WorldWideScience

Sample records for whole-body irradiation resulting

  1. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  3. Caffeine-induced hematological changes after whole-body irradiation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Recent research indicated dietary antioxidants were useful radioprotectors to protect organisms against radiation-induced tissue lethality and other deleterious effects. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the previous studies indicated that caffeine had been shown to potently act the radioprotector in irradiated mice. However it is not clear exactly about effects of caffeine treatments chronically after irradiation. So the present studies were designed to identify the hematological effect of caffeine treatments chronically one month after whole-body gamma irradiation.

  4. Eight years of whole body irradiation at Verone: clinical and physical experience in 115 patients (june 2000-december 2008); Huit ans d'irradiation corporelle totale a verone: experience clinique et physique chez 115 patients (juin 2000-decembre 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazzi, M.; Benedetti, F.; Romano, M.; Maluta, S.; Compri, C.; Giri, M.G.; Meliado, G. [Azienda Ospedaliera, Verona (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The multi fractionated whole-body irradiation has today replaced the technique of whole-body irradiation in single dose, that was at the origin of acute and delayed effects, especially pneumonia and cataract. The results and the tolerance of our whole-body irradiation pattern are similar to these ones mentioned in the national register of allogeneic marrow transplants. (N.C.)

  5. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  6. Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  7. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  8. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned

  9. Enhanced cued fear memory following post-training whole body irradiation of 3-month-old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Weber, Sydney J; Akinyeke, Tunde; Raber, Jacob

    2017-02-15

    Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well. Exposure to whole body irradiation 24h following training in a fear conditioning resulted in greater freezing levels 2 weeks after training. In addition, motion during both contextual and cued extinction trials was lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In mice trained for cued fear conditioning, activity levels in the elevated zero maze 12days after sham-irradiation or irradiation were also lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. Finally, the trajectory of body weight changes was affected by irradiation, with lower body weights in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice, with the most profound effect 7days after training. These effects were associated with reduced c-Myc protein levels in the amygdala of the irradiated mice. These data indicate that whole body X ray irradiation of mice at 3 months of age causes persistent alterations in the fear response and activity levels in a novel environment, while the effects on body weight seem more transient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  11. Neuro-immune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquette, C.; Bertho, J.M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J. [IRSN, F-92260 Fontenay Aux Roses, (France); Mathieu, J.; Galonnier, M.; Clarencon, D. [CRSSA, Dept Radiobiol and Radiopathol, F-38700 La Tronche, (France); Balanzat, E. [CEA, DSM, CIRIL, Ganil, Caen, (France)

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 20}Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of {sup 60}Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuro-immune response, evaluated by interleukin-I (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by {sup 16}O or {sup 60}Co. In contrast, neither {sup 12}C (56.7 mGy) nor {sup 20}Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of {sup 12}C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of {sup 16}O and 76 mGy of {sup 20}Ne: only the {sup 20}Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  13. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  14. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  15. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  16. Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS) supplementation improves survival following whole-body irradiation (WBI) by suppressing tissue-specific inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Amit; Verma, Prachi; Bhilwade, H N; Iwaoka, Michio; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2016-09-01

    Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS), a simple water-soluble organoselenium compound, was evaluated for radioprotection in BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation (WBI) (8Gy (60)Co, 1Gy/min), by monitoring 30-d post-irradiation survival and biochemical/histological changes in radiosensitive organs. Intraperitoneal administration of DHS at 2mg/kg for five consecutive days before irradiation and three times per week during the post-irradiation period showed maximum benefit (40% improvement in 30 d post-irradiation survival). DHS treatment, despite inducing expression of glutathione peroxidases (GPx1, GPx2, and GPx4) in spleen and intestine, did not protect against radiation-induced acute (10-day) haematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities. DHS treatment significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes and inflammatory responses in intestine, lung, and circulation. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHS was associated with reductions in lipid peroxidation, expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as Icam-1, Ccl-2, and iNos-2, and subsequent infiltration of inflammatory cells. Irradiated mice treated with DHS survived until day 30 post-irradiation and showed restoration of spleen cellularity and intestinal villi, but had moderately increased systemic and tissue-specific inflammatory responses. Another organoselenium compound, selenomethionine, evaluated in parallel with DHS at the same dose and treatment schedule, showed comparable radioprotective effects. The mechanism of radioprotection by DHS is mainly via suppression of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  18. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-08-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control.

  19. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  20. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols.

  1. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  2. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  3. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  4. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  5. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  6. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-02-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of /sup 125/I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential.

  7. Radioprotective Effect of Propolis on the Blood Corpuscle of a Mouse by SEM after X-irradiation on the Whole Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    After x-ray 5 Gy radiation on the whole body of a mouse using a linear accelerator, its leucocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet were observed by SEM. Also, after injecting propolis into the abdominal cavity, the radio-protective effect of blood corpuscles was studied. The observation of micromorphology in blood corpuscles revealed that the number of leukocyte, erythrocyte, and thrombocyte decreased in the experimental group and the lump got together in blood corpuscles after 10 and 20 days. In RBC, crack or break on the surface and poikilosperocytes were observed. In the irradiation group, the size of leucocytes was smaller than that in control group and the number of villus at the verge substantially decreased. The blood corpuscles in the propolis group, however, had the similar results to control group.

  8. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  9. Relationship between the {sup 137}Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun [and others

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), who had whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}9}). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174).

  10. Whole Body Vibration Treatments in Postmenopausal Women Can Improve Bone Mineral Density: Results of a Stimulus Focussed Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Antonio; Bonci, Tecla; Bull, Anthony M J

    2016-01-01

    Whole body vibration treatment is a non-pharmacological intervention intended to stimulate muscular response and increase bone mineral density, particularly for postmenopausal women. The literature related to this topic is controversial, heterogeneous, and unclear despite the prospect of a major clinical effect.The aim of this study was to identify and systematically review the literature to assess the effect of whole body vibration treatments on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with a specific focus on the experimental factors that influence the stimulus. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 527 postmenopausal women and different vibration delivery designs. Cumulative dose, amplitudes and frequency of treatments as well as subject posture during treatment vary widely among studies. Some of the studies included an associated exercise training regime. Both randomized and controlled clinical trials were included. Whole body vibration was shown to produce significant BMD improvements on the hip and spine when compared to no intervention. Conversely, treatment associated with exercise training resulted in negligible outcomes when compared to exercise training or to placebo. Moreover, side-alternating platforms were more effective in improving BMD values than synchronous platforms and mechanical oscillations of magnitude higher than 3 g and/or frequency lower than 25 Hz were also found to be effective. Treatments with a cumulative dose over 1000 minutes in the follow-up period were correlated to positive outcomes.Our conclusion is that whole body vibration treatments in elderly women can reduce BMD decline.However, many factors (e.g., amplitude, frequency and subject posture) affect the capacity of the vibrations to propagate to the target site; the adequate level of stimulation required to produce these effects has not yet been defined. Further biomechanical analyses to predict the propagation of the vibration waves along the body

  11. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation; Analisis dosimetrico para haces de fotones y electrones en irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado G, M. [Posgrado. Fisica Medica Radiologica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota. Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia. Instituto Regional de Cancer de la Orinoquia. Hospital Regional de Villavicencio, Meta (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm{sup 2} fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of {sup 60} Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q{sub 1} respect at the field central axis

  12. Whole body protection to lethally irradiated mice by oral administration of semipurified fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum and post irradiation treatment of Picrorhiza kurroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Verma, Savita; Devi, Memita; Samanta, Namita; Agrawala, Paban Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2008-04-20

    to evaluate the radioprotective potential of alcoholic fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes (REC-2001) individually as well as in combination with Picrorhiza kurroa administered orally in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice. The study was divided into different treatment groups. Whole body survival was observed upto 30 days in all the treatment groups. Besides survival, toxicity of REC-2001 was also evaluated. All the groups were studied for spleen endogenous colony forming units (CFUs), plasma antioxidant potential and hematological variables, using standard techniques. Animals in radiation alone group died with in 12 days of exposure. Single dose of REC-2001 which did not bring any toxic manifestation/mortality (MTD) was found to be 155 mg/kg b.w. On administration of 250 mg/kg b.w. (single dose) 50% of the animals died (LD50), while a dose of 350 mg/kg b.w. of REC-2001 brought 100% death. Oral administration of single dose of REC-2001 (25 mg /kg b.w. -1h) prior to irradiation (10 Gy) was observed rendering up to 48% protection. Survival enhanced to the level of 55% when the animals had pre- treatment of REC-2001 (25 mg /kg b.w. -1h) followed by irradiation (10 Gy) and post treatment with a single dose of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome extract (pkre, 8 mg/kg b.w.+1h). Radiation induced plasma antioxidant status was significantly (P < 0.02) countered by REC-2001 administration. Post treatment of pkre elevated CFU counts (P < 0.05). Total leukocytes count and hemoglobin content in REC-2001 pretreated and pkre post treated group approached normal limits within 30 days of the study. REC-2001 in combination with pkre holds promise for further studies to achieve radioprotection against lethal radiation by oral administration.

  13. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  14. Effects of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation on the biosynthesis of certain serum proteins. Final report, November 29, 1967--June 30, 1976. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, O.W.

    1976-06-30

    Whole-body exposure of rats to ionizing radiations yielded an increased incorporation of labeled amino acids into serum albumin in in vivo studies suggesting a stimulation of biosynthesis. Actually this may have been caused by an elevated hepatic transport of labeled amino acids (see below). A suppressed biosynthesis of albumin was observed when the experiments were performed in vitro using liver microsomes. Impaired biosynthesis appeared to be caused by a reduced mRNA production. Irradiation stimulated the biosynthesis of acute-phase plasma proteins (stress response) and inhibited the excretion of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin, the sex-dependent protein of the adult male rat. Exposure of rats to ..gamma..-rays stimulated amino acid transport into the liver. This process which is Na/sup +/ and energy-dependent was studied with ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid, cycloleucine, and L-methionine among others. After irradiation the serum glucagon and insulin, as well as hepatic cAMP levels, were elevated. Amino acid transport may be an important factor in controlling the increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis observed in rats following whole-body irradiation.

  15. The Application of Flow Cytometry to Examine Damage Clearance in Stem Cells From Whole-Body Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marples, Brian; Kovalchuk, Olga; McGonagle, Michele; Martinez, Alvaro; Wilson, George, D.

    2010-02-26

    The bone marrow contains many types of cells. Approximately 1-2% of these cells are critical for life, these are the so-called ‘bone marrow stem cells’ which divide indefinitely to produce platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Death of the bone marrow stem cells results in a diminished ability of the organism to make new blood cell components and can be fatal without medical intervention, such as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow stem cells are considered to be particularly sensitive to radiation injury. Therefore, it is important to understand how these cells response to total body radiation exposure and how these cells can be protected from radiation damage. The aim of this project was to determine if these critical cells in the bone marrow are susceptible to short-term and long-term injury after a whole-body exposure to a sub-lethal low dose of ionizing radiation. The overall aims were to determine if the extent of injury produced by the sub-lethal radiation exposure would be cleared from the stem cells and therefore present no long- term genetic risk to the organism, or if the radiation injury persisted and had an adverse long-term consequences for the cell genome. This research question is of interest in order to define the risks to exposed persons after occupational, accidental or terrorism-related sub-lethal low-dose radiation exposures. The novel aspect of this project was the methodology used to obtain the bone marrow stem cell-like cells and examining the outcomes of sub-lethal low-dose radiation in a mammalian animal model. Four radiation treatments were used: single treatments of 0.01Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and ten treatments of 0.1 Gy given over 10 days. Bone marrow stem cell-like cells were then harvested 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 days later. The levels of radiation-induced cell death, damage to DNA and permanent changes to cellular DNA were measured in the isolated stem cell-like cells after each radiation treatment and time point and

  16. Results of substitution of the Nal by a Ge detector in a simple shadow shield whole body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Thieme, K. [Amersham Buchler Ltd. und Co., Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Since 1976 a whole body counter (WBC) has been used at the Rossendorf Research Centre for measuring the internal contamination of workers. The WBC with the Germanium detector is given schematically and visually. The WBC is a shadow shield type with a tilted chair having only one detector. Table 1 contains the parameters of the WBC. It can be seen that the WBC is a simple counter. Therefore, taking into account the experiences of McCurdy, a lot of improvements were expected form the simple substitution of a HP Germanium detector for a NaI (TI) detector, i.e. despite a decrease in the sensitive detection volume, an enhancement of all quantifiable results (e.g. lower limit of detection and time for analysis of the spectrum) and above all the reliability and automation of nuclide identification were expected. (orig./SR)

  17. The ORNL whole body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  18. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  19. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  20. Hemorrhage enhances cytokine, complement component 3, and caspase-3, and regulates microRNAs associated with intestinal damage after whole-body gamma-irradiation in combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G Kiang

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage following whole-body γ-irradiation in a combined injury (CI model increases mortality compared to whole-body γ-irradiation alone (RI. The decreased survival in CI is accompanied by increased bone marrow injury, decreased hematocrit, and alterations of miRNA in the kidney. In this study, our aim was to examine cytokine homeostasis, susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection, and intestinal injury. More specifically, we evaluated the interleukin-6 (IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, Flt-3 ligand, and corticosterone. CD2F1 male mice received 8.75 Gy 60Co gamma photons (0.6 Gy/min, bilateral which was followed by a hemorrhage of 20% of the blood volume. In serum, RI caused an increase of IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-18, G-CSF, CM-CSF, eotaxin, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP, RANTES, and TNF-α, which were all increased by hemorrhage alone, except IL-9, IL-17A, and MCP-1. Nevertheless, CI further elevated RI-induced increases of these cytokines except for G-CSF, IFN- γ and RANTES in serum. In the ileum, hemorrhage in the CI model significantly enhanced RI-induced IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-18, and TNF-α concentrations. In addition, Proteus mirabilis Gram(- was found in only 1 of 6 surviving RI mice on Day 15, whereas Streptococcus sanguinis Gram(+ and Sphingomonas paucimobilis Gram(- were detected in 2 of 3 surviving CI mice (with 3 CI mice diseased due to inflammation and infection before day 15 at the same time point. Hemorrhage in the CI model enhanced the RI-induced increases in C3 and decreases in CRP concentrations. However, hemorrhage alone did not alter the basal levels, but hemorrhage in the CI model displayed similar increases in Flt-3 ligand levels as RI did. Hemorrhage alone altered the basal levels of corticosterone early after injury, which then returned to the baseline, but in RI mice and CI mice the increased corticosterone

  1. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Mitigates Hematopoietic Radiation Syndrome and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Followed by Wound Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.

  2. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  3. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  4. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. SU-E-T-366: Estimation of Whole Body Dose From Cranial Irradiation From C and Perfexion Series Gamma Knife Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S [Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Andersen, A; Lulu, B; Das, I [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Cheng, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) B & C series contains 201 Cobalt-60 sources with a helmet. The new model, Perfexion uses 192 Cobalt-60 sources without a helmet; using IRIS system for collimation and stereotactic guidance to deliver SRS to brain tumors. Relative dose to extracranial organs at risk (OARs) is measured in phantom in this study for Perfexion and C-series GK. Materials & Methods: Measurements were performed in a Rando anthropomorphic phantom on both systems using a large ion chamber (Keithley-175) for each collimator. The Keithley-175 cc ion chamber was sandwiched between phantom slices at various locations in the phantom to correspond to different extracranial OARs (thyroid, heart, kidney, ovary and testis, etc.) The dose measurement was repeated with OSL detectors for each position and collimator. Results: A large variation is observed in the normalized dose between these two systems. The dose beyond the housing falls off exponentially for Perfexion. Dose beyond the C-series GK housing falls off exponentially from 0–20cm then remains relatively constant from 20–40cm and again falls off with distance but less rapidly. The variation of extracranial dose with distance for each collimator is found to be parallel to each other for both systems. Conclusion: Whole body dose is found to vary significantly between these systems. It is important to measure the extracranial dose, especially for young patients. It is estimated that dose falls off exponentially from the GK housing and is about 1% for large collimators at 75 cm. The dose is two-orders of magnitude smaller for the 4mm collimator. However, this small dose for patient may be significant radiologically.

  6. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  7. Thyroid and Whole-Body Dose Reconstruction in Russia Following the Chernobyl Accident: Review of Progress and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V.; Tysb, A.; Ivannikov, A.; Kondrashov, A.; Tikunov, D.; Iaskova, E.; Shakhtarin, V.; Petin, D.; Parshkov, E.; Chernichenko, L.; Snykov, V.; Orlov, M.; Gavrihn, Yu.; Khrousch, V.; Shinkarev, S

    1998-07-01

    The results of direct measurements of radioactive iodine content in the human thyroid gland (in Bryansk and Kaluga regions, Russia) and also available data on {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs contamination of the soil were used for investigation of correlations between the mean thyroid dose for adults in settlements and local levels of {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 131}I soil contamination. On the basis of this analysis a model was developed showing how to evaluate retrospectively the thyroid absorbed doses. For individual dose reconstruction using an 'age/milk' scale, special questioning of inhabitants was carried out. Mean dose values in the exposed population of each contaminated Russian settlement were evaluated using the model. The total collective dose due to internal exposure of the thyroid gland by iodine radionuclides equates to 106,500 person.Gy in the population of the most contaminated territories of four Russian regions. The maximum value was found in the Bryansk region (73,000 person.Gy). New data concerning the delay in pasturing in different regions as well as time dependencies of the fallout were taken into account. As a result the dose estimations differ from previous published data. Comparisons between the developed method and the other independent approaches indicate a concordance within a factor 3. For application of the EPR tooth enamel dosimetry on a wide scale, estimation of accumulated external doses are demonstrated and analysed. There were about 2500 tooth samples measured from the contaminated region as well as from the non-contaminated territories of Russia. The investigated factors are: (1) effect of solar light on front teeth; (2) correction for the energy dependence of the EPR response; (3) presence in the enamel of some intrinsic signals; (4) age dependent doses due to natural background radiation. The average values of EPR dose with special account taken of correction factors are presented. The tendency of average doses to grow with

  8. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  9. week whole-body vibration training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in this study therefore indicate that WBVT could be used as an ffective training modality to improve cardiovascular function in adult males. As such, WBVT is recommended for use in sedentary adults given its benefits. Keywords: Whole-body vibration training, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiovascular responses.

  10. Whole-body MRI screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, Ralf [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Hosten, Norbert (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald (Germany). Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2014-07-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  11. Estimating {sup 137}Cs ingestion doses to Saamis in Kautokeino (Norway) using whole body counting vs. dietary survey results and food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Bergan, T.; Mehli, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    From 1965 to 1990 whole body measurements were carried out on an annual basis. Since then, 3-year cycles have been followed. In most years, the reindeer keepers have provided samples of reindeer meat for radiocaesium analysis. In 1989-1990 and 1999 dietary surveys were performed in conjunction with the whole-body monitoring. Earlier diet information is available from a separate study in 1963. Rough estimates of the radiocaesium intake by the studied population in Kautokeino have indicated that the dietary surveys have overestimated the radiocaesium intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the available information from Kautokeino, and to derive some conclusions regarding the reindeer meat consumption by today's reindeer keepers, and what {sup 137}Cs ingestion doses they are exposed to. (LN)

  12. Is Whole-Body Computed Tomography the Standard Work-up for Severely-Injured Children? Results of a Survey among German Trauma Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J; Reising, K; Kuminack, K; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body computed tomography is accepted as the standard procedure in the primary diagnostic of polytraumatised adults in the emergency room. Up to now there is still controversial discussion about the same algorithm in the primary diagnostic of children. The aim of this study was to survey the participation of German trauma-centres in the care of polytraumatised children and the hospital dependant use of whole-body computed tomography for initial patient work-up. A questionnaire was mailed to every Department of Traumatology registered in the DGU (German Trauma Society) databank. We received 60,32% of the initially sent questionnaires and after applying exclusion criteria 269 (53,91%) were applicable to statistical analysis. In the three-tiered German hospital system no statistical difference was seen in the general participation of children polytrauma care between hospitals of different tiers (p = 0.315). Even at the lowest hospital level 69,47% of hospitals stated to participate in polytrauma care for children, at the intermediate and highest level hospitals 91,89% and 95,24% stated to be involved in children polytrauma care, respectively. Children suspicious of multiple injuries or polytrauma received significantly fewer primary whole-body CTs in lowest level compared to intermediate level hospitals (36,07% vs. 56,57%; p = 0.015) and lowest level compared to highest level hospitals (36,07% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.001). Comparing the use of whole-body CT in intermediate to highest level hospitals a not significant increase in its use could be seen in highest level hospitals (56,57% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.174). According to our survey, taking care of polytraumatised children in Germany is not limited to specialised hospitals or a defined hospital level-of-care. Additionally, there is no established radiologic standard in work-up of the polytraumatised child. However, in higher hospital care -levels a higher percentage of hospitals employs whole-body CTs for primary

  13. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motmans, R

    2012-01-01

    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.

  14. PETRRA: Preliminary experimental results from the first full size detector and dead time simulation of the count rate performance of a unique whole body PET camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D.; Wells, K.; Ott, R.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.; Tappern, G. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The design and construction of the first of two BaF{sub 2}-TMAE large area detectors to be incorporated in a unique double headed whole body PET system (PETRRA) has been completed. Preliminary experimental work carried out with the first large area detector shows an absolute detection efficiency of 20.5% and a time resolution of 3.5ns (FWHM) and 8.0ns (FWTM), using 8mm thick scintillation crystals. An analytical model of the electronic read-out system has been developed to investigate the rate capability of the new scanner. This model predicts that under typical imaging conditions, with 40MBq of activity in the field of view, the proposed scanner will acquire coincidence data at 20--25kcps.

  15. Increasing bone sclerosis during bortezomib therapy in multiple myeloma patients: results of a reduced-dose whole-body MDCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Maximilian; Weisel, Katja; Grandjean, Caroline; Oehrlein, Katharina; Zago, Manola; Spira, Daniel; Horger, Marius

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the frequency, location, extent, and patterns of bone sclerosis occurring in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) during bortezomib-based therapy. From June 2003 through December 2011, 593 whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies were performed of 79 consecutive patients receiving bortezomib. The median surveillance time was 21 months (range, 3-67 months). Baseline studies were compared with follow-up studies during therapy (follow-up 1), at the end of therapy (follow-up 2), and 12 months after cessation of bortezomib therapy (follow-up 3). We recorded any sclerotic change occurring inside or along the margins of the osteolytic lesions, in the cancellous bone, or inside preexistent medullary or extramedullary lesions. The time point of occurrence of bone sclerosis was correlated with the best hematologic response category. Fourteen (17.7%) patients developed focal (n = 11) or diffuse (n = 3) bone sclerosis. The time window from bortezomib initiation to radiographic detection of bone sclerosis was 8 months (SD, 7 months). Sclerosis occurred at multiple sites (n = 7) or at an isolated site (n = 7). On subsequent whole-body reduced-dose MDCT studies, sclerosis further increased in seven (50%) patients. Hematologic best response during bortezomib treatment was complete response (n = 1), very good partial response (n = 2), partial response (n = 8), and stable disease (n = 3). Radiologic response at the time of sclerosis detection was partial response (n = 8), stable disease (n = 2), and progressive disease (n = 4). Bone remineralization may occur during bortezomib-based therapy for MM in a substantial proportion of patients. The extent, location, and patterns of sclerosis differ among patients and are unpredictable. Sclerosis was documented even in patients showing suboptimal hematologic response.

  16. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Panabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stengel, S; Kemmler, W; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2011-01-01

    We determined whether the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and falls can be enhanced by whole body vibration (WBV). In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV. WBV is a new approach to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. In the "Erlangen Longitudinal Vibration Study" (ELVIS), we investigated whether WBV enhances the effect of multifunctional exercise on BMD and falls. One hundred fifty-one postmenopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to a: (1) conventional training group (TG); (2) conventional training group including vibration (TGV); and (3) wellness control group (CG). TG conducted an exercise program consisting of 20 min dancing aerobics, 5 min balance training, 20 min functional gymnastics, and 15 min dynamic leg-strength training on vibration plates (without vibration) twice a week. TGV performed an identical exercise regimen with vibration (25-35 Hz) during the leg-strengthening sequence. CG performed a low-intensity wellness program. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine at baseline and follow-up using the DXA method. Falls were recorded daily via the calendar method. After 18 months, an increase in BMD at the lumbar spine was observed in both training groups (TGV: +1.5% vs. TG: +2.1%). The difference between the TG and the CG (1.7%) was significant. At the hip no changes were determined in either group. The fall frequency was significantly lower in TGV (0.7 falls/person) compared with CG (1.5), whereas the difference between TG (0.96) and CG was not significant. A multifunctional training program had a positive impact on lumbar BMD. The application of vibration did not enhance these effects. However, only the training including WBV affected the number of falls significantly.

  18. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  19. The effect of MR surface coils on PET quantification in whole-body PET/MR: results from a pseudo-PET/MR phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, L; Quick, H H; Bockisch, A; Herzog, H; Beyer, T

    2011-05-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is a prerequisite for high-quality positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. In lack of in-gantry transmission (TX) sources, the exact position of the RF coils is unknown in PET/MR, and may, therefore, lead to false attenuation correction (AC) of the emission (EM) data. The authors assess lesion and background quantification in AC-PET by mimicking different PET/MR imaging situations using a whole-body (WB) PET-only tomograph. Phantom experiments were performed on a PET tomograph with 68 Ge-rod TX sources. First, a 15-cm plastic cylinder was filled uniformly with [18F]-FDG to simulate a head study. Second, a NEMA NU-2001 image quality phantom (35 x 25 x 25 cm3) was filled uniformly with [18F]-FDG to simulate torso imaging. The phantom contained six lesions (10-38 mm diameter, lesion-to-background ratio 6:1) centred around a 5 cm diameter lung insert. EM and TX measurements were acquired with and without MR head (cylinder) and surface (NU-2001 phantom) RF coils in place. The following imaging situations were mimicked in both head and torso phantom studies: (1) PET scan without MR coils in EM and TX for reference, (2) PET scan with coils in both EM and TX, and (3) PET scan with coils in EM but without coils in TX. Two more set-ups were performed for the torso phantom: (4) PET scan with coils in EM only and phantom shifted slightly compared to (3), and (5) PET scan with coils in EM and TX following local displacement of the surface coils. PET EM data (1)-(4) were corrected for attenuation and scatter using cold TX data. Imaging situations (1)-(3) were repeated with the cylinder phantom and head coil in a combined PET/MR prototype system employing template-based AC. Head phantom: In case the MR head coils were not accounted for during AC (3), central and peripheral background activity concentration was underestimated by 13%-19% when compared to the reference setup (1). The effects of MR coil

  20. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  1. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  2. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  3. Whole-body gamma irradiation effect on rat cerebral nitric oxide (NO) concentrations; Effet de l`irradiation gamma globale sur les concentrations de l`oxyde nitrique (NO) cerebral chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, D.; Fidier, N.; Roux, A.; Laval, J.D.; Montmayer, A.; Buguet, A.; Fatome, M.; Cespuglio, R.

    1995-12-31

    The functional radiosensitivity of the central nervous system can be seen in the early modifications of many electrophysiological and neurochemical parameters, even or doses of irradiation well bellow know to induce the classical neurological syndrome. Using a voltametric method, which allows in vivo nitric oxide (NO) measurement in rat brain, we observed an early increase of NO concentration at the cortex level (60-300 %), at the beginning or immediately after the gamma global exposure (15 Gy). These preliminary experiments should be confirmed, but different hypotheses could be envisaged to explain this NO increase, like an activation of glutamatergic pathway. (author). 2 refs.

  4. Detecting the relevance to performance of whole-body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Daisuke; Takiyama, Ken

    2017-11-15

    Goal-directed whole-body movements are fundamental in our daily life, sports, music, art, and other activities. Goal-directed movements have been intensively investigated by focusing on simplified movements (e.g., arm-reaching movements or eye movements); however, the nature of goal-directed whole-body movements has not been sufficiently investigated because of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. One open question is how to overcome high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy to achieve the desired performance. It is possible to approach the question by quantifying how the motions of each body part at each time point contribute to movement performance. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify an explicit relation between each motion element (the motion of each body part at each time point) and performance as a result of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. The current study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the relevance of each motion element to the performance. The current findings indicate that linear regression may be used to quantify this relevance without considering the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of whole-body motion.

  5. Whole-body MRI: comprehensive evaluation on a 48-channel 3T MRI system in less than 40 minutes. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Mateus de Andrade; Semelka, Richard C.; Bamrungchart, Saraporn; Stallings, Clifton, E-mail: richsem@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Elias Junior, Jorge [Imaging and Medical Physics Center, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Dale, Brian M. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Cary, NC (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate a comprehensive MRI protocol that investigates for cancer, vascular disease, and degenerative/inflammatory disease from the head to the pelvis in less than 40 minutes on a new generation 48-channel 3T system. Materials and Methods: All MR studies were performed on a 48-channel 3T MR scanner. A 20-channel head/neck coil, two 18-channel body arrays, and a 32-channel spine array were employed. A total of 4 healthy individuals were studied. The designed protocol included a combination of single-shot T2-weighted sequences, T1-weighted 3D gradient echo pre- and post-gadolinium. All images were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists independently for overall image quality. Results: The image quality for cancer was rated as excellent in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, pelvic organs, and brain, and rated as fair in the colon and breast. For vascular diseases ratings were excellent in the aorta, major branch vessel origins, inferior vena cava, portal and hepatic veins, rated as good in pulmonary arteries, and as poor in the coronary arteries. For degenerative/inflammatory diseases ratings were excellent in the brain, liver and pancreas. The inter-observer agreement was excellent. Conclusion: A comprehensive and time efficient screening for important categories of disease processes may be achieved with high quality imaging in a new generation 48-channel 3T system. (author)

  6. Whole-body MRI: comprehensive evaluation on a 48-channel 3T MRI system in less than 40 minutes. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus de Andrade Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a comprehensive MRI protocol that investigates for cancer, vascular disease, and degenerative/inflammatory disease from the head to the pelvis in less than 40 minutes on a new generation 48-channel 3T system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All MR studies were performed on a 48-channel 3T MR scanner. A 20-channel head/neck coil, two 18-channel body arrays, and a 32-channel spine array were employed. A total of 4 healthy individuals were studied. The designed protocol included a combination of single-shot T2-weighted sequences, T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo pre- and post-gadolinium. All images were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists independently for overall image quality. RESULTS: The image quality for cancer was rated as excellent in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, pelvic organs, and brain, and rated as fair in the colon and breast. For vascular diseases ratings were excellent in the aorta, major branch vessel origins, inferior vena cava, portal and hepatic veins, rated as good in pulmonary arteries, and as poor in the coronary arteries. For degenerative/inflammatory diseases ratings were excellent in the brain, liver and pancreas. The inter-observer agreement was excellent. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive and time efficient screening for important categories of disease processes may be achieved with high quality imaging in a new generation 48-channel 3T system.

