foreign exchange rates obey power-laws and thus belong to the class of self-similarity processes.

  18. Military markets for solar thermal electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauger, J. S.

    1980-05-01

    The Department of Defense maintains an inventory of over 1,800 MW of engine-generators 15 KW and larger, with an estimated procurement rate of over 140 MW/year. Nearly the entire requirement could be met by advanced heat engines of the types being developed as point-focussing, distributed receiver power plants. A conceptual system consisting of a heat engine which efficiently burns liquid fossil or synthetic fuels, with a 'solarization kit' for conversion to hybrid solar operation could meet existing DOD requirements for new systems which are quieter, lighter, and multi-fueled. An estimated 24 percent (33 MW/year) or more could operationally benefit from the solar option. Baseline cost projections indicate levelized energy cost goals of 210 to 120 mills/KWh (15 to 1000 KW systems). Fuel cost escalation is the major factor affecting the value of the solar option. A baseline calculation for fuel at $0.59/gal in spring, 1979, escalating at 8 percent above general inflation indicates a value of $2700/KWe for a solarization kit.

  19. Economic evaluation of offshore wind power in the liberalized Dutch power market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, J.; Ummels, B.C.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; den Rooijen, H.P.G.M.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    The variability and limited predictability of wind power challenges the operation of power systems, where the generation and load are required in balance at all times. The transmission system operator (TSO) is the responsible party. In a liberalized energy sector, key technical elements of power

  20. Market-oriented programming and its application to power load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ygge, F.

    1998-04-01

    Market-oriented programming is a new approach to design and implementation of resource allocation mechanisms in computer systems. It has its roots in different disciplines, such as economics and computer science (in particular the area of multi-agent systems). This is divided into two different parts, focusing on: (1) central foundations and mechanisms of market-oriented programming, and (2) the use of market-oriented programming in practical applications. Market-oriented programming is seen as a programming paradigm based on abstractions such as prices and demands. Concepts, terminology and theory from micro-economics form the foundations of the paradigm. Central aspects of these foundations are investigated and some new insights are presented. Furthermore, some relations between standard optimization/resource allocation approaches and markets are described, and novel theorems are introduced. A published, and generally recognized, market oriented approach to the application building climate control is analyzed in detail. A new approach to this application, based on market-oriented programming, is introduced and shown to be superior to the analyzed approach in many ways. The case study pinpoints a number of potential pitfalls as well as advantages of market-oriented approaches to this and other applications. A second investigated application is power load management, i.e. the management of loads at the customer`s side for obtaining more efficient energy systems management. The basis of the application is described and a new market oriented approach is introduced and analyzed. The approach is shown to have a number of advantages compared to existing approaches to this problem. The main conclusion of the thesis is that there are some potential pitfalls of market-oriented programming, but when used with care it provides a highly natural and efficient means for resource allocation in computer systems

  1. How Market Power Changes in Monopoly: Using Lau’s Hessian Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaura, Koichi; Featherstone, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines market power using Lau’s Hessian Identity relationships based on the empirical properties of duality theory. We compare the performance of the proposed dual approach using Lau’s Hessian Identity relationships with the simple traditional dual approach.

  2. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  3. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  4. Why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting log-periodic power law structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Leker, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established the existence of log-periodic power law (LPPL) patterns in financial institutions’ credit default swap (CDS) spreads. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify why credit risk markets are predestined for exhibiting LPPL structures. To this end, the credit risk prediction of two variants of logistic regression, i.e. polynomial logistic regression (PLR) and kernel logistic regression (KLR), are firstly compared to the standard logistic regression (SLR). In doing so, the question whether the performances of rating systems based on balance sheet ratios can be improved by nonlinear transformations of the explanatory variables is resolved. Building on the result that nonlinear balance sheet ratio transformations hardly improve the SLR’s predictive power in our case, we secondly compare the classification performance of a multivariate SLR to the discriminative powers of probabilities of default derived from three different capital market data, namely bonds, CDSs, and stocks. Benefiting from the prompt inclusion of relevant information, the capital market data in general and CDSs in particular increasingly outperform the SLR while approaching the time of the credit event. Due to the higher classification performances, it seems plausible for creditors to align their investment decisions with capital market-based default indicators, i.e., to imitate the aggregate opinion of the market participants. Since imitation is considered to be the source of LPPL structures in financial time series, it is highly plausible to scan CDS spread developments for LPPL patterns. By establishing LPPL patterns in governmental CDS spread trajectories of some European crisis countries, the LPPL’s application to credit risk markets is extended. This novel piece of evidence further strengthens the claim that credit risk markets are adequate breeding grounds for LPPL patterns.