  7. Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

  8. Acute effects of varying whole body vibration exposure on jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to result in rapid improvement in muscle strength and power. However, WBV studies have utilised sedentary individuals as participants and research is limited on athletes for whom strength and power are their primary assets in sport. Utilising WBV as part of a training ...

  9. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  10. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results.

  12. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

    2014-12-01

    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  13. Whole-body MRI evaluation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris G.; Carrino, John A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of FSHD has stimulated interest in developing biomarkers of disease severity. Methods Two groups of MRI scans were analyzed: whole-body scans from 13 subjects with FSHD, and upper and lower extremity scans from 34 subjects with FSHD who participated in the MYO-029 clinical trial. Muscles were scored for fat infiltration and edema-like changes. Fat infiltration scores were compared to muscle strength and function. Results Our analysis reveals a distinctive pattern of both frequent muscle involvement and frequent sparing in FSHD. Averaged fat infiltration scores for muscle groups in the legs correlated with quantitative muscle strength and 10-meter walk times. Discussion Advances in MRI technology allow for the acquisition of rapid, high-quality whole-body imaging in diffuse muscle disease. This technique offers a promising disease biomarker in FSHD and other muscle diseases. PMID:25641525

  14. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  15. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  16. Effect of two graded doses of whole-body X-irradiation and radioprotection by the use of S-phenethyl formamidino 4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Pandeya, S.N.

    1983-10-01

    The protection offered by a newly synthesized compound (S-phenethyl-formamidino-4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride) against radiation effects on DNA, RNA and protein biosynthetic processes in the brain, and on metabolites of 5-HT and nor-adrenalin, i.e., 5-HIAA and VMA, in the urine, including the radiobiological damage to thyroid and testes, was evaluated. The use of the compound prior to irradiation prevented radiation-induced changes in the thyroid and testes. The radiation-induced alterations in the pattern of DNA, RNA, protein in the brain, and in 5-HIAA and VMA in urine could be averted by treatment with this compound prior to each dose of X-irradiation.

  17. Comparison of the effects of partial- or whole-body exposures to ¹⁶O particles on cognitive performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Gomes, Stacey M

    2014-03-01

    Studies using a ground-based system (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory) to examine the effects of exposure to high-energy charged particles or HZE particles on cognitive performance have interchangeably used whole-body exposures or exposures restricted to the head of the subject. For this study, we hypothesized that different types of exposure such as whole body vs. head only vs. body only might modulate the impact of irradiation on cognitive performance in different ways with the resulting cognitive performance outcomes being either independent of exposure type or strongly dependent on exposure type with each producing performance outcomes. To test these possibilities, three groups of rats were exposed to ¹⁶O particles (1,000 MeV/n): (1) head only; (2) body only; (3) whole body. Cognitive performance was measured using the elevated plus-maze, novel object recognition, spatial location memory and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule. The results indicated that the performance of the rats on the spatial location memory task was markedly different when they received head-only irradiation compared to whole-body exposure. For the operant responding task, irradiation of the whole body resulted in a more severe performance decrement than exposures restricted to the head. The results are discussed in terms of nontargeted effects of HZE particles and the findings suggest that studies that utilize different patterns of exposure may not be directly comparable and that astronauts may be at a greater risk for HZE particle-induced cognitive deficits than previously thought.

  18. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Paul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kohse, Gordon [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  19. A whole body statistical shape model for radio frequency simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lin; Ali, Khaleda; Brizzi, Alessio; Keegan, Jennifer; Hao, Yang; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The development of ultra low power wireless sensors for customized wearable and implantable medical devices requires patient specific models for radio frequency simulation to understand wave propagation in the body. In practice, the creation of a patient specific whole-body model is difficult and time consuming to create. It is therefore necessary to establish a method for studying a population in a statistical manner. In this paper, we present a statistical shape model for the whole body for RF simulation. It is built from 10 male and 10 female subjects of varying size and height. This model has the ability to instantiate a new surface mesh with the parameters allowed by the training set. This model would provide shapes of varying sizes for studies, without the requirement of obtaining subject specific whole body models. Results from finite-differences time-domain simulation are presented on the extreme shapes from the model and demonstrate the need for a full understanding of the range in body shapes.

  20. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  1. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  2. Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of whole-body vibration training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paohung Chung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

  3. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  4. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Gözde; K. Alparslan ERMAN

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration training, the person’s entire body on a platform, creates a vibration that may affect the muscles and bones. Despite the vibration used of massage and treatment since ancient times, it was used as a training method in recent years and became very popular and has attracted the attention of researchers. Whole body vibration training used both sport science with the aim to improve performance and in the fields of medicine for sports therapy. Whole body vibration training bri...

  5. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tania C.M.; Terreri, Maria Teresa A.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  6. A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    continues to be difficult, whether the density is a result of fibrocystic diseases or young age. Accurate detection of very small breast tumors (2...DAMD17-02-1-0461 TITLE: A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wai-Hoi...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0461

  7. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tania C M; Lederman, Henrique; Terreri, Maria Teresa A; Kaste, Sue C; Hilario, Maria Odete E

    2010-09-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis.

  8. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  9. Mouse whole-body organ mapping by non-rigid registration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Green, Heather; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Automatic small animal whole-body organ registration is challenging because of subject's joint structure, posture and position difference and loss of reference features. In this paper, an improved 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method is applied for mouse whole-body skeleton registration and lung registration. A geodesic path based non-rigid registration method is proposed for mouse torso skin registration. Based on the above registration methods, a novel non-rigid registration framework is proposed for mouse whole-body organ mapping from an atlas to new scanned CT data. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the method on lung and skin registration. A whole-body organ mapping was performed on three target data and the selected organs were compared with the manual outlining results. The robust of the method has been demonstrated.

  10. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  11. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  12. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...

  13. Multi-Party, Whole-Body Interactions in Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study interrogates the contributions of multi-party, whole-body interactions to students' collaboration and negotiation of mathematics ideas in a task setting called walking scale geometry, where bodies in interaction became complex resources for students' emerging goals in problem solving. Whole bodies took up overlapping roles representing…

  14. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  15. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a relatively new technique that can enable assessment of the overall inflammatory status of people with arthritis, but standards for image acquisition, definitions of key pathologies, and a quantification system are required. Our aim...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...... was initially performed, searching for WB-MRI studies in arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthritis, or enthesitis. These results were presented to a meeting of the MRI in Arthritis Working Group together with an MR image review. Following this, preliminary standards for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritides...

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  17. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography; Ganzkoerper-MR-Angiografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Harald; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2009-09-15

    Cardiovascular diseases still rank number one in terms of morbidity and mortality statistics in the western industrialized world. The majority of these diseases are due to atherosclerotic vessel wall changes. Atherosclerosis gets symptomatic in an advanced stage where vessel wall changes are apparent. Thus an early diagnosis of this disease is desirable. Especially atherosclerosis but also most of the inflammatory vessel diseases are known as systemic in nature. Magnetic resonance angiography offers an excellent and ethically justifiable method for non invasive imaging of the entire arterial vasculature without ionizing radiation. DSA comparable imaging results can be achieved nowadays. Possibilities to perform a whole body MR angiography and concerning imaging protocols are very dependent on the configuration of the available MR scanner. (orig.)

  18. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Gatta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  19. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Naoko; Takamura, Noboru; Ashizawa, Kiyoto; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Shunichi; Okumura, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    To understand the current situation of internal radiation exposure in the population around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), we examined the 137Cs body burden in six residents of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in 2002 and 2004 using the whole-body counter (WBC) at Nagasaki University (Japan). The data were compared with those of our previous study performed in 1993-1994 using the same method. In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137Cs peaks. The results of the present study suggests that residents around the CNPP are still exposed to chronic 137Cs internal irradiation, probably due to the daily consumption of contaminated domestic foods, but the risk of any disease by the irradiation is quite low. Long-term follow-up of WBC around the CNPP is useful and may contribute to radiation safety regulation together with a reduction of unnecessary radiophobia for the residents.

  20. Verificação das doses de radiação absorvidas durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula óssea, por meio de dosímetros termoluminescentes Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo José Giordani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão das doses de radiação absorvidas na terapia de transplantes de medula óssea durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 200 pastilhas de sulfato de cálcio com disprósio compactado com teflon (CaSO4 + teflon, calibradas no ar e no "phantom", selecionadas aleatoriamente e dispostas em grupos de cinco no corpo dos pacientes. As leituras dosimétricas foram efetuadas pela leitora Harshaw 4000A. Nove pacientes foram irradiados no corpo inteiro em paralelos e em opostos laterais, utilizando-se unidade de cobalto-60, modelo Alcion II, com taxa de dose de 0,80 Gy/min a 80,5 cm, {campo (10 × 10 cm²}. A dosimetria dessa unidade foi realizada com dosímetro Victoreen 500. Para a determinação da dose média em cada ponto avaliado usaram-se os fatores individuais de calibração das pastilhas no ar e no "phantom", colocando-se um "build up" de 2 mm para superficializar a dose à distância de 300 cm. RESULTADOS: Em 70% dos pacientes obteve-se variação de dose menor que 5% e em 30% dos pacientes essa variação foi inferior a 10%, quando comparados os valores medidos com aqueles calculados em cada ponto. Na cabeça ocorre absorção, em média, de 14% da dose administrada, e nos pulmões, acréscimo de 2% na dose administrada. Nos pacientes com distância látero-lateral maior que 35 cm as variações entre as doses calculadas e medidas podem chegar a 30% da dose desejada, sem o uso de filtros compensadores. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores medidos das doses absorvidas nos diversos pontos anatômicos, comparados aos valores desejados (teóricos, apresentam tolerância de ±10%, considerando-se as diferenças anatômicas existentes, quando utilizados os fatores de calibração individuais das pastilhas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred CaSO4:Dy + teflon

  1. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sebastian; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter

    2009-06-01

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  2. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ley@gmx.de; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  3. Role of rapid sequence whole-body MRI screening in SDH-associated hereditary paraganglioma families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Kory W; Kohlmann, Wendy; Gammon, Amanda; Slack, Heidi; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Baskin, Henry; Shaaban, Akram; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2014-06-01

    Patients with germline mutations in one of the SDH genes are at substantially increased risk of developing paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas (pheos), and other tumors (all combined referred to as SDH-related tumors). However, limited data exist on screening in SDH mutation carriers and no studies have evaluated whole-body MRI as a screening tool in asymptomatic patients. This was a single-center observational study. We evaluated the results of screening in 37 SDH carriers who underwent 45 whole-body MRIs and 47 biochemical tests. Screening included annual biochemical testing (catecholamines, metanephrines and chromogranin A) and biennial or annual rapid sequence whole-body MRI from the base of the skull to the pelvis beginning at age 10 years old. Six tumors (paragangliomas of the organ of Zuckerkandl, the aortocaval/vas deferens, of the carotid body times three, and a renal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed in five patients. In total, 13.5 % of all patients screened were diagnosed with SDH-related tumors. Whole-body MRI missed one tumor, while biochemical testing was normal in five patients with SDH-related tumors. The sensitivity of whole-body MRI was 87.5 % and the specificity was 94.7 %, while the sensitivity of biochemical testing was 37.5 % and the specificity was 94.9 %. Whole-body MRI had a higher sensitivity for SDH-related tumors than biochemical testing in patients undergoing screening due to their SDHB or SDHC mutation status. Whole-body MRI reduces radiation exposure compared to computed tomography scan and time compared to dedicated MRI of the head/neck, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis.

  4. Transient global amnesia following a whole-body cryotherapy session

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin Carrard; Anne Chantal Lambert; Daniel Genné

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), which consists of a short exposure to very cold and dry air in special 'cryo-chambers', is believed to reduce inflammation and musculoskeletal pain as well as improve athletes' recovery...

  5. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related fitness benefits; not only those associated with obesity, but also the reduction ... The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise intervention for health ..... muscular strength, muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. In addition ...

  6. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  7. Response of a Shadow-Shield Whole-Body Counter to a Variety of Physical Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviv, O; Spitz, H B; Datz, H; Haquin, G; Shamai, Y; Daniely, E; Yungrais, Z; Koch, J

    2017-05-01

    The performance characteristics of a shadow-shield whole-body counter system with an array of four high-resolution germanium detectors using whole-body and organ-specific (lungs, liver, head, knee and thyroid) physical phantoms are described. Detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities for selected radionuclides and several measurement configurations are presented. Results demonstrate that the system meets the requirements for direct radio bioassay and that detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities are similar in magnitude to other whole-body (or organ) counting systems installed in fully shielded structures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Analysis of whole-body vibration on rheological models for tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crastiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibrations have become a very popular method in recent years, both in physical therapy and in sports. This popularity is due to the fact that, as a result of analyzing the groups of subjects, the effects of small amplitude vibration and low frequency vibration, it was found an increase in the force developed by the feet, a hardening of bone strength or an increase in bone density. In this paper we propose to give a possible explanation of the stress relieving in muscle and/or bone after whole body vibration treatment. To do this we consider some rheological models which after whole body vibrations and after the analysis of their response lead to various experiments.

  9. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  10. Whole-body impedance control of wheeled humanoid robots

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introducing mobile humanoid robots into human environments requires the systems to physically interact and execute multiple concurrent tasks. The monograph at hand presents a whole-body torque controller for dexterous and safe robotic manipulation. This control approach enables a mobile humanoid robot to simultaneously meet several control objectives with different pre-defined levels of priority, while providing the skills for compliant physical contacts with humans and the environment. After a general introduction into the topic of whole-body control, several essential reactive tasks are developed to extend the repertoire of robotic control objectives. Additionally, the classical Cartesian impedance is extended to the case of mobile robots. All of these tasks are then combined and integrated into an overall, priority-based control law. Besides the experimental validation of the approach, the formal proof of asymptotic stability for this hierarchical controller is presented. By interconnecting the whole-body ...

  11. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, F; Feveile, H; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole......-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions...

  12. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  13. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  14. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  15. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  16. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in lambs fed roughage diets supplemented with various levels of protein. and to compare these amino acids as tracers of whole-body ... further protein supplementation, the efficiency of protein synthesis was still sub-optimal, possibly as a result of an ..... production of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in the rumen of sheep.

  17. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    Abstract Background and purpose: Spastic diplegia is a common form of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walk- ing ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, ...

  18. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that 12-weeks’ intervention of whole-body vibration training can increase knee extensors strength and decrease spasticity with beneficial effects on walking speed and motor development in spastic diplegic CP children.

  19. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  20. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern...

  1. Do whole-body vibrations affect spatial hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Guastavino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along the vertical axis on spatial hearing. The first was a free-field, narrow-band noise localisation experiment with 5- Hz vibration at 0.88 ms(-2). The other experiments used headphone-based sound lateralisation tasks. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of vibration frequency (4 vs. 8 Hz) at two different magnitudes (0.83 vs. 1.65 ms(-2)) on a left-right discrimination one-interval forced-choice task. Experiment 3 assessed the effect on a two-interval forced-choice location discrimination task with respect to the central and two peripheral reference locations. In spite of the broad range of methods, none of the experiments show a reliable effect of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance. We report three experiments that used both free-field localisation and headphone lateralisation tasks to assess their sensitivity to whole-body vibrations at low frequencies. None of the experiments show a reliable effect of either frequency or magnitude of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance.

  2. Interventions for chronic low back pain: whole body vibration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study explored, described and compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional spinal stabilisation exercises in persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used to delineate the base of volunteers gathered by a combination ...

  3. Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of Brazilian healthy soldiers. Danielle Soares Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Samuel Brandão Sobrinho Neto, Laisa Liane Paineiras Domingos, Patrícia Lopes de Souza, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Glenda Dias Costa, Cláudia Ferreira de Figueiredo, ...

  4. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  5. The effect of whole-body vibration training on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on the use of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on some health-related risk factors such as body composition and biochemical parameters is limited. The purpose of the study was therefore, to assess the effect of progressive WBVT on selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy ...

  6. Whole body vibration improves attention and motor performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation via mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. It is assumed that WBV induces sensory stimulation in cortical brain regions through the activation of skin and muscle receptors responding to the vibration. The effects of WBV on muscle strength are ...

  7. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  8. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. Researchers are divided on the safety and effectiveness of WBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV on muscle activation. Healthy university students (N = 11; ...

  9. Back disorders and whole-body vibration at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the relation between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and the incidence and prevalence of disorders of the spine and the back. It focuses on sickness absence and permanente work disability of crane operators, tractor drivers, helicopter pilots, forklift

  10. Visuospatial memory computations during whole-body rotations in roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, S. van; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van; Medendorp, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a memory-saccade task to test whether the location of a target, briefly presented before a whole-body rotation in roll, is stored in egocentric or in allocentric coordinates. To make this distinction, we exploited the fact that subjects, when tilted sideways in darkness, make systematic

  11. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  12. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  13. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  14. Digital monitoring by whole body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy detects thinner melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marius; Oakley, Amanda

    2010-12-01

    Population screening for melanoma remains controversial. There are no studies demonstrating that population screening increases survival. As prognosis of melanoma is directly related to Breslow thickness, a surrogate marker of survival is thickness of melanoma. The development of several self-referred, whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging services reflects the public's concern regarding melanoma. To assess the ability of one of these services to detect melanoma at an early, thin stage. Demographic and histological details from 100 melanomas diagnosed through self-referred whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging service compared to those diagnosed through traditional methods from data held by the New Zealand Cancer Registry. There were 52 invasive and 48 in-situ melanomas: 90% superficial spreading type, 6% lentigo-maligna type and 4% nodular on histology. Forty-eight were diagnosed on first visit; the remainder by serial digital dermoscopy. Thirty-five percent of patients reported having had previous primary melanoma. In 60%, patients had been concerned by the lesion, the rest (40%) detected solely by screening. Patients diagnosed by whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy screening had thinner melanomas compared to the Registry data: 69% Melanomas detected by self-referred, whole-body photography with sequential digital dermoscopy service are thinner than melanomas detected by traditional diagnostic methods. It remains to be determined whether earlier diagnosis results in improved survival.

  15. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%. One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

  16. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  17. Towards whole-body fluorescence imaging in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Piper

    Full Text Available Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (~10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively. When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases.

  18. Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, GF; Iwaniec, UT; Turner, RT; Rosen, CJ; Widrick, JJ

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Methods/Design Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=7–10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30–50 Hz (6mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. Results There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control groups. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean ± s.d.; 207 ± 10 vs 222 ± 15 g, Pbody fat (20.8 ± 3.8 vs 26.8 ± 5.9 g, Pbody fat (10.2 ± 1.7 vs 12 ± 2.0%, Pbody vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33 ± 0.05 vs 0.26 ± 0.03 g, Pbody vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption. PMID:18663370

  19. Effect of fatigue on the precision of a whole-body pointing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Schieppati, M; Pozzo, T

    2006-01-01

    We addressed the issue of the possible degradation of the aiming precision of a whole-body pointing task, when movement coordination is deranged by selective fatigue of the postural task component. The protocol involved continuous repetition (0.1 Hz frequency) of rapid whole-body pointing trials toward a target located beyond arm length, starting from stance and requiring knee flexion. Six healthy human subjects repeated the trials until exhaustion. Such repetition led to electromyography signs of fatigue in rectus femoris (active in body lowering and raising), but not in deltoid (prime mover for arm reaching component). Rectus femoris fatigue affected the equilibrium control strategy, since the anteroposterior displacement of the center of foot pressure was reduced during the fatigued compared with the initial trials. Conversely, the precision of the aiming movement was unaffected by the rectus femoris fatigue in spite of changes in finger trajectory. Trunk inclination at the end of whole-body pointing task and hip and shoulder marker trajectories were unaffected by rectus femoris fatigue. Control experiments were made, whereby fatiguing repetitions of the postural component of the task were performed without finger pointing, except in the first and last five complete whole-body pointing trials. The results were not different from those of the main protocol, except for a transient change in finger trajectory in the very first trial after fatigue. The CNS takes into account the state of postural muscles' fatigue and the concurrently ensuing equilibrium constraints in order to appropriately modify whole-body pointing strategy and keep pointing precision at the target.

  20. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  1. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.

  3. Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole body by riboflavin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was inocu- lated with 104 or 105 parasites/mL and riboflavin treated with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (40-160 J/mL red blood cells [mLRBCs]). Parasite genome integrity was assessed by quantitative amplification inhibition assays, and P. falciparum viability was monitored in vitro. Results Riboflavin alone did ...

  4. Thermal, circulatory, and neuromuscular responses to whole-body cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, T. (Tarja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine thermal (body temperature, thermal sensation and comfort ratings), circulatory (blood pressure, heart rate variability) and neuromuscular performance responses to whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, -110 °C). Altogether 66 healthy subjects were exposed to WBC for two minutes. The acute and long-term changes were examined, when the subjects were exposed to WBC three times a week during three months. Skin temperatures decreased very rapidl...

  5. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of the dose results in whole body and thyroid caused by {sup 131} I using the software AIDE, DOSINT and ACCUSCAN; Comparacion de los resultados de dosis en cuerpo entero y tiroides causada por {sup 131} I utilizando los softwares AIDE, DOSINT y ACCUSCAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero P, E.; Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: eqp@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Due to the sharp incorporation of 3.7 MBq of {sup 131} I via oral for a patient, with the purpose of obtaining a thyroid gamma gram, it makes later a pursuit on to carry out the calculation of effective dose committed using the software AIDE, DOSINT and Accuscan that possesses the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and to compare the results of these. For this study it was carried out a pursuit of the biokinetic behavior of the radioisotope in the patient's body, measuring the activity with a whole-body counter of vertical sweeping, Canberra, model Accuscan Canberra trademark. The calibration of the system it was carried out using a RMC-II Canberra trademark phantom. The patient was accounted to different intervals of time starting from April 5 up to June 30, 2005. The Accuscan II program Canberra trademark, it was acquired with the whole-body system in 1992 by the ININ. The DOSINT program was elaborated by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards of Mexico and proportionate to the ININ in 2000. So much the DOSINT program as the Accuscan are based on the ICRP-26/30. The AIDE program was provided by the IAEA through the project IAEA-ARCAL-RLA/9/049-LXXVII - Harmonization of procedures of internal dosimetry in 2005. This program is based on the ICRP-78. The present activity in the urine was measured later starting from the third day of the incorporation of {sup 131} I to different intervals of time until the 87 th day. The measurements were carried out using a gamma spectrometer with a Ge Hp detector and beryllium window, with 27.4% of relative efficiency and graduate armor-plating. The calibration of the system it was carried out using a multi nuclides pattern packed in Marinelli geometry of 0.5 L, prepared by the Laboratory of Radioactive Patterns (LPR) of the INlN starting from a certified solution. (Author)

  7. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole-body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Stephan; Loehnert, Daniela [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany).; Schreiber, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    A large part of radionuclides to be evaluated in the frame of incorporation monitoring are gamma emitter that can be directly measured (in vivo). In order to reach the required detection limits for the relevant radionuclides in the short measuring time high effort is necessary for the shielding of natural radioactivity. The contribution describes planning, construction and installation of the shielding chamber for the new in vivo whole body counter in Rossendorf. First experiences and preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  9. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism...... resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets....

  10. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  11. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBouyarmane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI, motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  12. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  13. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  14. Whole body vibration in cystic fibrosis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J; Wust, M; Rawer, R; Schnabel, D; Armbrecht, G; Beller, G; Rembitzki, I; Wahn, U; Felsenberg, D; Staab, D

    2008-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), bone mass deficits as well as a lack of muscle mass and force have been described. The bone mass deficits are thought to be at least in part secondary to the reduced muscle mass. Whole body vibration has recently been suggested as an effective technique to increase muscle force and power. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the compliance and safety of a side-alternating, whole body vibration platform in patients with CF and to assess its effects on muscle force, muscle power, bone mass and lung function. Eleven adult CF patients participated in a six-months home-based training programme on a whole body vibration platform. Muscle force and power were assessed with three standard manoeuvres on a ground reaction force plate at regular intervals. Bone densitometry was performed at the spine, the radius and the tibia using quantitative computerized tomography. Regular cardiovascular monitoring did not show any critical drop in oxygen saturation or blood pressure. Lung function remained relatively constant with a median FEV1 change [% of norm] of -3.1% (range -7-20). Trabecular density at the spine and parameters of bone density and geometry at the radius and tibia did not show consistent changes. A median decrease of -0.3% (-31.0-17.9) for muscle force and a median increase of 4.7% (-16.4-74.5) for muscle power and 6.6% (-0.9-48.3) for velocity was noted in the two-leg jump. In the one-leg jump, a median increase of 6.7% (-8.5-24.3) for muscle force was measured. Whole body vibration was well tolerated in the majority of the study participants. Most patients were able to increase peak force in the one-leg jump. In the two-leg jump, velocity and muscle power increased with equal or decreased muscle force. This may indicate an improvement in neuromuscular and intramuscular co-ordination (and therefore efficiency) with less muscle force necessary to generate the same power.

  15. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Blasimann, A.; Fleuti, U.; Rufener, M.; Elfering, A.; Radlinger, L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. METHODS: Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An asse...

  16. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica...... of the plasma disappearance curve of a tracer, but mixing problems and flow-limited transport, as indicated by a PS ratio below that of the free diffusion coefficients, may be difficult to overcome, especially when using tracers of a low molecular weight....

  17. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Chruściak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA, according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods : The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60% and 20 men (40%. Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents, 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%, and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%. The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results: According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%, an improvement in 9 patients (18%, and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%. Conclusions : Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  18. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  19. Localised Muscle Tissue Oxygenation During Dynamic Exercise With Whole Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Daniel; Elwell, Clare; Jimenez, Alfonso; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. Key pointsWhole body vibration affects tissue oxygenation of the lateral gastrocnemius.The underlying mechanism could be either increased blood flow or a vasospastic response in the feet.The local metabolic cost of heel

  20. Selective COX2 inhibition improves whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, P-S; Tsai, H-C; Kuo, C-H; Chan, J Y-H; Shyu, J-F; Cheng, W-T; Liu, T-T

    2008-11-01

    The effects of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibition on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. Aims of this study were to examine the effects of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors on whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats, an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. The rats on regular or 60% fructose-enriched diets for 6 weeks were further divided into rats combined with or without piroxicam (a selective COX1 inhibitor) or celecoxib (a selective COX2 inhibitor) treatment for an additional 2 weeks. Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) with a tracer dilution method was performed at the end of the study. The present result showed that fructose-induced increases in systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly suppressed in rats treated with celecoxib but not piroxicam. In the EHC period, celecoxib significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in whole body glucose uptake, mainly by glucose storage. Hepatic glucose production and whole body glycolysis were not significantly changed among groups. Celecoxib but not piroxicam significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in glycogen synthase activities in red and white quadriceps muscles and insulin-stimulated membrane GLUT4 recruitment in soleus muscles. Celecoxib and piroxicam both significantly diminished fructose-induced increases in plasma thromboxane B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha; but only celecoxib treatment significantly attenuated a fructose-induced increase in 8-isoprostane levels. Plasma PGE metabolites were not different among groups. This study demonstrates that a therapeutic dose of celecoxib, but not piroxicam, could significantly attenuate fructose-induced whole body and muscular insulin resistance in rats.

  1. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  2. [Whole-body MRI and FDG-PET/CT imaging diagnostics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G P; Haug, A; Reiser, M F; Rist, C

    2010-04-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced a systemic approach to oncologic imaging compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as whole-body scanners at 1.5 Tesla and also recently 3 Tesla, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made WB-MRI clinically feasible. With this method dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, high spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage.PET/CT has established itself as a powerful modality in the staging of patients suffering from malignant tumors. In addition to the morphologic information provided by the CT component of this hybrid modality, the PET component contributes invaluable metabolic information, which greatly enhances accuracy in the assessment of lymphatic spread and viability of tumor tissue. Whole-body MR diffusion imaging is a novel and promising technique which may contribute to superior sensitivity in the detection of tumor manifestations. In the assessment of distant metastatic spread WB-MRI is highly sensitive and has advantages over PET/CT, especially in those tumors frequently spreading to the liver, bone or brain. WB-MRI is also very attractive as a radiation-free alternative for imaging of pediatric tumor patients in whom multiple follow-up examinations may be required.WB-MRI allows for precise assessment of the bone marrow and has been proven to be highly accurate for the staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma. In this article recent developments and applications of WB-MRI in oncologic imaging are addressed and compared to the results of PET/CT.