  5. Modeling and analysis of strategic forward contracting in transmission constrained power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.W.; Chung, T.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, S.H.; Wang, X. [Department of Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Taking the effects of transmission network into account, strategic forward contracting induced by the interaction of generation firms' strategies in the spot and forward markets is investigated. A two-stage game model is proposed to describe generation firms' strategic forward contracting and spot market competition. In the spot market, generation firms behave strategically by submitting bids at their nodes in a form of linear supply function (LSF) and there are arbitrageurs who buy and resell power at different nodes where price differences exceed the costs of transmission. The owner of the grid is assumed to ration limited transmission line capacity to maximize the value of the transmission services in the spot market. The Cournot-type competition is assumed for the strategic forward contract market. This two-stage model is formulated as an equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraints (EPEC); in which each firm's optimization problem in the forward market is a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) and parameter-dependent spot market equilibrium as the inner problem. A nonlinear complementarity method is employed to solve this EPEC model. (author)

  6. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  7. Power System Transient Stability Improvement Using Demand Side Management in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Wang, Chunqi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    price is proposed. A 102-bus power system which represents a simplified model of the western Danish power system is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the power system transient stability with high......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the transient stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of the power system transient stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...

  8. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-12-15

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  9. The Future Organization of Danish Electricity Market for Integrating DERs - a View of FlexPower Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the Danish FlexPower project to reform the existing electricity market by coordinating vast Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) for integration in future scenarios. Aiming to maximize the preservation of the existing market structure, Aggregator, the key player...... in mobilizing small-scale DERs to participate in the existing electricity market, is proposed in this paper to cope with the day-ahead, intra-day and regulating power market. Possible future organizations of different time-scale markets are also introduced and discussed with the precise roles...

  10. Potentiality Prediction of Electric Power Replacement Based on Power Market Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Jingyi; Zhao, Le; Liu, Chang; Li, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The application of electric power replacement plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. To exploit the potentiality of regional electric power replacement, the regional GDP (gross domestic product) and energy consumption are taken as potentiality evaluation indicators. The principal component factors are extracted with PCA (principal component analysis), and the integral potentiality analysis is made to the potentiality of electric power replacement in the national various regions; a region is taken as a research object, and the potentiality of electric power replacement is defined and quantified. The analytical model for the potentiality of multi-scenario electric power replacement is developed, and prediction is made to the energy consumption with the grey prediction model. The relevant theoretical research is utilized to realize prediction analysis on the potentiality amount of multi-scenario electric power replacement.

  11. The receipt of electric power bills as a marketing instrument; O recebimento de contas de energia eletrica como instrumento de marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Bosco Gomes da [PROCONSEL, Projetos e Consultoria Eletrica (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Instead of the traditional banking payment of electric power bills, the Phone-marketing System of Payment in fully inserted in modern techniques of marketing. At the same time, it reaches the consumer satisfaction and simplify the enterprises actions, reducing costs and improve efficiency. 1 fig., 5 refs.

  12. Small Signal Stability Improvement of Power Systems Using Optimal Load Responses in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the small signal stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of power system small signal stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...

  13. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    Congress enacted the Bonneville Project Act in 1937, creating the Bonneville Power Administration to market and transmit the power produced by Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Since then, Congress has directed BPA to sell at wholesale the power produced at a total of 30 Federal dams in the Pacific Northwest, and to acquire conservation and generating resources sufficient to meet the needs of BPA`s customer utilities. The dams and the electrical system are known as the Federal Columbia River Power System. Bonneville sells wholesale power to public and private utilities, rural cooperatives, large industries, and Federal agencies. BPA also sells or exchanges power with utilities in California. BPA uses revenues from the sale of power and transmission services to recover its own expenses, to repay the Federal investment in the power system, and to pay for the resources it has acquired. BPA pays for operation and maintenance expenses at the Federal dams and at non-Federal power plants. It also pays for irrigation benefits of Federal projects allocated to power to repay, and for fish and wildlife projects which offset damage to these resources by the Federal hydropower system. This document is the 1991 statement of budget, financial statement, cash flows, capitalization, expenses, and projects. An organization chart is included.