  3. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V. [State Research Center, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I. [Clinical Hospital No. 6 of Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux Roses (France)

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of {gamma}-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. {sup 241}Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy {gamma}-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for {sup 241}Am administered via injection and less than 10% for {sup 241}Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  4. Whole-body vibration exposure of occupational horseback riding in agriculture: A ranching example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoke; Trask, Catherine; Kociolek, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Horse riding is common in many occupations; however, there is currently no research evaluating exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock on horseback. Whole-body vibration was measured on a cattle rancher during two 30 min horseback rides using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on a western saddle. Vibration was summarized into standardized metrics, including the 8 hr equivalent root-mean-squared acceleration (A[8]) and the daily 4th power vibration dose value (VDV). The resulting exposures were compared to the exposure limit and action values provided by European Union Directive 2002/44/EC. The highest vibration for both rides was in the vertical axis, with average A(8) and VDV of 0.56 m/s 2 and 26.24 m/s 1.75 , respectively. The A(8) value indicated moderate risk while the VDV suggested high risk of harmful health effects. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock during occupational horseback riding may pose deleterious health risks and increased susceptibility to low back pain. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:215-220, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A G; Tabiev, V I; Rassulova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy. The study included 55 patients randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of the patients treated with the use of the common mineral baths, physiotherapy, therapeutic physical exercises, spinal massage, and whole body air-cryotherapy. Group 2 contained the patients who were treated in a similar way with the exception of whole body cryotherapy; they served as controls. Muscular disorders were diagnosed by means of functional muscular testing. The study has demonstrated the high prevalence of muscular disorders in the patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, it revealed the profile of such disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and showed significant correlation between the results of functional muscular testing, BASMI and BASFI indices as well as characteristics of chest excursions (pcryotherapy in comparison with the alternative therapeutic modalities employed in the present study. This therapeutic modality ensured the statistically more pronounced improvement of functional muscular testing parameters (pcryotherapy accounting for its corrective influence on the muscular disorders in the patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that the proposed approach can be recommended for the introduction in the combined therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

  6. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future.

  7. Assessment of whole-body retention to worker after accidental inhalation of {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: lucas.se@usp.b, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In June 2009, an incident occurred at the radiopharmaceutical production plant of the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), which resulted in internal contamination of one worker with particles containing Mo-99. The measurements were made in the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of IPEN. The counting system used for measuring high-energy gamma emitters comprises two thallium-activated sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detectors. The data used in this assessment include six whole body and five extra thoracic measurements over 21 days. The initial measurements have indicated retention of (136 {+-} 6) kBq and (25.1{+-} 1.6) kBq in whole body and extra thoracic measurements, respectively, after approximately one day from the incident. The effective half-lives obtained were (1.68 {+-} 0.08) d for whole-body and (1.78{+-}0.02) d for extra thoracic. The estimated effective dose was (0.049 {+-} 0.002) mSv. (author)

  8. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  9. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  10. Safety aspects of whole-body cryochamber and cryosauna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Piotrowska

    2017-12-01

    Interest in low temperature treatment is constantly increasing. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) devices are becoming available not only in medical centers but also in local gyms and spa centers. A new group of users are professional sport clubs where 3-minutes session of whole-body cryotherapy is post-training procedure to improve and speed up the recovery process. There are four different types of WBC devices available on the market and offered to commercial (non-medical) users. The American and European market is dominated by two of them: classic cryochambers and cryosaunas. Both constructions are supplied with liquid nitrogen. Low temperature inside classic cryochamber is produced by evaporating of liquid nitrogen in two or more heat exchangers. There is never a direct contact between user and cryogenic medium in any of system operation mode (closed supply system). Cryosauna is cooled down by filling with cold vapor of liquid nitrogen. Supply system is considered open because it allows for direct contact between user and cryogenic medium. Open supply system of cryosauna is primary and most questionable issue of its operational safety, particularly after tragic accident in October 2015. This paper presents the comparative analysis of classic cryochamber and cryosauna from safety point of view. Both devices have been analyzes and tested on existing systems in operation. Paper gives detailed analysis of constructions, supply systems and working parameters. Special attention has been focused to problem of oxygen deficiency hazard. Different failure or accident scenarios have been analyzed and discussed.

  11. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Internal absorbed dose estimation by a TLD method for -FDG and comparison with the dose estimates from whole body PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloar, Hossain M.; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Shidahara, Miho; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamadera, Akira; Itoh, Masatoshi

    1999-02-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) method has been proposed as a useful tool for estimating internal radiation absorbed dose in nuclear medicine. An efficient approach to verify the accuracy of the TLD method has been performed in this study. Under the standard protocol for 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose , whole body PET experiments and simultaneous body surface dose measurements by TLDs were performed on six normal volunteers. By using the body surface dose measured with TLDs, the cumulated activities of nine source organs were estimated with a mathematical unfolding technique for three different initial guesses. The accuracy of the results obtained by the TLD method was investigated by comparison with the actual cumulated activity of the same source organs measured by whole body PET. The cumulated activities of the source organs obtained by the TLD method and whole body PET show a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, , level of confidence, ) with each other. The mean effective doses in this study are obtained from the TLD method and obtained from the whole body PET. Good agreement between the results of the TLD method and whole body PET was observed.

  13. Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or Shouldn't I Get One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or shouldn't I ... What are the risks and benefits of whole-body CT screening? Many people believe incorrectly that a ...

  14. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  15. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this

  16. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers Samoori-Sakhvidi F (MSc* Barkhordari A (PhD** Dehghani A (PhD*** Tavakoli-Manesh S (MSc**** *Corresponding Author: MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ** Professor, Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran *** Professor, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran **** MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Abstract Introduction: One of the most common sources of whole body vibration are vehicles in which the driver is exposed to vibration caused by the vehicle and the road. Including the people who continuously exposure to whole-body vibration can be noted to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers during their work shift Encountered with numerous deleterious effects such as noise, vibration, air pollution, and psychological stress and long work shifts. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration in the taxi drivers can communicate with adverse effects such as reduce perception, annoyance, disturbance of vision and fine motor tasks, spinal cord injury, damage to the digestive and reproductive systems. The purpose of this study was cross - sectional study of whole body vibration exposure in Yazd city taxi drivers. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate exposure to whole body vibration in taxi drivers, vibration measurement Was carried out in 80 taxi from 3 vehicle (Samand-Peugeot 405 and Pridein 3 mileage groups, with 63 male drivers and 17 female drivers. parameters Including the vibration Weighing the acceleration frequency (rms, Equivalent acceleration (Aeq and vibration doseVDV in 3-axis was recorded. The results obtained were compared with the values recommended by the standard (ISO 2631-1. Results: The mean (rms acceleration

  17. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    , was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical FDG patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

  18. KEY RESULTS FROM IRRADIATION AND POST-IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF AGR-1 UCO TRISO FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Petti, David A.; Morris, Robert N.

    2016-11-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment was performed as the first test of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel in the US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment consisted of 72 right cylinder fuel compacts containing approximately 3×105 coated fuel particles with uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) fuel kernels. The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor for a total of 620 effective full power days. Fuel burnup ranged from 11.3 to 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom and time average, volume average irradiation temperatures of the individual compacts ranged from 955 to 1136°C. This paper focuses on key results from the irradiation and post-irradiation examination, which revealed a robust fuel with excellent performance characteristics under the conditions tested and have significantly improved the understanding of UCO coated particle fuel irradiation behavior within the US program. The fuel exhibited a very low incidence of TRISO coating failure during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing at temperatures up to 1800°C. Advanced PIE methods have allowed particles with SiC coating failure to be isolated and meticulously examined, which has elucidated the specific causes of SiC failure in these specimens. The level of fission product release from the fuel during irradiation and post-irradiation safety testing has been studied in detail. Results indicated very low release of krypton and cesium through intact SiC and modest release of europium and strontium, while also confirming the potential for significant silver release through the coatings depending on irradiation conditions. Focused study of fission products within the coating layers of irradiated particles down to nanometer length scales has provided new insights into fission product transport through the coating layers and the role various fission products may have on coating integrity. The broader implications of these results and the application of

  19. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-02-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this end, a variety of atlas-based segmentation strategies commonly used in medical image segmentation and pseudo-CT generation were implemented and evaluated in terms of whole-body bone segmentation accuracy. Bone segmentation was performed on 23 whole-body CT/MR image pairs via leave-one-out cross validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice criterion, global weighting atlas fusion methods provided moderate improvement of whole-body bone segmentation (DSC= 0.65 ± 0.05) compared to non-weighted IA (DSC= 0.60 ± 0.02). The local weighed atlas fusion approach using the MSD similarity measure outperformed the other strategies by achieving a DSC of 0.81 ± 0.03 while using the NCC and NMI measures resulted in a DSC of 0.78 ± 0.05 and 0.75 ± 0.04, respectively. Despite very long computation time, the extracted

  20. Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects.

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  2. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    , to bring performance to the level achieved on diagnostic CT and MR images in body-region-wise approaches. The intermodality approach fosters the use of already existing fuzzy models, previously created from diagnostic CT images, on PET/CT and other derived images, thus truly separating the modality-independent object assembly anatomy from modality-specific tissue property portrayal in the image. Results: Key ways of combining the above three basic ideas lead them to 15 different strategies for recognizing objects in PET/CT images. Utilizing 50 diagnostic CT image data sets from the thoracic and abdominal body regions and 16 whole-body PET/CT image data sets, the authors compare the recognition performance among these 15 strategies on 18 objects from the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis in object localization error and size estimation error. Particularly on texture membership images, object localization is within three voxels on whole-body low-dose CT images and 2 voxels on body-region-wise low-dose images of known true locations. Surprisingly, even on direct body-region-wise PET images, localization error within 3 voxels seems possible. Conclusions: The previous body-region-wise approach can be extended to whole-body torso with similar object localization performance. Combined use of image texture and intensity property yields the best object localization accuracy. In both body-region-wise and whole-body approaches, recognition performance on low-dose CT images reaches levels previously achieved on diagnostic CT images. The best object recognition strategy varies among objects; the proposed framework however allows employing a strategy that is optimal for each object.

  3. Intracranial and whole-body response of ceritinib in ALK inhibitor-naïve and previously ALK inhibitor-treated patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): updated results from the phase 1, multicentre, open-label ASCEND-1 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Wan; Mehra, Ranee; Tan, Daniel S W; Felip, Enriqueta; Chow, Laura Q M; Camidge, D Ross; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Sharma, Sunil; De Pas, Tommaso; Riely, Gregory J; Solomon, Benjamin J; Wolf, Jürgen; Thomas, Michael; Schuler, Martin; Liu, Geoffrey; Santoro, Armando; Sutradhar, Santosh; Li, Siyu; Szczudlo, Tomasz; Yovine, Alejandro; Shaw, Alice T

    2016-01-01

    entry in 124 patients. Of these, 94 (n=19 ALKi-naïve and n=75 ALKi-pretreated) were included in the retrospective analysis; intracranial disease control rate was 78·9% (15/19; 95% CI 54·4– 93·9) in ALKi-naïve patients and 65·3% (49/75; 95% CI 53·5–76·0) in ALKi-pretreated patients. Of the 94 patients included in the retrospective analysis, 11 had measurable brain lesions and no prior radiotherapy to the brain: 6 of these achieved a partial intracranial response. Safety was evaluated for all 246 patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Serious adverse events were recorded for 117 (47·6%) patients. The most common grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities were increased alanine aminotransferase and increased aspartate aminotransferase, occurring in 73 (29·7%) and 25 (10·2%) patients, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 non-laboratory adverse events were diarrhoea and nausea, both of which occurred in 15 (6.1%) patients. Two on-treatment deaths in the study were considered to be related to study drug by the investigators, one due to interstitial lung disease and one as a result of multi-organ failure that occurred in the context of infection and ischaemic hepatitis. Interpretation This study demonstrated clinically meaningful and durable responses in mainly heavily pretreated patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC (ALKi-naïve and ALKi-pretreated) receiving ceritinib 750 mg/day. Treatment with ceritinib also achieved both whole-body and intracranial efficacy in patients with brain metastases at baseline, a common site of disease progression in patients with NSCLC. The durable whole-body responses reported, together with the intracranial efficacy, support a clinical benefit for treatment with ceritinib in patients post-crizotinib, or as an alternative to crizotinib in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Funding Sponsored by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. PMID:26973324

  4. Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences: Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Andreas, Afshin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Reda, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Robinson, Justin [GroundWork Renewables Inc., Logan UT 84321 USA

    2016-10-07

    Accurate solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on instrument performance specifications, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methodologies and resulting differences provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these methods calibrate radiometers indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodologies, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from radiometers deployed for 10 months at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. These different methods of calibration resulted in a difference of +/-1% to +/-2% in solar irradiance measurements. Analyzing these differences will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the field radiometer data and will help develop a consensus on a standard for calibration. Further advancing procedures for precisely calibrating radiometers to world reference standards that reduce measurement uncertainties will help the accurate prediction of the output of planned solar conversion projects and improve the bankability of financing solar projects.

  5. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  6. Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses [C-NR: NUCLEAR & RADIOCHEMISTRY; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-08-07

    The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

  7. Whole Body Awareness for Controlling a Robotic Transfemoral Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Parri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Restoring locomotion functionality of transfemoral amputees is essential for early rehabilitation treatment and for preserving mobility and independence in daily life. Research in wearable robotics fostered the development of innovative active mechatronic lower-limb prostheses designed with the goal to reduce the cognitive and physical effort of lower-limb amputees in rehabilitation and daily life activities. To ensure benefits to the users, active mechatronic prostheses are expected to be aware of the user intention and properly interact in a closed human-in-the-loop paradigm. In the state of the art various cognitive interfaces have been proposed to online decode the user's intention. Electromyography in combination with mechanical sensing such as inertial or pressure sensors is a widely adopted solution for driving active mechatronic prostheses. In this framework, researchers also explored targeted muscles re-innervation for an objective-oriented surgical amputation promoting wider usability of active prostheses. However, information kept by the neural component of the cognitive interface deteriorates in a prolonged use scenario due to electrodes-related issues, thereby undermining the correct functionality of the active prosthesis. The objective of this work is to present a novel controller for an active transfemoral prosthesis based on whole body awareness relying on a wireless distributed non-invasive sensory apparatus acting as cognitive interface. A finite-state machine controller based on signals monitored from the wearable interface performs subject-independent intention detection of functional tasks such as ground level walking, stair ascent, and sit-to-stand maneuvres and their main sub-phases. Experimental activities carried out with four transfemoral amputees (among them one dysvascular demonstrated high reliability of the controller capable of providing 100% accuracy rate in treadmill walking even for weak subjects and low walking

  8. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  9. Retrospective analysis of whole-body multislice computed tomography findings taken in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bingol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Using whole-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT excessively or with irrelevant indications can be seen in many centers. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the MSCT findings in trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. Methods: Records of the patients who have applied to the emergency department due to blunt trauma in a 12 month period and whose whole body MSCT images have been taken, were evaluated using the “Nucleus Medical Information System”. Results: The most frequent type of trauma was traffic accidents in 61.4%, falling down from the height in 22.4%, and motorcycle accidents in 11.4% of patients. Of the patients, 25.2% were discharged from the emergency, while 73.8% were hospitalized. At least one CT findings associated with trauma was present in 61.4% of our patients. Pathological findings in MSCT were most frequently detected in the head and face (35.3% and thoracic (28.6% regions, respectively. The most common finding in the head and face region was fractures. The most common pathological findings in the thoracic region were pulmonary contusion and rib fractures. A significant relationship was detected between trauma type and spinal MSCT result (p < 0.001. In a large percentage of the patients, MSCT findings were normal in the abdominal region and genitourinary system. Vertebral fractures were most frequently detected in the thoracolumbar region. Conclusions: In our study, our rate of negative CT was found to be 38.6%, which is a higher ratio compared to other studies conducte on this topic. Keywords: Emergency, Trauma, Whole-body multislice computed tomography

  10. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

  11. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog...

  12. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimann, A; Fleuti, U; Rufener, M; Elfering, A; Radlinger, L

    2014-09-01

    Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An assessment at rest had been executed beforehand. Muscle activities were measured with EMG and normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC%). For statistical testing a three-factorial analysis of variation (ANOVA) was applied. The maximum activity of the respective muscles was 14.5 MVC% for the ES, 4.6 MVC% for the TA (12Hz with "noise" both), and 7.4 MVC% for the TD (10Hz without "noise"). Furthermore, all muscles varied significantly at 6Hz and above (p⋜0.047) compared to the situation at rest. No significant differences were found at SR-WBV with or without "noise". In general, muscle activity during SR-WBV is reasonably low and comparable to core strength stability exercises, sensorimotor training and "abdominal hollowing" in water. SR-WBV may be a therapeutic option for the relief of MSP.

  13. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  14. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen or cold pack has an effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also acts antiinflammatorily, eases swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control groups. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocarias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zu Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken, Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung, wird unter Ryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus erbit sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  15. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie: Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift, Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen, or cold packs has an analgetic effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also inhibits inflammation, relieves swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control group. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocardias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zur Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken. Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung wird unter Kryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus ergibt sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  16. Whole body vibration as an adjunct to static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feland, J B; Hawks, M; Hopkins, J T; Hunter, I; Johnson, A W; Eggett, D L

    2010-08-01

    This study was a randomized control trial. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if stretching the hamstrings during whole-body-vibration (WBV) is more effective than static stretching alone; and 2) to monitor retention of flexibility changes. The main outcome measure was hamstring flexibility as measured in degrees using a passive knee extension test. Thirty-four recreationally active college-age subjects (23.4+/-1.7 yrs) completed this study (22 males, 12 females, avg. ht.=175.6+/-6.4 cm, avg. wt.=74.9+/-11.8 kg). Subjects were assigned to a control group (C), a static stretch group (SS), or a vibration + static stretch group (V). Subjects stretched 5 days/wk for 4-weeks and were followed for 3-weeks after cessation to monitor retention. Analysis showed a significant difference between treatment groups (pstretching for the SS and V groups respectively. Three-week follow-up showed SS returning to baseline with V group still 6.4 degrees (11%+/-3.88% (SEM)) more flexible than at baseline. Stretching concurrently with vibration on a WBV platform appears to be a good adjunct to static stretching with the potential to enhance retention of flexibility gains. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  17. Development of an Ergonomics Checklist for Investigation of Work-Related Whole-Body Disorders in Farming - AWBA: Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y K; Lee, S J; Lee, K S; Kim, G R; Kim, D M

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have been using various ergonomic tools to study occupational musculoskeletal diseases in industrial contexts. However, in agricultural work, where the work environment is poorer and the socio-psychological stress is high due to the high labor intensities of the industry, current research efforts have been scarce, and the number of available tools is small. In our preliminary studies, which focused on a limited number of body parts and other working elements, we developed separate evaluation tools for the upper and lower extremities. The current study was conducted to develop a whole-body ergonomic assessment tool for agricultural work that integrates the existing assessment tools for lower and upper extremities developed in the preliminary studies and to verify the relevance of the integrated assessment tool. To verify the relevance of the Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment (AWBA) tool, we selected 50 different postures that occur frequently in agricultural work. Our results showed that the AWBA-determined risk levels were similar to the subjective risk levels determined by experts. In addition, as the risk level increased, the average risk level increased to a similar extent. Moreover, the differences in risk levels between the AWBA and expert assessments were mostly smaller than the differences in risk levels between other assessment tools and the expert assessments in this study. In conclusion, the AWBA tool developed in this study was demonstrated to be appropriate for use as a tool for assessing various postures commonly assumed in agricultural work. Moreover, we believe that our verification of the assessment tools will contribute to the enhancement of the quality of activities designed to prevent and control work-related musculoskeletal diseases in other industries.

  18. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  19. Whole-body adipose tissue analysis: comparison of MRI, CT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullberg, J; Brandberg, J; Angelhed, J-E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a recently proposed MRI-based T(1)-mapping method for analysis of whole-body adipose tissue (AT) using an established CT protocol as reference and to include results from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 10 subjects, drawn from the Swedish Obese Subje......-processing of whole-body MRI data, allowing longitudinal whole-body studies that are also applicable for children and adolescents.......The aim of this study was to validate a recently proposed MRI-based T(1)-mapping method for analysis of whole-body adipose tissue (AT) using an established CT protocol as reference and to include results from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 10 subjects, drawn from the Swedish Obese...... Subjects Sibling-pairs study, were examined using CT, MRI and DEXA. The CT analysis was based on 28 imaged slices. T(1) maps were calculated using contiguous MRI data from two different gradient echo sequences acquired using different flip angles. CT and MRI comparison was performed slice...

  20. Acute, whole-body microwave exposure and testicular function of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Johnson, L.

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 8 h to continuous-wave microwave radiation (MWR, 1.3 Ghz) at a mean specific absorbed dose rate of 9 mW/g. MWR exposure and sham-irradiation took place in unidirectionally energized cylindrical waveguide sections, within which the animals were essentially unrestrained. The MWR treatment in this setting was determined to yield an elevation of deep rectal temperature to 4.5 degrees C. The animals were taken for analysis at 6.5, 13, 26, and 52 days following treatment, which corresponded to .5, 1, 2, and 4 cycles of the seminiferous epithelium. Net mass of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; daily sperm production (DSP) per testis and per gram of testis; and the number of epididymal sperm were determined. The levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH) were derived via radioimmunoassay of plasma samples taken at the time of sacrifice. Despite the evident acute thermogenesis of the MWR at 9 mW/g, no substantial decrement in testicular function was found. We conclude that, in the unrestrained rat, whole body irradiation at 9 mW/g, while sufficient to induce evident hyperthermia, is not a sufficient condition for disruption of any of these key measures of testicular function.

  1. An accurate 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method for mouse whole-body skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Wimberley, Catriona; Gregoire, Marie C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Small animal image registration is challenging because of its joint structure, and posture and position difference in each acquisition without a standard scan protocol. In this paper, we face the issue of mouse whole-body skeleton registration from CT images. A novel method is developed for analyzing mouse hind-limb and fore-limb postures based on geodesic path descriptor and then registering the major skeletons and fore limb skeletons initially by thin-plate spline (TPS) transform based on the obtained geodesic paths and their enhanced correspondence fields. A target landmark correction method is proposed for improving the registration accuracy of the improved 3D shape context non-rigid registration method we previously proposed. A novel non-rigid registration framework, combining the skeleton posture analysis, geodesic path based initial alignment and 3D shape context model, is proposed for mouse whole-body skeleton registration. The performance of the proposed methods and framework was tested on 12 pairs of mouse whole-body skeletons. The experimental results demonstrated the flexibility, stability and accuracy of the proposed framework for automatic mouse whole body skeleton registration.

  2. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard; Klug, Bent; Hanel, Birgitte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. Our aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in six centers and expand normative sRaw values for nonasthmatic children including these centers. Identical hardware with different software versions was used at the six centers. Measurements followed a standard operating procedure: (1) seven healthy young children were brought to each of the six centers for sRaw measurements; and (2) 105 healthy preschool children (52 boys; mean age, 5.1 years; interquartile range, 4.3 to 6.0) were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. (1) The sRaw of the seven-children study group was significantly lower at two centers compared with the other four centers, and one center had significantly higher sRaw than all the other centers (p factory settings of the software was subsequently discovered in one of the deviating centers. (2) Normative data (105 preschool children) were generated and were without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age, and gender. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with our previous data from 121 healthy young children (overall mean sRaw, 1.27; SD, 0.25). Control using biological standards revealed errors in the factory setting and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly, other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values.

  3. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-04-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI...... out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice...

  5. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Machteld; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Delecluse, Christophe; Levin, Oron; Stijnen, Valère

    2006-02-01

    This study analyzed leg muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Subjects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vibrating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged squat (OL). Muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius was recorded in 15 men (age 21.2 +/- 0.8 years) through use of surface electromyography (EMG). The exercises were performed in 2 conditions: with WBV and without (control [CO]) a vibratory stimulus of 35 Hz. Muscle activation during WBV was compared with CO and with muscle activation during isolated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Whole-body vibration resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) EMG root-mean-square compared with CO in all muscle groups and all exercises (between +39.9 +/- 17.5% and +360.6 +/- 57.5%). The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in OL compared with HS and LS. In conclusion, WBV resulted in an increased activation of the leg muscles. During WBV, leg muscle activity varied between 12.6 and 82.4% of MVC values.

  6. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection performance in whole-body PET oncology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E.; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Swensson, Richard G.; Trebossen, Regine; Bendriem, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    This work presents initial results from observer detection performance studies using the same volume visualization software tools that are used in clinical PET oncology imaging. Research into the FORE+OSEM and FORE+AWOSEM statistical image reconstruction methods tailored to whole- body 3D PET oncology imaging have indicated potential improvements in image SNR compared to currently used analytic reconstruction methods (FBP). To assess the resulting impact of these reconstruction methods on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors, we use a non- Monte Carlo technique to generate multiple statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data, based on an extended MCAT phantom and with clinically realistic levels of statistical noise. For each realization, we add a fixed number of randomly located 1 cm diam. lesions whose contrast is varied among pre-calibrated values so that the range of true positive fractions is well sampled. The observer is told the number of tumors and, similar to the AFROC method, asked to localize all of them. The true positive fraction for the three algorithms (FBP, FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM) as a function of lesion contrast is calculated, although other protocols could be compared. A confidence level for each tumor is also recorded for incorporation into later AFROC analysis.

  7. Predicting health risks of exposure to whole body vibration in the urban taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykaous Azrah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited studies have been done to evaluate the whole-body vibration (WBV exposure experienced by Taxi drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to whole body vibration and repeated shocks in urban taxi drivers and also to compare different methods of evaluation in this job environment. Material and Method: Measurement and evaluation process were conducted in accordance with procedure of the ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5 standards. The measurements were done by SVAN 958 Sound and Vibration Analyzer and using tri-axial accelerometer centered on the contact surface between the seat and the driver in 9 taxis.   Result: The measurements done according to ISO 2631-1 method showed greater risk compared to Daily Equivalent Static Compression Dose, Sed, presented in ISO 2631-5. Calculated daily exposure durations for exposure action level in root-mean square, vibration dose value, and daily equivalent static compressive stress methods were 4.55, 3.54 and 31.70 hours, respectively. Conclusion: The large differences in estimated exposure durations of action limits and permissible limits resulted by different methods reflect the inconsistency of the selected evaluation methods. Therefore, future research is necessary to amend the limits presented in the standard.

  8. Hypothalamic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) controls whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, R F; Nascimento, L F; Ignacio-Souza, L M; Morari, J; Razolli, D S; Solon, C; de Souza, G F P; Festuccia, W T; Velloso, L A

    2016-03-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) is the main δ9 desaturase expressed in the central nervous system. Because of its potential involvement in controlling whole-body adiposity, we evaluated the expression and function of SCD2 in the hypothalami of mice. Male mice of different strains were used in real-time PCR, immunoblot and metabolic experiments. In addition, antisense oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors were used to reduce and increase the expression of SCD2 in the hypothalamus. The level of SCD2 in the hypothalamus is similar to other regions of the central nervous system and is ~10-fold higher than in any other region of the body. In the arcuate nucleus, SCD2 is expressed in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide-Y neurons. Upon high fat feeding, the level of hypothalamic SCD2 increases. Inhibition of hypothalamic SCD2 as accomplished by two distinct approaches, an antisense oligonucleotide or a short-hairpin RNA delivered by a lentivirus, resulted in reduced body mass gain mostly due to increased energy expenditure and increased spontaneous activity. Increasing hypothalamic SCD2 by a lentivirus approach resulted in no change in body mass and food intake. Thus, SCD2 is highly expressed in the hypothalami of rodents and its knockdown reduces body mass due to increased whole-body energy expenditure.

  9. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Glenn D.; Guy, Matthew J.; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A.

    2002-09-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE IN TRAIN AND CAR PASSENGERS: A CASE STUDY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trains and cars are the most important modes of transportation throughout the world. In highly developed countries, trains have become essential for human use as the most well-known form of public transportation, whereas the car plays a significant role in prompt human travel from one place to another. The high magnitude of vibration caused by trains and cars may cause health problems in humans, especially low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and the vibration dose value (VDV in passengers travelling by train and car and to assess the effects produced by this exposure on the human body. Moreover, this study introduces a newly developed whole-body vibration measurement instrumentation system. One train travelling from the east coast to the south of Malaysia was chosen to conduct the study. Whole-body vibration exposure was measured over 8 hours, which is equal to the duration of normal occupational exposure. One car was chosen randomly and whole-body vibration exposure was measured for 5 min and 10 min. All the data were computed using an IEPE(ICPTM accelerometer sensor connected to a DT9837 device which is capable of effectively measuring and analysing vibration. The vibration results were displayed on a personal computer using a custom graphical user interface (GUI. Matlab software was used to interpret the data. From the results, the whole-body vibration exposure level could be determined. It can be concluded that the whole-body vibration absorbed by the human body is enhanced when the magnitude of the vibration exposure experienced by the passengers increased. This was shown by the increased values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and VDV calculated in the study.

  11. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  12. Whole-body posture planning in anticipation of a manual prehension task: prospective and retrospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, William M; Rosenbaum, David A; Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which the anticipation of a manual action task influences whole-body postural planning and orientation. Our participants walked up to a drawer, opened the drawer, then grasped and moved an object in the drawer to another location in the same drawer. The starting placement of the object within the drawer and the final placement of the object in the drawer were varied across trials in either a blocked design (i.e., in trials where the same start and end location were repeated consecutively) or in a mixed fashion. Of primary interest was the posture adopted at the moment of grasping the drawer handle before pulling it out prior to the object manipulation task. Of secondary interest was whether there were sequential effects such that postures adopted in preceding trials influenced postures in subsequent trials. The results indicated that the spatial properties of the forthcoming object manipulation influenced both the postures adopted by the participants and the degree to which the drawer was opened, suggesting a prospective effect. In addition, the adopted postures were more consistent in blocked trials than in mixed trials, suggesting an additional retrospective effect. Overall, our findings suggest that motor planning occurs at the level of the whole body, and reflects both prospective and retrospective influences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, C; Ranchelli, A; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Tsarpela, O; Annino, G; Bosco, C; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; De Feo, P

    2004-04-01

    Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.