  14. Analysis of biomass co-firing systems in Taiwan power markets using linear complementarity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming-Che Hu; Chun-Hung Lin; Chun-An Chou; Shao-Yiu Hsu; Tzai-Hung Wen [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering

    2011-08-15

    Biomass co-firing systems in power plants generate electric power by the simultaneous combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. The co-firing process reduces investment costs by converting biomass energy into electricity in existing conventional power plants. Biomass co-firing significantly reduces carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions in power generation. To meet the increase in biomass demand, this paper has considered systematic energy crop production, which is expected to increase in the near future. Our aim is to analyze biomass co-firing systems in the Taiwanese electricity market. In this paper, we study two emerging biomass feedstocks: switchgrass and Miscanthus. We focus on the impact of energy crop co-firing on carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions for electricity generation. A Nash-Cournot competition model, which simulates potential biomass co-firing scenarios, is formulated for power markets. A case study conducted in the Taiwanese electricity market showed that biomass co-firing lowers total electricity demand and sale. Miscanthus is more economical than switchgrass in terms of the production cost and the land required to generate biopower for the same levels of biomass co-firing. 32 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs

  16. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy and is difficult to predict, we explore the extent to which co-located energy storage can be used to improve expected profit and mitigate the the financial risk associated with shorting on the offered contracts. Using a simple stochastic model for wind power production and a model for the electricity market, we show that the problem of determining optimal contract offerings for a WPP with co-located energy storage can be solved using convex programming.

  17. A multiagent system for autonomous operation of islanded microgrids based on a power market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Incheon/12-1, Sondo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kinoshita, T. [Graduate School of Information Science, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Shin, M.-Ch. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University/300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important requirements of microgrid operation is to maintain a constant frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz, which is closely related to a power balance between supply and demand. In general, microgrids are connected to power grids and surplus/shortage power of microgrids is traded with power grids. Since islanded microgrids are isolated from any power grids, the decrease in generation or load-shedding can be used to maintain the frequency when a power imbalance between supply and demand occurs. The power imbalance restricts the electricity use of consumers in the case of supply shortage and the power supply of suppliers in the case of supply surplus. Therefore, the islanded microgrid should be operated to reduce power imbalance conditions. Meanwhile, the microgrid is a small-scale power system and the employment of skillful operators for effective operation of its components requires high costs. Therefore, automatic operation of the components is effective realistically. In addition, the components are distributed in the microgrid and their operation should consider their owners' profits. For these reasons, a multiagent system application can be a good alternative for microgrid operation. In this paper, we present a multiagent system for autonomous operation of the islanded microgrid on a power market environment. The proposed multiagent system is designed based on a cooperative operation scheme. We show the functionality and the feasibility of the proposed multiagent system through several tests. (authors)

  18. A Multiagent System for Autonomous Operation of Islanded Microgrids Based on a Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong-Chul Shin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements of microgrid operation is to maintain a constant frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz, which is closely related to a power balance between supply and demand. In general, microgrids are connected to power grids and surplus/shortage power of microgrids is traded with power grids. Since islanded microgrids are isolated from any power grids, the decrease in generation or load-shedding can be used to maintain the frequency when a power imbalance between supply and demand occurs. The power imbalance restricts the electricity use of consumers in the case of supply shortage and the power supply of suppliers in the case of supply surplus. Therefore, the islanded microgrid should be operated to reduce power imbalance conditions. Meanwhile, the microgrid is a small-scale power system and the employment of skillful operators for effective operation of its components requires high costs. Therefore, automatic operation of the components is effective realistically. In addition, the components are distributed in the microgrid and their operation should consider their owners’ profits. For these reasons, a multiagent system application can be a good alternative for microgrid operation. In this paper, we present a multiagent system for autonomous operation of the islanded microgrid on a power market environment. The proposed multiagent system is designed based on a cooperative operation scheme. We show the functionality and the feasibility of the proposed multiagent system through several tests.

  19. 77 FR 64978 - Dynamo Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dynamo Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Dynamo Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 77 FR 58124 - Dynamo Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dynamo Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Dynamo Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 77 FR 20380 - Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Desert View Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market... 20426. The filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system...

  3. 77 FR 15096 - Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Liberty Hill Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market...

  5. 75 FR 62808 - Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Power Authority, Inc.'s application for market...

  6. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for market...

  7. 76 FR 73619 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  8. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM10-12-000] Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of Technical Conference...., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act...