  14. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  15. Absorption and Turnover Rates of Iron Measured by the Whole Body Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D. C.; Cohn, S. H.

    1962-09-05

    Human iron metabolism has been extensively studied in the past twenty-five years with the radioisotopes iron55 and iron59. Before the availability of the whole body counter, however, iron absorption studies were performed by the indirect methods of fecal assay of unabsorbed radioiron, and estimation of red cell incorporation of absorbed tracer. The few long-term excretion studies performed required numerous assumptions, since human iron excretion was less well understood. Whole body counting provides a simple and accurate method of measuring the total body retention of administrative tracer iron59, thus making absorption and subsequent excretion determinations possible with a single radioiron study. The energetic gamma emissions of iron59 permit ready external detection with small quantities of isotope, Normal radioiron distribution is uniform throughout the circulating red cell mass and thus minimize geometry influences on the counting efficiency, 0nly the 45.1 day half-life of iron59 limits long term iron turnover studies. Measurements of iron59 absorption and long-term body turnover have been under way at Brookhaven National Laboratory for over two years. The present paper outlines some of the results of these studies, and discusses some implications of the method. (auth)

  16. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  17. The influence of seat backrest angle on human performance during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddan, G S; Holmes, S R; Mansfield, N J; Hutchinson, H; Arrowsmith, C I; King, S K; Jones, R J M; Rimell, A N

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reclined backrest angles on cognitive and psycho-motor tasks during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration. Twenty participants were each exposed to three test stimuli of vertical vibration: 2-8 Hz; 8-14 Hz and 14-20 Hz, plus a stationary control condition whilst seated on a vibration platform at five backrest angles: 0° (recumbent, supine) to 90° (upright). The vibration magnitude was 2.0 ms(-2) root-mean-square. The participants were seated at one of the backrest angles and exposed to each of the three vibration stimuli while performing a tracking and choice reaction time tasks; then they completed the NASA-TLX workload scales. Apart from 22.5° seat backrest angle for the tracking task, backrest angle did not adversely affect the performance during vibration. However, participants required increased effort to maintain performance during vibration relative to the stationary condition. These results suggest that undertaking tasks in an environment with vibration could increase workload and risk earlier onset of fatigue. Current vibration standards provide guidance for assessing exposures for seated, standing and recumbent positions, but not for semi-recumbent postures. This paper reports new experimental data systematically investigating the effect of backrest angle on human performance. It demonstrates how workload is elevated with whole-body vibration, without getting affected by backrest angle.

  18. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  19. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after

  20. Whole-body vibration therapy in intensive care patients: A feasibility and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeselt, Tobias; Nell, Christoph; Kehr, Katahrina; Holland, Angélique; Dresel, Marc; Greulich, Timm; Tackenberg, Björn; Kenn, Klaus; Boeder, Johannes; Klapdor, Benjamin; Kirschbaum, Andreas; Vogelmeier, Claus; Alter, Peter; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2016-03-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit is associated with sustained loss of muscle mass, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Early rehabilitation measures may counteract this process. New approaches to rehabilitation while the patient remains in bed are whole-body vibration alone and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. The aims of this study are to determine the safety of whole-body vibration for patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and to compare the effects of these techniques in intensive care unit patients and healthy subjects. Twelve intensive care unit patients and 12 healthy subjects using whole-body vibration for the first time were examined while lying in bed. First both groups performed whole body vibration over 3 min. In a second step whole body vibration with dumbbell was performed. In order to determine the safety of the training intensity, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were measured. The study was approved by the Marburg ethics committee. There were minor reversible and transient increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.005) and heart rate (p = 0.001) in the control group with whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. In intensive care patients receiving whole-body vibration alone, there were increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.011) and heart rate (p vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell for intensive care unit in-bed patients. No clinically significant safety problems were found. Whole-body vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell might therefore be alternative methods for use in early in-bed rehabilitation, not only for hospitalized patients.

  1. Effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Moras, Gerard; Padilla, Jaume; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Bennett, Robert M; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Pons, Sebastià

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled two-factor mixed experimental design was used. Twenty-four women with fibromyalgia (age +/- standard error of the mean, 54.95 +/- 2.03) were randomized into the vibration group or the control group. The vibration group underwent a protocol of static and dynamic tasks with whole-body vibration exercise twice a week for a total of six weeks, whereas the control group performed the same protocol without vibratory stimulus. Both groups continued their usual pharmacological treatment. Serum IGF-1 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To test the effects of long-term whole-body vibration exercise, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 1, 3, and 6 of the intervention. To test the short-term effects, at week 1, serum IGF-1 measurements were taken before and immediately following a session of whole-body vibration exercise. Treatment adherence was 93% in the vibration group and 92% in the control group. None of the subjects dropped out of the study. There was an absence of change in IGF-1 at week 1 and week 6 of whole-body vibration exercise. Results show no change in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia undergoing whole-body vibration exercise. Although high-intensity exercise and whole-body vibration exercise have been shown to increase serum IGF-1 in healthy individuals, the effectiveness of whole-body vibration exercise as a strategy to produce improvements in serum IGF-1 levels in women with fibromyalgia could not be demonstrated.

  2. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ~35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

  3. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole-body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45min to ~35min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error (MSE) and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging. PMID:24080962

  4. The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquetto, M; Carvalho, V; Silva, C; Conceição, C; Gomes-Neto, M

    2015-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on physiologic and functional measurements in children with cerebral palsy. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, Scielo, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to November 2014) for randomized controlled trials, that aimed to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration versus exercise and/or versus control on physiologic and functional measurements in children with cerebral palsy. Two reviewers independently selected the studies. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Six studies with 176 patients comparing whole-body vibration to exercise and/or control were included. Whole-body vibration resulted in improvement in: gait speed WMDs (0.13 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20); gross motor function dimension E WMDs (2.97 95% CI: 0.07 to 5.86) and femur bone density (1.32 95% CI: 0.28 to 2.36). The meta-analysis also showed a nonsignificant difference in muscle strength and gross motor function dimension D for participants in the whole-body vibration compared with control group. No serious adverse events were reported. Whole-body vibration may improve gait speed and standing function in children with cerebral palsy and could be considered for inclusion in rehabilitation programs.

  5. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players. PMID:27942136

  6. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput,

  7. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H.C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality,

  8. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  9. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Sensorimotor Reorganizations of Arm Kinematics and Postural Strategy for Functional Whole-Body Reaching Movements in Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Macaluso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement. We thus aimed at characterizing kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements in microgravity, involving high spatiotemporal constraints of execution, to question whether and how humans are able to maintain the performance of a functional behavior in the standards of normogravity execution. Seven participants were asked to reach as fast and as accurately as possible visual targets while standing during microgravity episodes in parabolic flight. Small and large targets were presented either close or far from the participants (requiring, in the latter case, additional whole-body displacement. Results reported that participants successfully performed the reaching task with general temporal features of movement (e.g., movement speed close to land observations. However, our analyses also demonstrated substantial kinematic changes related to the temporal structure of focal movement and the postural strategy to successfully perform -constrained- whole-body reaching movements in microgravity. These immediate reorganizations are likely achieved by rapidly taking into account the absence of gravity in motor preparation and execution (presumably from cues about body limbs unweighting. Specifically, when compared to normogravity, the arm deceleration phase substantially increased. Furthermore, greater whole-body forward displacements

  11. Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K

    2014-10-17

    Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... (BMD), bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers and calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA). RESULTS: 15 papers (14 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Only one study had fracture data reporting a non-significant fracture reduction (risk ratio (RR)=0.47, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.57, P=0.22) (moderate...

  13. A whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism and its age-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Auley Mark T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global demographic changes have stimulated marked interest in the process of aging. There has been, and will continue to be, an unrelenting rise in the number of the oldest old ( >85 years of age. Together with an ageing population there comes an increase in the prevalence of age related disease. Of the diseases of ageing, cardiovascular disease (CVD has by far the highest prevalence. It is regarded that a finely tuned lipid profile may help to prevent CVD as there is a long established relationship between alterations to lipid metabolism and CVD risk. In fact elevated plasma cholesterol, particularly Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C has consistently stood out as a risk factor for having a cardiovascular event. Moreover it is widely acknowledged that LDL-C may rise with age in both sexes in a wide variety of groups. The aim of this work was to use a whole-body mathematical model to investigate why LDL-C rises with age, and to test the hypothesis that mechanistic changes to cholesterol absorption and LDL-C removal from the plasma are responsible for the rise. The whole-body mechanistic nature of the model differs from previous models of cholesterol metabolism which have either focused on intracellular cholesterol homeostasis or have concentrated on an isolated area of lipoprotein dynamics. The model integrates both current and previously published data relating to molecular biology, physiology, ageing and nutrition in an integrated fashion. Results The model was used to test the hypothesis that alterations to the rate of cholesterol absorption and changes to the rate of removal of LDL-C from the plasma are integral to understanding why LDL-C rises with age. The model demonstrates that increasing the rate of intestinal cholesterol absorption from 50% to 80% by age 65 years can result in an increase of LDL-C by as much as 34 mg/dL in a hypothetical male subject. The model also shows that decreasing the rate of hepatic

  14. Immunohistochemical study of postnatal neurogenesis after whole-body exposure to electromagnetic fields: evaluation of age- and dose-related changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendácová, Judita; Raceková, Eniko; Orendác, Martin; Martoncíková, Marcela; Saganová, Kamila; Lievajová, Kamila; Abdiová, Henrieta; Labun, Ján; Gálik, Ján

    2009-09-01

    It is well established that strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can give rise to acute health effects, such as burns, which can be effectively prevented by respecting exposure guidelines and regulations. Current concerns are instead directed toward the possibility that long-term exposure to weak EMF might have detrimental health effects due to some biological mechanism, to date unknown. (1) The possible risk due to pulsed EMF at frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) on rat postnatal neurogenesis was studied in relation to the animal's age, duration of the exposure dose, and post-irradiation survival. (2) Proliferating cells marker, BrdU, was used to map age- and dose-related immunohistochemical changes within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) after whole-body exposure of newborn (P7) and senescent (24 months) rats. (3) Two dose-related exposure patterns were performed to clarify the cumulative effect of EMF: short-term exposure dose, 2 days irradiation (4 h/day), versus long-term exposure dose, 3 days irradiation (8 h/day), both followed by acute (24 h) and chronic (1-4 weeks) post-irradiation survival. (4) We found that the EMF induces significant age- and dose-dependent changes in proliferating cell numbers within the RMS. Our results indicate that the concerns about the possible risk of EMF generated in connection with production, transmission, distribution, and the use of electrical equipment and communication sets are justified at least with regard to early postnatal neurogenesis.

  15. A whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism and its age-associated dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Wilkinson, Darren J; Jones, Janette J L; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2012-10-10

    Global demographic changes have stimulated marked interest in the process of aging. There has been, and will continue to be, an unrelenting rise in the number of the oldest old ( >85 years of age). Together with an ageing population there comes an increase in the prevalence of age related disease. Of the diseases of ageing, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has by far the highest prevalence. It is regarded that a finely tuned lipid profile may help to prevent CVD as there is a long established relationship between alterations to lipid metabolism and CVD risk. In fact elevated plasma cholesterol, particularly Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) has consistently stood out as a risk factor for having a cardiovascular event. Moreover it is widely acknowledged that LDL-C may rise with age in both sexes in a wide variety of groups. The aim of this work was to use a whole-body mathematical model to investigate why LDL-C rises with age, and to test the hypothesis that mechanistic changes to cholesterol absorption and LDL-C removal from the plasma are responsible for the rise. The whole-body mechanistic nature of the model differs from previous models of cholesterol metabolism which have either focused on intracellular cholesterol homeostasis or have concentrated on an isolated area of lipoprotein dynamics. The model integrates both current and previously published data relating to molecular biology, physiology, ageing and nutrition in an integrated fashion. The model was used to test the hypothesis that alterations to the rate of cholesterol absorption and changes to the rate of removal of LDL-C from the plasma are integral to understanding why LDL-C rises with age. The model demonstrates that increasing the rate of intestinal cholesterol absorption from 50% to 80% by age 65 years can result in an increase of LDL-C by as much as 34 mg/dL in a hypothetical male subject. The model also shows that decreasing the rate of hepatic clearance of LDL-C gradually to 50% by age 65

  16. Fast and memory-efficient Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction for whole-body PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Staelens, Steven; Van Holen, Roel; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kawrakow, Iwan; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2010-07-01

    Several studies have shown the benefit of an accurate system modeling using Monte Carlo techniques. For state-of-the-art whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction is associated with a significant computational cost to calculate the system matrix as well as a large memory capacity to store it. In this article, the authors present a simulation-reconstruction framework to solve these problems on the Philips Gemini GS PET scanner. A fast, realistic system matrix simulation module was developed using egs_pet, which is an efficient PET simulation code based on EGSnrc. The generated system matrix was then used in a rotator-based ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) algorithm, which exploits the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical PET scanner. The system matrix was further compressed by using sparse storage techniques. The system matrix simulation took five days on 50 cores of Xeon 2.66 GHz, resulting in a system matrix of 2.01 GB. The entire system matrix could be stored in the main memory of a standard personal computer. The image quality in terms of contrast-noise trade-offs was considerably improved compared to a standard OS-EM algorithm. The image quality was also compared to the clinical software on the scanner using routine parameter settings. The contrast recovery coefficient of small hot spheres and cold spheres was significantly improved. The results indicated that the proposed framework could be used for this PET scanner with improved image quality. This method could also be applied to other state-of-the-art whole-body PET scanners and preclinical PET scanners with a similar shape.

  17. Results of treating primary tumours of the trachea by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, A Y; Morgan, R L

    1978-01-01

    Forty-four patients presented with primary tumours of the trachea over a 25-year period. Thirty-nine of them were treated by irradiation. Of these, 24 (61.5%) died as a result of their disease while 30% are either alive and well (4.4-11 years) or have died of intercurrent disease (average four years). Recurrences or metastases when they occurred were in the first two years after diagnosis in all but one patient, who developed local recurrence 3.25 years later. Three patients died of unknown cause (average 5.6 years) after irradiation. Two factors seem to determine the prognosis: the histology and the extent of disease on presentation. Dysphagia without oesophageal involvement carried a grave prognosis. Images PMID:684677

  18. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods: At the end of the course, all students (n=24 were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: In total, 20/24 (83% students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion: Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying

  19. Assessment of an infant whole-body plethysmograph using an infant lung function model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, B; Stocks, J; Frey, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to facilitate international multicentre studies and improve the quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society Task Force for infant lung function testing has recently developed specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. A mechanical infant lung model analogue has been developed to assess whether infant lung function equipment is able to meet these requirements. However, the practical testing of infant lung function equipment using such models is highly complex because of the need to use very small pressure and flow changes, and the numerous potentially confounding factors associated with both the design of the device and the testing procedure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the infant lung model is capable of assessing the overall function of an whole-body infant- plethysmograph, using the only infant plethysmograph that was commercially available at the time as an example. The mechanical characteristics of the model such as vibrations or noise did not disturb the delicate plethysmographic measurements and thereby allowed a reliable assessment of the system. A series of tests revealed that the plethysmograph was able to measure airway resistance 1-3.5 kPa.L(-1).s with an accuracy of +/-2.5% and lung volumes 75-300 mL with an accuracy of +/-2.5% under in vitro conditions. To conclude, the infant lung model is a useful means of assessing the overall in vitro performance of infant whole-body plethysmographs, but thermal, mechanical and frequency response characteristics of such a device must be taken into account when interpreting the results of such assessments.

  20. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I [U605 INSERM, Villejuif (France); Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H [DOSIsoft, Cachan (France)], E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@igr.fr

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  1. Implementation of whole body scanner for determining somatotype index at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T H; Chiou, W K; Lin, J D; Yu, C Y

    2001-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) using 1-dimensional circumference data have been proven to be highly related to blood pressure and total cholesterol; these 2 indices have been widely used as health indicators in preventive diagnosis and health examination. Sophisticated software, which allows calculation of the triangular mesh related to the body surface in 3D space, is capable of computing the circumference, width, sectional surface, volume, and surface area of the body. Chang Gung Whole Body Scanner (CGWBS) was used to capture 3D whole body surface images. In this study, the human body was divided into 10 segments consisting of the head, breast, wrist, hip, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot. Five independent assessments were made on a total of 32 anthropometric sites, including 12 circumferences, 3 widths, 3 profile areas, 7 surface areas, and 7 volumes. In this study, the somatotype index (SI) was computed through anthropometric data after 1,323 subjects were investigated. Correlation analysis was used to describe the relationship between BMI, WHR, SI, and anthropometric data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to examine differences between examination variables across sex and SI groups. This study found 4 somatotypes from anthropometric data. SI determined by CGWBS has better correlation with anthropometry than WHR or BMI. Of the 644 male subjects, 155 were in the ectomorph group, 232 in the semi-mesomorph group, 136 in the full-mesomorph group, and 121 in the endomorph group. Of the 679 female subjects, 160 were in the ectomorph group, 235 in the semi-mesomorph group, 168 in the full-mesomorph group, and 116 in the endomorph group. The results show that SI has great potential to perform precise somatotype classification.

  2. In Vivo Radiofrequency Heating in Swine in a 3T (123.2 MHz) Birdcage Whole-Body Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Devashish; Utecht, Lynn; Tian, Jinfeng; Hughes, John; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study in vivo radiofrequency (RF) heating produced due to power deposition from a 3T (Larmour frequency = 123.2 MHz), birdcage, whole-body coil. Methods The RF heating was simulated in a digital swine by solving the mechanistic generic bioheat transfer model (GBHTM) and the conventional, empirical Pennes bioheat transfer equation for the following two cases: (1) when the porcine head was in the isocenter, and (2) when the porcine trunk was in the isocenter. The simulation results were validated by making direct fluoroptic temperature measurements in the skin, brain, simulated hot regions, and rectum of ten swine (Case 1, N= 5, mean animal weight = 84.03 ± 6.85 kg, Whole-body average SAR = 2.65 ± 0.22 W/kg; Case 2, N= 5, mean animal weight = 81.59 ± 6.23 kg, Whole-body average SAR = 2.77 ± 0.26 W/kg) during one hour of exposure to a turbo spin echo sequence. Results The GBHTM simulated the RF heating more accurately compared to the Pennes equation. In vivo temperatures exceeded safe temperature thresholds with allowable SAR exposures. Hot regions may be produced deep inside the body, away from the skin. Conclusion SAR exposures to produce safe temperature thresholds may need re-investigation. PMID:24259413

  3. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-03-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pursuit signals, we examined the latency and time course of discharge modulation to horizontal whole body rotation during different vestibular task conditions in head-stabilized monkeys. Pursuit neurons with horizontal preferred directions were selected, and they were classified either as gaze-velocity neurons or eye/head-velocity neurons based on the previous criteria. Responses of these neurons to whole body step-rotation at 20 degrees/s were examined during cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), VOR x1, and during chair steps in complete darkness without a target (VORd). The majority of pursuit neurons tested (approximately 70%) responded during VORd with latencies smooth pursuit. The shortest latency to the onset of target motion during smooth pursuit was 80 ms and the modal value was 95 ms. The time course of discharge rate difference of the two groups of neurons between VOR cancellation and x1 was predicted by the discharge modulation associated with smooth pursuit. These results provide further support for the involvement of the caudal FEF in integration of vestibular inputs and pursuit signals.

  4. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  5. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Moore, Daniel R; Breithaupt, Peter; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Offord, Elizabeth A; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Background: Protein ingestion is important in enhancing whole-body protein balance in children. The effect of discrete bolus protein ingestion on acute postexercise recovery has yet to be determined.Objective: This study determined the effect of increasing doses of ingested protein on postexercise whole-body leucine balance in healthy, active children.Methods: Thirty-five children (26 boys, 9 girls; age range: 9-13 y; weight mean ± SD: 44.9 ± 10.6 kg) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet (0.95 g protein ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1) before performing 20 min of cycling 3 times with a concurrent, primed, constant infusion of [13C]leucine. After exercise, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage (140 kcal) containing variable amounts of bovine skim-milk protein and carbohydrates (sucrose) (0, 5, 10, and 15 g protein made up with 35, 30, 25, and 20 g carbohydrates, respectively). Blood and breath samples were taken over the 3 h of recovery to determine non-steady state whole-body leucine oxidation (LeuOX) and net leucine balance (LeuBAL).Results: LeuOX (secondary outcome) peaked 60 min after beverage ingestion and demonstrated a relative dose-response over the 3 h of recovery (15 g = 10 > 5 > 0 g; P 10 g (11.6 ± 4.3 mg/kg) > 5 g (5.7 ± 1.9 mg/kg) > 0 g (-3.0 ± 1.7 mg/kg); all P balance in healthy, active children. Moreover, LeuBAL increased in a dose-dependent manner within the protein range studied. Children should consider consuming a source of dietary protein after physical activity to enhance whole-body anabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01598935. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8, 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7, or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8 after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength. Whole-body protein turnover (Q, synthesis (S, breakdown (B, and net balance (NB were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g at regular intervals (~3h throughout the day.

  7. Automatic and rapid whole-body 3D shape measurement based on multinode 3D sensing and speckle projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiping; Peng, Xiang; Li, Ameng; Liu, Xiaoli; Yu, Jiping

    2017-11-01

    Automatic and rapid whole-body 3D shape measurement has attracted extensive attention in recent years and been widely used in many fields. Rapid 3D reconstruction, automatic 3D registration, and dedicated system layout are critical factors to enable an excellent 3D measurement system. In this paper, we present an automatic and rapid whole- body 3D measurement system that is based on multinode 3D sensors using speckle projection. A rapid algorithm for searching homologous point pairs is suggested, which takes advantage of the optimized projective rectification and simplified subpixel matching techniques, leading to an improved time efficiency of 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile, a low-cost automatic system with a flexible setup and an improved calibration strategy are proposed, where system parameters of each node sensor can be simultaneously estimated with the assistance of a cubic and a planar target. Furthermore, an automatic range data registration strategy by employing two aided cameras is investigated. Experiment results show that the presented approach can realize automatic whole-body 3D shape measurement with high efficiency and accuracy.

  8. Clinical Muscle Testing Compared with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Facio-scapulo-humeral Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J U; Jestaedt, L; Jende, F; Bartsch, A; Meinck, H-M; Weber, M-A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In 20 patients with genetically proven FSHD1, we prospectively assessed muscular involvement and correlated the results of semi-quantitative manual muscle testing and other parameters such as disease duration, creatine kinase (CK) levels and repeat length of the D4Z4 locus with whole-body MRI. Clinical muscle testing revealed the trapezius, pectoralis and infraspinatus as the most severely affected muscles in the shoulder, and the knee flexors and gluteus medius in the hip girdle. MRI revealed the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles in the shoulder, and the hamstrings and adductor muscles in the hip girdle, as the most severely affected muscle groups. Overall, degrees of fatty degeneration on MRI scans correlated significantly with clinical weakness. Moreover, we could detect clear affection of the trunk muscles. Corresponding to earlier reports, asymmetric involvement was frequent in both clinical examination and MRI scoring. Moreover, MRI revealed inhomogeneous muscle degeneration in a considerable proportion of both, muscles and patients. Both clinical and MRI scores significantly correlated to disease duration, but not to fragment size or CK levels. Fatty degeneration in whole-body MRI correlates well to clinical muscle testing of the extremities but gives more information on deeper or trunk muscles. It shows structural changes in muscular disorders and may become an excellent tool for assessment of muscle involvement and follow-up studies.

  9. Whole-body vibration training improves the walking ability of a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabumoto, Tamotsu; Shin, Sohee; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Naka, Toru; Oguri, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Strength training is recommended for children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult for moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who require crutches for ambulation, to participate in this type of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration training is an effective method of strengthening in a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy. [Subject and Methods] This report describes an 8-year-old Japanese boy with cerebral palsy, who was ambulatory with crutches. The subject participated in physical therapy twice a week for 5 weeks. Whole-body vibration training was selected to complement the standing practice. The patient's crutch-walking ability, gross motor function, and spasticity were evaluated. [Results] The number of steps and walking duration were reduced in a 5-m walk test with crutches and gross motor function was improved. Further, the spasticity was reduced. [Conclusion] Whole-body vibration training is an effective physical therapy intervention in moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who are unable to walk without crutches.

  10. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  11. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  12. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  13. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianqing [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Fujiwara, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kodera, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Soichi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band.

  14. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuo Otsuka; Toshiyuki Kurihara; Tadao Isaka

    2017-01-01

    Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT) and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five va...

  15. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Whole Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance Using Indices from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Morbidly Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a marker of Insulin Resistance (IR. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is the gold standard for measuring whole body IR (hepatic + peripheral IR. However, it is an invasive and expensive procedure. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index for Insulin Sensitivity (HOMA-IS, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI for hepatic IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI0,120, and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity Index (WBISI for whole body IR are the indices calculated after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT. We used these indices as noninvasive methods of IR (inverse of insulin sensitivity estimation and compared hepatic/peripheral components of whole body IR in NAFLD. Methods. 113 morbidly obese, nondiabetic subjects who underwent gastric bypass surgery and intraoperative liver biopsy were included in the study. OGTT was performed preoperatively and the indices were calculated. Subjects were divided into closely matched groups as normal, fatty liver (FL and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH based on histology. Results. Whole body IR was significantly higher in both FL and NASH groups (NAFLD as compared to Normal, while hepatic IR was higher only in NASH from Normal. Conclusions. FL is a manifestation of peripheral IR but not hepatic IR.

  17. Whole-body MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with plasma cell neoplasms in comparison to the radiological skeletal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Lohrmann, Christian; Pache, Gregor; Uhl, Markus; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Engelhardt, Monika [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI versus radiological skeletal survey (RSS) in staging patients with plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and to evaluate the possible therapeutic impact of the replacement of RSS by whole-body MRI. Fifty-four patients with PCN [multiple myeloma (MM), n=47; monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), n=7] were studied by whole-body MRI and RSS in a monocenter prospective analysis from August 2002 to May 2004. The MRIs were performed using a rolling table platform ''AngioSURF'' for unlimited field of view with a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Sonata/Maestro Class, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). A coronal STIR sequence (TR5500-4230/TE102-94/TI160) was used for imaging of the different body regions, including the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and upper and lower extremities. The RSS consisted of eight different projections of the axial and appendicular skeleton. In 41/54 (74%) patients, the results of the whole-body MRI and RSS were concordant. In 11/54 (20%) patients, both imaging techniques were negative. Bone involvement was observed in 30/54 (55%) patients; however, whole-body MRI revealed this more extensively than the RSS in 27/30 (90%) patients with concordant positive imaging findings. In 3/30 (10%) patients, both imaging techniques demonstrated a similar extent of bone marrow infiltration. In 10/54 (19%) patients, the whole-body MRI was superior to RSS in detecting bone marrow infiltration, whereas the RSS was negative. In 3/54 (6%) patients, the RSS was proven to be false positive by the clinical course, whereas the whole-body MRI was truly negative. Whole-body MRI is a fast and highly effective method for staging PCN patients by the use of a rolling table platform. Moreover, it is more sensitive and specific than RSS and reveals bone marrow infiltration and extensive disease more reliably. Therefore, whole-body MRI should be performed as an additional method of exactly

  18. Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system. The aim

  19. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  20. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...

  1. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Reese, Timothy G. [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  2. RM de cuerpo entero, experiencia inicial Whole body MRI, initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Rombolá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Exponer y compartir nuestra experiencia en resonancia magnética de cuerpo entero (RMCE. Material y métodos: Se realizó estudio prospectivo entre octubre de 2005 y mayo de 2007 sobre 165 RMCE. Edad de los pacientes: 21 y 85 años, media de 51,64. Se utilizó equipo de 1,5 Tesla de campo magnético y tabla deslizable. El protocolo de estudio estuvo integrado por cortes coronales multicontraste (T1, T2 y STIR, axiales y sagitales en T2. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 140 (84,84 % estudios con hallazgos relevantes y 25 (15,15 % sin alteraciones. Se halló predominancia de enfermedades degenerativas articulares del esqueleto axial en 94 pacientes (56,96% sin diferencias significativas entre sexos. Trece pacientes realizaron controles oncológicos demostrándose diseminación a distancia en 6 estudios. En 1 examen se registró la distribución de polimiositis. Conclusiones: La RMCE no representa solamente una innovadora herramienta diagnóstica, sino también ostenta el potencial de competir con metodologías preexistentes en aplicaciones oncológicas y no oncológicas. La sensibilidad y especificidad del método están probadas, pero su aplicación se encuentra limitada por el alto costo y la falta de inclusión en protocolos diagnósticos de estadificación tumoral.Objective: To expose and share our experience in whole-body MRI. Material and methods: A prospective study of 165 whole-body MRI was made from october 2005 to may 2007. The age range was between 21 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 51, 64. A 1.5 Tesla MRI scan was utilized with a table-top movement. Multicontrast coronal scans (T1, T2 and STIR, sagittal and axial T2 compose the study protocol. Results: 140 (84,84 % scans with relevant results and 25 (15,15 % without abnormalities were found. The axial skeletal articular degenerative disease prevalence on 94 (56,96 % cases, without significant difference. Six MRI scans showed secondary dissemination of the oncology disease in a

  3. {sup 137}Cs in Lapps breeding reindeer measured by simplified whole-body counti; {sup 137}Cs i samiska renskoetare uppmaett med foerenklad helkroppsmaetning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillander, M.; Jaakkola, T. [Helsingfors Univ., Kemiska Inst., Lab. foer radiokemi (Finland)

    2002-04-01

    The whole-body activity of a selected group of Finnish Lapps was measured in 1962 to 1977 and in 1986 to 1997 using mobile whole-body counters. For the most exposed group - the male reindeer breeders - the mean value of the body activity 137CS increased to 53 kBq/person for the year 1965 and 14 kBq/person for 1997. The effective half-time for {sup 137}Cs was 7 years in the seventies and 4,4 years in the nineties. In the summer of 2000 another measurement using bending geometry was carried out. The result corroborated the trend, which was observed earlier. (au)

  4. Peculiarities of tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NMR method, was undertaken to compare the water fractional composition in nature tissues (group 1 with those damaged by experimental whole-body hyperthermia (group 2. We measured longitudinal or “spin-lattice” (T1 and transverse or “spin-spin” (T2 relaxation times of protons of tissues (brain, the atria of the heart, the kidneys and the renal cortex from adult Wistar rats. The differences in T1, T2 and percentage of the intra- and extracellular water between group 1 and 2 were studied to help understand how the water moves in tissues at hyperthermia. The results of this study and the literature data allow to make conclusions about tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia: (1 fractional composition of water and the distribution of intra- and extracellular fluid in the tissue of the atria of the heart did not change (T1 and T2 relaxation times remained unchanged; (2 the crystalline water fraction increased in brain (longer T1 relaxation rate and shorter T2 relaxation rate. This is obstructing the exchange of protons between free and bound water in brain. Thus, loss of water by brain cells is prevented. The distribution between intra- and extracellular fluid in brain remained unchanged; (3 fraction of free water increased in renal tissue (simultaneous longer T1 and T2 relaxation rates by reducing the volume of extracellular fluid; (4 thick hydration layer of water (longer T1 relaxation rate, T2 remained unchanged was formed in the extracellular fluid of renal cortex. This water layer is formed around the sodium ions which concentration is increased in renal cortex tissue of rats from group 2. Аs a result, the amount of fluid secreted by kidneys is reduced, i.e. there is a retention of water in the body. The relevance of our research for the understanding of high temperatures’ adaptation mechanisms is discussed in this paper.

  5. Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, H; Ratib, O [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Shao, L [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)

    2011-05-21

    The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET-MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET-MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU 2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET-MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET-CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq{sup -1}, whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET-MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET-CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that

  6. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, Giuseppe [ENEA, RC Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(−144/RT). • The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10{sup −13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(-144/RT). The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  7. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  8. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravena Santos Raulino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

  9. LISA PathFinder radiation monitor proton irradiation test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I.; Diaz-Aguiló, M.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Hollington, D.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.

    2012-06-01

    The design of the Radiation Monitor in the LISA Technology Package on board LISA Pathnder is based on two silicon PIN diodes, placed parallel to each other in a telescopic configuration. One of them is able to record spectral information of the particle hitting the diode. A test campaign for the flight model Radiation Monitor was done in the Paul Scherrer Institute Proton Irradiation Facility in September 2010. Its purpose was to check correct functionality of the Radiation Monitor under real high energy proton fluxes. Here we present the results of the experiments done and their assessment by means of a simulated flight model geometry using GEANT4 toolkit. No deviation from nominal RM performance was detected, which means the instrument is fully ready for flight.

  10. Whole-Body Vibration Sensor Calibration Using a Six-Degree of Freedom Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cation

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV is associated with a wide variety of health disorders and as a result WBV levels are frequently assessed. Literature outlining WBV accelerations rarely address the calibration techniques and procedures used for WBV sensors to any depth, nor are any detailed information provided regarding such procedures or sensor calibration ranges. The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method for a 6 DOF transducer using a hexapod robot. Also described is a separate motion capture technique used to verify the calibration for acceleration values obtained which were outside the robot calibration range in order to include an acceptable calibration range for WBV environments. The sensor calibrated in this study used linear (Y=mX calibration equations resulting in r2 values greater than 0.97 for maximum and minimum acceleration amplitudes of up to ±8 m/s2 and maximum and minimum velocity amplitudes up to ±100°/s. The motion capture technique verified that the translational calibrations held for accelerations up to ±4 g. Thus, the calibration procedures were shown to calibrate the sensor through the expected range for 6-DOF WBV field measurements for off-road vehicles even when subjected to shocks as a result of high speed travel over rough terrain.

  11. The clinical value of routine whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje (Department of Radiology, Haraldspass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway); Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen (Norway)), Email: jtgeit@online.no; Eikeland, Joakim (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway)); Rosland, Jan Henrik (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway); Sunniva Clinic for Palliative Care, Haraldsplass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    Background. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has become an accessible method for detecting different types of pathologies both in the skeleton and the viscera, which may explain painful conditions, for example tumors and inflammation. Purpose. To assess a possible value of using WBMRI in order to improve palliative care. Material and Methods. Twenty patients (all eligible patients) admitted to the Department for Palliative Care were consecutively included in this study. They underwent a modified WBMRI, with fewer and shorter pulse sequences than in a standard WBMRI, to reduce patient stress. However, the patients' physicians were to exclude patients where little might be obtained and discomfort, distress, and pain could be induced. The treating physicians registered clinical utility directly after receiving the MRI report in a questionnaire. The registration was repeated after ended treatment. Results. Eighty percent had new findings detected, and 40% of the patients had a change in treatment due to the MRI result, mainly changes in analgesics and/or radiation therapy. Conclusion. The WBMRI helped the clinicians to improve treatment and a majority of the patients benefited from this. In eight patients the treatment was changed due to the results. The clinical value (utility) was indicated to be high

  12. Respiratory function parameters in ventilated newborn infants undergoing whole body hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore; Austin, Topun

    2014-02-01

    Whole body hypothermia (WBH) exerts proven neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to describe how WBH could impact on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated newborn infants, by recording primary and composite indices of oxygenation and ventilation before, during and after WBH. The medical notes of 31 mechanically ventilated full-term newborn infants who underwent WBH for HIE were retrospectively reviewed. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), tidal volume (TV), mean airway Pressure (MAP), minute ventilation (MV), static compliance of the respiratory system (C(statRS)), ventilation efficiency index (VEI), alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient) and oxygenation index (OI) were documented before and during hypothermic treatment, as well as during and after rewarming. Fraction of inspired oxygen, MAP, OI and A-a gradient decreased during induction of hypothermia and tended to increase during rewarming. C(statRS), VEI and TV increased during induction of hypothermia and tended to decrease during rewarming. None of the changes achieved statistical significance. These results suggest that WBH might affect respiratory function in mechanically ventilated infants with HIE. Oxygenation might be enhanced by hypothermia, probably as a result of decreased metabolism, while ventilation might also be facilitated as a result of the effect of hypothermia on lung mechanics. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Whole body cleaning agent containing N-acyltaurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentsch, Steven E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a human cleansing agent particularly suitable for use in long duration spaceflight and to a method of bathing with the agent. The agent of the subject invention is in the form of a paste having a pH of 5.0 to 7.9 which comprises an acyltaurate, a skin conditioner, a hair conditioner, and a preservative. More specifically, it includes sodium N-coconut acid-N-methyl taurate, in combination with soybean lecithin, polyquaternium 16, and formalin. This particular combination satisfies the following objectives: (1) that it be usable with a minimum amount of water per shower (approximately 1 gallon); (2) that it be easily separated from the water for purposes of water reclamation; (3) that it be pH compatible with skin and hair; (4) that it rinse well in deionized water; (5) that it be mild to skin and eyes; (6) that it effectively clean both skin and hair; (7) that it be suitable for use in zero gravity; and (8) that it provide ease of combing of wet and dry hair. The method of the invention includes the steps of wetting the skin and hair with a small quantity of water, lathering the skin with the paste, rinsing the lather from the skin and hair with a small quantity of water to produce a rinse water containing the cleansing agent, defoaming the rinse water, and supplying the defoamed rinse water to a water reclamation unit for recycling the water. The novelty of the invention appears to lie in the particular formulation of the cleansing agent and its method of use which provide optimal results under the given constraints and objectives.

  14. Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2015-07-01

    No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of the included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Peer-reviewed studies were included when they chose an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; a psychological manipulation; endurance performance as the dependent variable; and athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants. Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill. The results also demonstrated that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance, and verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect. Interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Researchers are encouraged to compare different practical psychological interventions, to examine the effects of these interventions for athletes in competition and to include a placebo control condition or an alternative control treatment. Researchers are also encouraged to explore additional psychological factors that could have a negative effect on endurance performance. Future research

  15. Whole body mechanics of stealthy walking in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Bishop

    footfall pattern on the phase relationship between potential and kinetic energy. An important implication of these results is the possibility of a tradeoff between stealthy walking and economy of locomotion. This potential tradeoff highlights the complex and conflicting pressures that may govern the locomotor choices that animals make.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  17. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.

  19. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  20. Gα13 ablation reprograms myofibers to oxidative phenotype and enhances whole-body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Shi-Young; Joo, Min Sung; Han, Chang Yeob; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sang Geon

    2017-10-02

    Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243. Ser243 phosphorylation of NFATc1 was reduced after exercise, but was higher in obese animals. Consequently, Gα13 ablation in muscles enhanced whole-body energy metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity, thus affording protection from diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis. Our results define Gα13 as a switch regulator of myofiber reprogramming, implying that modulations of Gα13 and its downstream effectors in skeletal muscle are a potential therapeutic approach to treating metabolic diseases.

  1. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  2. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, Michael; Seeger, Achim; Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Nael, Kambiz; Saleh, Roya [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The quality of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography could be substantially improved over the past several years based on the introduction and application of parallel imaging, new sequence techniques, such as, e.g., centric k-space trajectories, dedicated contrast agents, and clinical high-field scanners. All of these techniques have played an important role to improve image resolution or decrease acquisition time for the dedicated examination of a single vascular territory. However, whole-body MR angiography may be the application with the potential to profit most from these technical advances. The present review article describes the technical innovations with a focus on parallel imaging at high field strength and the impact on whole-body MR angiography. The clinical value of advanced whole-body MR angiography techniques is illustrated by characteristic cases. (orig.)

  4. Role of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing early spondyloarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Ann-Kathrin; Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sieper, Joachim [Department of Rheumatology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kgh@charite.de

    2009-08-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototypical spondyloarthritis. Early diagnosis has gained clinical importance with the advent of new therapeutic options such as TNF-{alpha} inhibitors, which can dramatically improve clinical outcome when initiated early. Whole-body MRI can contribute important diagnostic information for detecting early forms of spondyloarthritis because it enables evaluation of all important joints that may be involved in the disease process as a one-stop shop modality. MRI allows much more accurate diagnostic evaluation of the thoracic spine, which is affected in the majority of patients. This article provides an overview of the use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spondyloarthritides. The recommendations given reflect the most recent scientific data and expert opinions. The focus of this review is on MRI findings at both the axial and the appendicular skeleton and the technical feasibility of whole-body MRI in the clinical setting.

  5. Whole-body MRI for the staging and follow-up of patients with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic approach compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body scanners at 1.5 T and recently 3T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage in a multi-planar imaging approach. More flexible protocols, e.g. including T1-weighted TSE- and STIR-imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen can be performed within less than 45 min. For initial tumor staging PET-CT as a competing whole-body modality in oncologic imaging has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, using the additional metabolic information of PET for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. However, new applications, such as MR-whole-body diffusion imaging, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. WB-MRI has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and it is especially useful as a radiation-free alternative for the surveillance of tumor patients with multiple follow-up exams. Furthermore, it has been introduced as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma. This article summarizes recent developments and applications of WB-MRI and highlights its performance within the scope of systemic oncologic staging and surveillance.

  6. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  7. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  8. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  9. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Kramer, Harald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Glaser, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The advent of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic and functional approach compared with established sequential, multimodal diagnostic algorithms.Whole-body PET with [18F]-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose is a useful imaging procedure for tumor staging and monitoring that can visualize active tumor tissue by detecting pathological glucose metabolism. The combination of PET with the detailed anatomical information of multislice computed tomography as dual-modality scanners has markedly increased lesion localization and diagnostic accuracy compared with both modalities as standalone applications.Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5 and, recently, 3 T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high-resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomical coverage in a multiplanar imaging approach. More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported. However, larger patient cohort studies will have to show the cost efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of such an approach.For initial tumor staging, PET-CT has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, mainly because of the missing metabolic information in WB-MRI. However, new applications, such as magnetic resonance whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging or lymphotropic contrast

  10. Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-03-01

    Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.

  11. Whole body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2013-10-15

    A cellular compartment was added to our previous mathematical model of steady-state acid-base and fluid-electrolyte chemistry to gain further understanding and aid diagnosis of complex disorders involving cellular involvement in critically ill patients. An important hypothesis to be validated was that the thermodynamic, standard free-energy of cellular H(+) and Na(+) pumps remained constant under all conditions. In addition, a hydrostatic-osmotic pressure balance was assumed to describe fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, including incorporation of compliance curves of vascular and interstitial spaces. The description of the cellular compartment was validated by close comparison of measured and model-predicted cellular pH and electrolyte changes in vitro and in vivo. The new description of plasma-interstitial fluid exchange was validated using measured changes in fluid volumes after isoosmotic and hyperosmotic fluid infusions of NaCl and NaHCO3. The validated model was used to explain the role of cells in the mechanism of saline or dilutional acidosis and acid-base effects of acidic or basic fluid infusions and the acid-base disorder due to potassium depletion. A module was created that would allow users, who do not possess the software, to determine, for free, the results of fluid infusions and urinary losses of water and solutes to the whole body.

  12. Whole-Body Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots by Specifying Via-Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHyun Sung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We design a framework about the planning of whole body motion for humanoid robots. Motion planning with various constraints is essential to success the task. In this research, we propose a motion planning method corresponding to various conditions for achieving the task. We specify some via-points to deal with the conditions for target achievement depending on various constraints. Together with certain constraints including task accomplishment, the via-point representation plays a crucial role in the optimization process of our method. Furthermore, the via-points as the optimization parameters are related to some physical conditions. We applied this method to generate the kicking motion of a humanoid robot HOAP-3. We have confirmed that the robot was able to complete the task of kicking a ball over an obstacle into a goal in addition to changing conditions of the location of a ball. These results show that the proposed motion planning method using via-point representation can increase articulation of the motion.

  13. Validation of experimental whole-body SAR assessment method in a complex indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Andersen, Jørgen B; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc

    2013-02-01

    Experimentally assessing the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR(wb) ) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the line-of-sight as specular path) is validated using numerical simulations with the finite-difference time-domain method. Furthermore, the method accounts for diffuse multipath components (DMC) in the total absorption rate by considering the reverberation time of the investigated room, which describes all the losses in a complex indoor environment. The advantage of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computational burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, that is, at large distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations of 0.71% and 4% have been obtained for far-field scenarios, and 77.5% for the near field-scenario. The contribution of the DMC in the total absorption rate is also quantified here, which has never been investigated before. It is found that the DMC may represent an important part of the total absorption rate; its contribution may reach up to 90% for certain scenarios in an indoor environment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Three-region MRI-based whole-body attenuation correction for automated PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: js274@duke.edu; Jia Guang; Sammet, Steffen; Zhang Jun; Hall, Nathan; Knopp, Michael V. [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: In this study we proposed and developed a simple attenuation mapping approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the purpose of reconstructing positron emission tomography (PET) images in PET/MRI imaging devices. Methods: After experimental development, an in vivo calibration was performed by whole-body scanning of five beagles on both a PET/CT and an MRI. The attenuation was determined by using an automated segmentation algorithm to segment regions of background, lung, soft tissue and bone, and assigning them values of 0.002, 0.030, 0.098 and 0.130 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Results: The CT-attenuated and MRI-attenuated PET images had average standardized uptake values (SUVs) that differed by 1-6% for most regions of interest (ROIs). Also, mean relative differences (MRDs) between the images were between 5% and 9% for most regions. The only exception is bone, where the three-region MRI-attenuated PET images had an SUV 10% less on average than the CT-attenuation images, and the MRD averaged 14%. Also, additional segmentation of the bone in the four-region MRI-attenuated PET images reduced the SUV difference to 3% and the MRD to 6%. Conclusion: Therefore, despite the improvements in the four-region segmentation, the three-region segmentation, without delineation of osseous tissues, produces high-quality images that are sufficient for most expected clinical and research purposes.

  15. Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work. PMID:24106645

  16. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Incidentalomas Discovered by Whole Body FDG PETCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernandez Pampaloni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of incidentalomas in a patient population with no known thyroid malignancy who underwent whole body FDG-PET/CT for staging or restaging of neoplasia. The additional aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using PETCT as a screening tool for malignant thyroid incidentalomas. Methods. Retrospective review of medical records of all the thyroid exams done at our institution between January 1, 2000 and August 20, 2008. We made a criterion of PET/CT as the primary method of detection of incidentalomas. Results. From a total of 8464 thyroid exams, 156 incidentalomas were found and 40 incidentalomas underwent anatomopathology analysis, which was used as gold standard. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data. There is no significant association between SUV value and the prevalence of incidentalomas. Discussion. From January 1, 2000 to August 20, 2008, incidentalomas have a prevalence of 1.84% at our institution. 38% of the incidentalomas that were biopsied were characterized as representing malignant tumors. Conclusion. Focal, abnormal FDG uptake representing incidentalomas must be followed up with biopsies. It is impractical to use PET/CT as a screening tool to detect incidentalomas for the general population but it must be done in patients with history of any type of cancer.

  18. Neural correlates of decision making on whole body yaw rotation: An fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winkel, K N; Nesti, A; Ayaz, H; Bülthoff, H H

    2017-07-27

    Prominent accounts of decision making state that decisions are made on the basis of an accumulation of sensory evidence, orchestrated by networks of prefrontal and parietal neural populations. Here we assess whether these findings generalize to decisions on self-motion. Participants were presented with whole body yaw rotations of different durations in a 2-Interval-Forced-Choice paradigm, and tasked to discriminate motions on the basis of their amplitude. The cortical hemodynamic response was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants were performing the task. The imaging data was used to predict the specific response on individual experimental trials, and to predict whether the comparison stimulus would be judged larger than the reference. Classifier performance on the former variable was negligible. However, considerable performance was achieved for the latter variable, specifically using parietal imaging data. The findings provide support for the notion that activity in the parietal cortex reflects modality independent decision variables that represent the strength of the neural evidence in favor of a decision. The results are encouraging for the use of fNIRS as a method to perform neuroimaging in moving individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT) has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  20. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Latella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications.

  1. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  2. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  3. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.

  4. The kinetics of lactate production and removal during whole-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while treadmill roller skiing, from where work rate, aerobic power and blood lactate concentration were measured. A two-compartment simulation model for blood lactate production and removal was constructed. Results The simulated and experimental data differed less than 0.5 mmol/L both during steady state and varying sub-maximal intensities. However, the simulation model for lactate removal after high exercise intensities seems to require further examination. Conclusions Overall, the simulation models of lactate production and removal provide useful insight into the parameters that affect blood lactate response, and specifically how blood lactate concentration during practical training and testing in dynamical situations should be interpreted.

  5. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  6. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Figueroa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  7. USING WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TO IMPROVE JUMP ABILITY IN YOUNG RECREATIONAL SPORTMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Hoyo Lora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The whole body vibrations (WBV it is nowadays one of the most widely used methods for improvingthe explosive strength. In this study, 12 subjects participating in recreational physical activity were allocated to a5 sets of 60 s training, using a frequency of 30 Hz, an amplitude of 2.5 mm. and a isometric position (110 °bending knees on a Galileo Fitness ® (Novotech, Germany platform. The results showed an increase in SJ(+1.76 ± 4.05 cm and CMJ (+1.10 ± 3.20 cm in the post-test conducted just after the vibration. The values of the post-test performed 30 minutes after the squat jump remained above the ones of pre-test but just below the ones of the immediate post-test (+0.42 ± 4.43 cm. By contrast the values in the counter movement jump drop below the pre-test ones (-0.12 ± 2.45 cm. Based on these data it seems that when the frequency is not high it is necessary to use a greater amplitude in order to achieve the desired effects. The effect achieved after the vibration is transient, not remaining after 30 minutes.

  8. Development of an LSI for Tactile Sensor Systems on the Whole-Body of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We have developed a network type tactile sensor system, which realizes high-density tactile sensors on the whole-body of nursing and communication robots. The system consists of three kinds of nodes: host, relay and sensor nodes. Roles of the sensor node are to sense forces and, to encode the sensing data and to transmit the encoded data on serial channels by interruption handling. Relay nodes and host deal with a number of the encoded sensing data from the sensor nodes. A sensor node consists of a capacitive MEMS force sensor and a signal processing/transmission LSI. In this paper, details of an LSI for the sensor node are described. We designed experimental sensor node LSI chips by a commercial 0.18µm standard CMOS process. The 0.18µm LSIs were supplied in wafer level for MEMS post-process. The LSI chip area is 2.4mm × 2.4mm, which includes logic, CF converter and memory circuits. The maximum clock frequency of the chip with a large capacitive load is 10MHz. Measured power consumption at 10MHz clock is 2.23mW. Experimental results indicate that size, response time, sensor sensitivity and power consumption are all enough for practical tactile sensor systems.

  9. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  10. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuke Nakase

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+. The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. RESULTS: FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program.

  11. Results of irradiated cladding tests and clad plate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects critical to the fracture behavior of three-wire stainless steel cladding were investigated by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program: (1) radiation effects on cladding strength and toughness, and (2) the response of mechanically loaded, flawed structures in the presence of cladding (clad plate experiments). Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from /minus/125 to 288/degree/C, the yield strength increased, and ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing. Radiation damage decreased the Charpy upper-shelf energy by 15 to 20% and resulted in up to 28/degree/C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature. Results of irradiated 12.5-mm-thick compact specimens (0.5TCS) show consistent decreases in the ductile fracture toughness, J/sub Ic/, and the tearing modulus. Results from clad plate tests have shown that (1) a tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  13. Characterization of Mild Whole-Body Hyperthermia Protocols Using Human Breast, Ovarian, and Colon Tumors Grown in Severe Combined Immunodeficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Repasky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have shown that one treatment of fever-like whole body hyperthermia (WBH on mice bearing human breast tumors results in a tumor growth delay. Our goal was to repeat this study in mice bearing human ovarian or colon tumors. We further evaluated this WBH protocol by performing multiple and interrupted WBH treatments.

  14. MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING USING A CLINICAL WHOLE-BODY SYSTEM - AN INTRODUCTION TO A USEFUL TECHNIQUE IN SMALL ANIMAL-EXPERIMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; LAM, KH; MOOYAART, EL; BLEICHRODT, RP; NIEUWENHUIS, P; SCHAKENRAAD, JM

    A clinical whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with high resolution coils was used to obtain non-invasive images of the living rat. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the set-up and the advantages of this new imaging technique: detailed information, no extra costs,

  15. Riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation for the prevention of progressive myopia in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Wu, Miaoqin; Zhang, Luyi; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lan; He, Jinjing

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of riboflavin combined with whole-body ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of sclera in a guinea pig model to control the progression of myopia. Experimental groups were administered 0.1% riboflavin solution with or without vitamin C by gavage from 3 days before myopic modeling and during the modeling process. Guinea pigs underwent 30 min of whole-body UVA irradiation after each gavage for 2 weeks. For control groups, guinea pigs were administered vitamin C and underwent either whole-body UVA irradiation without 0.1% riboflavin solution or whole-body fluorescent lamp irradiation with or without 0.1% riboflavin solution. Resultantly, myopia models were established with an increased axial length and myopic diopter. Compared with myopic eyes in the control groups, the net increase in axial length, diopter and strain assessment decreased significantly, and the net decrease in sclera thickness, ultimate load, and stress assessment decreased significantly in experimental groups. MMP-2 expression showed a lower net increase, while TIMP-2 expression showed a lower net decrease. In addition, hyperplasia of scleral fibroblasts was more active in myopic eyes of experimental groups. Overall, our results showed that oral administration of riboflavin with whole-body UVA irradiation could increase the strength and stiffness of sclera by altering the biochemical and biomechanical properties, and decreases in axial elongation and myopic diopter are greater in the guinea pig myopic model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole body magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography in the vascular mapping of head and neck: an intraindividual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the detectability of neck vessels with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the setting of a whole-body MRA and multislice computed tomography angiography (CTA) for preoperative vascular mapping of head and neck. Methods In 20 patients MRA was performed prior to microvascular reconstruction of the mandible with osteomyocutaneous flaps. CTA of the neck served as the method of reference. 1.5 T contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiograms were acquired to visualize the vascular structures of the neck in the setting of a whole-body MRA examination. 64-slice spiral computed tomography was performed with a dual-phase protocol, using the arterial phase images for 3D CTA reconstruction. Maximum intensity projection was employed to visualize MRA and CTA data. To retrieve differences in the detectability of vessel branches between MRA and CTA, a McNemar test was performed. Results All angiograms were of diagnostic quality. There were no statistically significant differences between MRA and CTA for the detection of branches of the external carotid artery that are relevant host vessels for microsurgery (p = 0.118). CTA was superior to MRA if all the external carotid artery branches were included (p < 0.001). Conclusions MRA is a reliable alternative to CTA in vascular mapping of the cervical vasculature for planning of microvascular reconstruction of the mandible. In the setting of whole-body MRA it could serve as a radiation free one-stop-shop tool for preoperative assessment of the arterial system, potentially covering both, the donor and host site in one single examination. PMID:24884580

  17. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT of orofacial tumors, a value of whole-body imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)], E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Ferdova, Eva [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Zahlava, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Walter, Jiri [Department of Stomatosurgery, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mukensnabl, Petr; Daum, Ondrej [sikls Institute of Pathological Anatomy, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: Staging of head and neck tumors is one of the most difficult tasks in imaging techniques, due to the very complicated head and neck anatomy and serious problems with the differentiation of reactive enlarged lymph nodes and lymph nodes involved with metastases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the whole-body approach in the assessment of head and neck malignancies using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. Materials and methods: The analysis of a group of 1750 consecutive whole-body procedures in all indications of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was made according to: the presence of orofacial tumors; their histology; findings concerning the spread outside head and neck region; and findings concerning the primary staging or restaging. The examinations of head and neck tumors were performed after intravenous application of the {sup 18}F-FDG and its accumulation for one hour. Drinking and speaking is restricted during this accumulation to prevent artificial muscle {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and to minimize false positive findings. In our hospital, high resolution PET is followed by the sub-millimeter isotropic acquisition of CT data after intravenous application of an iodinated contrast material. The acquisitions of head and neck region and trunk are performed separately to obtain optimal resolution in both regions. Results: 105 examinations of the orofacial tumors were performed on 87 patients in a group of 1750 consecutive PET/CT examinations. The ratio between primary staging and restaging was 3:7. The most frequent indications were carcinomas of the tongue (19 examinations) and carcinomas of the salivary glands (19 examinations). The metastatic spread of the tumor outside the region of the head and neck was noted in 12 cases. Conclusion: Our findings of distant metastases confirmed the importance of the use of whole-body PET/CT in this indication.

  18. Wavelet Correlation Feature Scale Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine Approach for Aeroengine Whole-Body Vibration Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly analyze aeroengine whole-body vibration signals, Wavelet Correlation Feature Scale Entropy (WCFSE and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine (FSVM (WCFSE-FSVM method was proposed by fusing the advantages of the WCFSE method and the FSVM method. The wavelet coefficients were known to be located in high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N or SNR scales and were obtained by the Wavelet Transform Correlation Filter Method (WTCFM. This method was applied to address the whole-body vibration signals. The WCFSE method was derived from the integration of the information entropy theory and WTCFM, and was applied to extract the WCFSE values of the vibration signals. Among the WCFSE values, the WFSE1 and WCFSE2 values on the scale 1 and 2 from the high band of vibration signal were believed to acceptably reflect the vibration feature and were selected to construct the eigenvectors of vibration signals as fault samples to establish the WCFSE-FSVM model. This model was applied to aeroengine whole-body vibration fault diagnosis. Through the diagnoses of four vibration fault modes and the comparison of the analysis results by four methods (SVM, FSVM, WESE-SVM, WCFSE-FSVM, it is shown that the WCFSE-FSVM method is characterized by higher learning ability, higher generalization ability and higher anti-noise ability than other methods in aeroengine whole-vibration fault analysis. Meanwhile, this present study provides a useful insight for the vibration fault diagnosis of complex machinery besides an aeroengine.

  19. Effect of whole body vibration on lactate level recovery and heart rate recovery in rest after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Rok; Min, Jin-Young; Yu, Changho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, we investigated the recovery of the lactate level, muscular fatigue, and heart rate recovery (HRR) with respect to whole body vibration (WBV) during the rest stage after a gait exercise. A total of 24 healthy subjects with no medical history of exercise injury participated. The participants were divided into a training group with vibration during rest and a control group with the same conditions but without vibration. The subjects performed a gait exercise with a slope of 15% and velocity of 4 km/h to consume 450 kcal in 30 min. Then, they rested on a vibrating chair or on a chair without vibrations for 30 min. The vibration protocol consists of a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude of 5 mm. To estimate the recovery effect, we measured the lactate levels in blood, spectral edge frequency (SEF) of MVIC, and HRR before, immediately after exercise, and after rest. The results showed that the lactate level in the training group decreased more (93.8%) than in the control group (32.8%). Also, HRR showed a similar trend with a recovery of 88.39% in the training group but 64.72% in the control group. We considered that whole-body vibrations during rest would help remove lactic acid by improving the level of lactic acid oxidation with stimulated blood vessels in the muscles and by helping to maintain blood flow. Also, WBV would lead to compensation to actively decrease the fast excess post-exercise oxygen consumption from blood circulation. We suggest that whole-body vibrations during rest can provide fast, efficient fatigue recovery as a cool down exercise for women, the elderly, and patients without other activity after intense exercise.

  20. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Daichi Yamashita,2,3 Shinji Yamamoto,2,3 Tomoyuki Matsui,4 Kazuya Seo,4 Yoshikazu Azuma,4 Yoshikazu Kida,5 Toru Morihara,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg and whole-body muscle volume (MV in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001. There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01. Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05. The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass

  1. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Lammers, Nicolette M.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Fliers, Eric; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. Objective: The objective was

  2. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body ... nitrogen content with a source of protein which is resistant to degradation in the rumen has ... are well established for use in humans (Waterlow et ai., 1978), and have been success- ...

  3. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A

    1984-01-01

    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  4. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    amino acid needs of other fish in order to design and improve their test diets. Wilson and Poe (1985) have reported that the amino acid patterns of fish eggs and whole body tissue have been used for this purpose in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Rumsey and Ketola (1975) reported that improved growth was observed ...

  5. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  6. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M T

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  7. Whole body clearance of norepinephrine. The significance of arterial sampling and of surgical stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the ...

  8. Whole body MRI for detecting metastatic bone tumor: comparison with bone scintigrams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakanishi, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Nakata, S.; Kyakuno, M.; Nakaguchi, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of whole body MRI (WB-MRI [magnetic resonance imaging]) and bone scintigram (BS) at detecting bone metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: WB-MRI was performed on 16 patients for detecting bone metastasis (6 breast carcinoma, 7 prostatic carcinoma, 1 renal cell

  9. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  10. Patient acceptance of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography: A prospective questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef Jesper Wirenfeldt; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Løgager, Vibeke Berg

    2010-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing the systemic distribution of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic performance of WB-MRA, but no studies have investigated patient acceptance of this imaging method....

  11. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...

  12. Whole-body computed tomography versus conventional skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillengass, J; Moulopoulos, L A; Delorme, S

    2017-01-01

    For decades, conventional skeletal survey (CSS) has been the standard imaging technique for multiple myeloma (MM). However, recently whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) has been implemented into the diagnostic criteria of MM. This analysis compares sensitivity and prognostic significance of WBC...

  13. Inter-station Intensity Standardization for Whole-Body MR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzyubachyk, O; Staring, M; Reijnierse, M; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; van der Geest, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a method for performing inter-station intensity standardization in multispectral whole-body MR data. Methods Different approaches for mapping the intensity of each acquired image stack into the reference intensity space were developed and validated. The registration

  14. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present

  15. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; Scholte, A; Rijssenbeek, LHM; vanderBaan, S; Bogaard, JM; deMonchy, JGR

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  16. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Weller, F. R.; Scholte, A.; Rijssenbeek, L. H.; van der Baan, S.; Bogaard, J. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  17. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  19. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Cintia Renata de Sousa-Gonçalves, Luciana Camargo Bernardo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio ...

  20. The acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute whole body vibration (WBV) training on the speed, agility and explosive power performance measurements of university field hockey players. A two-way randomized, crossover experimental research design was used in the study. Seventeen university field ...

  1. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H. C.; Bongers, P. M.; Hulshof, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly

  2. Self-limiting benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of whole-body vibration training plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Young, E; Belloso, A

    2010-07-01

    We describe a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo which occurred after use of a whole-body vibration training plate. Case report and literature review concerning the secondary causes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and the physiological effects of whole-body vibration training plates. A 44-year-old woman was referred with classic symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of a whole-body vibration training plate, a popular form of fitness equipment widely used in sports, rehabilitation and beauty treatments. The condition resolved spontaneously after several days. There have been reports of negative side effects in users of this equipment, such as dizziness, headache and a sensation of imbalance; however, there have been no reported cases involving vertigo. Based on a literature review, this equipment may cause side effects, including vertigo, by generating forces that can increase the original amplitude of internal organs, which may potentially cause labyrinthine trauma or dislocation of otoconia, leading to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We suggest that whole-body vibration training plates may potentially induce benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Manufacturers may need to make users of this equipment aware of this risk, and remind them to use it with caution.

  3. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2014-01-01

    ]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  4. Whole-body vibration exercise is well tolerated in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that ...

  5. Automated segmentation of the skeleton in whole-body bone scans: influence of difference in atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Horikoshi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Aim Automated segmentation of the skeleton is the first step for quantitative analysis and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of whole-body bone scans. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of differences in skeletal atlas on the automated segmentation of skeletons in a Japanese...

  6. Effect of whole body x-radiation on a presumed mucoprotein of rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, R.N.; Butler, C.L.

    1950-12-31

    In a previous report, the separation of a protein fraction from rat intestine was described. This fraction is being considered to be mucoprotein solely on the basis of its method of preparation. The present report describes an experiment indicating that whole body x-radiation of rats reduces the amount of this fraction to a statistically significant degree. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Back disorders and exposure to whole-body vibration: Thesis summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is widespread and may cause back trouble. Several epidemiological studies of the relationship between WBV exposure and back trouble were carried out at the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. This project comprised studies of

  8. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat-Verboom, L.; Spruit, M.A.; van den Borne, B.E.; Smeenk, F.W.; Wouters, E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the

  9. Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittusamy, N Kumar; Buchholz, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has been suggested that operating engineers (OEs) are exposed to two important risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders: whole-body vibration and non-neutral body postures. This review evaluates selected papers that have studied exposure to whole-body vibration and awkward posture among operators of mobile equipment. There have been only few studies that have specifically examined exposure of these risk factors among operators of construction equipment. Thus other studies from related industry and equipment were reviewed as applicable. In order to better understand whole-body vibration and postural stress among OEs, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among OEs.

  10. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with advancing age and some clinical disorders, as in diabetes and in rheumatologic diseases. Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to ...

  11. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  12. Kidney, lower limb and whole-body uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1988-01-01

    Regional (kidney, lower limb) and whole-body kinetics of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) and tritium-labelled L-noradrenaline (3H-NA) were determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease (one alcoholic hepatitis, 12 cirrhosis) and in control subjects (n = 6) in order to get information on the s...

  13. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake,

  14. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  15. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  16. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  17. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  18. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, MCA; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric

  19. Protein intake during hemodialysis maintains a positive whole body protein balance in chronic hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Boer, TS; Stellaard, F; De Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    Protein energy malnutrition is present in 18 to 56% of hemodialysis patients. Because hemodialysis has been regarded as a catabolic event, we studied whether consumption of a protein- and energy-nriched meal improves the whole body protein balance during dialysis in chronic hemodialysis (CHD)

  20. Back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    In The Netherlands so far little research has been carried out to investigate the health effects of exposure to whole-body vibration at work. In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of permanent work disabilities in crane operators exposed to vibration was compared to that of a

  1. A Demographic Exploration of Whole Body Donors at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Ritter, Dale

    2016-02-01

    To examine and characterize the occupational histories of individuals who donated their whole bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program at Warren Alpert Medical School (AMS) from the academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014. A retrospective chart review of 491 individuals who donated their whole bodies to Alpert Medical School was conducted upon IRB approval from Brown University. Demographic, social, and occupational histories were abstracted for analysis and review. There were no interventions. Descriptive statistics, Student T-test and Difference in Proportions Test were used to characterize information abstracted from donor applications to the Anatomical Gift Program. From academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014, 491 individuals donated their bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program. Donors were split equally by gender (female = 52%; male = 48%). The median age of donors was 82 years; the vast majority self-identified as white (98%). The majority of donors came from occupations involved with industry (23%) or office work, hospitality and retail (24%). Of the 491 body donors, 2 were physicians (0.4%). Our data demonstrate that in the past decade, physicians have made few contributions to AMS. This remains in concert with current literature showing a lack of physician whole body donors. Future research must explore physician attitudes towards whole body donation.

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  3. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  4. Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K

    2016-02-19

    To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole-Body Vibration in Farming: Background Document for Creating a Simplified Procedure to Determine Agricultural Tractor Vibration Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cutini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operator exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV presents risks to health and safety and it is reported to worsen or even cause back injuries. Work activities resulting in operator exposure to whole-body vibration have a common onset in off-road work such as farming. Despite the wide variability of agricultural surface profiles, studies have shown that with changing soil profile and tractor speed, the accelerations resulting from ground input present similar spectral trends. While on the one hand such studies confirmed that tractor WBV emission levels are very dependent upon the nature of the operation performed, on the other, irrespective of the wide range of conditions characterizing agricultural operations, they led researchers to set up a possible and realistic simplification and standardization of tractor driver comfort testing activities. The studies presented herewith indicate the usefulness, and the possibility, of developing simplified procedures to determine agricultural tractor vibration comfort. The results obtained could be used effectively to compare tractors of the same category or a given tractor when equipped with different seats, suspension, tyres, etc.

  6. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Otsuka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five variable foreperiod (FP length conditions (1.465, 1.622, 1.780, 1.938, and 2.096 s, with trials randomly timed between a warning and an imperative tone. Participants’ sprinting motion and ground reaction forces of their four limbs during the block start were measured simultaneously. Whole-body RT was significantly shorter when FP length was longer; the values of whole-body RT were 117 ± 5 ms, 129 ± 5 ms, 125 ± 4 ms, 133 ± 6 ms, and 156 ± 8 ms in the 2.096, 1.938, 1.780, 1.622, and 1.465-s FP-length conditions, respectively. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found a significant joint-by-FP length interaction in joint-moment RT. These findings suggest that FP length affects coordinated motion in four limbs and whole-body RT. This information will be able to lead to new methods for start signals in sprint running events and advance our understanding of the association between FP length and dynamic coordinated motion.

  7. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  8. Preliminary Results from in Situ Quartz Fiber Neutron Irradiations

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Nural; Ayan, S; Ayan, S; Bencze, Gyorgy; Dumano, I; Fenyvesi, Andras; Hauptman, John M; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Miller, Michael; Önel, Y M; McCliment, Edward; Schwellenbach, D

    1998-01-01

    Optical transmission characteristics of multi-mode synthetic silica-core fibers between 325 nm and 800 nm were studied in situ while irradiated with neutrons. In one case, fiber samples were placed in the core of a 10-kWatt reactor; in the other, fast neutrons generated by p ( 18 MeV) + Be reaction in a cyclotron, irradiated the fibers. The neutron fluence in both studies totaled ~10^15 n/cm2. Both of these initial studies indicate that in the sensitivity region of bialkiline PMTs, the irradiation induced loss is ~1dB/m. These initial experiments are aimed at establishing a fiber testing methodology for assessing the expected degradation of the CMS forward calorimeter at the LHC due to large neutron backgrounds.

  9. Effects of traditional vs. alternating whole-body strength training on squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Anthony B; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Galpin, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    Traditional strength training with 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) uses 2- to 5-minute rest periods between sets. These long rest periods minimize decreases in volume and intensity but result in long workouts. Performing upper-body exercises during lower-body rest intervals may decrease workout duration but may affect workout performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of traditional vs. alternating whole-body strength training on squat performance. Twenty male (24 ± 2 years) volunteers performed 2 workouts. The traditional set (TS) workout consisted of 4 sets of squats (SQ) at 80% of 1RM on a force plate with 3-minute rest between sets. The alternating set (AS) workout also consisted of 4 sets of SQ at 80% of 1RM but with bench press, and bench pull exercises performed between squat sets 1, 2 and 3 with between-exercise rest of 50 seconds, resulting in approximately 3-minute rest between squat sets. Sets 1-3 were performed for 4 repetitions, whereas set 4 was performed to concentric failure. Total number of completed repetitions of the fourth squat set to failure was recorded. Peak ground reaction force (GRF), peak power (PP), and average power (AP) of every squat repetition were recorded and averaged for each set. There was no significant interaction for GRF, PP, or AP. However, volume-equated AP was greater during the TS condition (989 ± 183) than the AS condition (937 ± 176). During the fourth squat set, the TS condition resulted in more repetitions to failure (7.5 ± 2.2) than the AS condition (6.5 ± 2.2). Therefore, individuals who aim to optimize squat AP should refrain from performing more than 3 ASs per exercise. Likewise, those who aim to maximize squat repetitions to failure should refrain from performing upper-body multijoint exercises during squat rest intervals.

  10. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  11. IMPACT OF 10 SESSIONS OF WHOLE BODY CRYOSTIMULATION ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND ON SELECTED BLOOD COUNT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dybek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic effect of low temperature suggests that sessions in a cryogenic chamber might improve athletes’ capacity as a standard element of training. Therefore the authors decided to evaluate the impact of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation (WBCT on aerobic and anaerobic efficiency as well as on selected blood count parameters. The study group included 32 volunteers – 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of WBCT in a cryogenic chamber. Blood samples (RBC, WBC, PLT, HGB, HCT were taken, and aerobic and anaerobic efficiency and lactate concentration in capillary blood were measured before the first session and one day after the last one. No significant differences were observed in values of aerobic capacity after 10 sessions of WBCT. There was a rising trend in men and a declining trend in women. The lactate concentration did not differ significantly before and after WBCT. A slight rise in aerobic and anaerobic threshold was observed in men, while in women the values slightly fell. The Wingate test showed no significant differences in results before and after cryostimulation. Only the TOBT was significantly shorter in men (6.12±1.49 vs 3.79±1.14 s. The WBCT sessions resulted in a significant rise of the haematological parameters both in women and men, excluding HCT, which showed a statistically insignificant rise. Ten sessions of whole body cryostimulation did not affect aerobic or anaerobic capacity in the tested group, although it improved the blood count parameters.

  12. Subcutaneous adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Janakova, Zuzana; Kurdiova, Timea; Surova, Martina; Imrich, Richard; Majercikova, Zuzana; Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Kiss, Alexander; Belan, Vitazoslav; Klimes, Iwar; Olejnik, Juraj; Gasperikova, Daniela; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    To examine the regulatory aspects of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) association with obesity-related insulin resistance. ZAG mRNA and protein were analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and circulation of lean, obese, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic men; both subcutaneous and visceral AT were explored in lean and extremely obese. Clinical and ex vivo findings were corroborated by results of in vitro ZAG silencing experiment. Subcutaneous AT ZAG was reduced in obesity, with a trend to further decrease with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. ZAG was 3.3-fold higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT of lean individuals. All differences were lost in extreme obesity. Obesity-associated changes in AT were not paralleled by alterations of circulating ZAG. Subcutaneous AT ZAG correlated with adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial content, expression of GLUT4, PGC1α, and adiponectin. Subcutaneous AT ZAG and adipocyte size were the only predictors of insulin sensitivity, independent on age and BMI. Silencing ZAG resulted in reduced adiponectin, IRS1, GLUT4, and PGC1α gene expression in primary human adipocytes. ZAG in subcutaneous, but not in visceral AT, was markedly reduced in obesity. Clinical, cellular, and molecular evidence indicate that ZAG plays an important role in modulating whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Balance, gait and quality of life in Parkinson's disease: Effects of whole body vibration treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmylla Teixeira Soares

    Full Text Available Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which triggers limitations and disability in people. Therefore, rehabilitation therapy is widely recommended in patients with PD, especially those who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Objective Evaluate the effect of a protocol of Whole-body Vibration (WBV in balance, gait and Quality of Life (QOL of patients with PD, who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Methods It was performed 12 sessions of a protocol WBV (squat, plantar flexion, isometric contraction of members and single-leg balance, with three sets each, at a vibrating platform (2mm and 35Hz in 10 PD patients. By the first 3 sessions, patients underwent 20 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. After the third session, the treatment was 40 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. The Tinetti Test was applied before and after treatment to assess balance and gait, and the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life-questionnaire (PDQL-BR, to evaluate the PDQL-BR and its subcategories: Parkinson, Systemic, Social and Emotional.Results Treatment did not significantly change the balance (p = 0.438, QOL issue in Emotional (p = 0.450 and Social (p = 0.171, but improved gait (p = 0.003, the Tinetti (p ≤ 0.001, the quality of life in items Parkinson (p ≤ 0.001, Systemic (p ≤ 0.001 and PDQL-BR (p ≤ 0.001.Conclusions WBV exercises on the vibrating platform, according to the parameters used, showed promising results that encourage its use to improve the clinical conditions related to disorders of gait, balance and QOL in patients with PD.

  14. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p amateur players. A significant difference (p amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results

  15. Whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal diseases in professional truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Fabiano de Souza Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most occupational diseases do not fit the paradigm of medical interpretation of the health-disease process based on linear causality, in which it would be possible to find a single cause for each type of disease. Objectives: to conduct a systematic review in order to investigate the association between whole-body vibration (WBV and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD in professional truck drivers (PTD. Methods: The scientific databases of PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs and Scielo were used to collect articles published from 2000 until the present time. Two independent reviewers adopted inclusion and quality criteria to evaluate the selected articles. Results: From adopted inclusion and quality criteria, nine articles were chosen to identify the association between MSD and WBV in PTD. The results showed that MSD seems to be closely associated to exposure to WBV in these workers, mainly due to high prevalence and symptoms of low back pain. Two cohort studies showed exposure to WBV as risk for MSD. Only one, with case-control design, did not show WBV as a significant factor. Conclusions: In this study the importance of exposure analysis of WBV in the occurrence of MSD in PTD was elucidated. This study showed the importance of WBV exposure analysis on the occurrence of MSD in PTD. There is adequate information to provide rationale for the reduction of WBV exposure to the lowest possible level, to ensure the health of these workers. Studies with a greater power of investigation, of a prospective, design, should be encouraged, supplanting those only of association.

  16. Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchiel, Scott W; Lauer, Fredine T; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared to chamber exposure controls receiving fresh air. DE was assessed for effects on systemic immunity by measuring the proliferative response of spleen cells following stimulation with T cell (phytohemagglutinin, or PHA) or B cell (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS) mitogens. The results showed that DE at all exposure levels suppressed the proliferative response of T cells. B cell proliferation was increased at 30 microg/m(3) and was unaffected at the 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3) exposures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to suppress spleen cell mitogenic responses, and it has been hypothesized by several groups that PAHs and perhaps benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-quinones (BPQs) may be responsible for the effects of DE or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Therefore, a second purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of in vitro BPQs on AJ mouse spleen cell mitogenic responses and compare to DE in preliminary studies. Unlike DE, BPQs were found to increase T cell proliferation. In addition, analysis of chamber atmospheres showed that there was little if any PAH and BPQs in DE. Therefore, these results demonstrate that because of the absence of BPQs in DE, they are likely not responsible for the immunosuppressive effect of DE on murine spleen cell responses.

  17. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  18. COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ACCELERATIONS ON COUNTER-MOVEMENT JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Bazett-Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While it seems that whole body vibration (WBV might be an effective modality to enhance physical performance, the proper prescription of WBV for performance enhancement remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of various WBV accelerations on counter movement jump (CMJ height, the duration of any effect, and differences between men and women. Forty-four participants (33 men, 11 women participated in no less than four CMJ familiarization sessions and completed all vibration sessions. Participants performed a pre-test (three maximal CMJs, followed randomly by one of five WBV accelerations; 1g (no-WBV control, 2.16g, 2.80g, 4.87g, and 5.83g. Participants performed three maximal CMJs immediately, five, and 10 minutes following each 45 sec WBV session. The mean of the three performances was used and calculated as a percentage of the pre-vibration mean value. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; acceleration x time x gender model was used to analyze the data. The two-way interactions of acceleration-gender (p = 0.033 and time-gender (p = 0.050 were significant. Women performed significantly better following the 2.80g (p = 0.0064 and 5.83g (p = 0. 0125 WBV sessions compared to the 1g (control session. Men, however, did not experience performance enhancing effects following any of the vibration sessions. While significant differences did not occur between time in either gender, the effects of the 45 sec WBV session in women were transient, lasting approximately five minutes. During the prescription of WBV, gender should be considered given that the results of this study seem to indicate that men and women respond differently to WBV. The results of this study suggest that WBV might be a useful modality as applied during the pre-competition warm-up

  19. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  20. A Novel Fusion Framework Based on Adaptive PCNN in NSCT Domain for Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PET and CT fusion images, combining the anatomical and functional information, have important clinical meaning. This paper proposes a novel fusion framework based on adaptive pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT domain for fusing whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, the gradient average of each pixel is chosen as the linking strength of PCNN model to implement self-adaptability. Secondly, to improve the fusion performance, the novel sum-modified Laplacian (NSML and energy of edge (EOE are extracted as the external inputs of the PCNN models for low- and high-pass subbands, respectively. Lastly, the rule of max region energy is adopted as the fusion rule and different energy templates are employed in the low- and high-pass subbands. The experimental results on whole-body PET and CT data (239 slices contained by each modality show that the proposed framework outperforms the other six methods in terms of the seven commonly used fusion performance metrics.

  1. Comparison between a linear versus a macrocyclic contrast agent for whole body MR angiography in a clinical routine setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittig Kilian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous experiences of whole body MR angiography are predominantly available in linear 0.5 M gadolinium-containing contrast agents. The aim of this study was to compare image quality on a four-point scale (range 1–4 and diagnostic accuracy of a 1.0 M macrocyclic contrast agent (gadobutrol, n = 80 patients with a 0.5 M linear contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine, n = 85 patients on a 1.5 T whole body MR system. Digital subtraction angiography served as standard of reference. Results All examinations yielded diagnostic image quality. There was no significant difference in image quality (3.76 ± 0.3 versus 3.78 ± 0.3, p = n.s. and diagnostic accuracy observed. Sensitivity and specificity of the detection of hemodynamically relevant stenoses was 93%/95% in the gadopentetate dimeglumine group and 94%/94% in the gadobutrol group, respectively. Conclusion The high diagnostic accuracy of gadobutrol in the clinical routine setting is of high interest as medical authorities (e.g. the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products recommend macrocyclic contrast agents especially to be used in patients with renal failure or dialysis.

  2. Comparison between a linear versus a macrocyclic contrast agent for whole body MR angiography in a clinical routine setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Achim; Kramer, Ulrich; Fenchel, Michael; Grimm, Florian; Bretschneider, Christiane; Döring, Jörg; Klumpp, Bernhard; Tepe, Gunnar; Rittig, Kilian; Seidensticker, Peter R; Claussen, Claus D; Miller, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous experiences of whole body MR angiography are predominantly available in linear 0.5 M gadolinium-containing contrast agents. The aim of this study was to compare image quality on a four-point scale (range 1–4) and diagnostic accuracy of a 1.0 M macrocyclic contrast agent (gadobutrol, n = 80 patients) with a 0.5 M linear contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine, n = 85 patients) on a 1.5 T whole body MR system. Digital subtraction angiography served as standard of reference. Results All examinations yielded diagnostic image quality. There was no significant difference in image quality (3.76 ± 0.3 versus 3.78 ± 0.3, p = n.s.) and diagnostic accuracy observed. Sensitivity and specificity of the detection of hemodynamically relevant stenoses was 93%/95% in the gadopentetate dimeglumine group and 94%/94% in the gadobutrol group, respectively. Conclusion The high diagnostic accuracy of gadobutrol in the clinical routine setting is of high interest as medical authorities (e.g. the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) recommend macrocyclic contrast agents especially to be used in patients with renal failure or dialysis. PMID:19116027

  3. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiying; Jiang, Huiyan; Yang, Qiyao; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoxu

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS) method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD) method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair) of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = -0.933) on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826) on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = -0.496, ED = 25.847) and the compared method (NC = -0.614, ED = 16.085). Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one.

  4. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  5. An optimal sampling approach to modelling whole-body vibration exposure in all-terrain vehicle driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaoshu; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Toppila, Esko; Marjanen, Ykä; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Lu, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and several safety standards obligate to measure WBV. The high cost of direct measurements in large epidemiological studies raises the question of the optimal sampling for estimating WBV exposures given by a large variation in exposure levels in real worksites. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. A daily exposure to WBV was recorded for 9-24 days among 48 all-terrain vehicle drivers. Four data-sets based on root mean squared recordings were obtained from the measurement. The data were modelled using semi-variogram with spectrum analysis and the optimal sampling scheme was derived. The optimum sampling period was 140 min apart. The result was verified and validated in terms of its accuracy and statistical power. Recordings of two to three hours are probably needed to get a sufficiently unbiased daily WBV exposure estimate in real worksites. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals. Practitioner Summary: Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) presents an occupational health risk and safety standards obligate to measure WBV. However, direct measurements can be expensive. This paper presents a new approach to addressing this problem. The developed model is general enough that is applicable to other cumulative exposures or biosignals.

  6. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = −0.933 on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826 on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = −0.496, ED = 25.847 and the compared method (NC = −0.614, ED = 16.085. Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one.

  7. Antihysteresis of perceived longitudinal body axis during continuous quasi-static whole-body rotation in the earth-vertical roll plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalias, M; Bockisch, C J; Bertolini, G; Straumann, D; Palla, A

    2011-03-01

    Estimation of subjective whole-body tilt in stationary roll positions after rapid rotations shows hysteresis. We asked whether this phenomenon is also present during continuous quasi-static whole-body rotation and whether gravitational cues are a major contributing factor. Using a motorized turntable, 8 healthy subjects were rotated continuously about the earth-horizontal naso-occipital axis (earth-vertical roll plane) and the earth-vertical naso-occipital axis (earth-horizontal roll plane). In both planes, three full constant velocity rotations (2°/s) were completed in clockwise and counterclockwise directions (acceleration = 0.05°/s(2), velocity plateau reached after 40 s). Subjects adjusted a visual line along the perceived longitudinal body axis (pLBA) every 2 s. pLBA deviation from the longitudinal body axis was plotted as a function of whole-body roll position, and a sine function was fitted. At identical whole-body earth-vertical roll plane positions, pLBA differed depending on whether the position was reached by a rotation from upright or by passing through upside down. After the first 360° rotation, pLBA at upright whole-body position deviated significantly in the direction of rotation relative to pLBA prior to rotation initiation. This deviation remained unchanged after subsequent full rotations. In contrast, earth-horizontal roll plane rotations resulted in similar pLBA before and after each rotation cycle. We conclude that the deviation of pLBA in the direction of rotation during quasi-static earth-vertical roll plane rotations reflects static antihysteresis and might be a consequence of the known static hysteresis of ocular counterroll: a visual line that is perceived that earth-vertical is expected to be antihysteretic, if ocular torsion is hysteretic.

  8. Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

    2013-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit.

  9. Effectiveness evaluation of whole-body electromyostimulation as a post-exercise recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA Camara, Miguel A; Pardos, Ana I; Veiga, Óscar L

    2018-01-04

    Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) devices are now being used in health and sports training, although there are few studies investigating their benefits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of WB-EMS as a post-exercise recovery method, and compare it with other methods like active and passive recovery. The study included nine trained men (age = 21 ± 1years, height = 1.77 ± 0.4 m, mass = 62 ± 7 kg). Three trials were performed in three different sessions, 1 week apart. Each trial, the participants completed the same exercise protocol and a different recovery method each time. A repeated measures design was used to check the basal reestablishing on several physiological variables [lactate, heart rate, percentage of tissue hemoglobin saturation, temperature, and neuromuscular fatigue] and to evaluate the quality of recovery. The non-parametric Wilcoxon and Friedman ANOVA tests were used to examine the differences between recovery methods. The results showed no differences between methods in the physiological and psychological variables analyzed. Although, the blood lactate concentration showed borderline statistical significance between methods (P = 0.050). Likewise, WB-EMS failed to recover baseline blood lactate concentration (P = 0.021) and percentage of tissue hemoglobin saturation (P = 0.023), in contrast to the other two methods. These findings suggest that WB-EMS is not a good recovery method because the power of reestablishing of several physiological and psychological parameters is not superior to other recovery methods like active and passive recovery.

  10. Whole-body MRI for full assessment and characterization of diffuse inflammatory myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Saleh Elessawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a highly valuable tool for full assessment of the extent of bilateral symmetrical diffuse inflammatory myopathy, owing to its high sensitivity in the detection of edema which correlates with, and sometimes precedes, clinical findings. Purpose To evaluate the use of whole-body (WB-MRI in characterization and full assessment of the extent and distribution of diffuse inflammatory myopathy. Material and Methods A prospective study on 15 patients presenting with clinical evidence of inflammatory myopathy. It included 4 boys/men and 11 girls/women (age range, 6–44 years; mean age, 25.5 years. 1.5 T WB-MRI was performed and the distribution and extent of disease severity was assessed according to muscle edema on STIR images. Results Four cases of dermatomyositis showed lower limb disease predilection with edema in gluteal, thigh, and calf muscles. The same finding was seen in one case with recurrent polymyositis and three cases with overlap myositis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Bilateral upper and lower limb myositis was demonstrated in three cases of polymyositis and one case of overlap myositis with scleroderma. Bilateral edema involving all scanned muscle groups was detected in three cases of polymyositis with paraneoplastic syndrome, SLE, and severe active dermatomyositis (including the neck muscles. Conclusion WB-MRI is the diagnostic modality of choice for cases of inflammatory myopathy. It accurately detects the most severely affected muscles candidate for biopsy and provides a reliable baseline study for follow-up of disease progression as well as response to treatment.

  11. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole body vibration for older persons: an open randomized, multicentre, parallel, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitjà-Rabert Mercè

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Institutionalized older persons have a poor functional capacity. Including physical exercise in their routine activities decreases their frailty and improves their quality of life. Whole-body vibration (WBV training is a type of exercise that seems beneficial in frail older persons to improve their functional mobility, but the evidence is inconclusive. This trial will compare the results of exercise with WBV and exercise without WBV in improving body balance, muscle performance and fall prevention in institutionalized older persons. Methods/Design An open, multicentre and parallel randomized clinical trial with blinded assessment. 160 nursing home residents aged over 65 years and of both sexes will be identified to participate in the study. Participants will be centrally randomised and allocated to interventions (vibration or exercise group by telephone. The vibration group will perform static/dynamic exercises (balance and resistance training on a vibratory platform (Frequency: 30-35 Hz; Amplitude: 2-4 mm over a six-week training period (3 sessions/week. The exercise group will perform the same exercise protocol but without a vibration stimuli platform. The primary outcome measure is the static/dynamic body balance. Secondary outcomes are muscle strength and, number of new falls. Follow-up measurements will be collected at 6 weeks and at 6 months after randomization. Efficacy will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis and 'per protocol'. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated using the "t" test, Mann-Witney test, or Chi-square test, depending on the type of outcome. The final analysis will be performed 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. Discussion This study will help to clarify whether WBV training improves body balance, gait mobility and muscle strength in frail older persons living in nursing homes. As far as we know, this will be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of WBV for the

  13. Trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays during whole-body turns in spasmodic torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Ziavra, Nafsica; Pearce, Ronald; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated how the abnormal head posture and motility in spasmodic torticollis interferes with ecological movements such as combined eye-to-foot whole-body reorientations to visual targets. Eight mildly affected patients and 10 controls voluntarily rotated eyes and body in response to illuminated targets of eccentricities up to ± 180°. The experimental protocol allowed separate evaluation of the effects of target location, visibility and predictability on movement parameters. Patients' latencies of eye, head, trunk and foot motion were prolonged but showed a normal modification pattern when target location was predictable. Peak head-on-trunk displacement and velocity were reduced both ipsi- and contralaterally with respect to the direction of torticollis. Surprisingly, peak trunk velocity was also reduced, even more than in previously studied patients with Parkinson's disease. As a consequence, patients made short, hypometric gaze saccades and only exceptionally foveated initially nonvisible targets with a single large gaze shift (4 % of predictable trials as opposed to 30 % in controls). Foveation of distant targets was massively delayed by more than half a second on average. Spontaneous dystonic head movements did not interfere with the execution of voluntary gaze shifts. The results show that neck dystonia does not arise from gaze (head-eye) motor centres but the eye-to-foot turning synergy is seriously compromised. For the first time we identify significant 'secondary' complications of torticollis such as trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays, likely to cause additional disability in patients. Eye movements per se are intact and compensate for the reduced head/trunk performance in an adaptive manner.

  14. The effects of whole-body vibration on the cross-transfer of strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Alicia M; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ± 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, involving unilateral squats for the right leg, with or without WBV (35 Hz; 2.5 mm amplitude). All groups underwent dynamic single leg maximum strength testing (1RM) and single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to and following training. Strength increased in the trained limb for the ST (41%; ES = 1.14) and ST + V (55%; ES = 1.03) groups, which resulted in a 35% (ES = 0.99) strength transfer to the untrained left leg for the ST group and a 52% (ES = 0.97) strength transfer to the untrained leg for the ST + V group, when compared to the control group. No differences in strength transfer between training groups were observed (P = 0.15). For the untrained leg, no differences in the peak height of recruitment curves or SICI were observed between ST and ST + V groups (P = 1.00). Strength training with WBV does not appear to modulate the cross-transfer of strength to a greater magnitude when compared to conventional cross-education strength training.

  15. Whole Body Vibration Exposures and Health Status among Professional Truck Drivers: A Cross-sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Zigman, Monica; Aulck, Lovenoor S; Ibbotson, Jennifer A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-10-01

    Many professional truck drivers suffer from low back pain (LBP) which is thought to be associated with exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize general health, regional body pain and WBV exposures, (ii) evaluate the associations between different WBV parameters and health outcomes, and (iii) determine whether there were factors which affect a truck driver's WBV exposures. This study analyzed WBV exposures from 96 long-haul truck drivers over their regular work shift (6-15h) per International Standards Organization (ISO) 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV standards. This study also evaluated regional body pain (10-point scale), low back disability (the Oswestry Disability Index), and physical and mental health (the Short Form 12-item Health Survey). The results demonstrated that the daily vector sum WBV exposures [A(8), VDV(8) and Sed(8)] were above action limits while the predominant z-axis exposures were below action limits. Among all the musculoskeletal outcomes, LBP was the most prevalent (72.5%) with average LBP score of 2.9 (SD: 2.0). The SF-12 health scores demonstrated that truck drivers in general had lower physical health status than the general US population (P's < 0.04) and that physical health status decreased as WBV exposures increased (P = 0.03). In addition, the correlations between the WBV measures and health outcomes indicated that A(8) exposure measures had a stronger link to musculoskeletal (LBP) and other health outcomes than the VDV(8) and Sed(8) measures. Finally, seat manufacturer and seat age were two factors which had a strong influence on WBV exposures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  16. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  17. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ON RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR UNTRAINED ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Osawa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although resistance training (RT combined with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular among untrained adults, the additional effects of WBV on muscle fitness are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on muscle strength, muscle power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities compared with the identical RT without WBV. Thirty-three individuals (6 males and 27 females; 22-49 years old were randomly assigned to a training program using slow-velocity RT coupled with WBV (RT- WBV group, n = 17 or an identical exercise program without WBV (RT group, n = 16. Participants performed eight exercises per 60 min session on a vibration platform (RT-WBV group, frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm twice weekly for seven weeks. To evaluate the effects of WBV, the maximal isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, countermovement-jump, and the number of sit-ups were measured before and after the trial. Significantly higher increases were observed in the maximal isometric and concentric knee extension strength (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 , respectively, and maximal isometric lumbar extension strength at 60 degrees of trunk flexion (p = 0.02 in the RT-WBV group (+36.8%, +38.4%, +26.4%, respectively in comparison to the RT group (+16.5%, +12.8%, +14.3%, respectively. A significant difference was also observed between the RT-WBV group (+8.4% and the RT group (+4.7% in the countermovement jump height (p = 0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that significant additional increases in maximal isometric and concentric knee extension and lumbar extension strength, and countermovement jump height can be achieved by incorporating WBV into a slow-velocity RT program during the initial stage of regular RT in untrained healthy adults

  18. A genetic upper limit to whole-body protein deposition in a strain of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, P J; Jacobson, L H; Morel, P C H

    2006-12-01

    The genetic upper limit to daily whole-body protein deposition (Pdmax) is an important constraint on pig growth. The Pdmax was determined for a specified pig genotype using N balance and serial slaughter techniques. A traditional N-balance study, involving 36 and 90 kg of BW Large White x (Landrace x Large White) entire male pigs, was first conducted to demonstrate that a highly digestible, nutrient-dense diet (1.54% Lys; 18 MJ of DE/kg, air-dried basis) was able to support the attainment of Pdmax within the constraints of pig appetite. Animals were allocated to set levels of feed intake [set proportions of ad libitum DE intake (DEi), 50 to 100%]. Nitrogen retention increased linearly with DEi up to 25.3 and 35.2 MJ of DE/d for the 36 and 90 kg of BW pigs, respectively, then showed a departure (P body protein was determined at slaughter. Growth data were analyzed by differentiating and combining continuous mathematical functions for BW and body composition. The ad libitum DEi were 27.4 and 50.7 MJ/d at 36 and 90 kg of BW for the entire males and were assumed, based on the N-balance results, sufficiently high to allow expression of Pdmax. There was an effect (P < 0.05) of sex on Pdmax vs. time (days on trial). Over the BW range of 25 to 85 kg, Pdmax was constant for the entire male and female pigs at 170 and 147 g/d, respectively. Above 85 kg of BW, Pdmax was no longer constant for either sex.

  19. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cloak, Andrew Lane, Matthew Wyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute whole body vibration (WBV is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22 in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16 in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27 compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players.

  20. Role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in treatment planning for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ezzat, Amany; Azmy, Emad; Tharwat, Nehal

    2013-08-01

    The authors evaluated the role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (WB-MDCT) in treatment planning for multiple myeloma. This was a prospective study of 28 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (19 men, nine women; age range, 51-73 years; mean age, 60 years) who underwent WB-MDCT and conventional radiography (CR) of the skeleton. The images were interpreted for the presence of bony lesions, medullary lesions, fractures and extraosseous lesions. We evaluated any changes in treatment planning as a result of WB-MDCT findings. WB-MDCT was superior to CR for detecting bony lesions (p=0.001), especially of the spine (p=0.001) and thoracic cage (p=0.006). WB-MDCT upstaged 14 patients, with a significant difference in staging (p=0.002) between WB-MDCT and CR. Medullary involvement either focal (n=6) or diffuse (n=3) had a positive correlation with the overall score (r=0.790) and stage (r=0.618) of disease. Spine fractures were better detected at WB-MDCT (n=4) than at CR (n=2). Extraosseous soft tissue lesions (n=7) were detected only at WB-MDCT. Findings detected at the WB-MDCT led to changes in the patient's treatment plan in 39% of cases. Upstaging of seven patients (25%) altered the medical treatment plan, and four of 28 (14%) patients required additional radiotherapy (7%) and vertebroplasty (7%). We conclude that WB-MDCT has an impact on treatment planning and prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, as it has high rate of detecting cortical and medullary bone lesions, spinal fracture and extraosseous lesions. This information may alter treatment planning in multiple myeloma due to disease upstaging and detection of spine fracture and extraosseous spinal lesions.

  1. Six weeks of whole-body vibration exercise improves pain and fatigue in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Padilla, Jaume; Moras, Gerard; Lázaro Haro, Cristina; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 6-week traditional exercise program with supplementary whole-body vibration (WBV) in improving health status, physical functioning, and main symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM) in women with FM. Thirty-six (36) women with FM (mean +/- standard error of the mean age 55.97 +/- 1.55) were randomized into 3 treatment groups: exercise and vibration (EVG), exercise (EG), and control (CG). Exercise therapy, consisting of aerobic activities, stretching, and relaxation techniques, was performed twice a week (90 min/day). Following each exercise session, the EVG underwent a protocol with WBV, whereas the EG performed the same protocol without vibratory stimulus. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was administered at baseline and 6 weeks following the initiation of the treatments. Estimates of pain, fatigue, stiffness, and depression were also reported using the visual analogue scale. A significant 3 x 2 (group x time)-repeated measures analysis of variance interaction was found for pain (p = 0.018) and fatigue (p = 0.002) but not for FIQ (p = 0.069), stiffness (p = 0.142), or depression (p = 0.654). Pain and fatigue scores were significantly reduced from baseline in the EVG, but not in the EG or CG. In addition, the EVG showed significantly lower pain and fatigue scores at week 6 compared to the CG, whereas no significant differences were found between the EG and CG (p > 0.05). Results suggest that a 6-week traditional exercise program with supplementary WBV safely reduces pain and fatigue, whereas exercise alone fails to induce improvements.

  2. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  3. Results from the first ARM diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J J.(New York, State Univ Of); Dolce, R (Zipp and Zonen, Inc.); Dutton, E. G.(NOAA/CMDL); Haeffelin, Martial (VISITORS); Major, G (Budabest University of Economic Sciences); Schlemmer, J A.; Slater, Donald W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hickey, J R.(The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.); Jeffries, W Q.(Yankee Environmental Systems); Los, A (Kipp and Zonen, Inc.); Mathias, D (Carter-Scott Design); McArthur, LJ B.(Meteorlogical Service of Canada); Philipona, R (Physikalish - Meteorologiisches Observatorium and World); Reda, I (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Stoffel, T (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2003-02-07

    The first intensive observation period (IOP) dedicated exclusively to the measurement of diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance was held in the Fall 2001 at the central facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site with the cooperation of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) community. Fourteen simultaneous measurements were obtained over a two-week period under mostly clear skies with low to moderate aerosol loading. Overcast data were obtained during the morning of one day. The purpose of the comparison was to assess the level of agreement in diffuse irradiance measurements among most commercial pyranometers and a few prototypes calibrated independently using current practices. The hope was to achieve a consensus for this measurement with the goal of improving the uncertainty of shortwave diffuse irradiance measurements. All diffuse broadband measurements were made using the same type of two-axis tracker with the direct beam blocked by shading balls. Tracking was very good during the IOP with no outages associated with tracker problems. Five of the measurements are reproducible to about 2 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level. Four more agree with the most consistent group to about 4 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level after correction for thermal offsets. The prototypes agree less well with the most consistent group.

  4. Stochastic resonance whole body vibration reduces musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Thomann, Jan; Schade, Volker; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2011-12-18

    To examined the effects of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training on musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Participants were 43 undergraduate students of a Swiss University. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomized group allocation. The RCT consisted of two groups each given 12 training sessions during four weeks with either 5 Hz- Training frequency (training condition) or 1.5 Hz Training frequency (control condition). Outcome was current musculoskeletal pain assessed in the evening on each day during the four week training period. Multilevel regression analysis showed musculoskeletal pain was significantly decreased in the training condition whereas there was no change in the control condition (B = -0.023, SE = 0.010, P = 0.021). Decrease in current musculoskeletal pain over four weeks was linear. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration reduced musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Stochastic resonance vibration and not any other exercise component within training caused pain reduction.

  5. Heart rate recording method validated by whole body indirect calorimetry in 10-yr-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, A; Vermorel, M; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Chamoux, A; Coudert, J

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the heart rate (HR) recording method against whole body indirect calorimetry in prepubertal children. Nineteen 10.5-yr-old healthy children (10 boys, 9 girls) participated in this study. HR and energy expenditure (EE) were recorded through laboratory tests. Individual relationships between HR and EE were computed (equation established in laboratory). Several models were tested and validated from 24-h measurements of EE and HR by whole body indirect calorimetry. The best fit was obtained with individual polynomial relationships. Mean differences between predicted (equation established in laboratory) and measured total daily EE averaged 7.6 +/- 20.1%. The causes of the differences and the means of improving the accuracy of the prediction equation are discussed.

  6. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  7. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein...... and azygos vein in the postprandial period in these patients. Whole-body oxygen uptake, hepatic blood flow, hepatic venous pressure gradient and net-hepatic fluxes of oxygen, lactate, glucose, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in 12 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis before and for 2 h after.......1 kJ/120 min (means +/- SD), P body oxygen uptake was lower in patients receiving propranolol (19.2 +/- 38 vs. 135.7 +/- 61 mmol/120 min, P

  8. Whole body bone scintigraphy in tenofovir-related osteomalacia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Biagio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread® is the only nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of HIV. It is frequently prescribed not only for its efficacy but also for its decreased side effect profile compared with other nucleotide analogs. In addition, it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of acquired Fanconi's syndrome in individuals with HIV. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman infected with HIV, with chronic renal insufficiency, who developed Fanconi's syndrome after inclusion of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in her antiretroviral therapy. A whole body bone scintigraphy was performed, revealing an abnormal distribution of radiotracer uptake, with characteristic changes compatible with osteomalacia. All symptoms disappeared after tenofovir discontinuation and mineral supplementation. No other explanation for the sudden and complete resolution of the bone disease was found. Conclusion The case highlights the role of whole body bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tenofovir-related osteomalacia.

  9. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  10. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  11. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1...

  12. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, J.L.; Green, K.; Eicher, J.; Palm, D.C.; Penkler, G.; du Toit, F.; Walters, N.; Burger, R.; Westerhoff, H.V.; van Niekerk, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging

  13. Melanoma screening with serial whole body photographic change detection using Melanoscan technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Rhett J; Nguyen, Chi; Drugge, Elizabeth D; Gliga, Luciana; Broderick, Patrick A; McClain, Steve A; Brown, Christopher C

    2009-06-15

    The use of an automated, whole-body, diffusely lit digital imaging enclosure to produce serial images, which were then compared, using an astrophysics image display method, enabled a private practice dermatologist to detect melanoma at significantly thinner Breslow depths compared to all other clinical detection paradigms examined in this study. The patients were triaged to scanning using a melanoma risk survey system. The system employed a 24 camera semicircular imaging wall, with front and back views. 10,000 whole body photographic scans were obtained. Privacy was maintained with 128-bit image encryption and off-line storage. Image to image comparison of whole body digital photography was combined with a whole body skin exam in order to sensitize a clinical dermatologist to skin changes in individuals at risk for melanoma. Mean depths (Breslow scores) were compiled from six distinct melanoma biopsy cohorts segregated and based on different clinical screening paradigms. The Breslow depth of invasive lesions of the serial screening cohort was significantly less (by at least 0.050 mm) compared to three other clinical screening groups (patient self-detection 0.55 mm, p=0.007; referred by outside non-dermatologist physician 0.73 mm, p=0.03; and serial dermatologic evaluation 0.23 mm, p=0.03) as well as two pathology laboratory cohorts (community hospital laboratory 1.45 mm, p=0.003; dermatopathology laboratory 0.18, p=0.0003). This approach provides a quick and effective method for detection of early melanomas with a significant reduction in the skin area required for lesion examination.

  14. Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Lynne; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The p...

  15. Whole body vibration therapy: a novel potential treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hongyu; Henrik O Berdel; Moore, David; Davis, Franklin; Liu, Jun; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Jack C Yu; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    There is a worsening epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the world. Life style interventions including dietary changes and increase in exercise can improve glucose metabolism and health in general. However, standard exercise programs are strenuous, time-consuming, and thus have low long-term compliance issues. We tested the feasibility of using high frequency, low amplitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy to improve glucose metabolism in young type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. We also aimed to ...

  16. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erika L Simmerman; Xu Qin; Henrik O Berdel; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Babak Baban; Jack C Yu

    2016-01-01

    Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mell...

  17. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwill, Alicia M; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ? 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, invol...

  18. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Bruce David; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions—walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting—while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustwo...

  19. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R.; Adams, Vicki J.; Ladlow, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldog...

  20. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  1. Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Hara, Takamitsu; Nanbu, Takeyuki; Suenaga, Hiroki; Sugawara, Shigeyasu; Kuroiwa, Daichi; Sekino, Hirofumi; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy. Although there have been several reports that adding diffusion weighted image (DWI) to PET/MRI protocol has had no effect on tumor detection to date, in cases of liver, kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer, the use of DWI may be beneficial in detecting lesions. Another possible option is to scan each region with different MRI sequences instead of scanning the whole body using one sequence continuously. We herein report a workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI using an integrated system in the clinical routine, designed for the detection, for example by cancer screening, of metastatic lesions, in order to help future users optimize their workflow and imaging protocols.

  2. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  4. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, Marrie C A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    2017-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated according to a uniform paediatric Hodgkin protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Whole-body MRI was performed in all 24 included patients (mean age 15·1 years, 12 girls) both before treatment and after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and in 16 patients after completion of chemotherapy. Osteonecrosis was identified in 10 patients (41·7%, 95% confidence interval: 22·0-61·4%), with a total of 56 osteonecrotic sites. Osteonecrosis was detected in 8 patients after 2 cycles of OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, doxorubicin), and in 2 additional patients after completion of chemotherapy. Epiphyseal involvement of long bones was seen in 4 of 10 children. None of the patients with osteonecrosis had any signs of bone collapse at the times of scanning. Whole-body MRI demonstrates osteonecrosis to be a common finding occurring during therapy response assessment of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Detection of early epiphyseal osteonecrosis could allow for treatment before bone collapse and joint damage may occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Floeth, Frank; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Tellmann, Lutz; Müller, Hans-W; Coenen, Heinz H; Langen, Karl-J

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)- l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV

  6. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauleit, Dirk [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Research Center Juelich, P.O. Box 1913, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Floeth, Frank [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Herzog, Hans; Tellmann, Lutz; Langen, Karl-J. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Mueller, Hans-W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV {<=}1.6) which remained constant between early and late PET scans. No increased uptake was seen in the bone, the biliary tract or the pancreas. Twenty-two percent of the injected activity was excreted 5 h p.i. (approx. 5.3% ID/h). The highest absorbed dose was found for the urinary bladder wall. The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 16.5 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults, which would lead to an effective dose of 6.1 mSv in a PET study using 370 MBq FET. (orig.)

  7. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  8. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Whorton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that high-dose radiation is harmful. However, despite extensive research, assessment of potential health-risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy is still challenging. Recently, we reported that 0.05 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (the existing limit for radiation-exposure in the workplace was incapable of inducing significant in vivo genomic instability (measured by the presence of late-occurring chromosomal damage at 6 months post-irradiation in bone marrow (BM cells of two mouse strains, one with constitutively high and one with intermediate levels of the repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein-kinase catalytic-subunit (DNA-PKcs. In this study, we present evidence for a lack of genomic instability in BM cells of the severely combined-immunodeficiency (SCID/J mouse (which has an extremely low-level of DNA-PKcs activity exposed whole-body to low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy. Together with our previous report, the data indicate that low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy is incapable of inducing genomic instability in vivo (regardless of the levels of DNA-PKcs activity of the exposed mice, yet higher doses of radiation (0.1 and 1 Gy do induce genomic instability in mice with intermediate and extremely low-levels of DNA-PKcs activity (indicating an important role of DNA-PKcs in DNA repair.

  9. Some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reports some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening. The present results show how the frequency shift in quartz crystals can be influenced by heat processing prior to irradiation and how this procedure can lead to radiation hardening for obtaining precise frequencies and time intervals from quartz oscillators in space.

  10. Whole-body vibration: is there a causal relationship to specific imaging findings of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Choemprayong, Songphan; O'Neill, Kevin R; Devin, Clinton J; Spengler, Dan M

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review. To perform a systematic review of the available literature for those studies that evaluated the role of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spine, using imaging modalities as well as an estimation of WBV exposure. Numerous comparative studies have reported a possible association between the occurrence of spinal symptoms and exposure to WBV. These exposures have commonly been examined in the work environment largely through self-reported questionnaires only. From a scientific perspective, the majority of studies emphasize symptoms and lack objective medical evidence, such as spinal imaging, to help establish a specific spinal disorder. Because both neck and low back pain comprise symptoms that can arise from a host of factors including age, a casual link between spinal disorders and WBV cannot be affirmed. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies related to WBV and spinal symptoms, diagnosis, and/or disorders. Our searches were limited to studies published prior to August 2011. The resulting 700 citations (after excluding 354 duplicates) were then screened by 3 independent reviewers on the basis of the following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria: inclusion-clinical studies with imaging evaluation (radiographs, computed tomographic scans, and/or magnetic resonance images) and documented WBV exposure (occupation, amount of WBV, and/or duration); exclusion-reliance solely on self-reporting of symptoms (neck pain, low back pain, and/or sciatica), those articles based on a clinical diagnosis without use of imaging, and in vitro/animal/biomechanical studies. Only 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Included were 5 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies. Although mixed results and conclusions were found, the majority of studies did not identify an association between WBV exposure and an abnormal spinal imaging finding indicating damage of the spine. We should also stress that each included study has

  11. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  12. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    results are presented jointly (Figure 1.Reports concerning acute effects of WBV on jump performance yield conflicting results. Transient benefits of 2.5, 4 and 8 % in CMJ height has been reported after 4 min (Torvinen et al., 2002a, 10 min (Bosco et al., 2000 and 5 min (Cochrane and Stannard, 2005 of WBV stimulus, respectively. The lack of improvement in our study may be partially explained by the time elapsed between the vibration stimulus and the jump test, since our subjects performed the CMJ immediately after the WBV exposure. The different training level of the participants may also explain discrepancies among studies, as our subjects were not engaged in any regular exercise practice. It has been reported that elite athletes may obtain more benefits from WBV than amateur athletes do (Issurin and Tenenbaum, 1999. In agreement with our results, other studies did not show improvement on CMJ performance after a single bout of WBV (Cormie et al., 2006; Rittweger et al., 2003; Torvinen et al., 2002b. Compared with our results, Cormie et al., 2006 did not find an impairment of CMJ performance immediately after a single WBV bout of 30 s, which may be associated with their shorter WBV stimulus (30 s, the interval actually elapsed between WBV and CMJ test, and the higher training level of their participants.In summary, whole-body vibration combined with voluntary contractions does not seem to be a useful method for warming up before activities involving vertical jumps. At least one minute interval recovery should be allowed when using WBV in a range of 20-30 Hz and 90 or 120 s if maximal jump performance is required.AcknowledgmentThis study was conducted without any conflict of interest, without financial assistance, and supported by grants from the Consejo Superior de Deportes (109/UPB31/03, 13/UPB20/04, the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (AP2003-2128, AP-2004-2745; AP2005-3827; AP2005-4358 and the HELENA study (European Community Sixth RTD Framework Programme

  13. Results of Post Irradiation Examinations of VVER Leaky Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, D.; Perepelkin, S.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Mayorshina, G. [Head of Fuel Research Department, JSC ' SSC RIAR' , 433510, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The most important requirement imposed on fuel elements is to maintain integrity of fuel rod claddings under operation, storage and transportation, since it is directly related to the operational safety. However, failed rod claddings are sometimes observed under reactor operation. Identification and unloading of fuel assemblies with leaky rods from VVER is available only at the time of planned preventive maintenance. An unscheduled reactor shutdown due to the excess of coolant activity limit as well as a preterm unloading of the fuel assembly cause economic damage to nuclear plant. Therefore, models and calculation codes were developed to forecast coolant contamination and failed fuel rod behavior. Criteria based on calculations were set to determine the admissible number of the failed rods in core and the opportunity to continue the reactor operation or pre-term unloading of the fuel assembly with the failed rods. Nevertheless, to prevent the fuel rod failure (for unfailing operation) it is necessary to reveal disadvantages of the design, fabrication method and fuel operation conditions, and to eliminate defects. The most complete and significant information about spent fuel assemblies may be received following the post irradiation material examinations. In order to reveal failure origins and mechanism of changes in VVER fuel and failed rod cladding condition depending on the operation, the examinations of 12 VVER-1000 fuel assemblies and 3 VVER-440 fuel assemblies, operated under normal conditions up to the fuel burnup 13..47 MWd/kgU were carried out. To evaluate the rod cladding condition, reveal defects and determine their parameters, the ultrasonic control of cladding integrity, surface visual inspection, eddy current defectoscopy, measurement of geometrical parameters were applied. In separate cases we used the metallography, measured the hydrogen percentage and carried out the mechanical tests of o-ring samples. The pellet condition was evaluated in

  14. The TOBY Study. Whole body hypothermia for the treatment of perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Marianne

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hypoxic-ischaemic insult occurring around the time of birth may result in an encephalopathic state characterised by the need for resuscitation at birth, neurological depression, seizures and electroencephalographic abnormalities. There is an increasing risk of death or neurodevelopmental abnormalities with more severe encephalopathy. Current management consists of maintaining physiological parameters within the normal range and treating seizures with anticonvulsants. Studies in adult and newborn animals have shown that a reduction of body temperature of 3–4°C after cerebral insults is associated with improved histological and behavioural outcome. Pilot studies in infants with encephalopathy of head cooling combined with mild whole body hypothermia and of moderate whole body cooling to 33.5°C have been reported. No complications were noted but the group sizes were too small to evaluate benefit. Methods/Design TOBY is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised study of term infants after perinatal asphyxia comparing those allocated to "intensive care plus total body cooling for 72 hours" with those allocated to "intensive care without cooling". Full-term infants will be randomised within 6 hours of birth to either a control group with the rectal temperature kept at 37 +/- 0.2°C or to whole body cooling, with rectal temperature kept at 33–34°C for 72 hours. Term infants showing signs of moderate or severe encephalopathy +/- seizures have their eligibility confirmed by cerebral function monitoring. Outcomes will be assessed at 18 months of age using neurological and neurodevelopmental testing methods. Sample size At least 236 infants would be needed to demonstrate a 30% reduction in the relative risk of mortality or serious disability at 18 months. Recruitment was ahead of target by seven months and approvals were obtained allowing recruitment to continue to the end of the planned recruitment phase. 325 infants were

  15. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-Nicotine from Whole-Body PET Imaging in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pradeep K; Lokitz, Stephen J; Nazih, Rachid; Garg, Sudha

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the in vivo distribution of 11C-nicotine and the absorbed radiation dose from whole-body 11C-nicotine PET imaging of 11 healthy (5 male and 6 female) subjects. Methods: After an initial CT attenuation scan, 11C-nicotine was administered via intravenous injection. A dynamic PET scan was acquired for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of 13 whole-body PET scans acquired over a 90-min period. Regions of interest were drawn over organs visible in the reconstructed PET images. Time-activity curves were generated, and the residence times were calculated. The absorbed radiation dose for the whole body was calculated by entering the residence time in OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software to model the equivalent organ dose and the effective dose for a 70-kg man. Results: The mean residence times for 11C-nicotine in the liver, red marrow, brain, and lungs were 0.048 ± 0.010, 0.031 ± 0.005, 0.021 ± 0.004, and 0.020 ± 0.005 h, respectively. The mean effective dose for 11C-nicotine was 5.44 ± 0.67 μSv/MBq. The organs receiving the highest absorbed dose from the 11C-nicotine injection were the urinary bladder wall (14.68 ± 8.70 μSv/MBq), kidneys (9.56 ± 2.46 μSv/MBq), liver (8.94 ± 1.67 μSv/MBq), and spleen (9.49 ± 3.89 μSv/MBq). The renal and hepatobiliary systems were the major clearance and excretion routes for radioactivity. Conclusion: The estimated radiation dose from 11C-nicotine administration is relatively modest and would allow for multiple PET examinations on the same subject. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  16. The TOBY Study. Whole body hypothermia for the treatment of perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Dennis; Brocklehurst, Peter; Edwards, David; Halliday, Henry; Levene, Malcolm; Thoresen, Marianne; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2008-04-30

    A hypoxic-ischaemic insult occurring around the time of birth may result in an encephalopathic state characterised by the need for resuscitation at birth, neurological depression, seizures and electroencephalographic abnormalities. There is an increasing risk of death or neurodevelopmental abnormalities with more severe encephalopathy. Current management consists of maintaining physiological parameters within the normal range and treating seizures with anticonvulsants. Studies in adult and newborn animals have shown that a reduction of body temperature of 3-4 degrees C after cerebral insults is associated with improved histological and behavioural outcome. Pilot studies in infants with encephalopathy of head cooling combined with mild whole body hypothermia and of moderate whole body cooling to 33.5 degrees C have been reported. No complications were noted but the group sizes were too small to evaluate benefit. TOBY is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised study of term infants after perinatal asphyxia comparing those allocated to "intensive care plus total body cooling for 72 hours" with those allocated to "intensive care without cooling".Full-term infants will be randomised within 6 hours of birth to either a control group with the rectal temperature kept at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C or to whole body cooling, with rectal temperature kept at 33-34 degrees C for 72 hours. Term infants showing signs of moderate or severe encephalopathy +/- seizures have their eligibility confirmed by cerebral function monitoring. Outcomes will be assessed at 18 months of age using neurological and neurodevelopmental testing methods. At least 236 infants would be needed to demonstrate a 30% reduction in the relative risk of mortality or serious disability at 18 months. Recruitment was ahead of target by seven months and approvals were obtained allowing recruitment to continue to the end of the planned recruitment phase. 325 infants were recruited. Combined rate of mortality and severe

  17. Patient acceptance of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography: A prospective questionnaire study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirenfeldt Nielsen, Yousef; Loegager, Vibeke B.; Thomsen, Henrik S. (Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Herlev, Herlev (Denmark)), e-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.dk; Eiberg, Jonas P.; Schroeder, Torben V. (Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Just, Sven (Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing the systemic distribution of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic performance of WB-MRA, but no studies have investigated patient acceptance of this imaging method. Purpose: To measure patient acceptance of WB-MRA compared to the gold standard, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Material and Methods: In a prospective design, 79 consecutive patients (51 male, mean age 67 years) with symptomatic PAD, scheduled to undergo both WB-MRA and DSA, were included. Patient acceptance of each imaging procedure was assessed with a postal questionnaire (13 questions). A five-point rank scale (1, no discomfort; 5, severe discomfort) was used to grade patient discomfort. Results: One patient was excluded from data analysis (did not undergo DSA). Of the remaining 78 patients, 69 completed the questionnaire (response rate 88%). Overall discomfort scores were higher in DSA compared to WB-MRA (mean 2.1 and 1.7, respectively; P = 0.06). In WB-MRA, overall discomfort was strongly correlated to feeling confined in the MRI system (R = 0.77, P< 0.001). In DSA, discomfort was strongly correlated to arterial puncture (R 0.66, P< 0.001) and contrast injection (R= 0.65, P< 0.001). Injection of iodinated contrast agent at DSA was graded more uncomfortable than injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent at WB-MRA (mean 2.1 vs. 1.5, respectively; P<0.001). Sixty-two patients (90%) were willing to repeat WB-MRA, and 64 patients (93%) would repeat DSA if they needed another vascular examination. Forty-one patients preferred WB-MRA (60%), 12 patients preferred DSA (17%), and 16 patients had no preference (23%). Patient preference of WB-MRA over DSA was statistically significant (P< 0.001). Conclusion: Patient acceptance of WB-MRA is superior to that of DSA in patients with PAD, with the majority

  18. Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

    2012-05-07

    Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y(50th), 3y(50th), 5y(50th), 7y(50th), and 20y(50th). The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y(10th), 5y(10th), and 20y(10th) with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg(-1), was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

  19. Whole body vibration added to endurance training in obese women - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, B; Frick, J; Ernst, B; Mueller, R; Wirth, B; Schultes, B

    2012-09-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) training is an increasingly popular training method that is strongly promoted for weight loss, but scientific data on its effectiveness, particularly in obese subjects, are sparse. 14 obese women (BMI: 37.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2) randomized to 2 different groups (each n=7) participated in a 6-week endurance training program that was either combined or not combined with additional WBV training. Anthropometric measures, phase angle and body composition (assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis; BIA), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were obtained before and after the training program. Body weight did not change during the training period (P=0.87), but waist circumference decreased in both groups (P=0.007; WBV: -3.4 ± 1.4 cm; no-WBV: -1.7 ± 0.7 cm) independent of WBV training (P=0.29 for group×time interaction). BIA revealed an enhancing effect of WBV training in comparison to no-WBV training on the phase angle (+0.20 ± 0.12° vs. -0.19 ± 0.12°; P=0.04) and calculated body cell mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 vs. -0.3 ± 0.4 kg; P=0.02), while calculated percentage fat mass decreased in both conditions (P=0.05) to similar extent (P=0.59; WBV: -0.8 ± 0.2%; no-WBV: -0.4 ± 0.5%). REE increased across the training (P=0.01; WBV: +77 ± 33 kcal/24 h; no-WBV: +68 ± 34 kcal/24 h), with this increase again not depending on WBV condition (P=0.85). Results of our pilot study in obese women provide preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of WBV, when added to endurance training, on the bioelectrical phase angle, an increasingly recognized marker of individual's health status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  1. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Sasser, L.B.; Stuit, D.B. [US Transuranium and Uranium Registries, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, 1845 Terminal Drive, Suite 201, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Glover, S.E. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 598 Rhodes Hall, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Carbaugh, E.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are {approx}40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise

  2. IRD-CNEN whole body counter capabilities for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao in Vivo

    2015-07-01

    Internal exposure to radionuclides may occur as a result of a variety of practices, such as in nuclear industry, production of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; as well as in mining and milling of minerals with associated NORM. The IRD whole-body counter consists of shielded room equipped with an array of four HPGe detectors and two NaI(Tl) with dimensions of 8” x 4” and 3” x 3”. The detection systems are able to detect and quantify a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  3. The emerging role of whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Taralli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this article is to examine the emerging role of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG in patients with sarcoidosis.Materials and methodsWe reviewed the literature on the use of FDG-PET in patients with sarcoidosis to identify how this technique is being applied in clinical practice.Results and discussionOur review shows that: 1 sarcoidosis is commonly associated with increased FDG uptake. Therefore, positive findings should be interpreted with caution when FDG-PET is being used to distinguish benign from malignant abnormalities; 2 FDG-PET seems to be a very useful molecular imaging method for staging sarcoidosis, identification of occult sites of involvement, guiding biopsy procedures, and monitoring patients’ responses to treatment; and 3 in patients with sarcoidosis, the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET is superior to that of 67Ga scintigraphy.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Markers of Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sarah; Torode, Margaret; Climstein, Mike; Naughton, Geraldine; Greene, David; Baker, Michael K.; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of two doses of low-frequency (12 Hz), low-magnitude (0.3 g), whole body vibration on markers of bone formation and resorption in postmenopausal women. Methods. Women were recruited and randomized into a sham vibration control group, one time per week vibration group (1×/week), or three times per week vibration group (3×/week). Vibration exposure consisted of 20 minutes of intermittent vibration for the 1×/week and 3×/week groups, and sham vibration (vibration group but not in the 1×/wk vibration group compared with sham control (P vibration 3×/week for eight weeks in postmenopausal women results in a significant reduction in NTx/Cr, a marker of bone resorption, when compared with sham vibration exposure. PMID:21772975

  5. Real-time whole-body visualization of Chikungunya Virus infection and host interferon response in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Palha

    Full Text Available Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ∼14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.

  6. Influence of electromagnetic polarization on the whole-body averaged SAR in children for plane-wave exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Ito, Naoki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2009-02-21

    The present study investigated the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) in an infant model with the finite-difference time-domain method. The focus of the present study is the effect of polarization of incident electromagnetic waves on the WBSAR. This is because most previous studies investigated the WBSAR for plane-wave exposure with a vertically aligned electric field. Our computational results revealed that the WBSAR for plane-wave exposure with a vertically aligned electric field is smaller than that with a horizontally aligned electric field for frequencies above 2 GHz. The main reason for this difference is attributed to be the component of the surface area perpendicular to the electric field of the incident wave.

  7. Standing and sitting motion of inverted pendulum type assist robot using whole-body motion with force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, SeongHee; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes quick and stable standing and sitting motion of an inverted pendulum type robot by wholebody motion including force control. The whole-body motion is achieved by controlling composite center of gravity of the robot, and damping force control of a wrist-roller is employed to assure the stability of inverted pendulum control on a contact situation with the ground. Motion planning of standing and sitting based on the proposed control method is also proposed. Standing and sitting motion using the proposed motion control and motion planning is simulated with a dynamic simulator, ODE(Open Dynamics Engine). From the simulation results, it was confirmed that the robot successively realized the standing and sitting motion quickly and stably.

  8. Results of proton irradiation of components for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Vollhardt, A; Ermoline, Yu

    2005-01-01

    This report informs about results of a proton irradiation of devices tested for the LHCb Silicon Tracker. The test was focused on analysing the response of the selected devices to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, for Single Event Effects (SEE) and Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL). The devices were part of a proton irradiation test in November 2003 at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland).

  9. The Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training and Creatine Supplementation on Lower Extremity Performance and Balance in Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration training (WBVT and creatine (Cr supplementation on lower extremity performance and balance in elderly males. Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, twenty two eligible males from the members of an elderly daycare center with more than 60 years of age were enrolled and were divided into three groups randomly, WBVT+Cr(n=7, WBVT+Pgroup (n=7, and control group (n=8. In WBVT+Cr and WBVT+P groups exercises were performed on the whole body vibration device for 10 days with 30-35 Hz intensity and 5 mm amplitude. The WBVT+Cr group consumed 20g/day Crsupplement for the first 5 days followed by 5g/days for the next 5 days of protocol. The WBVT+P group consumed dexterous. The control group neither did any exercise nor consumed any supplement during the protocol. Static balance by standing time on one leg, dynamic balance by TUG test and lower extremity performance by 30-meter walking test, sit and stand test and tandem gait test weremeasured. Paired sample t-test and one way ANOVAwere used for data analysis (α=0.05. Results: Our results showed that dynamic balance, lower body performance in 30- meter walking and tandem gait improved in experimental groups. However, ANOVA did not show any significant increase in static balance (P=0.514, dynamic balance (P=0.153, lower body performance in 30-meter walking test (P=0.339, sit and stand test (P=0.578 and tandem gait (P=0.151. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that WBVT plus Cr supplementation improves some of the motor fitness factors in elderly males during a short time.

  10. Estimation of patient radiation dose from whole body 18F- FDG PET/CT examination in cancer imaging: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. H.; Nordin, A. J.; Saad, F. F. Ahmad; Fattah Azman, A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to estimate the radiation effective dose resulting from whole body fluorine-18 flourodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning as compared to conservative Computed Tomography (CT) techniques in evaluating oncology patients. We reviewed 19 oncology patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT at our centre for cancer staging. Internal and external doses were estimated using radioactivity of injected FDG and volume CT Dose Index (CTDIvol), respectively with employment of the published and modified dose coefficients. The median differences of dose among the conservative CT and PET protocols were determined using Kruskal Wallis test with p observed in the median effective dose between the three protocols (p < 0.01). The effective doses of whole body 18F-FDG PET technique may be effective the lowest amongst the conventional CT imaging techniques.

  11. [Exposure to whole body vibrations in workers moving heavy items by mechanical vehicles in the warehouse of a large retail outlet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, E; Rossi, A; Nori, L

    2007-01-01

    Efficient warehouse management and item transportation is of fundamental importance in the commercial outlet in exam. Whole body vibrations have been measured in various types of machines, some of which not widely studied yet, like the electrical pallet truck. In some tasks (fork lifts drivers) vibrations propagate through the driving seat whereas in some other tasks (electrical pallet trucks, stackers), operated in a standing posture, vibrations propagate through the lower limbs. Results have been provided for a homogeneous job tasks. In particular conditions, the action level of the Italian national (and European) regulations on occupational exposure to WBV may be exceeded. The authors propose a simple system of probabilistic classification of the risk of exposure to whole body vibrations, based on the respective areas of the distribution which lay within the three risk classes.

  12. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; McConathy, Jonathan; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax/mean) of normal organs and SUVmax of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUVmean r(2): 0.88, Pcompared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children.

  14. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  15. Whole-body vibration versus proprioceptive training on postural control in post-menopausal osteopenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nils; Belavý, Daniel L; Rawer, Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    To prevent falls in the elderly, especially those with low bone density, is it necessary to maintain muscle coordination and balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of classical balance training (BAL) and whole-body vibration training (VIB) on postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. Sixty-eight subjects began the study and 57 completed the nine-month intervention program. All subjects performed resistive exercise and were randomized to either the BAL- (N=31) or VIB-group (N=26). The BAL-group performed progressive balance and coordination training and the VIB-group underwent, in total, four minutes of vibration (depending on exercise; 24-26Hz and 4-8mm range) on the Galileo Fitness. Every month, the performance of a single leg stance task on a standard unstable surface (Posturomed) was tested. At baseline and end of the study only, single leg stance, Romberg-stance, semi-tandem-stance and tandem-stance were tested on a ground reaction force platform (Leonardo). The velocity of movement on the Posturomed improved by 28.3 (36.1%) (p<0.001) in the VIB-group and 18.5 (31.5%) (p<0.001) in the BAL-group by the end of the nine-month intervention period, but no differences were seen between the two groups (p=0.45). Balance tests performed on the Leonardo device did not show any significantly different responses between the two groups after nine months (p≥0.09). Strength training combined with either proprioceptive training or whole-body vibration was associated with improvements in some, but not all, measures of postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. The current study could not provide evidence for a significantly different impact of whole-body vibration or balance training on postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  17. Changes of whole-body power, muscle function, and jump performance with prolonged cycling to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Mawston, Grant A; Cairns, Simeon P

    2012-12-01

    To quantify how whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures change during prolonged cycling and recovery and determine whether there are relationships between the different fatigue measures. Ten competitive or recreationally active male cyclists underwent repeated 20-min stages of prolonged cycling at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion. Whole-body peak power output (PPO) was assessed using an all-out 30-s sprint 17 min into each cycle stage. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout. Isometric and isokinetic muscle-function tests were made between cycle stages, over ~6 min, and during 30-min recovery. Drop-jump measures were tested at exhaustion and during recovery. PPO initially increased or was maintained in some subjects but fell to 81% of maximum at exhaustion. RPE was near maximal (18.7) at exhaustion, with the time to exhaustion related to the rate of rise of RPE. PPO first started to decline only when RPE exceeded 16 (ie, hard). Peak isometric and concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) for the quadriceps fell to 86% and 83% of pretest at exhaustion, respectively. In contrast, the peak concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) of the hamstrings increased by 10% before declining to 93% of maximum. Jump height fell to 92% of pretest at exhaustion and was correlated with the decline in PPO (r = .79). Muscle-function and jump-performance measures did not recover over the 30-min postexercise rest period. At exhaustion, whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures had all fallen by 7-19%. PPO and drop-jump decrements were linearly correlated and are appropriate measures of maximal performance.

  18. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  19. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  20. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise and whole body vibration on glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, Lale; Azarbayjani, Mohammad-Ali; Aghaalinejad, Hamid; Salavati, Mahyar

    2011-06-01

    Aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic exercise (AE), whole body vibration (WBV), and control. Aerobic exercise schedule consisted of three walking sessions a week, each for 30-60 minutes and in 60-70% of maximum stock heartbeat. Vibration exercise was composed of 8-12-min stand-up and semi-squat positioning in frequency of 30 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm. Concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured in the beginning of the trial, after the fourth week, and after the eighth week. After 8 weeks of exercise, no significant difference was detected in concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin between the groups (P=0.83, P=0.12). There were no significant differences in any of the variables between AE and WBV (P>0.05). But a more significant decrease in fasting glucose was observed in exercise groups (AE and WBV) compared with control group (P=0.02). The present study showed that AE and WBV identically stimulate metabolic system. Thus, it can be concluded that type 2 diabetic patients lacking stamina for aerobic exercise can opt for vibration exercise as an effective substitute.

  2. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): lesion visualization on a 3 tesla Clinical whole-body system after intraperitoneal contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, S.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Herrmann, M.; Gaertner, S.; Weissert, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Kueker, W. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intravital visibility of CNS lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis, using a 3-Tesla (T) wholebody MR system. Materials and Methods: Three healthy Dark Agouti (DA) rats and 16 DA rats with clinical signs of EAE were examined on a 3T whole body-system using a normal wrist coil. In total, 25 examinations were preformed using T2- and T1-weighted images in transverse and sagittal orientation with a slice thickness of 2 mm or 1 mm (voxel size up to 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm). Sedation was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine. In addition, T1-weighted images were obtained after the instillation of 1.0 ml of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.5 mmol/ml) into the peritoneal cavity. Results: T2- and T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord with high spatial and contrast resolution could be obtained in all animals. The anatomical details of the olfactory bulb glomeruli, cerebellum foliae, ventricles and corpus callosum were clearly visible. The EAE lesions presented as hyperintense area in T2-weighted images and could be demonstrated in all clinically affected animals by MRI and histologically verified. In total, the 16 affected rats had 28 cerebral and 2 spinal cord lesions (range 1 to 4, median 2). Contrast enhancement was noted in 12 animals and ranked as severe in ten and moderate in two cases. No adverse effects were noted due to sedation or intraperitoneal contrast injection. Conclusions: The intravital demonstration of cerebral and spinal cord EAE lesions in rats is possible on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using a normal wrist coil. Intraperitoneal injection of ketamine/xylazine and contrast agent is an easy, safe and effective procedure in rats. (orig.)

  3. Therapeutic effects of whole-body vibration training in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Hamayun; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-08-01

    To examine the current evidence regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Science Citation Index for research articles published prior to January 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading osteoarthritis knee. This meta-analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by the PEDro Scale. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool in the domain-based evaluation. We also evaluated the quality of each study based on the criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions for reporting WBV intervention studies, consisting of 13 factors. Descriptive data regarding subjects, design, intervention, WBV parameters, outcomes, and conclusions were collected from each study by 2 independent evaluators. The mean and SD of the baseline and final endpoint scores for pain, stiffness, and function were extracted from the included studies. A total of 83 studies were found in the search. Of these, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were further analyzed. Four of these 5 studies reached high methodologic quality on the PEDro Scale. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of additive effects of WBV for reducing pain and improving function in knee OA. There was considerable variation in the parameters of the WBV included in this systematic review. WBV training reduces pain and improves function in individuals with knee OA. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole-body FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for staging primary breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, C.; Heusner, T.A. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, J.; Hahn, S.; Lauenstein, T. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Hecktor, J.; Kuemmel, S. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Essen (Germany); Otterbach, F. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, G. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    This retrospective study aimed (1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body FDG PET/CT for initial breast cancer staging with the accuracy of a conventional, multimodal imaging algorithm, and (2) to assess potential alteration in patient management based on the FDG PET/CT findings. Patients with primary breast cancer (106 women, mean age 57 {+-} 13 years) underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging (X-ray mammography, MR mammography, chest plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and breast, axillary and liver ultrasonography). The diagnostic accuracies of FDG PET/CT and a conventional algorithm were compared. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in terms of primary tumour detection rate, correct assessment of primary lesion focality, T stage and the detection rates for lymph node and distant metastases. Histopathology, imaging or clinical follow-up served as the standards of reference. FDG PET/CT was significantly more accurate for detecting axillary lymph node and distant metastases (p = 0.0125 and p < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were detected for other parameters. Synchronous tumours or locoregional extraaxillary lymph node or distant metastases were detected in 14 patients (13%) solely by FDG PET/CT. Management of 15 patients (14%) was altered based on the FDG PET/CT findings, including 3 patients with axillary lymph node metastases, 5 patients with extraaxillary lymph node metastases, 4 patients with distant metastases and 3 patients with synchronous malignancies. Full-dose, intravenous contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT was more accurate than conventional imaging for initial breast cancer staging due to the higher detection rate of metastases and synchronous tumours, although the study had several limitations including a retrospective design, a possible selection bias and a relevant false-positive rate for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases. FDG PET/CT resulted in a change of treatment in a substantial proportion of

  5. Parallax-sensitive remapping of visual space in occipito-parietal alpha-band activity during whole-body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, T P; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-03-01

    Despite the constantly changing retinal image due to eye, head, and body movements, we are able to maintain a stable representation of the visual environment. Various studies on retinal image shifts caused by saccades have suggested that occipital and parietal areas correct for these perturbations by a gaze-centered remapping of the neural image. However, such a uniform, rotational, remapping mechanism cannot work during translations when objects shift on the retina in a more complex, depth-dependent fashion due to motion parallax. Here we tested whether the brain's activity patterns show parallax-sensitive remapping of remembered visual space during whole-body motion. Under continuous recording of electroencephalography (EEG), we passively translated human subjects while they had to remember the location of a world-fixed visual target, briefly presented in front of or behind the eyes' fixation point prior to the motion. Using a psychometric approach we assessed the quality of the memory update, which had to be made based on vestibular feedback and other extraretinal motion cues. All subjects showed a variable amount of parallax-sensitive updating errors, i.e., the direction of the errors depended on the depth of the target relative to fixation. The EEG recordings show a neural correlate of this parallax-sensitive remapping in the alpha-band power at occipito-parietal electrodes. At parietal electrodes, the strength of these alpha-band modulations correlated significantly with updating performance. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillatory activity reflects the time-varying updating of gaze-centered spatial information during parallax-sensitive remapping during whole-body motion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, A.; Joseph, W.; Vermeeren, G.; Thielens, A.; Tanghe, E.; Martens, L.

    2014-12-01

    A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SARwb) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SARwb in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones—using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method—at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14-12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of -39.40%, -11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SARwb induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research.

  7. Experimental evidence of the tonic vibration reflex during whole-body vibration of the loaded and unloaded leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Zaidell

    Full Text Available Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR. However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV. Whilst seated, eight healthy males were exposed to either vertical WBV applied to the leg via the plantar-surface of the foot, or Achilles tendon vibration (ATV at 25 Hz and 50 Hz for 70s. Ankle plantar-flexion force, tri-axial accelerations at the shank and vibration source, and surface EMG activity of m. soleus (SOL and m. tibialis anterior (TA were recorded from the unloaded and passively loaded leg to simulate body mass supported during standing. Plantar flexion force was similarly augmented by WBV and ATV and increased over time in a load- and frequency dependent fashion. SOL and TA EMG amplitudes increased over time in all conditions independently of vibration mode. 50 Hz WBV and ATV resulted in greater muscle activation than 25 Hz in SOL when the shank was loaded and in TA when the shank was unloaded despite the greater transmission of vertical acceleration from source to shank with 25 Hz and WBV, especially during loading. Low-amplitude WBV of the unloaded and passively loaded leg produced slow tonic muscle contraction and plantar-flexion force increase of similar magnitudes to those induced by Achilles tendon vibration at the same frequencies. This study provides the first experimental evidence supporting the TVR as a plausible mechanism underlying the neuromuscular response to whole-body vibration.

  8. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  9. Open-Ended Measurement of Whole-Body Movement: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Michael T. M.; Smith, Connor L.; Nash, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    As the importance of embodiment emerges for psychology, there is a need to advance methodology for measuring the dynamics of movement in an open-ended fashion. Such a tool should be versatile across contexts and track spontaneous and natural movement with minimal constraints. We test the feasibility of a method for measuring whole-body movement over time that attempts to meet this need. We use a motion capture system comprised of two Microsoft Kinect version 2.0 cameras and iPiSoft Motion Cap...

  10. An update on novel quantitative techniques in the context of evolving whole-body PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation PET has established itself as one of the standard imaging modalities enabling the quantitative assessment of molecular targets in vivo. In the past two decades, quantitative PET has become a necessity in clinical oncology. Despite introduction of various measures...... for quantification and correction of PET parameters, there is debate on the selection of the appropriate methodology in specific diseases and conditions. In this review, we have focused on these techniques with special attention to topics such as static and dynamic whole body PET imaging, tracer kinetic modeling...

  11. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease......The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... status was measured using WOMAC. It was found that muscle strength increased significantly (p

  12. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using a whole-body small-animal ring-shaped photoacoustic computed tomography system. Dry coupling was found to provide image quality comparable to that of conventional water coupling.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  14. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with ...

  15. Whole-body vibration and blood flow and muscle oxygenation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E; Sefton, JoEllen M; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-05-01

    The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation; however, when the measurement site was considered, muscle oxygenation increased or

  16. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8)....... Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude that reduced whole body fat oxidation after menopause is associated with reduced LBM....

  17. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  18. Efficacy of the whole-body vibration for pain, fatigue and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Eduarda; Tenório, Angélica; Holanda, Laís; Campos, Adriana; Lemos, Andrea

    2017-02-10

    To determine the quality of evidence on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) in controlling pain, fatigue and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. The search involved MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, CENTRAL and PEDro, without temporal or language restriction. The terms "fibromyalgia" and "whole-body vibration" were used. Trials (randomized or quasi-randomized) that compared a group of women with fibromyalgia who received WBV to a control group with no intervention were included. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. The quantitative evaluation by meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Three studies were included. Regarding the outcome pain, it has not been possible to assess the magnitude of effect of treatment. The result of the outcome fatigue showed no difference between the groups after the proposed intervention (Mean Difference: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.09). The meta-analysis for the outcome quality of life showed a small difference between groups, favoring the WBV group (Standard Mean Difference: 0.4943; p = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.0045 to 0.9841). The results, based on very low quality of evidence, were inconclusive regarding pain, and showed no clinically important effects on the control of fatigue and improvement of quality of life. Implications for rehabilitation There is no evidence to support the use of whole-body vibration for pain treatment of women with fibromyalgia. The use of whole-body vibration in women with fibromyalgia showed no clinically important effects in the control of fatigue and improvement of quality of life.

  19. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gereon Berschin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20 or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20. Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol.

  20. Force direction patterns promote whole body stability even in hip-flexed walking, but not upper body stability in human upright walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.

  1. Scaling of three microwave exposure systems on the basis of averaged whole-body specific absorption rate. Final report, 1 June 1983-1 June 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, M.E.

    1987-02-06

    Three systems for exposing small laboratory animals to 2450-MHz microwave radiation were compared using whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). The three systems were a plane wave propogated in an anechoic chamber, a circularly polarized waveguide, and a multimode cavity. Following calibration of the three systems, a temperature-profile study assessing brain and colonic temperature in rat carcasses was performed. A third study investigated seizures in young mouse pups. There were statistically significant differences between the three systems regarding heat distribution as indicated by brain and colonic temperatures. Exposure in the circularly polarized waveguide resulted in lower temperatures at both sites. However, when young mouse pups were placed in the chambers and exposed at levels calculated to produce whole-body averaged SARs of 90 W/kg, the seizures produced by the plane wave exposures required nearly twice the amount of time as those in the waveguide or multimode cavity. The results suggest that average whole-body SAR should not be used for making comparisons of effects obtained in different exposure systems.

  2. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  3. Combining near- and far-field exposure for an organ-specific and whole-body RF-EMF proxy for epidemiological research: a reference case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Oliver; Frei, Patrizia; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Joseph, Wout; Röösli, Martin; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2013-07-01

    A framework for the combination of near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) radio frequency electromagnetic exposure sources to the average organ and whole-body specific absorption rates (SARs) is presented. As a reference case, values based on numerically derived SARs for whole-body and individual organs and tissues are combined with realistic exposure data, which have been collected using personal exposure meters during the Swiss Qualifex study. The framework presented can be applied to any study region where exposure data is collected by appropriate measurement equipment. Based on results derived from the data for the region of Basel, Switzerland, the relative importance of NF and FF sources to the personal exposure is examined for three different study groups. The results show that a 24-h whole-body averaged exposure of a typical mobile phone user is dominated by the use of his or her own mobile phone when a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 or GSM 1800 phone is used. If only Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) phones are used, the user would experience a lower exposure level on average caused by the lower average output power of UMTS phones. Data presented clearly indicate the necessity of collecting band-selective exposure data in epidemiological studies related to electromagnetic fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  5. Prospective, blinded trial of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography positron emission tomography in staging primary and recurrent cancer of the head and neck.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the staging of head and neck cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January to July 2009, 15 consecutive head and neck cancer patients (11 men and four women; mean age 59 years; age range 19 to 81 years) underwent computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for pre-therapeutic evaluation. All scans were staged, as per the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumour-node-metastasis classification, by two blinded consultant radiologists, in two sittings. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological examination of endoscopic biopsies, and in some cases whole surgical specimens. RESULTS: Tumour staging showed a 74 per cent concordance, node staging an 80 per cent concordance and metastasis staging a 100 per cent concordance, comparing the two imaging modalities. CONCLUSION: This study found radiological staging discordance between the two imaging modalities. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging staging modality with superior visualisation of metastatic disease, which does not require exposure to ionising radiation.

  6. Studies of farmers' annual exposure to whole body vibration on selected family farms of mixed production profile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solecki, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to recognize and evaluate the annual exposure of private farmers to whole body mechanical vibration on selected family farms of mixed production profile (plant-animal...

  7. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic–resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic–resistance training. Subjects...

  8. Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen; Davis, Corrine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice....

  9. Six-channel ECG-based pulse wave velocity for assessing whole-body arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, An-Bang; Chen, Zong-Li; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Chen, Ching-Pin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan

    2012-06-01

    Despite the proposal of different means of non-invasive arterial stiffness assessment, none offers simultaneous information on whole-body peripheral arterial condition. We investigated the validity of applying a six-channel electrocardiogram-based pulse wave velocity (ECG-PWV) measurement system for this purpose. The study consisted of two parts. Part One enrolled hypertensive (Group 1, n = 32) and normal (Group 2, n = 32) subjects, whereas Part Two recruited diabetic (Group 3, n = 50) and normal (Group 4, n = 50) subjects. To validate the application of ECG-PWV in assessing peripheral arterial stiffness in different parts of body, ECG-PWV data were compared with three other parameters including the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), pulse wave velocity-digital volume pulse (PWV-DVP) and intima-media thickness (IMT). ECG-PWV in healthy subjects in Part One correlated significantly with CAVI and PWV-DVP (p blood sugar, serum creatinine and ECG-PWV from the foot. However, no significant difference was noted in PWV-DVP between two groups. Six-channel ECG-PWV measurement system showed remarkable correlation with IMT in hypertensive subjects and with key anthropometric and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients, suggesting its validity in assessing whole-body arterial stiffness in subjects with peripheral arterial diseases within 10 min.

  10. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  11. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  12. Active scheduling of organ detection and segmentation in whole-body medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Peng, Zhigang; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-01-01

    With the advance of whole-body medical imaging technologies, computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is being scaled up to deal with multiple organs or anatomical structures simultaneously. Multiple tasks (organ detection/segmentation) in a CAD system are often highly dependent due to the anatomical context within a human body. In this paper, we propose a method to schedule multi-organ detection/segmentation based on information theory. The central idea is to schedule tasks in an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain. The scheduling rule is formulated to embed two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the o