  9. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mesa Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority...

  11. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Niagara Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market...

  13. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market... Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who...

  15. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be...

  16. 77 FR 57082 - DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of DR Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  17. 78 FR 28836 - Vulcan/BN Geothermal Power Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vulcan/BN Geothermal Power Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Vulcan/BN Geothermal Power Company's application for market...

  18. Simulations of the development in the Nordic power market; Simuleringer av utviklingen i det norske kraftmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the development of prices, production, trade and CO{sub 2} emission in the power markets in Scandinavia and Germany up to 2012. Simulations of a reference course indicate relatively strong growth of the power consumption. In combination with a modest development of the capacity in the short run, the growing consumption causes the prices to rise. Little by little it becomes profitable to build new gas power in Norway and Germany and a common quota market for CO{sub 2} emissions makes it possible. Sweden and Finland will have an increasing power deficiency. The results vary in step with the variation in water supply but the adaptation is largely taken in the Nordic countries: in dry years, consumption is considerably reduced while the import from Germany increases modestly. Increasing the CO{sub 2} tax with 150 per cent increases the prices and lowers the CO{sub 2} emission, but not enough to comply with the Kyoto agreement. The impact of a new nuclear power plant in Finland will be less gas power and reduced emission of CO{sub 2} in Norway. Finally, the calculations show that a scenario for which the climate goals are to be fulfilled nationally requires strong measures in the form of retrenchment on the consumer side, and the development of new capacity based on renewable energy sources in addition to scrapping and converting coal power plants.

  19. The Nordic financial electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    NordREG is a cooperation of the Nordic energy regulators. The mission is to actively promote legal and institutional framework and conditions necessary for developing the Nordic and European electricity markets. The financial market is an important market for market participants to mitigate their risks. By providing tools for risk management, the financial market contributes to the efficient functioning of both wholesale and end-user markets. NordREG decided during 2009 to undertake a study on the Nordic financial electricity market. The aim of the report is to consider whether any improvements can be made to further increase the efficiency of the Nordic financial electricity market in order to secure an optimal price setting in the wholesale and the end-user markets

  20. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  1. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  2. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial neural network and SARIMA based models for power load forecasting in Turkish electricity market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ömer Özgür; Biricik, Göksel; Tayşi, Ziya Cihan

    2017-01-01

    Load information plays an important role in deregulated electricity markets, since it is the primary factor to make critical decisions on production planning, day-to-day operations, unit commitment and economic dispatch. Being able to predict the load for a short term, which covers one hour to a few days, equips power generation facilities and traders with an advantage. With the deregulation of electricity markets, a variety of short term load forecasting models are developed. Deregulation in Turkish Electricity Market has started in 2001 and liberalization is still in progress with rules being effective in its predefined schedule. However, there is a very limited number of studies for Turkish Market. In this study, we introduce two different models for current Turkish Market using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and present their comparative performances. Building models that cope with the dynamic nature of deregulated market and are able to run in real-time is the main contribution of this study. We also use our ANN based model to evaluate the effect of several factors, which are claimed to have effect on electrical load.

  4. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, New York, NY (United States); Rosel, V. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  5. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. Quarter 2008; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz 4. trimestre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on December 31, 2008, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2008); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Concentration of the French gas market); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  7. Labour market reforms in the context of political power theory: The case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled, hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the reform, while governments usually give in to the union pressures and negative image of reform consequences created by unions and assisted by media. The characteristics of the labour market and labour market reform with respect to bargaining among power groups are examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of Slovenia.

  8. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Bai; Shihong Miao; Xiaohong Ran; Chang Ye

    2015-01-01

    A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation mo...

  9. The Defense Logistics Agency Properly Awarded Power Purchase Agreements and the Army Obtained Fair Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Fair Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements I N T E G R I T Y  E F F I C I E N C Y  A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y  E X... Market Value for Leases Supporting Power Purchase Agreements Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 28, 2016 Objective We determined whether the...THE ARMY SUBJECT: The Defense Logistics Agency Properly Awarded Power Purchase Agreements and the Army Obtained Fair Market Value for Leases

  10. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  11. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  12. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  13. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  14. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  15. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  16. Preference Comparison of AI Power Tracing Techniques for Deregulated Power Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Shareef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the two preference artificial intelligent (AI techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm optimized least square support vector machine (GA-LSSVM approach, to allocate the real power output of individual generators to system loads. Based on solved load flow results, it first uses modified nodal equation method (MNE to determine real power contribution from each generator to loads. Then the results of MNE method and load flow information are utilized to estimate the power transfer using AI techniques. The 25-bus equivalent system of south Malaysia is utilized as a test system to illustrate the effectiveness of the AI techniques compared to those of the MNE method. The AI methods provide the results in a faster and convenient manner with very good accuracy.

  17. Food marketing to children in Canada: a settings-based scoping review on exposure, power and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Prowse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food marketing impacts children’s food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children’s everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. Methods: The author searched databases for Canadian research on children’s exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children. Peer-reviewed studies in English, published between 2000 and 2016, were included. Results: Twenty-five studies documented children’s exposure to food marketing and its power and/or impact on them in homes (via television, or online (n = 12, public schools (n = 1, grocery stores (n = 8, fast food restaurants (n = 2, and in general (n = 2. Research trends suggest that unhealthy foods are targeted at children using multiple promotional techniques that overlap across settings. Several research gaps exist in this area, leading to an incomplete, and potentially underestimated, picture of food marketing to children in Canada. Available evidence suggests that current Canadian approaches have not reduced children’s exposure to or the power of food marketing in these settings, with the exception of some positive influences from Quebec’s statutory regulations. Conclusion: The settings where children eat, buy or learn about food expose them to powerful, often unhealthy food marketing. The current evidence suggests that “place” may be an important marketing component to be included in public policy in order to broadly protect children from unhealthy food marketing. Organizations and communities can engage in settings-based health

  18. Food marketing to children in Canada: a settings-based scoping review on exposure, power and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Prowse

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Food marketing impacts children’s food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children’s everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. Methods: The author searched databases for Canadian research on children’s exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years) across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children. Peer-reviewed studies in English, published between 2000 and 2016, were included. Results: Twenty-five studies documented children’s exposure to food marketing and its power and/or impact on them in homes (via television, or online) (n = 12), public schools (n = 1), grocery stores (n = 8), fast food restaurants (n = 2), and in general (n = 2). Research trends suggest that unhealthy foods are targeted at children using multiple promotional techniques that overlap across settings. Several research gaps exist in this area, leading to an incomplete, and potentially underestimated, picture of food marketing to children in Canada. Available evidence suggests that current Canadian approaches have not reduced children’s exposure to or the power of food marketing in these settings, with the exception of some positive influences from Quebec’s statutory regulations. Conclusion: The settings where children eat, buy or learn about food expose them to powerful, often unhealthy food marketing. The current evidence suggests that “place” may be an important marketing component to be included in public policy in order to broadly protect children from unhealthy food marketing. Organizations and communities can engage in settings-based health

  19. Food marketing to children in Canada: a settings-based scoping review on exposure, power and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Food marketing impacts children's food knowledge, behaviours and health. Current regulations in Canada focus on restricting promotional aspects of food marketing with little-to-no consideration of the places where children experience food. Understanding food marketing in children's everyday settings is necessary to protect children. This scoping review describes the current literature on food marketing to children in Canada by setting. The author searched databases for Canadian research on children's exposure to food marketing, and the power and impact of food marketing to children (2-17 years) across settings, and on how current regulations may mediate the effect of food marketing on children. Peer-reviewed studies in English, published between 2000 and 2016, were included. Twenty-five studies documented children's exposure to food marketing and its power and/or impact on them in homes (via television, or online) (n = 12), public schools (n = 1), grocery stores (n = 8), fast food restaurants (n = 2), and in general (n = 2). Research trends suggest that unhealthy foods are targeted at children using multiple promotional techniques that overlap across settings. Several research gaps exist in this area, leading to an incomplete, and potentially underestimated, picture of food marketing to children in Canada. Available evidence suggests that current Canadian approaches have not reduced children's exposure to or the power of food marketing in these settings, with the exception of some positive influences from Quebec's statutory regulations. The settings where children eat, buy or learn about food expose them to powerful, often unhealthy food marketing. The current evidence suggests that "place" may be an important marketing component to be included in public policy in order to broadly protect children from unhealthy food marketing. Organizations and communities can engage in settings-based health promotion interventions by developing their own marketing policies that

  20. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2007; Observatoire des marches de l'electricite et du gaz. 3. trimestre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. The present observatory is including residential customer's statistics. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary.