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Sample records for whole-body irradiation independent

  1. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

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    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  2. Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  3. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

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    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

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    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  5. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

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    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  6. Caffeine-induced hematological changes after whole-body irradiation in rat

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    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Recent research indicated dietary antioxidants were useful radioprotectors to protect organisms against radiation-induced tissue lethality and other deleterious effects. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the previous studies indicated that caffeine had been shown to potently act the radioprotector in irradiated mice. However it is not clear exactly about effects of caffeine treatments chronically after irradiation. So the present studies were designed to identify the hematological effect of caffeine treatments chronically one month after whole-body gamma irradiation.

  7. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

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    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  8. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned

  9. Neuro-immune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

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    Marquette, C.; Bertho, J.M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J. [IRSN, F-92260 Fontenay Aux Roses, (France); Mathieu, J.; Galonnier, M.; Clarencon, D. [CRSSA, Dept Radiobiol and Radiopathol, F-38700 La Tronche, (France); Balanzat, E. [CEA, DSM, CIRIL, Ganil, Caen, (France)

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 20}Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of {sup 60}Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuro-immune response, evaluated by interleukin-I (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by {sup 16}O or {sup 60}Co. In contrast, neither {sup 12}C (56.7 mGy) nor {sup 20}Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of {sup 12}C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of {sup 16}O and 76 mGy of {sup 20}Ne: only the {sup 20}Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight. (authors)

  10. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

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    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  11. Eight years of whole body irradiation at Verone: clinical and physical experience in 115 patients (june 2000-december 2008); Huit ans d'irradiation corporelle totale a verone: experience clinique et physique chez 115 patients (juin 2000-decembre 2008)

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    Palazzi, M.; Benedetti, F.; Romano, M.; Maluta, S.; Compri, C.; Giri, M.G.; Meliado, G. [Azienda Ospedaliera, Verona (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The multi fractionated whole-body irradiation has today replaced the technique of whole-body irradiation in single dose, that was at the origin of acute and delayed effects, especially pneumonia and cataract. The results and the tolerance of our whole-body irradiation pattern are similar to these ones mentioned in the national register of allogeneic marrow transplants. (N.C.)

  12. Enhanced cued fear memory following post-training whole body irradiation of 3-month-old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Weber, Sydney J; Akinyeke, Tunde; Raber, Jacob

    2017-02-15

    Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well. Exposure to whole body irradiation 24h following training in a fear conditioning resulted in greater freezing levels 2 weeks after training. In addition, motion during both contextual and cued extinction trials was lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In mice trained for cued fear conditioning, activity levels in the elevated zero maze 12days after sham-irradiation or irradiation were also lower in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. Finally, the trajectory of body weight changes was affected by irradiation, with lower body weights in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice, with the most profound effect 7days after training. These effects were associated with reduced c-Myc protein levels in the amygdala of the irradiated mice. These data indicate that whole body X ray irradiation of mice at 3 months of age causes persistent alterations in the fear response and activity levels in a novel environment, while the effects on body weight seem more transient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

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    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  14. Intestinal SIRT3 overexpression in mice improves whole body glucose homeostasis independent of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Deepti; Clara, Rosmarie; Fedele, Shahana; Hu, Junmin; Lackzo, Endre; Huang, Jing-Yi; Verdin, Eric; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal metabolism might play a greater role in regulating whole body metabolism than previously believed. We aimed to enhance enterocyte metabolism in mice and investigate if it plays a role in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its comorbidities. Using the cre-loxP system, we overexpressed the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent protein deacetylase SIRT3 in enterocytes of mice (iSIRT3 mice). We chronically fed iSIRT3 mice and floxed-SIRT3 control (S3fl) mice a low-fat, control diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and then phenotyped the mice. There were no genotype differences in any of the parameters tested when the mice were fed CD. Also, iSIRT3 mice were equally susceptible to the development of DIO as S3fl mice when fed HFD. They were, however, better able than S3fl mice to regulate their blood glucose levels in response to exogenous insulin and glucose, indicating that they were protected from developing insulin resistance. This improved glucose homeostasis was accompanied by an increase in enterocyte metabolic activity and an upregulation of ketogenic gene expression in the small intestine. Enhancing enterocyte oxidative metabolism can improve whole body glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

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    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  16. Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS) supplementation improves survival following whole-body irradiation (WBI) by suppressing tissue-specific inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Amit; Verma, Prachi; Bhilwade, H N; Iwaoka, Michio; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2016-09-01

    Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS), a simple water-soluble organoselenium compound, was evaluated for radioprotection in BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation (WBI) (8Gy (60)Co, 1Gy/min), by monitoring 30-d post-irradiation survival and biochemical/histological changes in radiosensitive organs. Intraperitoneal administration of DHS at 2mg/kg for five consecutive days before irradiation and three times per week during the post-irradiation period showed maximum benefit (40% improvement in 30 d post-irradiation survival). DHS treatment, despite inducing expression of glutathione peroxidases (GPx1, GPx2, and GPx4) in spleen and intestine, did not protect against radiation-induced acute (10-day) haematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities. DHS treatment significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes and inflammatory responses in intestine, lung, and circulation. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHS was associated with reductions in lipid peroxidation, expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as Icam-1, Ccl-2, and iNos-2, and subsequent infiltration of inflammatory cells. Irradiated mice treated with DHS survived until day 30 post-irradiation and showed restoration of spleen cellularity and intestinal villi, but had moderately increased systemic and tissue-specific inflammatory responses. Another organoselenium compound, selenomethionine, evaluated in parallel with DHS at the same dose and treatment schedule, showed comparable radioprotective effects. The mechanism of radioprotection by DHS is mainly via suppression of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

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    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-08-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control.

  18. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

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    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  19. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

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    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  20. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

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    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols.

  1. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

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    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  2. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  3. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  4. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  5. Whole body protection to lethally irradiated mice by oral administration of semipurified fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum and post irradiation treatment of Picrorhiza kurroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manju Lata; Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Verma, Savita; Devi, Memita; Samanta, Namita; Agrawala, Paban Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2008-04-20

    to evaluate the radioprotective potential of alcoholic fraction of Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes (REC-2001) individually as well as in combination with Picrorhiza kurroa administered orally in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice. The study was divided into different treatment groups. Whole body survival was observed upto 30 days in all the treatment groups. Besides survival, toxicity of REC-2001 was also evaluated. All the groups were studied for spleen endogenous colony forming units (CFUs), plasma antioxidant potential and hematological variables, using standard techniques. Animals in radiation alone group died with in 12 days of exposure. Single dose of REC-2001 which did not bring any toxic manifestation/mortality (MTD) was found to be 155 mg/kg b.w. On administration of 250 mg/kg b.w. (single dose) 50% of the animals died (LD50), while a dose of 350 mg/kg b.w. of REC-2001 brought 100% death. Oral administration of single dose of REC-2001 (25 mg /kg b.w. -1h) prior to irradiation (10 Gy) was observed rendering up to 48% protection. Survival enhanced to the level of 55% when the animals had pre- treatment of REC-2001 (25 mg /kg b.w. -1h) followed by irradiation (10 Gy) and post treatment with a single dose of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome extract (pkre, 8 mg/kg b.w.+1h). Radiation induced plasma antioxidant status was significantly (P < 0.02) countered by REC-2001 administration. Post treatment of pkre elevated CFU counts (P < 0.05). Total leukocytes count and hemoglobin content in REC-2001 pretreated and pkre post treated group approached normal limits within 30 days of the study. REC-2001 in combination with pkre holds promise for further studies to achieve radioprotection against lethal radiation by oral administration.

  6. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  7. Effects of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation on the biosynthesis of certain serum proteins. Final report, November 29, 1967--June 30, 1976. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, O.W.

    1976-06-30

    Whole-body exposure of rats to ionizing radiations yielded an increased incorporation of labeled amino acids into serum albumin in in vivo studies suggesting a stimulation of biosynthesis. Actually this may have been caused by an elevated hepatic transport of labeled amino acids (see below). A suppressed biosynthesis of albumin was observed when the experiments were performed in vitro using liver microsomes. Impaired biosynthesis appeared to be caused by a reduced mRNA production. Irradiation stimulated the biosynthesis of acute-phase plasma proteins (stress response) and inhibited the excretion of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin, the sex-dependent protein of the adult male rat. Exposure of rats to ..gamma..-rays stimulated amino acid transport into the liver. This process which is Na/sup +/ and energy-dependent was studied with ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid, cycloleucine, and L-methionine among others. After irradiation the serum glucagon and insulin, as well as hepatic cAMP levels, were elevated. Amino acid transport may be an important factor in controlling the increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis observed in rats following whole-body irradiation.

  8. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  9. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  10. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  11. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin A H; Nielsen, Thomas S; Fritzen, Andreas M; Holm, Jacob B; Fjære, Even; Serup, Annette K; Borkowski, Kamil; Risis, Steve; Pærregaard, Simone I; Søgaard, Ida; Poupeau, Audrey; Poulsen, Michelle; Ma, Tao; Sina, Christian; Kiens, Bente; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Treebak, Jonas T

    2016-12-01

    The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis and the gut microbiota. We fed C57BL6/J mice 3 different HFDs with decreasing protein:carbohydrate ratios for 8weeks and compared the results to a LFD reference group. We analyzed the gut microbiota composition by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and the intestinal gene expression by real-time PCR. Whole body glucose homeostasis was evaluated by insulin and glucose tolerance tests as well as by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp experiment. Compared with LFD-fed reference mice, HFD-fed mice, irrespective of protein:carbohydrate ratio, exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, whereas no differences were observed during insulin tolerance tests. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp revealed tissue-specific effects on glucose homeostasis in all HFD-fed groups. HFD-fed mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in white but not in brown adipose tissue, and sustained endogenous glucose production under insulin-stimulated conditions. We observed no impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of different fiber type composition. HFD-feeding altered the gut microbiota composition paralleled by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in gluconeogenesis in intestinal epithelial cells of the jejunum. Intake of a HFD profoundly affected glucose homeostasis, gut inflammatory responses, and gut microbiota composition in the absence of fat mass accretion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-02-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of /sup 125/I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential.

  13. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  14. Radioprotective Effect of Propolis on the Blood Corpuscle of a Mouse by SEM after X-irradiation on the Whole Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    After x-ray 5 Gy radiation on the whole body of a mouse using a linear accelerator, its leucocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet were observed by SEM. Also, after injecting propolis into the abdominal cavity, the radio-protective effect of blood corpuscles was studied. The observation of micromorphology in blood corpuscles revealed that the number of leukocyte, erythrocyte, and thrombocyte decreased in the experimental group and the lump got together in blood corpuscles after 10 and 20 days. In RBC, crack or break on the surface and poikilosperocytes were observed. In the irradiation group, the size of leucocytes was smaller than that in control group and the number of villus at the verge substantially decreased. The blood corpuscles in the propolis group, however, had the similar results to control group.

  15. The Application of Flow Cytometry to Examine Damage Clearance in Stem Cells From Whole-Body Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marples, Brian; Kovalchuk, Olga; McGonagle, Michele; Martinez, Alvaro; Wilson, George, D.

    2010-02-26

    The bone marrow contains many types of cells. Approximately 1-2% of these cells are critical for life, these are the so-called ‘bone marrow stem cells’ which divide indefinitely to produce platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Death of the bone marrow stem cells results in a diminished ability of the organism to make new blood cell components and can be fatal without medical intervention, such as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow stem cells are considered to be particularly sensitive to radiation injury. Therefore, it is important to understand how these cells response to total body radiation exposure and how these cells can be protected from radiation damage. The aim of this project was to determine if these critical cells in the bone marrow are susceptible to short-term and long-term injury after a whole-body exposure to a sub-lethal low dose of ionizing radiation. The overall aims were to determine if the extent of injury produced by the sub-lethal radiation exposure would be cleared from the stem cells and therefore present no long- term genetic risk to the organism, or if the radiation injury persisted and had an adverse long-term consequences for the cell genome. This research question is of interest in order to define the risks to exposed persons after occupational, accidental or terrorism-related sub-lethal low-dose radiation exposures. The novel aspect of this project was the methodology used to obtain the bone marrow stem cell-like cells and examining the outcomes of sub-lethal low-dose radiation in a mammalian animal model. Four radiation treatments were used: single treatments of 0.01Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and ten treatments of 0.1 Gy given over 10 days. Bone marrow stem cell-like cells were then harvested 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 days later. The levels of radiation-induced cell death, damage to DNA and permanent changes to cellular DNA were measured in the isolated stem cell-like cells after each radiation treatment and time point and

  16. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Mitigates Hematopoietic Radiation Syndrome and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Followed by Wound Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.

  17. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  18. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation; Analisis dosimetrico para haces de fotones y electrones en irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado G, M. [Posgrado. Fisica Medica Radiologica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota. Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia. Instituto Regional de Cancer de la Orinoquia. Hospital Regional de Villavicencio, Meta (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm{sup 2} fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of {sup 60} Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q{sub 1} respect at the field central axis

  19. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  20. Hemorrhage enhances cytokine, complement component 3, and caspase-3, and regulates microRNAs associated with intestinal damage after whole-body gamma-irradiation in combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G Kiang

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage following whole-body γ-irradiation in a combined injury (CI model increases mortality compared to whole-body γ-irradiation alone (RI. The decreased survival in CI is accompanied by increased bone marrow injury, decreased hematocrit, and alterations of miRNA in the kidney. In this study, our aim was to examine cytokine homeostasis, susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection, and intestinal injury. More specifically, we evaluated the interleukin-6 (IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, Flt-3 ligand, and corticosterone. CD2F1 male mice received 8.75 Gy 60Co gamma photons (0.6 Gy/min, bilateral which was followed by a hemorrhage of 20% of the blood volume. In serum, RI caused an increase of IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-18, G-CSF, CM-CSF, eotaxin, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP, RANTES, and TNF-α, which were all increased by hemorrhage alone, except IL-9, IL-17A, and MCP-1. Nevertheless, CI further elevated RI-induced increases of these cytokines except for G-CSF, IFN- γ and RANTES in serum. In the ileum, hemorrhage in the CI model significantly enhanced RI-induced IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-18, and TNF-α concentrations. In addition, Proteus mirabilis Gram(- was found in only 1 of 6 surviving RI mice on Day 15, whereas Streptococcus sanguinis Gram(+ and Sphingomonas paucimobilis Gram(- were detected in 2 of 3 surviving CI mice (with 3 CI mice diseased due to inflammation and infection before day 15 at the same time point. Hemorrhage in the CI model enhanced the RI-induced increases in C3 and decreases in CRP concentrations. However, hemorrhage alone did not alter the basal levels, but hemorrhage in the CI model displayed similar increases in Flt-3 ligand levels as RI did. Hemorrhage alone altered the basal levels of corticosterone early after injury, which then returned to the baseline, but in RI mice and CI mice the increased corticosterone

  1. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  2. The ORNL whole body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  4. SU-E-T-366: Estimation of Whole Body Dose From Cranial Irradiation From C and Perfexion Series Gamma Knife Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S [Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Andersen, A; Lulu, B; Das, I [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Cheng, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) B & C series contains 201 Cobalt-60 sources with a helmet. The new model, Perfexion uses 192 Cobalt-60 sources without a helmet; using IRIS system for collimation and stereotactic guidance to deliver SRS to brain tumors. Relative dose to extracranial organs at risk (OARs) is measured in phantom in this study for Perfexion and C-series GK. Materials & Methods: Measurements were performed in a Rando anthropomorphic phantom on both systems using a large ion chamber (Keithley-175) for each collimator. The Keithley-175 cc ion chamber was sandwiched between phantom slices at various locations in the phantom to correspond to different extracranial OARs (thyroid, heart, kidney, ovary and testis, etc.) The dose measurement was repeated with OSL detectors for each position and collimator. Results: A large variation is observed in the normalized dose between these two systems. The dose beyond the housing falls off exponentially for Perfexion. Dose beyond the C-series GK housing falls off exponentially from 0–20cm then remains relatively constant from 20–40cm and again falls off with distance but less rapidly. The variation of extracranial dose with distance for each collimator is found to be parallel to each other for both systems. Conclusion: Whole body dose is found to vary significantly between these systems. It is important to measure the extracranial dose, especially for young patients. It is estimated that dose falls off exponentially from the GK housing and is about 1% for large collimators at 75 cm. The dose is two-orders of magnitude smaller for the 4mm collimator. However, this small dose for patient may be significant radiologically.

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Whole-body MRI screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, Ralf [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Hosten, Norbert (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald (Germany). Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2014-07-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  7. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  8. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  9. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  10. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  11. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  12. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  13. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  14. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  15. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  16. Whole-body gamma irradiation effect on rat cerebral nitric oxide (NO) concentrations; Effet de l`irradiation gamma globale sur les concentrations de l`oxyde nitrique (NO) cerebral chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, D.; Fidier, N.; Roux, A.; Laval, J.D.; Montmayer, A.; Buguet, A.; Fatome, M.; Cespuglio, R.

    1995-12-31

    The functional radiosensitivity of the central nervous system can be seen in the early modifications of many electrophysiological and neurochemical parameters, even or doses of irradiation well bellow know to induce the classical neurological syndrome. Using a voltametric method, which allows in vivo nitric oxide (NO) measurement in rat brain, we observed an early increase of NO concentration at the cortex level (60-300 %), at the beginning or immediately after the gamma global exposure (15 Gy). These preliminary experiments should be confirmed, but different hypotheses could be envisaged to explain this NO increase, like an activation of glutamatergic pathway. (author). 2 refs.

  17. week whole-body vibration training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in this study therefore indicate that WBVT could be used as an ffective training modality to improve cardiovascular function in adult males. As such, WBVT is recommended for use in sedentary adults given its benefits. Keywords: Whole-body vibration training, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiovascular responses.

  18. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  19. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  20. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motmans, R

    2012-01-01

    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.

  1. Comparison of the effects of partial- or whole-body exposures to ¹⁶O particles on cognitive performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L; Gomes, Stacey M

    2014-03-01

    Studies using a ground-based system (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory) to examine the effects of exposure to high-energy charged particles or HZE particles on cognitive performance have interchangeably used whole-body exposures or exposures restricted to the head of the subject. For this study, we hypothesized that different types of exposure such as whole body vs. head only vs. body only might modulate the impact of irradiation on cognitive performance in different ways with the resulting cognitive performance outcomes being either independent of exposure type or strongly dependent on exposure type with each producing performance outcomes. To test these possibilities, three groups of rats were exposed to ¹⁶O particles (1,000 MeV/n): (1) head only; (2) body only; (3) whole body. Cognitive performance was measured using the elevated plus-maze, novel object recognition, spatial location memory and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule. The results indicated that the performance of the rats on the spatial location memory task was markedly different when they received head-only irradiation compared to whole-body exposure. For the operant responding task, irradiation of the whole body resulted in a more severe performance decrement than exposures restricted to the head. The results are discussed in terms of nontargeted effects of HZE particles and the findings suggest that studies that utilize different patterns of exposure may not be directly comparable and that astronauts may be at a greater risk for HZE particle-induced cognitive deficits than previously thought.

  2. Effect of two graded doses of whole-body X-irradiation and radioprotection by the use of S-phenethyl formamidino 4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Pandeya, S.N.

    1983-10-01

    The protection offered by a newly synthesized compound (S-phenethyl-formamidino-4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride) against radiation effects on DNA, RNA and protein biosynthetic processes in the brain, and on metabolites of 5-HT and nor-adrenalin, i.e., 5-HIAA and VMA, in the urine, including the radiobiological damage to thyroid and testes, was evaluated. The use of the compound prior to irradiation prevented radiation-induced changes in the thyroid and testes. The radiation-induced alterations in the pattern of DNA, RNA, protein in the brain, and in 5-HIAA and VMA in urine could be averted by treatment with this compound prior to each dose of X-irradiation.

  3. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  4. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  5. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Gözde; K. Alparslan ERMAN

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration training, the person’s entire body on a platform, creates a vibration that may affect the muscles and bones. Despite the vibration used of massage and treatment since ancient times, it was used as a training method in recent years and became very popular and has attracted the attention of researchers. Whole body vibration training used both sport science with the aim to improve performance and in the fields of medicine for sports therapy. Whole body vibration training bri...

  6. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...

  7. Multi-Party, Whole-Body Interactions in Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study interrogates the contributions of multi-party, whole-body interactions to students' collaboration and negotiation of mathematics ideas in a task setting called walking scale geometry, where bodies in interaction became complex resources for students' emerging goals in problem solving. Whole bodies took up overlapping roles representing…

  8. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sebastian; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter

    2009-06-01

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  9. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ley@gmx.de; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  10. Whole Body Awareness for Controlling a Robotic Transfemoral Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Parri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Restoring locomotion functionality of transfemoral amputees is essential for early rehabilitation treatment and for preserving mobility and independence in daily life. Research in wearable robotics fostered the development of innovative active mechatronic lower-limb prostheses designed with the goal to reduce the cognitive and physical effort of lower-limb amputees in rehabilitation and daily life activities. To ensure benefits to the users, active mechatronic prostheses are expected to be aware of the user intention and properly interact in a closed human-in-the-loop paradigm. In the state of the art various cognitive interfaces have been proposed to online decode the user's intention. Electromyography in combination with mechanical sensing such as inertial or pressure sensors is a widely adopted solution for driving active mechatronic prostheses. In this framework, researchers also explored targeted muscles re-innervation for an objective-oriented surgical amputation promoting wider usability of active prostheses. However, information kept by the neural component of the cognitive interface deteriorates in a prolonged use scenario due to electrodes-related issues, thereby undermining the correct functionality of the active prosthesis. The objective of this work is to present a novel controller for an active transfemoral prosthesis based on whole body awareness relying on a wireless distributed non-invasive sensory apparatus acting as cognitive interface. A finite-state machine controller based on signals monitored from the wearable interface performs subject-independent intention detection of functional tasks such as ground level walking, stair ascent, and sit-to-stand maneuvres and their main sub-phases. Experimental activities carried out with four transfemoral amputees (among them one dysvascular demonstrated high reliability of the controller capable of providing 100% accuracy rate in treadmill walking even for weak subjects and low walking

  11. Transient global amnesia following a whole-body cryotherapy session

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin Carrard; Anne Chantal Lambert; Daniel Genné

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), which consists of a short exposure to very cold and dry air in special 'cryo-chambers', is believed to reduce inflammation and musculoskeletal pain as well as improve athletes' recovery...

  12. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related fitness benefits; not only those associated with obesity, but also the reduction ... The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise intervention for health ..... muscular strength, muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. In addition ...

  13. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  14. Detecting the relevance to performance of whole-body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Daisuke; Takiyama, Ken

    2017-11-15

    Goal-directed whole-body movements are fundamental in our daily life, sports, music, art, and other activities. Goal-directed movements have been intensively investigated by focusing on simplified movements (e.g., arm-reaching movements or eye movements); however, the nature of goal-directed whole-body movements has not been sufficiently investigated because of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. One open question is how to overcome high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy to achieve the desired performance. It is possible to approach the question by quantifying how the motions of each body part at each time point contribute to movement performance. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify an explicit relation between each motion element (the motion of each body part at each time point) and performance as a result of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. The current study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the relevance of each motion element to the performance. The current findings indicate that linear regression may be used to quantify this relevance without considering the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of whole-body motion.

  15. Whole-body impedance control of wheeled humanoid robots

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introducing mobile humanoid robots into human environments requires the systems to physically interact and execute multiple concurrent tasks. The monograph at hand presents a whole-body torque controller for dexterous and safe robotic manipulation. This control approach enables a mobile humanoid robot to simultaneously meet several control objectives with different pre-defined levels of priority, while providing the skills for compliant physical contacts with humans and the environment. After a general introduction into the topic of whole-body control, several essential reactive tasks are developed to extend the repertoire of robotic control objectives. Additionally, the classical Cartesian impedance is extended to the case of mobile robots. All of these tasks are then combined and integrated into an overall, priority-based control law. Besides the experimental validation of the approach, the formal proof of asymptotic stability for this hierarchical controller is presented. By interconnecting the whole-body ...

  16. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard; Klug, Bent; Hanel, Birgitte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. Our aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in six centers and expand normative sRaw values for nonasthmatic children including these centers. Identical hardware with different software versions was used at the six centers. Measurements followed a standard operating procedure: (1) seven healthy young children were brought to each of the six centers for sRaw measurements; and (2) 105 healthy preschool children (52 boys; mean age, 5.1 years; interquartile range, 4.3 to 6.0) were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. (1) The sRaw of the seven-children study group was significantly lower at two centers compared with the other four centers, and one center had significantly higher sRaw than all the other centers (p factory settings of the software was subsequently discovered in one of the deviating centers. (2) Normative data (105 preschool children) were generated and were without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age, and gender. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with our previous data from 121 healthy young children (overall mean sRaw, 1.27; SD, 0.25). Control using biological standards revealed errors in the factory setting and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly, other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values.

  17. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  18. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  19. Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

  20. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  1. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern...

  2. Do whole-body vibrations affect spatial hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Guastavino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along the vertical axis on spatial hearing. The first was a free-field, narrow-band noise localisation experiment with 5- Hz vibration at 0.88 ms(-2). The other experiments used headphone-based sound lateralisation tasks. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of vibration frequency (4 vs. 8 Hz) at two different magnitudes (0.83 vs. 1.65 ms(-2)) on a left-right discrimination one-interval forced-choice task. Experiment 3 assessed the effect on a two-interval forced-choice location discrimination task with respect to the central and two peripheral reference locations. In spite of the broad range of methods, none of the experiments show a reliable effect of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance. We report three experiments that used both free-field localisation and headphone lateralisation tasks to assess their sensitivity to whole-body vibrations at low frequencies. None of the experiments show a reliable effect of either frequency or magnitude of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance.

  3. Interventions for chronic low back pain: whole body vibration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study explored, described and compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional spinal stabilisation exercises in persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used to delineate the base of volunteers gathered by a combination ...

  4. Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of Brazilian healthy soldiers. Danielle Soares Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Samuel Brandão Sobrinho Neto, Laisa Liane Paineiras Domingos, Patrícia Lopes de Souza, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Glenda Dias Costa, Cláudia Ferreira de Figueiredo, ...

  5. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  6. The effect of whole-body vibration training on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on the use of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on some health-related risk factors such as body composition and biochemical parameters is limited. The purpose of the study was therefore, to assess the effect of progressive WBVT on selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy ...

  7. Whole body vibration improves attention and motor performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation via mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. It is assumed that WBV induces sensory stimulation in cortical brain regions through the activation of skin and muscle receptors responding to the vibration. The effects of WBV on muscle strength are ...

  8. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  9. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. Researchers are divided on the safety and effectiveness of WBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV on muscle activation. Healthy university students (N = 11; ...

  10. Acute effects of varying whole body vibration exposure on jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to result in rapid improvement in muscle strength and power. However, WBV studies have utilised sedentary individuals as participants and research is limited on athletes for whom strength and power are their primary assets in sport. Utilising WBV as part of a training ...

  11. Back disorders and whole-body vibration at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the relation between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and the incidence and prevalence of disorders of the spine and the back. It focuses on sickness absence and permanente work disability of crane operators, tractor drivers, helicopter pilots, forklift

  12. Visuospatial memory computations during whole-body rotations in roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, S. van; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van; Medendorp, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a memory-saccade task to test whether the location of a target, briefly presented before a whole-body rotation in roll, is stored in egocentric or in allocentric coordinates. To make this distinction, we exploited the fact that subjects, when tilted sideways in darkness, make systematic

  13. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  14. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  15. Towards whole-body fluorescence imaging in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Piper

    Full Text Available Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (~10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively. When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases.

  16. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)

  17. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

    2014-12-01

    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  18. Whole-body MRI evaluation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris G.; Carrino, John A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of FSHD has stimulated interest in developing biomarkers of disease severity. Methods Two groups of MRI scans were analyzed: whole-body scans from 13 subjects with FSHD, and upper and lower extremity scans from 34 subjects with FSHD who participated in the MYO-029 clinical trial. Muscles were scored for fat infiltration and edema-like changes. Fat infiltration scores were compared to muscle strength and function. Results Our analysis reveals a distinctive pattern of both frequent muscle involvement and frequent sparing in FSHD. Averaged fat infiltration scores for muscle groups in the legs correlated with quantitative muscle strength and 10-meter walk times. Discussion Advances in MRI technology allow for the acquisition of rapid, high-quality whole-body imaging in diffuse muscle disease. This technique offers a promising disease biomarker in FSHD and other muscle diseases. PMID:25641525

  19. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  20. Thermal, circulatory, and neuromuscular responses to whole-body cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, T. (Tarja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine thermal (body temperature, thermal sensation and comfort ratings), circulatory (blood pressure, heart rate variability) and neuromuscular performance responses to whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, -110 °C). Altogether 66 healthy subjects were exposed to WBC for two minutes. The acute and long-term changes were examined, when the subjects were exposed to WBC three times a week during three months. Skin temperatures decreased very rapidl...

  1. Verificação das doses de radiação absorvidas durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula óssea, por meio de dosímetros termoluminescentes Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo José Giordani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão das doses de radiação absorvidas na terapia de transplantes de medula óssea durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 200 pastilhas de sulfato de cálcio com disprósio compactado com teflon (CaSO4 + teflon, calibradas no ar e no "phantom", selecionadas aleatoriamente e dispostas em grupos de cinco no corpo dos pacientes. As leituras dosimétricas foram efetuadas pela leitora Harshaw 4000A. Nove pacientes foram irradiados no corpo inteiro em paralelos e em opostos laterais, utilizando-se unidade de cobalto-60, modelo Alcion II, com taxa de dose de 0,80 Gy/min a 80,5 cm, {campo (10 × 10 cm²}. A dosimetria dessa unidade foi realizada com dosímetro Victoreen 500. Para a determinação da dose média em cada ponto avaliado usaram-se os fatores individuais de calibração das pastilhas no ar e no "phantom", colocando-se um "build up" de 2 mm para superficializar a dose à distância de 300 cm. RESULTADOS: Em 70% dos pacientes obteve-se variação de dose menor que 5% e em 30% dos pacientes essa variação foi inferior a 10%, quando comparados os valores medidos com aqueles calculados em cada ponto. Na cabeça ocorre absorção, em média, de 14% da dose administrada, e nos pulmões, acréscimo de 2% na dose administrada. Nos pacientes com distância látero-lateral maior que 35 cm as variações entre as doses calculadas e medidas podem chegar a 30% da dose desejada, sem o uso de filtros compensadores. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores medidos das doses absorvidas nos diversos pontos anatômicos, comparados aos valores desejados (teóricos, apresentam tolerância de ±10%, considerando-se as diferenças anatômicas existentes, quando utilizados os fatores de calibração individuais das pastilhas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred CaSO4:Dy + teflon

  2. A whole body statistical shape model for radio frequency simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lin; Ali, Khaleda; Brizzi, Alessio; Keegan, Jennifer; Hao, Yang; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The development of ultra low power wireless sensors for customized wearable and implantable medical devices requires patient specific models for radio frequency simulation to understand wave propagation in the body. In practice, the creation of a patient specific whole-body model is difficult and time consuming to create. It is therefore necessary to establish a method for studying a population in a statistical manner. In this paper, we present a statistical shape model for the whole body for RF simulation. It is built from 10 male and 10 female subjects of varying size and height. This model has the ability to instantiate a new surface mesh with the parameters allowed by the training set. This model would provide shapes of varying sizes for studies, without the requirement of obtaining subject specific whole body models. Results from finite-differences time-domain simulation are presented on the extreme shapes from the model and demonstrate the need for a full understanding of the range in body shapes.

  3. Whole body vibration in cystic fibrosis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J; Wust, M; Rawer, R; Schnabel, D; Armbrecht, G; Beller, G; Rembitzki, I; Wahn, U; Felsenberg, D; Staab, D

    2008-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), bone mass deficits as well as a lack of muscle mass and force have been described. The bone mass deficits are thought to be at least in part secondary to the reduced muscle mass. Whole body vibration has recently been suggested as an effective technique to increase muscle force and power. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the compliance and safety of a side-alternating, whole body vibration platform in patients with CF and to assess its effects on muscle force, muscle power, bone mass and lung function. Eleven adult CF patients participated in a six-months home-based training programme on a whole body vibration platform. Muscle force and power were assessed with three standard manoeuvres on a ground reaction force plate at regular intervals. Bone densitometry was performed at the spine, the radius and the tibia using quantitative computerized tomography. Regular cardiovascular monitoring did not show any critical drop in oxygen saturation or blood pressure. Lung function remained relatively constant with a median FEV1 change [% of norm] of -3.1% (range -7-20). Trabecular density at the spine and parameters of bone density and geometry at the radius and tibia did not show consistent changes. A median decrease of -0.3% (-31.0-17.9) for muscle force and a median increase of 4.7% (-16.4-74.5) for muscle power and 6.6% (-0.9-48.3) for velocity was noted in the two-leg jump. In the one-leg jump, a median increase of 6.7% (-8.5-24.3) for muscle force was measured. Whole body vibration was well tolerated in the majority of the study participants. Most patients were able to increase peak force in the one-leg jump. In the two-leg jump, velocity and muscle power increased with equal or decreased muscle force. This may indicate an improvement in neuromuscular and intramuscular co-ordination (and therefore efficiency) with less muscle force necessary to generate the same power.

  4. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Blasimann, A.; Fleuti, U.; Rufener, M.; Elfering, A.; Radlinger, L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. METHODS: Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An asse...

  5. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica...... of the plasma disappearance curve of a tracer, but mixing problems and flow-limited transport, as indicated by a PS ratio below that of the free diffusion coefficients, may be difficult to overcome, especially when using tracers of a low molecular weight....

  6. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    , to bring performance to the level achieved on diagnostic CT and MR images in body-region-wise approaches. The intermodality approach fosters the use of already existing fuzzy models, previously created from diagnostic CT images, on PET/CT and other derived images, thus truly separating the modality-independent object assembly anatomy from modality-specific tissue property portrayal in the image. Results: Key ways of combining the above three basic ideas lead them to 15 different strategies for recognizing objects in PET/CT images. Utilizing 50 diagnostic CT image data sets from the thoracic and abdominal body regions and 16 whole-body PET/CT image data sets, the authors compare the recognition performance among these 15 strategies on 18 objects from the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis in object localization error and size estimation error. Particularly on texture membership images, object localization is within three voxels on whole-body low-dose CT images and 2 voxels on body-region-wise low-dose images of known true locations. Surprisingly, even on direct body-region-wise PET images, localization error within 3 voxels seems possible. Conclusions: The previous body-region-wise approach can be extended to whole-body torso with similar object localization performance. Combined use of image texture and intensity property yields the best object localization accuracy. In both body-region-wise and whole-body approaches, recognition performance on low-dose CT images reaches levels previously achieved on diagnostic CT images. The best object recognition strategy varies among objects; the proposed framework however allows employing a strategy that is optimal for each object.

  7. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  8. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  9. Safety aspects of whole-body cryochamber and cryosauna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Piotrowska

    2017-12-01

    Interest in low temperature treatment is constantly increasing. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) devices are becoming available not only in medical centers but also in local gyms and spa centers. A new group of users are professional sport clubs where 3-minutes session of whole-body cryotherapy is post-training procedure to improve and speed up the recovery process. There are four different types of WBC devices available on the market and offered to commercial (non-medical) users. The American and European market is dominated by two of them: classic cryochambers and cryosaunas. Both constructions are supplied with liquid nitrogen. Low temperature inside classic cryochamber is produced by evaporating of liquid nitrogen in two or more heat exchangers. There is never a direct contact between user and cryogenic medium in any of system operation mode (closed supply system). Cryosauna is cooled down by filling with cold vapor of liquid nitrogen. Supply system is considered open because it allows for direct contact between user and cryogenic medium. Open supply system of cryosauna is primary and most questionable issue of its operational safety, particularly after tragic accident in October 2015. This paper presents the comparative analysis of classic cryochamber and cryosauna from safety point of view. Both devices have been analyzes and tested on existing systems in operation. Paper gives detailed analysis of constructions, supply systems and working parameters. Special attention has been focused to problem of oxygen deficiency hazard. Different failure or accident scenarios have been analyzed and discussed.

  10. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  12. Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or Shouldn't I Get One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or shouldn't I ... What are the risks and benefits of whole-body CT screening? Many people believe incorrectly that a ...

  13. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this

  14. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  15. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a relatively new technique that can enable assessment of the overall inflammatory status of people with arthritis, but standards for image acquisition, definitions of key pathologies, and a quantification system are required. Our aim...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...... was initially performed, searching for WB-MRI studies in arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthritis, or enthesitis. These results were presented to a meeting of the MRI in Arthritis Working Group together with an MR image review. Following this, preliminary standards for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritides...

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  17. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography; Ganzkoerper-MR-Angiografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Harald; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2009-09-15

    Cardiovascular diseases still rank number one in terms of morbidity and mortality statistics in the western industrialized world. The majority of these diseases are due to atherosclerotic vessel wall changes. Atherosclerosis gets symptomatic in an advanced stage where vessel wall changes are apparent. Thus an early diagnosis of this disease is desirable. Especially atherosclerosis but also most of the inflammatory vessel diseases are known as systemic in nature. Magnetic resonance angiography offers an excellent and ethically justifiable method for non invasive imaging of the entire arterial vasculature without ionizing radiation. DSA comparable imaging results can be achieved nowadays. Possibilities to perform a whole body MR angiography and concerning imaging protocols are very dependent on the configuration of the available MR scanner. (orig.)

  18. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Gatta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  19. Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects.

  20. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  1. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  2. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  3. The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquetto, M; Carvalho, V; Silva, C; Conceição, C; Gomes-Neto, M

    2015-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on physiologic and functional measurements in children with cerebral palsy. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, Scielo, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to November 2014) for randomized controlled trials, that aimed to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration versus exercise and/or versus control on physiologic and functional measurements in children with cerebral palsy. Two reviewers independently selected the studies. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Six studies with 176 patients comparing whole-body vibration to exercise and/or control were included. Whole-body vibration resulted in improvement in: gait speed WMDs (0.13 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20); gross motor function dimension E WMDs (2.97 95% CI: 0.07 to 5.86) and femur bone density (1.32 95% CI: 0.28 to 2.36). The meta-analysis also showed a nonsignificant difference in muscle strength and gross motor function dimension D for participants in the whole-body vibration compared with control group. No serious adverse events were reported. Whole-body vibration may improve gait speed and standing function in children with cerebral palsy and could be considered for inclusion in rehabilitation programs.

  4. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimann, A; Fleuti, U; Rufener, M; Elfering, A; Radlinger, L

    2014-09-01

    Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An assessment at rest had been executed beforehand. Muscle activities were measured with EMG and normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC%). For statistical testing a three-factorial analysis of variation (ANOVA) was applied. The maximum activity of the respective muscles was 14.5 MVC% for the ES, 4.6 MVC% for the TA (12Hz with "noise" both), and 7.4 MVC% for the TD (10Hz without "noise"). Furthermore, all muscles varied significantly at 6Hz and above (p⋜0.047) compared to the situation at rest. No significant differences were found at SR-WBV with or without "noise". In general, muscle activity during SR-WBV is reasonably low and comparable to core strength stability exercises, sensorimotor training and "abdominal hollowing" in water. SR-WBV may be a therapeutic option for the relief of MSP.

  5. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  6. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen or cold pack has an effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also acts antiinflammatorily, eases swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control groups. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocarias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zu Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken, Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung, wird unter Ryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus erbit sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  7. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie: Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift, Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen, or cold packs has an analgetic effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also inhibits inflammation, relieves swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control group. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocardias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zur Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken. Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung wird unter Kryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus ergibt sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  8. Whole body vibration as an adjunct to static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feland, J B; Hawks, M; Hopkins, J T; Hunter, I; Johnson, A W; Eggett, D L

    2010-08-01

    This study was a randomized control trial. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if stretching the hamstrings during whole-body-vibration (WBV) is more effective than static stretching alone; and 2) to monitor retention of flexibility changes. The main outcome measure was hamstring flexibility as measured in degrees using a passive knee extension test. Thirty-four recreationally active college-age subjects (23.4+/-1.7 yrs) completed this study (22 males, 12 females, avg. ht.=175.6+/-6.4 cm, avg. wt.=74.9+/-11.8 kg). Subjects were assigned to a control group (C), a static stretch group (SS), or a vibration + static stretch group (V). Subjects stretched 5 days/wk for 4-weeks and were followed for 3-weeks after cessation to monitor retention. Analysis showed a significant difference between treatment groups (pstretching for the SS and V groups respectively. Three-week follow-up showed SS returning to baseline with V group still 6.4 degrees (11%+/-3.88% (SEM)) more flexible than at baseline. Stretching concurrently with vibration on a WBV platform appears to be a good adjunct to static stretching with the potential to enhance retention of flexibility gains. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  9. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  10. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Naoko; Takamura, Noboru; Ashizawa, Kiyoto; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Shunichi; Okumura, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    To understand the current situation of internal radiation exposure in the population around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), we examined the 137Cs body burden in six residents of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in 2002 and 2004 using the whole-body counter (WBC) at Nagasaki University (Japan). The data were compared with those of our previous study performed in 1993-1994 using the same method. In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137Cs peaks. The results of the present study suggests that residents around the CNPP are still exposed to chronic 137Cs internal irradiation, probably due to the daily consumption of contaminated domestic foods, but the risk of any disease by the irradiation is quite low. Long-term follow-up of WBC around the CNPP is useful and may contribute to radiation safety regulation together with a reduction of unnecessary radiophobia for the residents.

  11. Acute, whole-body microwave exposure and testicular function of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Johnson, L.

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 8 h to continuous-wave microwave radiation (MWR, 1.3 Ghz) at a mean specific absorbed dose rate of 9 mW/g. MWR exposure and sham-irradiation took place in unidirectionally energized cylindrical waveguide sections, within which the animals were essentially unrestrained. The MWR treatment in this setting was determined to yield an elevation of deep rectal temperature to 4.5 degrees C. The animals were taken for analysis at 6.5, 13, 26, and 52 days following treatment, which corresponded to .5, 1, 2, and 4 cycles of the seminiferous epithelium. Net mass of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; daily sperm production (DSP) per testis and per gram of testis; and the number of epididymal sperm were determined. The levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH) were derived via radioimmunoassay of plasma samples taken at the time of sacrifice. Despite the evident acute thermogenesis of the MWR at 9 mW/g, no substantial decrement in testicular function was found. We conclude that, in the unrestrained rat, whole body irradiation at 9 mW/g, while sufficient to induce evident hyperthermia, is not a sufficient condition for disruption of any of these key measures of testicular function.

  12. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  13. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently.

  14. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-04-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Self-protective whole body motion for humanoid robots based on synergy of global reaction and local reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshihiko; Saegusa, Ryo; Ikemoto, Shuhei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Metta, Giorgio

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a self-protective whole body motor controller to enable life-long learning of humanoid robots. In order to reduce the damages on robots caused by physical interaction such as obstacle collision, we introduce self-protective behaviors based on the adaptive coordination of full-body global reactions and local limb reflexes. Global reactions aim at adaptive whole-body movements to prepare for harmful situations. The system incrementally learns a more effective association of the states and global reactions. Local reflexes based on a force-torque sensing function to reduce the impact load on the limbs independently of high-level motor intention. We examined the proposed method with a robot simulator in various conditions. We then applied the systems on a real humanoid robot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    , synthase, human, skeletal, muscle, training, not electrical stimulation, not in-vitro, not rats. Studies that reported changes in CS activity and V.O2max were included. Different training types and subject populations were analyzed independently to assess correlation between relative changes in V.O2max......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity.......4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories....

  17. A checkpoint-independent mechanism delays entry into mitosis after UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Christiane; Rødland, Gro Elise; Anda, Silje; Stonyte, Vilte; Boye, Erik; Lopez-Aviles, Sandra; Grallert, Beáta

    2017-12-01

    When cells are exposed to stress they delay entry into mitosis. The most extensively studied mechanism behind this delay is the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint. Here, we show the existence of an additional stress-response pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that is independent of the classic ATR/Rad3-dependent checkpoint. This novel mechanism delays entry mitosis independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint and the mitotic kinases Fin1, Ark1 and Plo1. The pathway delays activation of the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc2 after UV irradiation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that translation of the mitotic cyclin Cdc13 is selectively downregulated after UV irradiation, and we propose that this downregulation of Cdc13 contributes to the delayed activation of Cdc2 and the delayed mitosis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI...... out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice...

  19. Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole body by riboflavin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was inocu- lated with 104 or 105 parasites/mL and riboflavin treated with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (40-160 J/mL red blood cells [mLRBCs]). Parasite genome integrity was assessed by quantitative amplification inhibition assays, and P. falciparum viability was monitored in vitro. Results Riboflavin alone did ...

  20. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  1. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after

  2. Whole-body vibration therapy in intensive care patients: A feasibility and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeselt, Tobias; Nell, Christoph; Kehr, Katahrina; Holland, Angélique; Dresel, Marc; Greulich, Timm; Tackenberg, Björn; Kenn, Klaus; Boeder, Johannes; Klapdor, Benjamin; Kirschbaum, Andreas; Vogelmeier, Claus; Alter, Peter; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2016-03-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit is associated with sustained loss of muscle mass, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Early rehabilitation measures may counteract this process. New approaches to rehabilitation while the patient remains in bed are whole-body vibration alone and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. The aims of this study are to determine the safety of whole-body vibration for patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and to compare the effects of these techniques in intensive care unit patients and healthy subjects. Twelve intensive care unit patients and 12 healthy subjects using whole-body vibration for the first time were examined while lying in bed. First both groups performed whole body vibration over 3 min. In a second step whole body vibration with dumbbell was performed. In order to determine the safety of the training intensity, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were measured. The study was approved by the Marburg ethics committee. There were minor reversible and transient increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.005) and heart rate (p = 0.001) in the control group with whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. In intensive care patients receiving whole-body vibration alone, there were increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.011) and heart rate (p vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell for intensive care unit in-bed patients. No clinically significant safety problems were found. Whole-body vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell might therefore be alternative methods for use in early in-bed rehabilitation, not only for hospitalized patients.

  3. Implementation of whole body scanner for determining somatotype index at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T H; Chiou, W K; Lin, J D; Yu, C Y

    2001-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) using 1-dimensional circumference data have been proven to be highly related to blood pressure and total cholesterol; these 2 indices have been widely used as health indicators in preventive diagnosis and health examination. Sophisticated software, which allows calculation of the triangular mesh related to the body surface in 3D space, is capable of computing the circumference, width, sectional surface, volume, and surface area of the body. Chang Gung Whole Body Scanner (CGWBS) was used to capture 3D whole body surface images. In this study, the human body was divided into 10 segments consisting of the head, breast, wrist, hip, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot. Five independent assessments were made on a total of 32 anthropometric sites, including 12 circumferences, 3 widths, 3 profile areas, 7 surface areas, and 7 volumes. In this study, the somatotype index (SI) was computed through anthropometric data after 1,323 subjects were investigated. Correlation analysis was used to describe the relationship between BMI, WHR, SI, and anthropometric data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to examine differences between examination variables across sex and SI groups. This study found 4 somatotypes from anthropometric data. SI determined by CGWBS has better correlation with anthropometry than WHR or BMI. Of the 644 male subjects, 155 were in the ectomorph group, 232 in the semi-mesomorph group, 136 in the full-mesomorph group, and 121 in the endomorph group. Of the 679 female subjects, 160 were in the ectomorph group, 235 in the semi-mesomorph group, 168 in the full-mesomorph group, and 116 in the endomorph group. The results show that SI has great potential to perform precise somatotype classification.

  4. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaffien C Reijne

    Full Text Available At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry, the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance.

  5. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput,

  6. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H.C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality,

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results.

  8. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Outcome of Clinical Stage III Melanoma Patients with FDG-PET and Whole-Body CT Added to the Diagnostic Workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebling, M. G.; Bastiaannet, E.; Hoekstra, O. S.; Bonenkamp, J. J.; Koelemij, R.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    Combined whole-body FDG-PET and CT provide the most comprehensive staging of melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases (LNM). The aim of this study is to analyze survival of FDG-PET and CT negative or positive melanoma patients and to assess which factors have independent prognostic

  10. Outcome of Clinical Stage III Melanoma Patients with FDG-PET and Whole-Body CT Added to the Diagnostic Workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebling, M.G.; Bastiaannet, E.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Koelemij, R.; Hoekstra, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined whole-body FDG-PET and CT provide the most comprehensive staging of melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases (LNM). The aim of this study is to analyze survival of FDG-PET and CT negative or positive melanoma patients and to assess which factors have independent

  11. Correlation of symmetrical gaits and whole body mechanics: debunking myths in locomotor biodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biknevicius, Audrone R; Reilly, Stephen M

    2006-11-01

    Independent maturation of gait (Hildebrand) and whole body mechanics (Cavagna et al.) traditions in locomotor analyses has led to conflicting terminology. Re-evaluation of these traditions yields three primary insights. First, walking and running should be recognized by their fundamentally different mechanics. Because duty factor fails to consistently distinguish these mechanics, its use in discriminating walks from runs should be abandoned in preference to parameters that more accurately reflect the movements of the center of mass (COM; phase difference in external mechanical energy or Froude number). Second, "trot" should be reserved as a descriptor of a particular footfall pattern. This and all gait terms lack explicit information about limb compliance and thus COM movements. Third, symmetrical gait definitions should be broadened to reflect the four primary footfall patterns: the lateral-couplet dominated pattern of the pace, the diagonal-couplet dominated pattern of the trot and the more independent sequencing of footfalls of the two singlefoots. Intermediate gaits (perennially confusing and a mouthful to pronounce) are thereby subsumed by these four discrete gaits. Confusion between gait terminologies would be avoided if limb phase were consistently reported. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Impact of temperature and humidity on acceptability of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1997-01-01

    Acceptability of clean air and air polluted by building materials was studied in climate chambers with different levels of air temperature and humidity in the ranges 18-28°C and 30-70%. The immediate acceptability after entering a chamber and the acceptability during a 20-minute whole-body exposure......-minute exposure, i.e. no adaptation took place. Both the immediate assessment of acceptability and the assessments during the 20-minute exposure were independent of the air temperature and humidity to which the subjects were exposed before entering the chamber....

  13. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  14. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  15. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  16. Mouse whole-body organ mapping by non-rigid registration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Green, Heather; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Automatic small animal whole-body organ registration is challenging because of subject's joint structure, posture and position difference and loss of reference features. In this paper, an improved 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method is applied for mouse whole-body skeleton registration and lung registration. A geodesic path based non-rigid registration method is proposed for mouse torso skin registration. Based on the above registration methods, a novel non-rigid registration framework is proposed for mouse whole-body organ mapping from an atlas to new scanned CT data. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the method on lung and skin registration. A whole-body organ mapping was performed on three target data and the selected organs were compared with the manual outlining results. The robust of the method has been demonstrated.

  17. Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of whole-body vibration training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paohung Chung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

  18. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuo Otsuka; Toshiyuki Kurihara; Tadao Isaka

    2017-01-01

    Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT) and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five va...

  19. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tania C.M.; Terreri, Maria Teresa A.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  20. A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    continues to be difficult, whether the density is a result of fibrocystic diseases or young age. Accurate detection of very small breast tumors (2...DAMD17-02-1-0461 TITLE: A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wai-Hoi...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0461

  1. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tania C M; Lederman, Henrique; Terreri, Maria Teresa A; Kaste, Sue C; Hilario, Maria Odete E

    2010-09-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis.

  2. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  3. Environmental Assessment for the new Whole Body Counter facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a new in-vivo counting facility at the Savannah River Site for the monitoring of employees for internal radionuclides. The proposed facility, titled the new Whole Body Counter (WBC) facility, would house both the existing and additional new invivo counting equipment and facility support operations. The proposed facility would be sited and located in an area of the SRS in which background radiation levels are sufficiently low to assure accurate in-vivo counts and a location that would assure ease of access for occupational workers. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CPR Parts 1500-1508). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. The proposed action has independent utility to the Savannah River operations and will be necessary to support plant activities regardless of the makeup of the future mission at the site. As such, the proposed new WBC facility is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement ``No Action`` alternative.

  4. Neural correlates of decision making on whole body yaw rotation: An fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winkel, K N; Nesti, A; Ayaz, H; Bülthoff, H H

    2017-07-27

    Prominent accounts of decision making state that decisions are made on the basis of an accumulation of sensory evidence, orchestrated by networks of prefrontal and parietal neural populations. Here we assess whether these findings generalize to decisions on self-motion. Participants were presented with whole body yaw rotations of different durations in a 2-Interval-Forced-Choice paradigm, and tasked to discriminate motions on the basis of their amplitude. The cortical hemodynamic response was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants were performing the task. The imaging data was used to predict the specific response on individual experimental trials, and to predict whether the comparison stimulus would be judged larger than the reference. Classifier performance on the former variable was negligible. However, considerable performance was achieved for the latter variable, specifically using parietal imaging data. The findings provide support for the notion that activity in the parietal cortex reflects modality independent decision variables that represent the strength of the neural evidence in favor of a decision. The results are encouraging for the use of fNIRS as a method to perform neuroimaging in moving individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive value of longitudinal whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, M; Hielscher, T; Wagner, B; Sauer, S; Shah, S; Raab, M S; Jauch, A; Neben, K; Hose, D; Egerer, G; Weber, M A; Delorme, S; Goldschmidt, H; Hillengass, J

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the relevance of focal lesions (FL) in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (wb-MRI) at the initial workup of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of longitudinal wb-MRIs on progression into multiple myeloma (MM). Sixty-three patients with SMM were analyzed who received at least two wb-MRIs for follow-up before progression into MM. Radiological progressive disease (MRI-PD) was defined as detection of new FL or increase in diameter of existing FL and a novel or progressive diffuse infiltration. Radiological stable disease (MRI-SD) was defined by no change compared with the prior MRI. Patients were followed-up every 3-6 months, including a serological and clinical evaluation. One Hundred and eighty-two wb-MRIs were analyzed. MRI-PD occurred in 31 patients (49%), and 25 (40%) patients developed MM. MRI-PD was highly significantly associated with progression into MM, regardless of findings at the initial MRI. In multivariate analysis, MRI-PD remained a risk factor, independent of relevant baseline parameters like serum monoclonal protein or ⩾95% aberrant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Patients with MRI-SD had no higher risk of progression, even when FL were present at the initial MRI. Therefore, MRI is suitable for the follow-up of patients with SMM.

  6. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  7. Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system. The aim

  8. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  9. Role of rapid sequence whole-body MRI screening in SDH-associated hereditary paraganglioma families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Kory W; Kohlmann, Wendy; Gammon, Amanda; Slack, Heidi; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Baskin, Henry; Shaaban, Akram; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2014-06-01

    Patients with germline mutations in one of the SDH genes are at substantially increased risk of developing paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas (pheos), and other tumors (all combined referred to as SDH-related tumors). However, limited data exist on screening in SDH mutation carriers and no studies have evaluated whole-body MRI as a screening tool in asymptomatic patients. This was a single-center observational study. We evaluated the results of screening in 37 SDH carriers who underwent 45 whole-body MRIs and 47 biochemical tests. Screening included annual biochemical testing (catecholamines, metanephrines and chromogranin A) and biennial or annual rapid sequence whole-body MRI from the base of the skull to the pelvis beginning at age 10 years old. Six tumors (paragangliomas of the organ of Zuckerkandl, the aortocaval/vas deferens, of the carotid body times three, and a renal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed in five patients. In total, 13.5 % of all patients screened were diagnosed with SDH-related tumors. Whole-body MRI missed one tumor, while biochemical testing was normal in five patients with SDH-related tumors. The sensitivity of whole-body MRI was 87.5 % and the specificity was 94.7 %, while the sensitivity of biochemical testing was 37.5 % and the specificity was 94.9 %. Whole-body MRI had a higher sensitivity for SDH-related tumors than biochemical testing in patients undergoing screening due to their SDHB or SDHC mutation status. Whole-body MRI reduces radiation exposure compared to computed tomography scan and time compared to dedicated MRI of the head/neck, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis.

  10. α-linolenic acid supplementation prevents exercise-induced improvements in white adipose tissue mitochondrial bioenergetics and whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia M F; Proudfoot, Ross; Miotto, Paula M; Herbst, Eric A F; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Holloway, Graham P

    2018-02-01

    While the underlying mechanisms in the development of insulin resistance remain inconclusive, metabolic dysfunction in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle have been implicated in the process. Therefore, we investigated the independent and combined effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) supplementation and exercise training on whole-body glucose homeostasis and mitochondrial bioenergetics within the WAT and skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. We randomly assigned obese Zucker rats to receive a control diet alone or supplemented with ALA and to remain sedentary or undergo exercise training for 4 weeks (CON-Sed, ALA-Sed, CON-Ex and ALA-Ex groups). Whole-body glucose tolerance was determined in response to a glucose load. Mitochondrial content and bioenergetics were examined in skeletal muscle and epididymal WAT (eWAT). Insulin sensitivity and cellular stress were assessed by western blot. Exercise training independently improved whole-body glucose tolerance as well as insulin-induced signalling in muscle and WAT. However, the consumption of ALA during exercise training prevented exercise-mediated improvements in whole-body glucose tolerance. ALA consumption did not influence exercise-induced adaptations within skeletal muscle, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial bioenergetics. In contrast, within eWAT, ALA supplementation attenuated insulin signalling, decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased the fraction of electron leak to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings indicate that, in an obese rodent model, consumption of ALA attenuates the favourable adaptive changes of exercise training within eWAT, which consequently impacts whole-body glucose homeostasis. The direct translation to humans, however, remains to be determined.

  11. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  12. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...

  13. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  14. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  15. Subcutaneous adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Janakova, Zuzana; Kurdiova, Timea; Surova, Martina; Imrich, Richard; Majercikova, Zuzana; Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Kiss, Alexander; Belan, Vitazoslav; Klimes, Iwar; Olejnik, Juraj; Gasperikova, Daniela; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    To examine the regulatory aspects of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) association with obesity-related insulin resistance. ZAG mRNA and protein were analyzed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and circulation of lean, obese, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic men; both subcutaneous and visceral AT were explored in lean and extremely obese. Clinical and ex vivo findings were corroborated by results of in vitro ZAG silencing experiment. Subcutaneous AT ZAG was reduced in obesity, with a trend to further decrease with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. ZAG was 3.3-fold higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT of lean individuals. All differences were lost in extreme obesity. Obesity-associated changes in AT were not paralleled by alterations of circulating ZAG. Subcutaneous AT ZAG correlated with adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial content, expression of GLUT4, PGC1α, and adiponectin. Subcutaneous AT ZAG and adipocyte size were the only predictors of insulin sensitivity, independent on age and BMI. Silencing ZAG resulted in reduced adiponectin, IRS1, GLUT4, and PGC1α gene expression in primary human adipocytes. ZAG in subcutaneous, but not in visceral AT, was markedly reduced in obesity. Clinical, cellular, and molecular evidence indicate that ZAG plays an important role in modulating whole-body and AT insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  16. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  17. Response of a Shadow-Shield Whole-Body Counter to a Variety of Physical Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviv, O; Spitz, H B; Datz, H; Haquin, G; Shamai, Y; Daniely, E; Yungrais, Z; Koch, J

    2017-05-01

    The performance characteristics of a shadow-shield whole-body counter system with an array of four high-resolution germanium detectors using whole-body and organ-specific (lungs, liver, head, knee and thyroid) physical phantoms are described. Detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities for selected radionuclides and several measurement configurations are presented. Results demonstrate that the system meets the requirements for direct radio bioassay and that detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities are similar in magnitude to other whole-body (or organ) counting systems installed in fully shielded structures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  19. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, Michael; Seeger, Achim; Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Nael, Kambiz; Saleh, Roya [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The quality of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography could be substantially improved over the past several years based on the introduction and application of parallel imaging, new sequence techniques, such as, e.g., centric k-space trajectories, dedicated contrast agents, and clinical high-field scanners. All of these techniques have played an important role to improve image resolution or decrease acquisition time for the dedicated examination of a single vascular territory. However, whole-body MR angiography may be the application with the potential to profit most from these technical advances. The present review article describes the technical innovations with a focus on parallel imaging at high field strength and the impact on whole-body MR angiography. The clinical value of advanced whole-body MR angiography techniques is illustrated by characteristic cases. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of whole-body vibration on rheological models for tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crastiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibrations have become a very popular method in recent years, both in physical therapy and in sports. This popularity is due to the fact that, as a result of analyzing the groups of subjects, the effects of small amplitude vibration and low frequency vibration, it was found an increase in the force developed by the feet, a hardening of bone strength or an increase in bone density. In this paper we propose to give a possible explanation of the stress relieving in muscle and/or bone after whole body vibration treatment. To do this we consider some rheological models which after whole body vibrations and after the analysis of their response lead to various experiments.

  1. Role of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing early spondyloarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Ann-Kathrin; Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sieper, Joachim [Department of Rheumatology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kgh@charite.de

    2009-08-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototypical spondyloarthritis. Early diagnosis has gained clinical importance with the advent of new therapeutic options such as TNF-{alpha} inhibitors, which can dramatically improve clinical outcome when initiated early. Whole-body MRI can contribute important diagnostic information for detecting early forms of spondyloarthritis because it enables evaluation of all important joints that may be involved in the disease process as a one-stop shop modality. MRI allows much more accurate diagnostic evaluation of the thoracic spine, which is affected in the majority of patients. This article provides an overview of the use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spondyloarthritides. The recommendations given reflect the most recent scientific data and expert opinions. The focus of this review is on MRI findings at both the axial and the appendicular skeleton and the technical feasibility of whole-body MRI in the clinical setting.

  2. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of whole body vibration therapy on bone mineral density and leg muscle strength in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ricky W K; Liao, Lin-Rong; Yu, Felix; Teo, Tilda; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was undertaken to determine whether whole body vibration improves bone mineral density and leg muscle strength in older adults. Sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PubMed, Science Citation Index and the reference list of each eligible article. Article search and selection was performed independently by two researchers. The methodological quality of each selected article was rated by the PEDro scale. Thirteen randomized trials (18 articles) totalling 896 subjects fulfilled the selection criteria. Four were considered to have good or excellent methodological quality and the rest were rated as fair. Meta-analyses revealed that whole body vibration has no significant effect on hip or lumbar spine bone mineral density in older women when compared with no intervention or active exercise (P > 0.05). Whole body vibration, however, had a significant treatment effect on knee extension dynamic strength (standardized mean difference = 0.63, P = 0.006), leg extension isometric strength (standardized mean difference = 0.57, P = 0.003), and functional measures of leg muscle strength such as jumping height (standardized mean difference = 0.51, P = 0.010) and performance in sit-to-stand (standardized mean difference = 0.72, P vibration is beneficial for enhancing leg muscle strength among older adults. However, the review suggests that whole body vibration has no overall treatment effect on bone mineral density in older women. No randomized trial has examined the effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density in older men.

  4. Effects of whole body vibration on pain, stiffness and physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Xiaotian; Yang, Yonghong; Yang, Lin; Zhou, Yujing; Liu, Chuan; Reinhardt, Jan D; He, Chengqi

    2015-10-01

    To assess the effects of whole body vibration for pain, stiffness and physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and EMBASE (up to October 2014) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. The outcome measures were pain, stiffness and physical functions. Two investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. The PEDro score was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. Standard mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. A total of five randomized controlled trials involving 170 patients with knee osteoarthritis met the inclusion criteria. Only four studies involving 144 patients were deemed to be good quality trials (PEDro score = 6-7). Meta-analysis revealed that whole body vibration has a significant treatment effect in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index physical function score (SMD = -0.72 points, 95% CI = -1.14 to -0.30, P = 0.0008), 12 weeks whole body vibration improved the 6-minute walk test (SMD 1.15 m, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.80, P = 0.0006) and balance (SMD = -0.78 points, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.16, P = 0.01). Whole body vibration was not associated with a significant reduction in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index pain and stiffness score. Eight-week and 12-week whole body vibration is beneficial for improving physical functions in patients with knee osteoarthritis and could be included in rehabilitation programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Whole-body MRI for the staging and follow-up of patients with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic approach compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body scanners at 1.5 T and recently 3T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage in a multi-planar imaging approach. More flexible protocols, e.g. including T1-weighted TSE- and STIR-imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen can be performed within less than 45 min. For initial tumor staging PET-CT as a competing whole-body modality in oncologic imaging has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, using the additional metabolic information of PET for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. However, new applications, such as MR-whole-body diffusion imaging, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. WB-MRI has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and it is especially useful as a radiation-free alternative for the surveillance of tumor patients with multiple follow-up exams. Furthermore, it has been introduced as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma. This article summarizes recent developments and applications of WB-MRI and highlights its performance within the scope of systemic oncologic staging and surveillance.

  6. Whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal diseases in professional truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Fabiano de Souza Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most occupational diseases do not fit the paradigm of medical interpretation of the health-disease process based on linear causality, in which it would be possible to find a single cause for each type of disease. Objectives: to conduct a systematic review in order to investigate the association between whole-body vibration (WBV and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD in professional truck drivers (PTD. Methods: The scientific databases of PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs and Scielo were used to collect articles published from 2000 until the present time. Two independent reviewers adopted inclusion and quality criteria to evaluate the selected articles. Results: From adopted inclusion and quality criteria, nine articles were chosen to identify the association between MSD and WBV in PTD. The results showed that MSD seems to be closely associated to exposure to WBV in these workers, mainly due to high prevalence and symptoms of low back pain. Two cohort studies showed exposure to WBV as risk for MSD. Only one, with case-control design, did not show WBV as a significant factor. Conclusions: In this study the importance of exposure analysis of WBV in the occurrence of MSD in PTD was elucidated. This study showed the importance of WBV exposure analysis on the occurrence of MSD in PTD. There is adequate information to provide rationale for the reduction of WBV exposure to the lowest possible level, to ensure the health of these workers. Studies with a greater power of investigation, of a prospective, design, should be encouraged, supplanting those only of association.

  7. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  8. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  9. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Kramer, Harald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Glaser, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The advent of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic and functional approach compared with established sequential, multimodal diagnostic algorithms.Whole-body PET with [18F]-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose is a useful imaging procedure for tumor staging and monitoring that can visualize active tumor tissue by detecting pathological glucose metabolism. The combination of PET with the detailed anatomical information of multislice computed tomography as dual-modality scanners has markedly increased lesion localization and diagnostic accuracy compared with both modalities as standalone applications.Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5 and, recently, 3 T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high-resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomical coverage in a multiplanar imaging approach. More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported. However, larger patient cohort studies will have to show the cost efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of such an approach.For initial tumor staging, PET-CT has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, mainly because of the missing metabolic information in WB-MRI. However, new applications, such as magnetic resonance whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging or lymphotropic contrast

  11. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Lammers, Nicolette M.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Fliers, Eric; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. Objective: The objective was

  12. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  13. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body ... nitrogen content with a source of protein which is resistant to degradation in the rumen has ... are well established for use in humans (Waterlow et ai., 1978), and have been success- ...

  14. Digital monitoring by whole body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy detects thinner melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marius; Oakley, Amanda

    2010-12-01

    Population screening for melanoma remains controversial. There are no studies demonstrating that population screening increases survival. As prognosis of melanoma is directly related to Breslow thickness, a surrogate marker of survival is thickness of melanoma. The development of several self-referred, whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging services reflects the public's concern regarding melanoma. To assess the ability of one of these services to detect melanoma at an early, thin stage. Demographic and histological details from 100 melanomas diagnosed through self-referred whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging service compared to those diagnosed through traditional methods from data held by the New Zealand Cancer Registry. There were 52 invasive and 48 in-situ melanomas: 90% superficial spreading type, 6% lentigo-maligna type and 4% nodular on histology. Forty-eight were diagnosed on first visit; the remainder by serial digital dermoscopy. Thirty-five percent of patients reported having had previous primary melanoma. In 60%, patients had been concerned by the lesion, the rest (40%) detected solely by screening. Patients diagnosed by whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy screening had thinner melanomas compared to the Registry data: 69% Melanomas detected by self-referred, whole-body photography with sequential digital dermoscopy service are thinner than melanomas detected by traditional diagnostic methods. It remains to be determined whether earlier diagnosis results in improved survival.

  15. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A

    1984-01-01

    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  16. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    amino acid needs of other fish in order to design and improve their test diets. Wilson and Poe (1985) have reported that the amino acid patterns of fish eggs and whole body tissue have been used for this purpose in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Rumsey and Ketola (1975) reported that improved growth was observed ...

  17. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  18. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M T

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  19. Whole body clearance of norepinephrine. The significance of arterial sampling and of surgical stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the ...

  20. Whole body MRI for detecting metastatic bone tumor: comparison with bone scintigrams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakanishi, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Nakata, S.; Kyakuno, M.; Nakaguchi, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of whole body MRI (WB-MRI [magnetic resonance imaging]) and bone scintigram (BS) at detecting bone metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: WB-MRI was performed on 16 patients for detecting bone metastasis (6 breast carcinoma, 7 prostatic carcinoma, 1 renal cell

  1. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  2. Patient acceptance of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography: A prospective questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef Jesper Wirenfeldt; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Løgager, Vibeke Berg

    2010-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing the systemic distribution of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic performance of WB-MRA, but no studies have investigated patient acceptance of this imaging method....

  3. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...

  4. Whole-body computed tomography versus conventional skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillengass, J; Moulopoulos, L A; Delorme, S

    2017-01-01

    For decades, conventional skeletal survey (CSS) has been the standard imaging technique for multiple myeloma (MM). However, recently whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) has been implemented into the diagnostic criteria of MM. This analysis compares sensitivity and prognostic significance of WBC...

  5. Inter-station Intensity Standardization for Whole-Body MR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzyubachyk, O; Staring, M; Reijnierse, M; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; van der Geest, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a method for performing inter-station intensity standardization in multispectral whole-body MR data. Methods Different approaches for mapping the intensity of each acquired image stack into the reference intensity space were developed and validated. The registration

  6. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present

  7. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; Scholte, A; Rijssenbeek, LHM; vanderBaan, S; Bogaard, JM; deMonchy, JGR

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  8. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Weller, F. R.; Scholte, A.; Rijssenbeek, L. H.; van der Baan, S.; Bogaard, J. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  9. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  11. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Cintia Renata de Sousa-Gonçalves, Luciana Camargo Bernardo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio ...

  12. The acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute whole body vibration (WBV) training on the speed, agility and explosive power performance measurements of university field hockey players. A two-way randomized, crossover experimental research design was used in the study. Seventeen university field ...

  13. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  14. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H. C.; Bongers, P. M.; Hulshof, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly

  15. Self-limiting benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of whole-body vibration training plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Young, E; Belloso, A

    2010-07-01

    We describe a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo which occurred after use of a whole-body vibration training plate. Case report and literature review concerning the secondary causes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and the physiological effects of whole-body vibration training plates. A 44-year-old woman was referred with classic symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of a whole-body vibration training plate, a popular form of fitness equipment widely used in sports, rehabilitation and beauty treatments. The condition resolved spontaneously after several days. There have been reports of negative side effects in users of this equipment, such as dizziness, headache and a sensation of imbalance; however, there have been no reported cases involving vertigo. Based on a literature review, this equipment may cause side effects, including vertigo, by generating forces that can increase the original amplitude of internal organs, which may potentially cause labyrinthine trauma or dislocation of otoconia, leading to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We suggest that whole-body vibration training plates may potentially induce benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Manufacturers may need to make users of this equipment aware of this risk, and remind them to use it with caution.

  16. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2014-01-01

    ]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  17. Whole-body vibration exercise is well tolerated in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that ...

  18. Automated segmentation of the skeleton in whole-body bone scans: influence of difference in atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Horikoshi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Aim Automated segmentation of the skeleton is the first step for quantitative analysis and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of whole-body bone scans. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of differences in skeletal atlas on the automated segmentation of skeletons in a Japanese...

  19. Effect of whole body x-radiation on a presumed mucoprotein of rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, R.N.; Butler, C.L.

    1950-12-31

    In a previous report, the separation of a protein fraction from rat intestine was described. This fraction is being considered to be mucoprotein solely on the basis of its method of preparation. The present report describes an experiment indicating that whole body x-radiation of rats reduces the amount of this fraction to a statistically significant degree. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%. One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

  1. Back disorders and exposure to whole-body vibration: Thesis summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is widespread and may cause back trouble. Several epidemiological studies of the relationship between WBV exposure and back trouble were carried out at the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. This project comprised studies of

  2. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat-Verboom, L.; Spruit, M.A.; van den Borne, B.E.; Smeenk, F.W.; Wouters, E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the

  3. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  4. Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittusamy, N Kumar; Buchholz, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has been suggested that operating engineers (OEs) are exposed to two important risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders: whole-body vibration and non-neutral body postures. This review evaluates selected papers that have studied exposure to whole-body vibration and awkward posture among operators of mobile equipment. There have been only few studies that have specifically examined exposure of these risk factors among operators of construction equipment. Thus other studies from related industry and equipment were reviewed as applicable. In order to better understand whole-body vibration and postural stress among OEs, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among OEs.

  5. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in lambs fed roughage diets supplemented with various levels of protein. and to compare these amino acids as tracers of whole-body ... further protein supplementation, the efficiency of protein synthesis was still sub-optimal, possibly as a result of an ..... production of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in the rumen of sheep.

  6. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with advancing age and some clinical disorders, as in diabetes and in rheumatologic diseases. Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to ...

  7. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  8. Kidney, lower limb and whole-body uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1988-01-01

    Regional (kidney, lower limb) and whole-body kinetics of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) and tritium-labelled L-noradrenaline (3H-NA) were determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease (one alcoholic hepatitis, 12 cirrhosis) and in control subjects (n = 6) in order to get information on the s...

  9. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake,

  10. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  11. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  12. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  13. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  14. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, MCA; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric

  15. Protein intake during hemodialysis maintains a positive whole body protein balance in chronic hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Boer, TS; Stellaard, F; De Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    Protein energy malnutrition is present in 18 to 56% of hemodialysis patients. Because hemodialysis has been regarded as a catabolic event, we studied whether consumption of a protein- and energy-nriched meal improves the whole body protein balance during dialysis in chronic hemodialysis (CHD)

  16. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    Abstract Background and purpose: Spastic diplegia is a common form of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walk- ing ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, ...

  17. Back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    In The Netherlands so far little research has been carried out to investigate the health effects of exposure to whole-body vibration at work. In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of permanent work disabilities in crane operators exposed to vibration was compared to that of a

  18. A Demographic Exploration of Whole Body Donors at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Ritter, Dale

    2016-02-01

    To examine and characterize the occupational histories of individuals who donated their whole bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program at Warren Alpert Medical School (AMS) from the academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014. A retrospective chart review of 491 individuals who donated their whole bodies to Alpert Medical School was conducted upon IRB approval from Brown University. Demographic, social, and occupational histories were abstracted for analysis and review. There were no interventions. Descriptive statistics, Student T-test and Difference in Proportions Test were used to characterize information abstracted from donor applications to the Anatomical Gift Program. From academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014, 491 individuals donated their bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program. Donors were split equally by gender (female = 52%; male = 48%). The median age of donors was 82 years; the vast majority self-identified as white (98%). The majority of donors came from occupations involved with industry (23%) or office work, hospitality and retail (24%). Of the 491 body donors, 2 were physicians (0.4%). Our data demonstrate that in the past decade, physicians have made few contributions to AMS. This remains in concert with current literature showing a lack of physician whole body donors. Future research must explore physician attitudes towards whole body donation.

  19. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  20. Casein and soya-bean protein have different effects on whole body protein turnover at the same nitrogen balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Elsner, Petteri

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether different proteins have different effects on whole-body protein turnover in adult rats. The rats were either starved, given a protein-free but energy-sufficient diet (1 MJ/kg body weight (BW) per d) or a diet containing intact casein, hydrolysed casein...... synthesis. The protein diets produced a positive N balance which was independent of the protein source. Intact and hydrolysed casein increased protein synthesis 2.6- and 2.0-fold respectively, compared with the protein-free diet. Protein degradation increased 1.4- and 1.2-fold respectively. Hydrolysed soya......-bean protein did not increase protein synthesis but decreased protein degradation by 35% compared with the protein-free diet. Compared with the hydrolysed soya-bean protein, intact casein resulted in 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher rates of protein synthesis and degradation respectively. These results are not easily...

  1. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P obese postmenopausal women.

  2. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Otsuka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five variable foreperiod (FP length conditions (1.465, 1.622, 1.780, 1.938, and 2.096 s, with trials randomly timed between a warning and an imperative tone. Participants’ sprinting motion and ground reaction forces of their four limbs during the block start were measured simultaneously. Whole-body RT was significantly shorter when FP length was longer; the values of whole-body RT were 117 ± 5 ms, 129 ± 5 ms, 125 ± 4 ms, 133 ± 6 ms, and 156 ± 8 ms in the 2.096, 1.938, 1.780, 1.622, and 1.465-s FP-length conditions, respectively. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found a significant joint-by-FP length interaction in joint-moment RT. These findings suggest that FP length affects coordinated motion in four limbs and whole-body RT. This information will be able to lead to new methods for start signals in sprint running events and advance our understanding of the association between FP length and dynamic coordinated motion.

  3. Effect of fatigue on the precision of a whole-body pointing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Schieppati, M; Pozzo, T

    2006-01-01

    We addressed the issue of the possible degradation of the aiming precision of a whole-body pointing task, when movement coordination is deranged by selective fatigue of the postural task component. The protocol involved continuous repetition (0.1 Hz frequency) of rapid whole-body pointing trials toward a target located beyond arm length, starting from stance and requiring knee flexion. Six healthy human subjects repeated the trials until exhaustion. Such repetition led to electromyography signs of fatigue in rectus femoris (active in body lowering and raising), but not in deltoid (prime mover for arm reaching component). Rectus femoris fatigue affected the equilibrium control strategy, since the anteroposterior displacement of the center of foot pressure was reduced during the fatigued compared with the initial trials. Conversely, the precision of the aiming movement was unaffected by the rectus femoris fatigue in spite of changes in finger trajectory. Trunk inclination at the end of whole-body pointing task and hip and shoulder marker trajectories were unaffected by rectus femoris fatigue. Control experiments were made, whereby fatiguing repetitions of the postural component of the task were performed without finger pointing, except in the first and last five complete whole-body pointing trials. The results were not different from those of the main protocol, except for a transient change in finger trajectory in the very first trial after fatigue. The CNS takes into account the state of postural muscles' fatigue and the concurrently ensuing equilibrium constraints in order to appropriately modify whole-body pointing strategy and keep pointing precision at the target.

  4. Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, GF; Iwaniec, UT; Turner, RT; Rosen, CJ; Widrick, JJ

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Methods/Design Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=7–10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30–50 Hz (6mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. Results There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control groups. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean ± s.d.; 207 ± 10 vs 222 ± 15 g, Pbody fat (20.8 ± 3.8 vs 26.8 ± 5.9 g, Pbody fat (10.2 ± 1.7 vs 12 ± 2.0%, Pbody vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33 ± 0.05 vs 0.26 ± 0.03 g, Pbody vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption. PMID:18663370

  5. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  6. Whole body vibration added to endurance training in obese women - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, B; Frick, J; Ernst, B; Mueller, R; Wirth, B; Schultes, B

    2012-09-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) training is an increasingly popular training method that is strongly promoted for weight loss, but scientific data on its effectiveness, particularly in obese subjects, are sparse. 14 obese women (BMI: 37.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2) randomized to 2 different groups (each n=7) participated in a 6-week endurance training program that was either combined or not combined with additional WBV training. Anthropometric measures, phase angle and body composition (assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis; BIA), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were obtained before and after the training program. Body weight did not change during the training period (P=0.87), but waist circumference decreased in both groups (P=0.007; WBV: -3.4 ± 1.4 cm; no-WBV: -1.7 ± 0.7 cm) independent of WBV training (P=0.29 for group×time interaction). BIA revealed an enhancing effect of WBV training in comparison to no-WBV training on the phase angle (+0.20 ± 0.12° vs. -0.19 ± 0.12°; P=0.04) and calculated body cell mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 vs. -0.3 ± 0.4 kg; P=0.02), while calculated percentage fat mass decreased in both conditions (P=0.05) to similar extent (P=0.59; WBV: -0.8 ± 0.2%; no-WBV: -0.4 ± 0.5%). REE increased across the training (P=0.01; WBV: +77 ± 33 kcal/24 h; no-WBV: +68 ± 34 kcal/24 h), with this increase again not depending on WBV condition (P=0.85). Results of our pilot study in obese women provide preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of WBV, when added to endurance training, on the bioelectrical phase angle, an increasingly recognized marker of individual's health status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Whole-body vibration: is there a causal relationship to specific imaging findings of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Choemprayong, Songphan; O'Neill, Kevin R; Devin, Clinton J; Spengler, Dan M

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review. To perform a systematic review of the available literature for those studies that evaluated the role of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spine, using imaging modalities as well as an estimation of WBV exposure. Numerous comparative studies have reported a possible association between the occurrence of spinal symptoms and exposure to WBV. These exposures have commonly been examined in the work environment largely through self-reported questionnaires only. From a scientific perspective, the majority of studies emphasize symptoms and lack objective medical evidence, such as spinal imaging, to help establish a specific spinal disorder. Because both neck and low back pain comprise symptoms that can arise from a host of factors including age, a casual link between spinal disorders and WBV cannot be affirmed. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies related to WBV and spinal symptoms, diagnosis, and/or disorders. Our searches were limited to studies published prior to August 2011. The resulting 700 citations (after excluding 354 duplicates) were then screened by 3 independent reviewers on the basis of the following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria: inclusion-clinical studies with imaging evaluation (radiographs, computed tomographic scans, and/or magnetic resonance images) and documented WBV exposure (occupation, amount of WBV, and/or duration); exclusion-reliance solely on self-reporting of symptoms (neck pain, low back pain, and/or sciatica), those articles based on a clinical diagnosis without use of imaging, and in vitro/animal/biomechanical studies. Only 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Included were 5 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies. Although mixed results and conclusions were found, the majority of studies did not identify an association between WBV exposure and an abnormal spinal imaging finding indicating damage of the spine. We should also stress that each included study has

  8. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  9. Therapeutic effects of whole-body vibration training in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Hamayun; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-08-01

    To examine the current evidence regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Science Citation Index for research articles published prior to January 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading osteoarthritis knee. This meta-analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by the PEDro Scale. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool in the domain-based evaluation. We also evaluated the quality of each study based on the criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions for reporting WBV intervention studies, consisting of 13 factors. Descriptive data regarding subjects, design, intervention, WBV parameters, outcomes, and conclusions were collected from each study by 2 independent evaluators. The mean and SD of the baseline and final endpoint scores for pain, stiffness, and function were extracted from the included studies. A total of 83 studies were found in the search. Of these, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were further analyzed. Four of these 5 studies reached high methodologic quality on the PEDro Scale. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of additive effects of WBV for reducing pain and improving function in knee OA. There was considerable variation in the parameters of the WBV included in this systematic review. WBV training reduces pain and improves function in individuals with knee OA. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental evidence of the tonic vibration reflex during whole-body vibration of the loaded and unloaded leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Zaidell

    Full Text Available Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR. However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV. Whilst seated, eight healthy males were exposed to either vertical WBV applied to the leg via the plantar-surface of the foot, or Achilles tendon vibration (ATV at 25 Hz and 50 Hz for 70s. Ankle plantar-flexion force, tri-axial accelerations at the shank and vibration source, and surface EMG activity of m. soleus (SOL and m. tibialis anterior (TA were recorded from the unloaded and passively loaded leg to simulate body mass supported during standing. Plantar flexion force was similarly augmented by WBV and ATV and increased over time in a load- and frequency dependent fashion. SOL and TA EMG amplitudes increased over time in all conditions independently of vibration mode. 50 Hz WBV and ATV resulted in greater muscle activation than 25 Hz in SOL when the shank was loaded and in TA when the shank was unloaded despite the greater transmission of vertical acceleration from source to shank with 25 Hz and WBV, especially during loading. Low-amplitude WBV of the unloaded and passively loaded leg produced slow tonic muscle contraction and plantar-flexion force increase of similar magnitudes to those induced by Achilles tendon vibration at the same frequencies. This study provides the first experimental evidence supporting the TVR as a plausible mechanism underlying the neuromuscular response to whole-body vibration.

  11. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  12. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism...... resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets....

  13. Stochastic resonance whole body vibration reduces musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Thomann, Jan; Schade, Volker; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2011-12-18

    To examined the effects of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training on musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Participants were 43 undergraduate students of a Swiss University. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomized group allocation. The RCT consisted of two groups each given 12 training sessions during four weeks with either 5 Hz- Training frequency (training condition) or 1.5 Hz Training frequency (control condition). Outcome was current musculoskeletal pain assessed in the evening on each day during the four week training period. Multilevel regression analysis showed musculoskeletal pain was significantly decreased in the training condition whereas there was no change in the control condition (B = -0.023, SE = 0.010, P = 0.021). Decrease in current musculoskeletal pain over four weeks was linear. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration reduced musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Stochastic resonance vibration and not any other exercise component within training caused pain reduction.

  14. Heart rate recording method validated by whole body indirect calorimetry in 10-yr-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, A; Vermorel, M; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Chamoux, A; Coudert, J

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the heart rate (HR) recording method against whole body indirect calorimetry in prepubertal children. Nineteen 10.5-yr-old healthy children (10 boys, 9 girls) participated in this study. HR and energy expenditure (EE) were recorded through laboratory tests. Individual relationships between HR and EE were computed (equation established in laboratory). Several models were tested and validated from 24-h measurements of EE and HR by whole body indirect calorimetry. The best fit was obtained with individual polynomial relationships. Mean differences between predicted (equation established in laboratory) and measured total daily EE averaged 7.6 +/- 20.1%. The causes of the differences and the means of improving the accuracy of the prediction equation are discussed.

  15. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  16. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  17. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein...... and azygos vein in the postprandial period in these patients. Whole-body oxygen uptake, hepatic blood flow, hepatic venous pressure gradient and net-hepatic fluxes of oxygen, lactate, glucose, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in 12 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis before and for 2 h after.......1 kJ/120 min (means +/- SD), P body oxygen uptake was lower in patients receiving propranolol (19.2 +/- 38 vs. 135.7 +/- 61 mmol/120 min, P

  18. Whole body bone scintigraphy in tenofovir-related osteomalacia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Biagio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread® is the only nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of HIV. It is frequently prescribed not only for its efficacy but also for its decreased side effect profile compared with other nucleotide analogs. In addition, it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of acquired Fanconi's syndrome in individuals with HIV. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman infected with HIV, with chronic renal insufficiency, who developed Fanconi's syndrome after inclusion of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in her antiretroviral therapy. A whole body bone scintigraphy was performed, revealing an abnormal distribution of radiotracer uptake, with characteristic changes compatible with osteomalacia. All symptoms disappeared after tenofovir discontinuation and mineral supplementation. No other explanation for the sudden and complete resolution of the bone disease was found. Conclusion The case highlights the role of whole body bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tenofovir-related osteomalacia.

  19. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBouyarmane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI, motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  20. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  1. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  2. Development of an Ergonomics Checklist for Investigation of Work-Related Whole-Body Disorders in Farming - AWBA: Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y K; Lee, S J; Lee, K S; Kim, G R; Kim, D M

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have been using various ergonomic tools to study occupational musculoskeletal diseases in industrial contexts. However, in agricultural work, where the work environment is poorer and the socio-psychological stress is high due to the high labor intensities of the industry, current research efforts have been scarce, and the number of available tools is small. In our preliminary studies, which focused on a limited number of body parts and other working elements, we developed separate evaluation tools for the upper and lower extremities. The current study was conducted to develop a whole-body ergonomic assessment tool for agricultural work that integrates the existing assessment tools for lower and upper extremities developed in the preliminary studies and to verify the relevance of the integrated assessment tool. To verify the relevance of the Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment (AWBA) tool, we selected 50 different postures that occur frequently in agricultural work. Our results showed that the AWBA-determined risk levels were similar to the subjective risk levels determined by experts. In addition, as the risk level increased, the average risk level increased to a similar extent. Moreover, the differences in risk levels between the AWBA and expert assessments were mostly smaller than the differences in risk levels between other assessment tools and the expert assessments in this study. In conclusion, the AWBA tool developed in this study was demonstrated to be appropriate for use as a tool for assessing various postures commonly assumed in agricultural work. Moreover, we believe that our verification of the assessment tools will contribute to the enhancement of the quality of activities designed to prevent and control work-related musculoskeletal diseases in other industries.

  3. High-spatial-resolution whole-body MR angiography with high-acceleration parallel acquisition and 32-channel 3.0-T unit: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nael, Kambiz; Fenchel, Michael; Krishnam, Mayil; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul; Ruehm, Stefan G

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this HIPAA-compliant study was to prospectively evaluate the technical feasibility of a multistation high-spatial-resolution whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) angiography protocol in which high-acceleration parallel imaging (with acceleration factors of three and four) is performed with a 32-channel 3.0-T MR system. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained, 10 healthy volunteers (four men and six women aged 23-68 years) and four patients (two men and two women aged 56-79 years) suspected of having peripheral vascular disease underwent multistation whole-body contrast material-enhanced MR angiography. Use of multiarray surface coil technology and highly accelerated generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition enabled the acquisition of isotropic high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional data sets for multiple stations. Two radiologists independently evaluated arterial image quality and presence of arterial stenoses. All examinations yielded good or excellent image quality. Interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.96). Multistation whole-body MR angiography with high-acceleration parallel acquisition is feasible at 3.0 T. Further clinical studies combined with ongoing optimization of radiofrequency systems and coils seem warranted to advance the potential of this technology. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  4. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  5. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1...

  6. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, J.L.; Green, K.; Eicher, J.; Palm, D.C.; Penkler, G.; du Toit, F.; Walters, N.; Burger, R.; Westerhoff, H.V.; van Niekerk, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging

  7. Melanoma screening with serial whole body photographic change detection using Melanoscan technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Rhett J; Nguyen, Chi; Drugge, Elizabeth D; Gliga, Luciana; Broderick, Patrick A; McClain, Steve A; Brown, Christopher C

    2009-06-15

    The use of an automated, whole-body, diffusely lit digital imaging enclosure to produce serial images, which were then compared, using an astrophysics image display method, enabled a private practice dermatologist to detect melanoma at significantly thinner Breslow depths compared to all other clinical detection paradigms examined in this study. The patients were triaged to scanning using a melanoma risk survey system. The system employed a 24 camera semicircular imaging wall, with front and back views. 10,000 whole body photographic scans were obtained. Privacy was maintained with 128-bit image encryption and off-line storage. Image to image comparison of whole body digital photography was combined with a whole body skin exam in order to sensitize a clinical dermatologist to skin changes in individuals at risk for melanoma. Mean depths (Breslow scores) were compiled from six distinct melanoma biopsy cohorts segregated and based on different clinical screening paradigms. The Breslow depth of invasive lesions of the serial screening cohort was significantly less (by at least 0.050 mm) compared to three other clinical screening groups (patient self-detection 0.55 mm, p=0.007; referred by outside non-dermatologist physician 0.73 mm, p=0.03; and serial dermatologic evaluation 0.23 mm, p=0.03) as well as two pathology laboratory cohorts (community hospital laboratory 1.45 mm, p=0.003; dermatopathology laboratory 0.18, p=0.0003). This approach provides a quick and effective method for detection of early melanomas with a significant reduction in the skin area required for lesion examination.

  8. Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Lynne; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The p...

  9. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole-body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Stephan; Loehnert, Daniela [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany).; Schreiber, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    A large part of radionuclides to be evaluated in the frame of incorporation monitoring are gamma emitter that can be directly measured (in vivo). In order to reach the required detection limits for the relevant radionuclides in the short measuring time high effort is necessary for the shielding of natural radioactivity. The contribution describes planning, construction and installation of the shielding chamber for the new in vivo whole body counter in Rossendorf. First experiences and preliminary results are discussed.

  10. Whole body vibration therapy: a novel potential treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hongyu; Henrik O Berdel; Moore, David; Davis, Franklin; Liu, Jun; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Jack C Yu; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    There is a worsening epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the world. Life style interventions including dietary changes and increase in exercise can improve glucose metabolism and health in general. However, standard exercise programs are strenuous, time-consuming, and thus have low long-term compliance issues. We tested the feasibility of using high frequency, low amplitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy to improve glucose metabolism in young type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. We also aimed to ...

  11. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erika L Simmerman; Xu Qin; Henrik O Berdel; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Babak Baban; Jack C Yu

    2016-01-01

    Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mell...

  12. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwill, Alicia M; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ? 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, invol...

  13. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Bruce David; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions—walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting—while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustwo...

  14. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Chruściak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA, according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods : The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60% and 20 men (40%. Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents, 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%, and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%. The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results: According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%, an improvement in 9 patients (18%, and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%. Conclusions : Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  15. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  16. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R.; Adams, Vicki J.; Ladlow, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldog...

  17. Localised Muscle Tissue Oxygenation During Dynamic Exercise With Whole Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Daniel; Elwell, Clare; Jimenez, Alfonso; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. Key pointsWhole body vibration affects tissue oxygenation of the lateral gastrocnemius.The underlying mechanism could be either increased blood flow or a vasospastic response in the feet.The local metabolic cost of heel

  18. Selective COX2 inhibition improves whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, P-S; Tsai, H-C; Kuo, C-H; Chan, J Y-H; Shyu, J-F; Cheng, W-T; Liu, T-T

    2008-11-01

    The effects of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibition on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. Aims of this study were to examine the effects of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors on whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats, an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. The rats on regular or 60% fructose-enriched diets for 6 weeks were further divided into rats combined with or without piroxicam (a selective COX1 inhibitor) or celecoxib (a selective COX2 inhibitor) treatment for an additional 2 weeks. Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) with a tracer dilution method was performed at the end of the study. The present result showed that fructose-induced increases in systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly suppressed in rats treated with celecoxib but not piroxicam. In the EHC period, celecoxib significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in whole body glucose uptake, mainly by glucose storage. Hepatic glucose production and whole body glycolysis were not significantly changed among groups. Celecoxib but not piroxicam significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in glycogen synthase activities in red and white quadriceps muscles and insulin-stimulated membrane GLUT4 recruitment in soleus muscles. Celecoxib and piroxicam both significantly diminished fructose-induced increases in plasma thromboxane B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha; but only celecoxib treatment significantly attenuated a fructose-induced increase in 8-isoprostane levels. Plasma PGE metabolites were not different among groups. This study demonstrates that a therapeutic dose of celecoxib, but not piroxicam, could significantly attenuate fructose-induced whole body and muscular insulin resistance in rats.

  19. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  20. [Whole-body MRI and FDG-PET/CT imaging diagnostics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G P; Haug, A; Reiser, M F; Rist, C

    2010-04-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced a systemic approach to oncologic imaging compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as whole-body scanners at 1.5 Tesla and also recently 3 Tesla, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made WB-MRI clinically feasible. With this method dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, high spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage.PET/CT has established itself as a powerful modality in the staging of patients suffering from malignant tumors. In addition to the morphologic information provided by the CT component of this hybrid modality, the PET component contributes invaluable metabolic information, which greatly enhances accuracy in the assessment of lymphatic spread and viability of tumor tissue. Whole-body MR diffusion imaging is a novel and promising technique which may contribute to superior sensitivity in the detection of tumor manifestations. In the assessment of distant metastatic spread WB-MRI is highly sensitive and has advantages over PET/CT, especially in those tumors frequently spreading to the liver, bone or brain. WB-MRI is also very attractive as a radiation-free alternative for imaging of pediatric tumor patients in whom multiple follow-up examinations may be required.WB-MRI allows for precise assessment of the bone marrow and has been proven to be highly accurate for the staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma. In this article recent developments and applications of WB-MRI in oncologic imaging are addressed and compared to the results of PET/CT.

  1. The effect of whole body vibration on balance, gait performance and mobility in people with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian; Wang, Pu; Liu, Chuan; He, Chengqi; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of whole body vibration on balance, gait performance and mobility among people with stroke. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers who completed the article search and selection. We included randomized controlled trials published in English examining effects of whole body vibration on balance, gait, mobility, muscle strength and muscle tone in adults with a clinical diagnosis of stroke. Articles were excluded if they were research studies on people with other primary diagnosis, abstracts published in the conferences or books. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Sources included Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, Stroke Trials Registry, and reference lists of all relevant articles. Eight randomized controlled trials (nine articles) involving 271 participants were included in this meta-analysis. No significant improvement was found regarding Berg balance scale (SMD=-0.08, 95%CI=-1.35 to 1.19, P=0.91), mobility (SMD=0.45, 95%CI=-0.46 to 1.37, P=0.33), maximal isometric contracion of knee extension strength (SMD=0.23, 95%CI=-0.27 to 0.74, P=0.36), and maximal isometric contracion of knee extension strength (SMD=0.09, 95%CI=-0.38 to 0.56, P=0.71). There was no evidence for effects of whole body vibration on balance in people with stroke. Effects of whole body vibration on mobility and gait performance remain inconclusive. More large and high-quality trials are required. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V. [State Research Center, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I. [Clinical Hospital No. 6 of Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux Roses (France)

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of {gamma}-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. {sup 241}Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy {gamma}-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for {sup 241}Am administered via injection and less than 10% for {sup 241}Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  3. Whole-body vibration exposure of occupational horseback riding in agriculture: A ranching example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoke; Trask, Catherine; Kociolek, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Horse riding is common in many occupations; however, there is currently no research evaluating exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock on horseback. Whole-body vibration was measured on a cattle rancher during two 30 min horseback rides using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on a western saddle. Vibration was summarized into standardized metrics, including the 8 hr equivalent root-mean-squared acceleration (A[8]) and the daily 4th power vibration dose value (VDV). The resulting exposures were compared to the exposure limit and action values provided by European Union Directive 2002/44/EC. The highest vibration for both rides was in the vertical axis, with average A(8) and VDV of 0.56 m/s 2 and 26.24 m/s 1.75 , respectively. The A(8) value indicated moderate risk while the VDV suggested high risk of harmful health effects. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock during occupational horseback riding may pose deleterious health risks and increased susceptibility to low back pain. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:215-220, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  5. [Muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A G; Tabiev, V I; Rassulova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy. The study included 55 patients randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of the patients treated with the use of the common mineral baths, physiotherapy, therapeutic physical exercises, spinal massage, and whole body air-cryotherapy. Group 2 contained the patients who were treated in a similar way with the exception of whole body cryotherapy; they served as controls. Muscular disorders were diagnosed by means of functional muscular testing. The study has demonstrated the high prevalence of muscular disorders in the patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, it revealed the profile of such disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and showed significant correlation between the results of functional muscular testing, BASMI and BASFI indices as well as characteristics of chest excursions (pcryotherapy in comparison with the alternative therapeutic modalities employed in the present study. This therapeutic modality ensured the statistically more pronounced improvement of functional muscular testing parameters (pcryotherapy accounting for its corrective influence on the muscular disorders in the patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that the proposed approach can be recommended for the introduction in the combined therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

  6. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future.

  7. Assessment of whole-body retention to worker after accidental inhalation of {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: lucas.se@usp.b, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In June 2009, an incident occurred at the radiopharmaceutical production plant of the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), which resulted in internal contamination of one worker with particles containing Mo-99. The measurements were made in the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of IPEN. The counting system used for measuring high-energy gamma emitters comprises two thallium-activated sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detectors. The data used in this assessment include six whole body and five extra thoracic measurements over 21 days. The initial measurements have indicated retention of (136 {+-} 6) kBq and (25.1{+-} 1.6) kBq in whole body and extra thoracic measurements, respectively, after approximately one day from the incident. The effective half-lives obtained were (1.68 {+-} 0.08) d for whole-body and (1.78{+-}0.02) d for extra thoracic. The estimated effective dose was (0.049 {+-} 0.002) mSv. (author)

  8. Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Hara, Takamitsu; Nanbu, Takeyuki; Suenaga, Hiroki; Sugawara, Shigeyasu; Kuroiwa, Daichi; Sekino, Hirofumi; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy. Although there have been several reports that adding diffusion weighted image (DWI) to PET/MRI protocol has had no effect on tumor detection to date, in cases of liver, kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer, the use of DWI may be beneficial in detecting lesions. Another possible option is to scan each region with different MRI sequences instead of scanning the whole body using one sequence continuously. We herein report a workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI using an integrated system in the clinical routine, designed for the detection, for example by cancer screening, of metastatic lesions, in order to help future users optimize their workflow and imaging protocols.

  9. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  11. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, Marrie C A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    2017-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated according to a uniform paediatric Hodgkin protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Whole-body MRI was performed in all 24 included patients (mean age 15·1 years, 12 girls) both before treatment and after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and in 16 patients after completion of chemotherapy. Osteonecrosis was identified in 10 patients (41·7%, 95% confidence interval: 22·0-61·4%), with a total of 56 osteonecrotic sites. Osteonecrosis was detected in 8 patients after 2 cycles of OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, doxorubicin), and in 2 additional patients after completion of chemotherapy. Epiphyseal involvement of long bones was seen in 4 of 10 children. None of the patients with osteonecrosis had any signs of bone collapse at the times of scanning. Whole-body MRI demonstrates osteonecrosis to be a common finding occurring during therapy response assessment of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Detection of early epiphyseal osteonecrosis could allow for treatment before bone collapse and joint damage may occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  13. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Floeth, Frank; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Tellmann, Lutz; Müller, Hans-W; Coenen, Heinz H; Langen, Karl-J

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)- l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV

  14. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauleit, Dirk [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Research Center Juelich, P.O. Box 1913, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Floeth, Frank [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Herzog, Hans; Tellmann, Lutz; Langen, Karl-J. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Mueller, Hans-W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV {<=}1.6) which remained constant between early and late PET scans. No increased uptake was seen in the bone, the biliary tract or the pancreas. Twenty-two percent of the injected activity was excreted 5 h p.i. (approx. 5.3% ID/h). The highest absorbed dose was found for the urinary bladder wall. The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 16.5 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults, which would lead to an effective dose of 6.1 mSv in a PET study using 370 MBq FET. (orig.)

  15. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  16. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  17. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Whorton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that high-dose radiation is harmful. However, despite extensive research, assessment of potential health-risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy is still challenging. Recently, we reported that 0.05 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (the existing limit for radiation-exposure in the workplace was incapable of inducing significant in vivo genomic instability (measured by the presence of late-occurring chromosomal damage at 6 months post-irradiation in bone marrow (BM cells of two mouse strains, one with constitutively high and one with intermediate levels of the repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein-kinase catalytic-subunit (DNA-PKcs. In this study, we present evidence for a lack of genomic instability in BM cells of the severely combined-immunodeficiency (SCID/J mouse (which has an extremely low-level of DNA-PKcs activity exposed whole-body to low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy. Together with our previous report, the data indicate that low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy is incapable of inducing genomic instability in vivo (regardless of the levels of DNA-PKcs activity of the exposed mice, yet higher doses of radiation (0.1 and 1 Gy do induce genomic instability in mice with intermediate and extremely low-levels of DNA-PKcs activity (indicating an important role of DNA-PKcs in DNA repair.

  18. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  19. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  20. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely asso...

  1. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-02-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this end, a variety of atlas-based segmentation strategies commonly used in medical image segmentation and pseudo-CT generation were implemented and evaluated in terms of whole-body bone segmentation accuracy. Bone segmentation was performed on 23 whole-body CT/MR image pairs via leave-one-out cross validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice criterion, global weighting atlas fusion methods provided moderate improvement of whole-body bone segmentation (DSC= 0.65 ± 0.05) compared to non-weighted IA (DSC= 0.60 ± 0.02). The local weighed atlas fusion approach using the MSD similarity measure outperformed the other strategies by achieving a DSC of 0.81 ± 0.03 while using the NCC and NMI measures resulted in a DSC of 0.78 ± 0.05 and 0.75 ± 0.04, respectively. Despite very long computation time, the extracted

  2. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers Samoori-Sakhvidi F (MSc* Barkhordari A (PhD** Dehghani A (PhD*** Tavakoli-Manesh S (MSc**** *Corresponding Author: MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ** Professor, Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran *** Professor, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran **** MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Abstract Introduction: One of the most common sources of whole body vibration are vehicles in which the driver is exposed to vibration caused by the vehicle and the road. Including the people who continuously exposure to whole-body vibration can be noted to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers during their work shift Encountered with numerous deleterious effects such as noise, vibration, air pollution, and psychological stress and long work shifts. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration in the taxi drivers can communicate with adverse effects such as reduce perception, annoyance, disturbance of vision and fine motor tasks, spinal cord injury, damage to the digestive and reproductive systems. The purpose of this study was cross - sectional study of whole body vibration exposure in Yazd city taxi drivers. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate exposure to whole body vibration in taxi drivers, vibration measurement Was carried out in 80 taxi from 3 vehicle (Samand-Peugeot 405 and Pridein 3 mileage groups, with 63 male drivers and 17 female drivers. parameters Including the vibration Weighing the acceleration frequency (rms, Equivalent acceleration (Aeq and vibration doseVDV in 3-axis was recorded. The results obtained were compared with the values recommended by the standard (ISO 2631-1. Results: The mean (rms acceleration

  3. Prometaphase forces towards opposite spindle poles are not independent: an on/off control system is identified by ultraviolet microbeam irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, P.J.; Forer, A. (York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Wise, D. (Mississippi State Univ. (USA). Dept. Biological Sciences)

    1983-11-01

    Individual spindle fibres in prometaphase spermatocytes of the cricket, Neocurtilla hexadactyla, were irradiated with an ultraviolet microbeam. The stretched heteromorphic bivalent (X/sub 2/Y) contracted to about 75% of its pre-irradiation length after irradiation of either of its two oppositely directed spindle fibres. The X/sub 2/Y bivalent also contracted after irradiation of the connection between the kinetochores of the univalent X/sub 1/ chromosome and the Y chromosome but it did not contract after irradiation of autosomal spindle fibres or of the spindle fibre of the X/sub 1/ univalent sex chromosome. The spindle sometimes shrank after irradiation, but contraction of the X/sub 2/Y bivalent was independent of spindle shrinkage. The data strongly suggest that the oppositely directed forces on a bivalent are not independent. One reason is that the X/sub 2/Y contractions were asymmetrical. The results suggest that the irradiation of a spindle fibre produces a state analagous to rigor in the irradiated spindle fibre and produces relaxation of tension in the oppositely directed non-irradiated spindle fibre, so that the kinetochore associated with the non-irradiated spindle fibre moves towards the equator. These experiments have identified a control system that coordinates force production to opposite poles.

  4. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, F; Feveile, H; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole......-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions...

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; McConathy, Jonathan; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax/mean) of normal organs and SUVmax of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUVmean r(2): 0.88, Pcompared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children.

  6. Retrospective analysis of whole-body multislice computed tomography findings taken in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bingol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Using whole-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT excessively or with irrelevant indications can be seen in many centers. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the MSCT findings in trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. Methods: Records of the patients who have applied to the emergency department due to blunt trauma in a 12 month period and whose whole body MSCT images have been taken, were evaluated using the “Nucleus Medical Information System”. Results: The most frequent type of trauma was traffic accidents in 61.4%, falling down from the height in 22.4%, and motorcycle accidents in 11.4% of patients. Of the patients, 25.2% were discharged from the emergency, while 73.8% were hospitalized. At least one CT findings associated with trauma was present in 61.4% of our patients. Pathological findings in MSCT were most frequently detected in the head and face (35.3% and thoracic (28.6% regions, respectively. The most common finding in the head and face region was fractures. The most common pathological findings in the thoracic region were pulmonary contusion and rib fractures. A significant relationship was detected between trauma type and spinal MSCT result (p < 0.001. In a large percentage of the patients, MSCT findings were normal in the abdominal region and genitourinary system. Vertebral fractures were most frequently detected in the thoracolumbar region. Conclusions: In our study, our rate of negative CT was found to be 38.6%, which is a higher ratio compared to other studies conducte on this topic. Keywords: Emergency, Trauma, Whole-body multislice computed tomography

  7. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  8. Whole-body vibration versus proprioceptive training on postural control in post-menopausal osteopenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nils; Belavý, Daniel L; Rawer, Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    To prevent falls in the elderly, especially those with low bone density, is it necessary to maintain muscle coordination and balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of classical balance training (BAL) and whole-body vibration training (VIB) on postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. Sixty-eight subjects began the study and 57 completed the nine-month intervention program. All subjects performed resistive exercise and were randomized to either the BAL- (N=31) or VIB-group (N=26). The BAL-group performed progressive balance and coordination training and the VIB-group underwent, in total, four minutes of vibration (depending on exercise; 24-26Hz and 4-8mm range) on the Galileo Fitness. Every month, the performance of a single leg stance task on a standard unstable surface (Posturomed) was tested. At baseline and end of the study only, single leg stance, Romberg-stance, semi-tandem-stance and tandem-stance were tested on a ground reaction force platform (Leonardo). The velocity of movement on the Posturomed improved by 28.3 (36.1%) (p<0.001) in the VIB-group and 18.5 (31.5%) (p<0.001) in the BAL-group by the end of the nine-month intervention period, but no differences were seen between the two groups (p=0.45). Balance tests performed on the Leonardo device did not show any significantly different responses between the two groups after nine months (p≥0.09). Strength training combined with either proprioceptive training or whole-body vibration was associated with improvements in some, but not all, measures of postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. The current study could not provide evidence for a significantly different impact of whole-body vibration or balance training on postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  10. Changes of whole-body power, muscle function, and jump performance with prolonged cycling to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Mawston, Grant A; Cairns, Simeon P

    2012-12-01

    To quantify how whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures change during prolonged cycling and recovery and determine whether there are relationships between the different fatigue measures. Ten competitive or recreationally active male cyclists underwent repeated 20-min stages of prolonged cycling at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion. Whole-body peak power output (PPO) was assessed using an all-out 30-s sprint 17 min into each cycle stage. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout. Isometric and isokinetic muscle-function tests were made between cycle stages, over ~6 min, and during 30-min recovery. Drop-jump measures were tested at exhaustion and during recovery. PPO initially increased or was maintained in some subjects but fell to 81% of maximum at exhaustion. RPE was near maximal (18.7) at exhaustion, with the time to exhaustion related to the rate of rise of RPE. PPO first started to decline only when RPE exceeded 16 (ie, hard). Peak isometric and concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) for the quadriceps fell to 86% and 83% of pretest at exhaustion, respectively. In contrast, the peak concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) of the hamstrings increased by 10% before declining to 93% of maximum. Jump height fell to 92% of pretest at exhaustion and was correlated with the decline in PPO (r = .79). Muscle-function and jump-performance measures did not recover over the 30-min postexercise rest period. At exhaustion, whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures had all fallen by 7-19%. PPO and drop-jump decrements were linearly correlated and are appropriate measures of maximal performance.

  11. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  12. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  13. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise and whole body vibration on glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, Lale; Azarbayjani, Mohammad-Ali; Aghaalinejad, Hamid; Salavati, Mahyar

    2011-06-01

    Aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic exercise (AE), whole body vibration (WBV), and control. Aerobic exercise schedule consisted of three walking sessions a week, each for 30-60 minutes and in 60-70% of maximum stock heartbeat. Vibration exercise was composed of 8-12-min stand-up and semi-squat positioning in frequency of 30 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm. Concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured in the beginning of the trial, after the fourth week, and after the eighth week. After 8 weeks of exercise, no significant difference was detected in concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin between the groups (P=0.83, P=0.12). There were no significant differences in any of the variables between AE and WBV (P>0.05). But a more significant decrease in fasting glucose was observed in exercise groups (AE and WBV) compared with control group (P=0.02). The present study showed that AE and WBV identically stimulate metabolic system. Thus, it can be concluded that type 2 diabetic patients lacking stamina for aerobic exercise can opt for vibration exercise as an effective substitute.

  15. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  16. Open-Ended Measurement of Whole-Body Movement: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Michael T. M.; Smith, Connor L.; Nash, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    As the importance of embodiment emerges for psychology, there is a need to advance methodology for measuring the dynamics of movement in an open-ended fashion. Such a tool should be versatile across contexts and track spontaneous and natural movement with minimal constraints. We test the feasibility of a method for measuring whole-body movement over time that attempts to meet this need. We use a motion capture system comprised of two Microsoft Kinect version 2.0 cameras and iPiSoft Motion Cap...

  17. An update on novel quantitative techniques in the context of evolving whole-body PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation PET has established itself as one of the standard imaging modalities enabling the quantitative assessment of molecular targets in vivo. In the past two decades, quantitative PET has become a necessity in clinical oncology. Despite introduction of various measures...... for quantification and correction of PET parameters, there is debate on the selection of the appropriate methodology in specific diseases and conditions. In this review, we have focused on these techniques with special attention to topics such as static and dynamic whole body PET imaging, tracer kinetic modeling...

  18. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease......The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... status was measured using WOMAC. It was found that muscle strength increased significantly (p

  19. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using a whole-body small-animal ring-shaped photoacoustic computed tomography system. Dry coupling was found to provide image quality comparable to that of conventional water coupling.

  20. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  1. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with ...

  2. Whole-body vibration and blood flow and muscle oxygenation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E; Sefton, JoEllen M; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-05-01

    The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation; however, when the measurement site was considered, muscle oxygenation increased or

  3. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8)....... Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude that reduced whole body fat oxidation after menopause is associated with reduced LBM....

  4. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  5. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  6. Studies of farmers' annual exposure to whole body vibration on selected family farms of mixed production profile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solecki, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to recognize and evaluate the annual exposure of private farmers to whole body mechanical vibration on selected family farms of mixed production profile (plant-animal...

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that 12-weeks’ intervention of whole-body vibration training can increase knee extensors strength and decrease spasticity with beneficial effects on walking speed and motor development in spastic diplegic CP children.

  8. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic–resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic–resistance training. Subjects...

  9. Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen; Davis, Corrine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice....

  10. Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Machteld; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Delecluse, Christophe; Levin, Oron; Stijnen, Valère

    2006-02-01

    This study analyzed leg muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Subjects performed standard unloaded isometric exercises on a vibrating platform (Power Plate): high squat (HS), low squat (LS), and 1-legged squat (OL). Muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius was recorded in 15 men (age 21.2 +/- 0.8 years) through use of surface electromyography (EMG). The exercises were performed in 2 conditions: with WBV and without (control [CO]) a vibratory stimulus of 35 Hz. Muscle activation during WBV was compared with CO and with muscle activation during isolated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Whole-body vibration resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) EMG root-mean-square compared with CO in all muscle groups and all exercises (between +39.9 +/- 17.5% and +360.6 +/- 57.5%). The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in OL compared with HS and LS. In conclusion, WBV resulted in an increased activation of the leg muscles. During WBV, leg muscle activity varied between 12.6 and 82.4% of MVC values.

  11. Six-channel ECG-based pulse wave velocity for assessing whole-body arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, An-Bang; Chen, Zong-Li; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Chen, Ching-Pin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan

    2012-06-01

    Despite the proposal of different means of non-invasive arterial stiffness assessment, none offers simultaneous information on whole-body peripheral arterial condition. We investigated the validity of applying a six-channel electrocardiogram-based pulse wave velocity (ECG-PWV) measurement system for this purpose. The study consisted of two parts. Part One enrolled hypertensive (Group 1, n = 32) and normal (Group 2, n = 32) subjects, whereas Part Two recruited diabetic (Group 3, n = 50) and normal (Group 4, n = 50) subjects. To validate the application of ECG-PWV in assessing peripheral arterial stiffness in different parts of body, ECG-PWV data were compared with three other parameters including the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), pulse wave velocity-digital volume pulse (PWV-DVP) and intima-media thickness (IMT). ECG-PWV in healthy subjects in Part One correlated significantly with CAVI and PWV-DVP (p blood sugar, serum creatinine and ECG-PWV from the foot. However, no significant difference was noted in PWV-DVP between two groups. Six-channel ECG-PWV measurement system showed remarkable correlation with IMT in hypertensive subjects and with key anthropometric and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients, suggesting its validity in assessing whole-body arterial stiffness in subjects with peripheral arterial diseases within 10 min.

  12. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  13. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  14. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  15. Active scheduling of organ detection and segmentation in whole-body medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Peng, Zhigang; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-01-01

    With the advance of whole-body medical imaging technologies, computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is being scaled up to deal with multiple organs or anatomical structures simultaneously. Multiple tasks (organ detection/segmentation) in a CAD system are often highly dependent due to the anatomical context within a human body. In this paper, we propose a method to schedule multi-organ detection/segmentation based on information theory. The central idea is to schedule tasks in an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain. The scheduling rule is formulated to embed two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the scheduling criterion is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on two challenging CAD problems, multi-organ detection in whole-body CT and liver segmentation in PET-CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/segmentation, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with faster speed.

  16. Whole-body posture planning in anticipation of a manual prehension task: prospective and retrospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, William M; Rosenbaum, David A; Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which the anticipation of a manual action task influences whole-body postural planning and orientation. Our participants walked up to a drawer, opened the drawer, then grasped and moved an object in the drawer to another location in the same drawer. The starting placement of the object within the drawer and the final placement of the object in the drawer were varied across trials in either a blocked design (i.e., in trials where the same start and end location were repeated consecutively) or in a mixed fashion. Of primary interest was the posture adopted at the moment of grasping the drawer handle before pulling it out prior to the object manipulation task. Of secondary interest was whether there were sequential effects such that postures adopted in preceding trials influenced postures in subsequent trials. The results indicated that the spatial properties of the forthcoming object manipulation influenced both the postures adopted by the participants and the degree to which the drawer was opened, suggesting a prospective effect. In addition, the adopted postures were more consistent in blocked trials than in mixed trials, suggesting an additional retrospective effect. Overall, our findings suggest that motor planning occurs at the level of the whole body, and reflects both prospective and retrospective influences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kidney, lower limb and whole-body uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1988-01-01

    Regional (kidney, lower limb) and whole-body kinetics of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) and tritium-labelled L-noradrenaline (3H-NA) were determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease (one alcoholic hepatitis, 12 cirrhosis) and in control subjects (n = 6) in order to get information...... to controls and non-ascitic patients (1.2 and 1.0 pmol/min.g, respectively. Patients and control kidneys and limbs extracted almost the same fraction of 3H-NA (0.34 vs. 0.32 NS and 0.34 vs. 0.37 NS, respectively). Whole-body clearance of 3H-NA was not significantly different in cirrhotics and controls (median...... on the sympatho-adrenal system in liver disease. Arterial NA was significantly elevated in ascitic patients (median 2.5 nmol/l, n = 9, P less than 0.05) as compared to non-ascitic patients (1.6 nmol/l) and controls (1.7) nmol/l). NA spillover per unit NA inflow was increased in the kidney in patients with ascites...

  18. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection performance in whole-body PET oncology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E.; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Swensson, Richard G.; Trebossen, Regine; Bendriem, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    This work presents initial results from observer detection performance studies using the same volume visualization software tools that are used in clinical PET oncology imaging. Research into the FORE+OSEM and FORE+AWOSEM statistical image reconstruction methods tailored to whole- body 3D PET oncology imaging have indicated potential improvements in image SNR compared to currently used analytic reconstruction methods (FBP). To assess the resulting impact of these reconstruction methods on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors, we use a non- Monte Carlo technique to generate multiple statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data, based on an extended MCAT phantom and with clinically realistic levels of statistical noise. For each realization, we add a fixed number of randomly located 1 cm diam. lesions whose contrast is varied among pre-calibrated values so that the range of true positive fractions is well sampled. The observer is told the number of tumors and, similar to the AFROC method, asked to localize all of them. The true positive fraction for the three algorithms (FBP, FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM) as a function of lesion contrast is calculated, although other protocols could be compared. A confidence level for each tumor is also recorded for incorporation into later AFROC analysis.

  19. Whole-body MRI for inflammatory arthritis and other multifocal rheumatoid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sabine

    2012-11-01

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is an excellent tool for the imaging of rheumatologic diseases with a multifocal and systemic character. These include the different forms of spondyloarthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and inflammatory muscle diseases along with diseases such as systemic lupus and systemic sclerosis that show organ involvement. Although it is not recommended as a first-line investigation in every patient, it may add important information in difficult cases. Currently WBMRI for inflammatory arthritis is mainly used in imaging the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. The technique visualizes most of the involved joints and soft tissue structures with both (early) active and chronic inflammatory changes in one examination. Different patterns of joint involvement can be recognized, with both the acute features of the disease and the longer term sequelae being shown. The technique also allows therapeutic response to be assessed. In CRMO, WBMRI is able to detect asymptomatic and radiographically occult multifocal lesions that typically show a symmetrical distribution predominating in the lower extremity. In inflammatory muscle diseases, WBMRI is able to provide important information for biochemical and genetic differential diagnosis because there is growing knowledge of the correlation between typical patterns of disease and defined clinical entities. In addition, it helps in biopsy localization and is very well suited for assessing disease activity. WBMRI is particularly useful for studying internal organ involvement, especially the brain, heart, and lungs in connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus in one whole-body exam. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Predicting health risks of exposure to whole body vibration in the urban taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykaous Azrah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited studies have been done to evaluate the whole-body vibration (WBV exposure experienced by Taxi drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to whole body vibration and repeated shocks in urban taxi drivers and also to compare different methods of evaluation in this job environment. Material and Method: Measurement and evaluation process were conducted in accordance with procedure of the ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5 standards. The measurements were done by SVAN 958 Sound and Vibration Analyzer and using tri-axial accelerometer centered on the contact surface between the seat and the driver in 9 taxis.   Result: The measurements done according to ISO 2631-1 method showed greater risk compared to Daily Equivalent Static Compression Dose, Sed, presented in ISO 2631-5. Calculated daily exposure durations for exposure action level in root-mean square, vibration dose value, and daily equivalent static compressive stress methods were 4.55, 3.54 and 31.70 hours, respectively. Conclusion: The large differences in estimated exposure durations of action limits and permissible limits resulted by different methods reflect the inconsistency of the selected evaluation methods. Therefore, future research is necessary to amend the limits presented in the standard.

  1. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroy, R.; Boisgard, R.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F.; Trebossen, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA/I2BM/SHFJ/LIME, F-91402 Orsay (France); Frouin, V. [CEA, DSV, DRR, DGF, F-91057 Evry (France); Cathier, P.; Duchesnay, E. [CEA/I2BM/Neurospin/LNAO, F-91190 Saclay (France); D; Nielsen, P.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together with physiological movements (heart beating, breathing, and bladder filling). The method was resistant to spillover and physiological movements, while other methods failed to obtain a correct segmentation. The radioactivity concentrations calculated with this method also showed an excellent correlation with the manual delineation of organs in a large set of preclinical images. In addition, it was faster, detected more organs, and extracted organs' mean time activity curves with a better confidence on the measure than manual delineation. (authors)

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, C; Ranchelli, A; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Tsarpela, O; Annino, G; Bosco, C; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; De Feo, P

    2004-04-01

    Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.

  3. Hypothalamic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) controls whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, R F; Nascimento, L F; Ignacio-Souza, L M; Morari, J; Razolli, D S; Solon, C; de Souza, G F P; Festuccia, W T; Velloso, L A

    2016-03-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) is the main δ9 desaturase expressed in the central nervous system. Because of its potential involvement in controlling whole-body adiposity, we evaluated the expression and function of SCD2 in the hypothalami of mice. Male mice of different strains were used in real-time PCR, immunoblot and metabolic experiments. In addition, antisense oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors were used to reduce and increase the expression of SCD2 in the hypothalamus. The level of SCD2 in the hypothalamus is similar to other regions of the central nervous system and is ~10-fold higher than in any other region of the body. In the arcuate nucleus, SCD2 is expressed in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide-Y neurons. Upon high fat feeding, the level of hypothalamic SCD2 increases. Inhibition of hypothalamic SCD2 as accomplished by two distinct approaches, an antisense oligonucleotide or a short-hairpin RNA delivered by a lentivirus, resulted in reduced body mass gain mostly due to increased energy expenditure and increased spontaneous activity. Increasing hypothalamic SCD2 by a lentivirus approach resulted in no change in body mass and food intake. Thus, SCD2 is highly expressed in the hypothalami of rodents and its knockdown reduces body mass due to increased whole-body energy expenditure.

  4. Absorption and Turnover Rates of Iron Measured by the Whole Body Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D. C.; Cohn, S. H.

    1962-09-05

    Human iron metabolism has been extensively studied in the past twenty-five years with the radioisotopes iron55 and iron59. Before the availability of the whole body counter, however, iron absorption studies were performed by the indirect methods of fecal assay of unabsorbed radioiron, and estimation of red cell incorporation of absorbed tracer. The few long-term excretion studies performed required numerous assumptions, since human iron excretion was less well understood. Whole body counting provides a simple and accurate method of measuring the total body retention of administrative tracer iron59, thus making absorption and subsequent excretion determinations possible with a single radioiron study. The energetic gamma emissions of iron59 permit ready external detection with small quantities of isotope, Normal radioiron distribution is uniform throughout the circulating red cell mass and thus minimize geometry influences on the counting efficiency, 0nly the 45.1 day half-life of iron59 limits long term iron turnover studies. Measurements of iron59 absorption and long-term body turnover have been under way at Brookhaven National Laboratory for over two years. The present paper outlines some of the results of these studies, and discusses some implications of the method. (auth)

  5. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  6. Effects of postexercise milk consumption on whole body protein balance in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W

    2014-11-15

    In adults, adding protein to a postexercise beverage increases muscle protein turnover and replenishes amino acid stores. Recent focus has shifted toward the use of bovine-based milk and milk products as potential postexercise beverages; however, little is known about how this research translates to the pediatric population. Twenty-eight (15 girls) pre- to early pubertal (PEP, 7-11 yr) and mid- to late-pubertal (MLP, 14-17 yr) children consumed an oral dose of [(15)N]glycine prior to performing 2 × 20-min cycling bouts at 60% V̇O(2 peak) in a warm environment (34.5°C, 47.3% relative humidity). Following exercise, participants consumed either water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES), or skim milk (SM) in a randomized, cross-over fashion in a volume equal to 100% of their body mass loss during exercise. Whole body nitrogen turnover (Q), protein synthesis (S), protein breakdown (B), and whole body protein balance (WBPB) were measured over 16 h. Protein intake from SM was 0.40 ± 0.10 g/kg. Over 16 h, Q and S were significantly greater (P milk consumption enhances WBPB compared with W and CES; however, additional protein intake may be required to sustain a net anabolic environment over 16 h. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Hepatic GALE Regulates Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis by Modulating Tff3 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Zhao, Shangang; Deng, Yingfeng; Gordillo, Ruth; Ghaben, Alexandra L; Shao, Mengle; Zhang, Fang; Xu, Ping; Li, Yang; Cao, Huachuan; Zagnitko, Olga; Scott, David A; Gupta, Rana K; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Bei B; Lin, Hua V; Scherer, Philipp E

    2017-11-01

    Transcripts of key enzymes in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism in mouse livers are significantly increased after chronic high-fat/high-sucrose feeding. UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE) is the last enzyme in this pathway that converts UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose and was previously identified as a downstream target of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress effector spliced X-box binding protein 1, suggesting an interesting cross talk between galactose and glucose metabolism in the context of hepatic ER stress and whole-body metabolic fitness. However, its specific role in glucose metabolism is not established. Using an inducible and tissue-specific mouse model, we report that hepatic overexpression of Gale increases gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and impairs glucose tolerance. Conversely, genetic reduction of Gale in liver improves glucose tolerance. Transcriptional profiling identifies trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) as one of the downstream targets of GALE. Restoration of Tff3 expression corrects glucose intolerance in Gale-overexpressing mice. These studies reveal a new link between hepatic GALE activity and whole-body glucose homeostasis via regulation of hepatic Tff3 expression. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  9. iCub Whole-body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Noncoplanar Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eNori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the implementation on the humanoid robot iCub of state-of-the-art algorithms for whole-body control. We regulate the forces between the robot and its surrounding environment to stabilize a desired robot posture. We assume that the forces and torques are exerted on rigid contacts. The validity of this assumption is guaranteed by constraining the contact forces and torques, e.g. the contact forces must belong to the associated friction cones. The implementation of this control strategy requires to estimate the external forces acting on the robot, and the internal joint torques. We then detail algorithms to obtain these estimations when using a robot with an iCub-like sensor set, i.e. distributed six-axis force-torque sensors and whole-body tactile sensors. A general theory for identifying the robot inertial parameters is also presented. From an actuation standpoint, we show how to implement a joint torque control in the case of DC brushless motors. In addition, the coupling mechanism of the iCub torso is investigated. The soundness of the entire control architecture is validated in a real scenario involving the robot iCub balancing and making contacts at both arms.

  10. Estimation and implications of random errors in whole-body dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Glenn D.; Guy, Matthew J.; Beddows, Ruth; Pryor, Matthew; Flower, Maggie A.

    2002-09-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapy, the level of activity to be administered is often determined from whole-body dosimetry performed on a pre-therapy tracer study. The largest potential source of error in this method is due to inconsistent or inaccurate activity retention measurements. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the uncertainty in the absorbed dose due to these inaccuracies. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of error propagation from the results of the tracer study to predictive absorbed dose estimates for the therapy as a result of using different radionuclides for each. Standard error analysis was applied to the MIRD schema for absorbed dose calculations. An equation was derived to describe the uncertainty in the absorbed dose estimate due solely to random errors in activity-time data, requiring only these data as input. Two illustrative examples are given. It is also shown that any errors present in the dosimetry calculations following the tracer study will propagate to errors in predictions made for the therapy study according to the ratio of the respective effective half-lives. If the therapy isotope has a much longer physical half-life than the tracer isotope (as is the case, for example, when using 123I as a tracer for 131I therapy) the propagation of errors can be significant. The equations derived provide a simple means to estimate two potentially large sources of error in whole-body absorbed dose calculations.

  11. The influence of seat backrest angle on human performance during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddan, G S; Holmes, S R; Mansfield, N J; Hutchinson, H; Arrowsmith, C I; King, S K; Jones, R J M; Rimell, A N

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reclined backrest angles on cognitive and psycho-motor tasks during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration. Twenty participants were each exposed to three test stimuli of vertical vibration: 2-8 Hz; 8-14 Hz and 14-20 Hz, plus a stationary control condition whilst seated on a vibration platform at five backrest angles: 0° (recumbent, supine) to 90° (upright). The vibration magnitude was 2.0 ms(-2) root-mean-square. The participants were seated at one of the backrest angles and exposed to each of the three vibration stimuli while performing a tracking and choice reaction time tasks; then they completed the NASA-TLX workload scales. Apart from 22.5° seat backrest angle for the tracking task, backrest angle did not adversely affect the performance during vibration. However, participants required increased effort to maintain performance during vibration relative to the stationary condition. These results suggest that undertaking tasks in an environment with vibration could increase workload and risk earlier onset of fatigue. Current vibration standards provide guidance for assessing exposures for seated, standing and recumbent positions, but not for semi-recumbent postures. This paper reports new experimental data systematically investigating the effect of backrest angle on human performance. It demonstrates how workload is elevated with whole-body vibration, without getting affected by backrest angle.

  12. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.

  13. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  14. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Static whole body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15–20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole body PET acquisition protocol of ~45min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6-min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (6 passes x 7 bed positions, each scanned for 45sec). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares (OLS) Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of 10 different clinically

  15. Whole-body vibration and the risk of low back pain and sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the association between whole-body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) and sciatica with special attention given to exposure estimates. Moreover, the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis and to compare our findings with previous reviews. The authors systematically searched the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda), Nioshtic2 (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, Morgantown), and ScienceDirect (Elsevier, Amsterdam) databases for records up to December 31, 2013. Two of the authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and possible risk of bias. The literature search gave a total of 306 references out of which 28 studies were reviewed and 20 were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to WBV was associated with increased prevalence of LBP and sciatica [pooled odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-2.91 and OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.38-2.67, respectively]. Workers exposed to high vibration levels had a pooled risk estimate of 1.5 for both outcomes when compared with workers exposed to low levels of vibration. The results also indicate that some publication bias could have occurred especially for sciatica. This review shows that there is scientific evidence that exposure to WBV increases the risk of LBP and sciatica.

  16. Sleeve Gastrectomy Decreases Body Weight, Whole-Body Adiposity, and Blood Pressure Even in Aged Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Rafael; Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Valentí, Víctor; Ramírez, Beatriz; Cienfuegos, Javier A; Fernández, Secundino; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2016-07-01

    Aging and obesity are two conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to analyze whether an advanced age affects the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss and blood pressure in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Young (6-month-old) and old (18-month-old) male Wistar DIO rats (n = 101) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve gastrectomized animals). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean (MBP) blood pressure values and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by non-invasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 4 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Aging was associated with higher (P weight and subcutaneous and perirenal fat mass as well as mild cardiac hypertrophy. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a reduction in body weight, whole-body adiposity, and serum total ghrelin in both young and old DIO rats. The younger group achieved a higher excess weight loss than the older group (164 ± 60 vs. 82 ± 17 %, P weight was observed after sleeve gastrectomy independently of age. Our results provide evidence for the effectiveness of sleeve gastrectomy without increased operative risk in body weight and blood pressure reduction even in aged animals via endocrine changes that go beyond the mere caloric restriction.

  17. Optimum coupling and multimode excitation of traveling-waves in a whole-body 9.4T scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschewski, Frank H; Brenner, Daniel; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon

    2013-06-01

    Given the absence of a body coil, the radio frequency screen of a whole-body 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner can be used as a circular waveguide. In the unloaded case, the screen allows propagation of the dominant TE11- as well as the TM01-mode. In the first part of this study, the optimum coupling of a circular polarized TE11-mode was determined empirically for excitation and reception with a rectangular patch antenna. Employing full-wave simulations, two simulation models and two phantoms, different patch positions were tested to find the optimum position with respect to coupled power and homogenous excitation field. The best simulation results were validated with measurements. The second part of this study describes the design and measurements of a multimode excitation device. Using the parallel transmit system of the MR scanner, all propagable traveling wave modes could be excited and detected independently. The performance of the multimode device related to field of view, B1+-efficiency and radio frequency shimming was assessed by phantom measurements. Initial results show that three modes are sufficient to homogeneously excite regions of interest at 9.4 T. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Whole body protein kinetics measured with a non-invasive method in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Chinkes, David L; McEntire, Serina J; Rodriguez, Nancy R; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-11-01

    Persistent and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism is characteristic of severe burns. Whole body protein metabolism, an important component of this process, has not been measured in burned children during the long-term convalescent period. The aim of this study was to measure whole body protein turnover in burned children at discharge (95% healed) and in healthy controls by a non-invasive stable isotope method. Nine burned children (7 boys, 2 girls; 54±14 (S.D.)% total body area burned; 13±4 years; 45±20 kg; 154±14 cm) and 12 healthy children (8 boys, 4 girls; 12±3 years; 54±16 kg; 150±22 cm) were studied. A single oral dose of (15)N-alanine (16 mg/kg) was given, and thereafter urine was collected for 34 h. Whole body protein flux was calculated from labeling of urinary urea nitrogen. Then, protein synthesis was calculated as protein flux minus excretion, and protein breakdown as flux minus intake. At discharge, total protein turnover was 4.53±0.65 (S.E.)g kg body weight(-1) day(-1) in the burned children compared to 3.20±0.22 g kg(-1) day(-1) in controls (P=0.02). Expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM), the rates were 6.12±0.94 vs. 4.60±0.36 g kg LBM(-1) day(-1) in burn vs. healthy (P=0.06). Total protein synthesis was also elevated in burned vs. healthy children, and a tendency for elevated protein breakdown was observed. Total protein turnover is elevated in burned children at discharge compared to age-matched controls, possibly reflecting the continued stress response to severe burn. The oral (15)N-alanine bolus method is a convenient, non-invasive, and no-risk method for measurement of total body protein turnover. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects

  20. Daily physical activity assessment: what is the importance of upper limb movements vs whole body movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahara, H; Tanaka, H; Schutz, Y

    2004-09-01

    The movement of the upper limbs (eg fidgeting-like activities) is a meaningful component of nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). This study examined the relationship between upper limb movements and whole body trunk movements, by simultaneously measuring energy expenditure during the course of the day. A cross-sectional study consisting of 88 subjects with a wide range in body mass index (17.3-32.5 kg/m(2)). The energy expenditure over a 24-h period was measured in a large respiratory chamber. The body movements were assessed by two uniaxial-accelerometers during daytime, one on the waist and the other on the dominant arm. The accelerometry scores from level 0 (=immobile) up to level 9 (=maximal intensity) were recorded. The activities of subjects were classified into eight categories: walking at two speeds on a horizontal treadmill (A & B), ambling (C), self-care tasks (D), desk work (E), meals (F), reading (G), watching TV (H). There was a significant relationship between the accelerometry scores from the waist (ACwaist) and that from the wrist (ACwrist) over the daytime period (R(2)=0.64; P<0.001). The ACwrist was systematically higher than the ACwaist during sedentary activities, whereas it was the reverse for walking activities. ACwrist to ACwaist ratio of activities E-H were above 1.0 and for walking activities (A-C) were below 1.0. A multiple regression analysis for predicting daytime energy expenditure revealed that the explained variance improved by 2% only when the ACwrist was added as a second predictor in addition to the ACwaist. This indicates that the effect of the ACwrist for predicting energy expenditure was of limited importance in our conditions of measurement. The acceleration of the upper limbs which includes fidgeting is more elevated than that of the whole body for sitting/lying down activities. However, their contribution to energy expenditure is lower than whole body trunk movements, thus indicating that the weight-bearing locomotion

  1. Acute effects of whole body vibration on balance in persons with and without chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Pickett, Nancy M; Lew Feirman, Karen; Harriell, Kysha; Lee, Sae Yong; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-01-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common condition following ankle injury that is associated with compromised balance. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) programmes are linked with improved balance and function in athletic and non-athletic populations and may improve balance in CAI. Twelve healthy and seven CAI participants completed two randomly assigned interventions. Two Power Plate® platforms were attached back to back using a Theraband®. Participants stood on the active plate and inactive plate for WBVT and sham interventions, respectively. Each intervention included vibration of the active plate. Centre of pressure (COP) and the star excursion balance test (SEBT) were measured before and at 3, 15 and 30 min following the interventions. Significant improvements were found in the anterior direction of the SEBT following both interventions in CAI and varying patterns of improvement were observed for COP measurements in all participants. Therefore, WBVT does not appear to acutely improve balance in CAI.

  2. Whole-body vibration in underground load-haul-dump vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Village, J.; Morrison, J.B.; Leong, D.K.N. (Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada). School of Kinesiology)

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements at the seat plan of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles of 3-5, 5-, 6- and 8-yard capacity, at two underground mines. The vibration levels of heavy equipment have been reported to coincide with the most sensitive frequencies of the body and can have detrimental effects on vision, equilibrium, and manual dexterity. They can also be related to muscular fatigue, back injuries, and digestive and circulatory disorders. Data collected was compared with ISO standards; and an evaluation of the findings was conducted with respect to LHD accident and injury data, and information available in the literature on WBV. 26 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  4. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... (BMD), bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers and calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA). RESULTS: 15 papers (14 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Only one study had fracture data reporting a non-significant fracture reduction (risk ratio (RR)=0.47, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.57, P=0.22) (moderate...

  5. Focal thyroid incidentalomas identified with whole-body FDG-PET warrant further investigation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2012-02-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole body positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) detects clinically occult malignancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and significance of focal thyroid 18F - fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. A retrospective review of all patients who had FDG PET-CT examinations, in a single tertiary referral centre was performed. PET scan findings and the final pathological diagnosis were collated. 2105 scans were reviewed. Focal uptake was identified in 35 (1.66%) patients. Final surgical histology was available on eight patients, which confirmed papillary carcinoma in four (20%) patients and lymphoma and metastatic disease in two patients respectively. This gave an overall malignancy rate in focal thyroid uptake of at least 33%. Thyroid incidentalomas occurred with a frequency of 2.13%, with an associated malignancy rate of at least 33% in focal thyroid uptake. The high malignancy rate associated with focal thyroid uptake mandates further investigation in medically fit patients.

  6. A whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism and its age-associated dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Wilkinson, Darren J; Jones, Janette J L; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2012-10-10

    Global demographic changes have stimulated marked interest in the process of aging. There has been, and will continue to be, an unrelenting rise in the number of the oldest old ( >85 years of age). Together with an ageing population there comes an increase in the prevalence of age related disease. Of the diseases of ageing, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has by far the highest prevalence. It is regarded that a finely tuned lipid profile may help to prevent CVD as there is a long established relationship between alterations to lipid metabolism and CVD risk. In fact elevated plasma cholesterol, particularly Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) has consistently stood out as a risk factor for having a cardiovascular event. Moreover it is widely acknowledged that LDL-C may rise with age in both sexes in a wide variety of groups. The aim of this work was to use a whole-body mathematical model to investigate why LDL-C rises with age, and to test the hypothesis that mechanistic changes to cholesterol absorption and LDL-C removal from the plasma are responsible for the rise. The whole-body mechanistic nature of the model differs from previous models of cholesterol metabolism which have either focused on intracellular cholesterol homeostasis or have concentrated on an isolated area of lipoprotein dynamics. The model integrates both current and previously published data relating to molecular biology, physiology, ageing and nutrition in an integrated fashion. The model was used to test the hypothesis that alterations to the rate of cholesterol absorption and changes to the rate of removal of LDL-C from the plasma are integral to understanding why LDL-C rises with age. The model demonstrates that increasing the rate of intestinal cholesterol absorption from 50% to 80% by age 65 years can result in an increase of LDL-C by as much as 34 mg/dL in a hypothetical male subject. The model also shows that decreasing the rate of hepatic clearance of LDL-C gradually to 50% by age 65

  7. A whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism and its age-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Auley Mark T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global demographic changes have stimulated marked interest in the process of aging. There has been, and will continue to be, an unrelenting rise in the number of the oldest old ( >85 years of age. Together with an ageing population there comes an increase in the prevalence of age related disease. Of the diseases of ageing, cardiovascular disease (CVD has by far the highest prevalence. It is regarded that a finely tuned lipid profile may help to prevent CVD as there is a long established relationship between alterations to lipid metabolism and CVD risk. In fact elevated plasma cholesterol, particularly Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C has consistently stood out as a risk factor for having a cardiovascular event. Moreover it is widely acknowledged that LDL-C may rise with age in both sexes in a wide variety of groups. The aim of this work was to use a whole-body mathematical model to investigate why LDL-C rises with age, and to test the hypothesis that mechanistic changes to cholesterol absorption and LDL-C removal from the plasma are responsible for the rise. The whole-body mechanistic nature of the model differs from previous models of cholesterol metabolism which have either focused on intracellular cholesterol homeostasis or have concentrated on an isolated area of lipoprotein dynamics. The model integrates both current and previously published data relating to molecular biology, physiology, ageing and nutrition in an integrated fashion. Results The model was used to test the hypothesis that alterations to the rate of cholesterol absorption and changes to the rate of removal of LDL-C from the plasma are integral to understanding why LDL-C rises with age. The model demonstrates that increasing the rate of intestinal cholesterol absorption from 50% to 80% by age 65 years can result in an increase of LDL-C by as much as 34 mg/dL in a hypothetical male subject. The model also shows that decreasing the rate of hepatic

  8. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean +/-s.e.m.) 24 +/- 2 years, height 180 +/- 2 cm, weight 74 +/- 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake...... 87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary VO2(approximately 4 l min(-1)) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and VO2...

  9. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    .1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because......Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  10. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  11. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate......Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals.......1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because...

  12. Skeletal muscle response to spaceflight, whole body suspension, and recovery in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Dombrowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a 7-day spaceflight (SF), 7- and 14-day-long whole body suspension (WBS), and 7-day-long recovery on the muscle weight and the morphology of the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats were investigated. It was found that the effect of 7-day-long SF and WBS were highly comparable for both the soleus and the EDL, although the soleus muscle from SF rats showed greater cross-sectional area reduction than that from WBS rats. With a longer duration of WBS, there was a continued reduction in cross-sectional fast-twitch fiber area. Muscle plasticity, in terms of fiber and capillary responses, showed differences in responses of the two types of muscles, indicating that antigravity posture muscles are highly susceptible to unloading.

  13. Design of the superconducting magnet for 9.4 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, Q.; Dai, Y.; Ni, Z.; Zhu, X.; Li, L.; Zhao, B.; Chen, S.

    2017-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for 9.4 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is designed and fabricated in Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this paper, the electromagnetic design methods of the main coils and compensating coils are presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed for all superconducting coils. The design of the superconducting shimming coils is also presented and the design of electromagnetic decoupling of the Z2 coils from the main coils is introduced. Stress and strain analysis with both averaged and detailed models is performed with finite element method. A quench simulation code with anisotropic continuum model and control volume method is developed by us and is verified by experimental study. By means of the quench simulation code, the quench protection system for the 9.4 T magnet is designed for the main coils, the compensating coils and the shimming coils. The magnet cryostat design with zero helium boiling-off technology is also introduced.

  14. The acute effect of whole body vibration on repeated shuttle-running in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Di Giminiani, R; Ibba, G; Zarrouk, N; Moalla, W; Attene, G; Migliaccio, G M; Pizzolato, F; Bishop, D; Chamari, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA). Seventeen male soccer players (16.71±0.47 y) performed three RSA tests (Randomized crossover study design). The second RSA test was done with WBV (RSA2) to assess the effect of WBV. The studied variables were: best time (BT), worst time (WT), total time (TT), the fatigue index (FI) of RSA, and post-test blood lactate (BLa). ANOVA with repeated measures showed no differences between RSA1 and RSA3, while there were significant differences in all variables studied. TT= [RSA2 0.93% and 1.68% lower than RSA1 and RSA3 respectively; pRepeated Sprint Ability efforts, most of the performance variables improved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effects of whole-body vibration applied to lower extremity muscles during decline bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, M T; Hazell, T J; Marín, P J

    2016-09-07

    To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on skeletal muscle activity and power performance of the upper body during decline bench press exercise at different loads. Forty-seven healthy young and active male students volunteered. Each performed dynamic decline bench press repetitions with and without WBV (50 Hz, 2.2 mm) applied through a hamstring bridge exercise at three different loads of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM): 30%, 50%, and 70% 1RM. Muscle activity of the triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), pectoralis major (PM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured with surface electromyography electrodes and kinetic parameters of the repetitions were measured with a rotary encoder. WBV increased peak power (PP) output during the 70% 1RM condition (ppress and this augmentation contributes to an increased peak power at higher loads and increased peak acceleration at lower loads.

  16. Different fatigue-resistant leg muscles and EMG response during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static whole-body vibration (WBV) on the Electromyograhic (EMG) responses of leg muscles, which are fatigue-resistant in different manner. The study population was divided into two groups according to the values obtained by the Fatigue Index [Group I: Less Fatigue Resistant (LFR), n=11; Group II: More Fatigue Resistant (MFR), n=11]. The repeated electromyographic (EMG) activities of four leg muscles were analyzed the following determinants: (1) frequency (30 Hz, 35 Hz and 40 Hz); (2) stance position (static squat position); (3) amplitude (2 mm and 4 mm) and (4) knee flexion angle (120°), (5) vertical vibration platform. Vibration data were analyzed using Minitab 16 (Minitab Ltd, State College, PA, USA). The significance level was set at pfatigue (pvibration exercise and can serve to guide the development of training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10 min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Importance of whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy for the management of fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabel, Peter; Chamney, Paul; Moissl, Ulrich; Jirka, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Achieving normohydration remains a non-trivial issue in haemodialysis therapy. Preventing the deleterious effects of fluid overload and dehydration is difficult to achieve. Objective and clinically applicable methods for the determination of a target representing normohydration are needed. Whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (50 frequencies, 5-1,000 kHz) in combination with a physiologic tissue model can provide an objective target for normohydration based on the concept of excess extracellular volume. We review the efficacy of this approach in a number of recent clinical applications. The accuracy to determine fluid volumes (e.g. extracellular water), body composition (e.g. fat mass) and fluid overload was evaluated in more than 1,000 healthy individuals and patients against available gold standard reference methods (e.g. bromide, deuterium, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography, clinical assessment). The comparison with gold standard methods showed excellent accordance [e.g. R(2) (total body water) = 0.88; median +/- SD (total body water) = -0.17 +/- 2.7 litres]. Agreement with high-quality clinical assessment of fluid status was demonstrated in several hundred patients (median +/- SD = -0.23 +/- 1.5 litres). The association between ultrafiltration volume and change in fluid overload was reflected well by the method (median +/- SD = 0.015 +/- 0.8 litres). The predictive value of fluid overload on mortality underlines forcefully the clinical relevance of the normohydration target, being secondary only to the presence of diabetes. The objective normohydration target could be achieved in prevalent haemodialysis patients leading to an improvement in hypertension and reduction of adverse events. Whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in combination with a physiologic tissue model provides for the first time an objective and relevant target for clinical dry weight assessment.

  19. Entrepreneurial ventures and whole-body donations: a regional perspective from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteby, Michel; Hyman, Mikell

    2008-02-01

    Human cadavers are crucial to medical science. While the debate on how to secure sufficient cadavers has focused primarily on donors' behaviors, procuring organizations' roles in increasing donations remain less explored. The United States offers a unique setting in which to examine this question since entrepreneurial ventures supplying cadavers for medical science have recently emerged alongside traditional academic-housed programs, raising both hopes and fears about their impact on whole-body donations. To assess their potential impact, an archival survey of voluntary, in-state whole-body donors to two programs procuring in the same U.S. state was conducted. The programs' specimen recipients were also analyzed. One program is academic-housed and the other is an entrepreneurial venture. Both offered equal levels of financial support to donating parties. Eighty donations and 120 specimen shipping invoices from 2005 were analyzed in each program. Donations to the two programs did not significantly differ in terms of donors' sex, marital status, maximum educational level, and estimated hourly wage. The entrepreneurial venture's donors were, however, significantly younger, more likely to be from a minority group, and more likely to have died from cancer. For-profit organizations, continuing medical training organizations, and medical device companies were more likely recipients of the entrepreneurial venture's specimens. Non-profit and academic organizations were more likely recipients of the academic-housed program's specimens. These findings suggest that although the programs procured from a somewhat similar pool of donors, they also complemented one another. The entrepreneurial program procured donations that the academic-housed program often did not attract. Specimen recipients' distinct demands partly explain these procurement behaviors. Thus, organizational efforts to meet demands seem to shape the supply. Examining organizations alongside donors might provide

  20. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    Previous methods used to collect human sweat for electrolyte analysis have been criticized because they involve only regional sampling or because of methodological problems associated with whole body-washdown techniques. An improved method for collection of whole body sweat from exercising subjects is described. It involved construction of a plastic frame that supports a large plastic bag within which the subject exercises. The subject and the equipment are washed with distilled, deionized water before exercise begins. After exercise is completed, the subject and equipment are again washed with water containing a marker not present in sweat (ammonium sulfate). Total sweat loss is calculated from the change in body mass, and the volume of sweat not evaporated is calculated from dilution of the added marker. Recovery of added water was 102 +/- 2% (SD) of the added volume, and recovery of added electrolytes was 99 +/- 2% for sodium, 98 +/- 9% for potassium, and 101 +/- 4% for chloride. Repeated trials (n = 4) on five subjects to establish the reproducibility of the method gave a coefficient of variation of 17 +/- 5% for sodium, 23 +/- 6% for potassium, and 15 +/- 6% for chloride. These values include the biological variability between trials as well as the error within the method. The biological variability thus appears to be far greater than the methodological error. Normal values for the composition of sweat induced by exercise in a hot, humid environment in healthy young men and women were (in mM) 50.8 +/- 16.5 sodium, 4.8 +/- 1.6 potassium, 1.3 +/- 0.9 calcium, 0.5 +/- 0.5 magnesium, and 46.6 +/- 13.1 chloride.

  1. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods: At the end of the course, all students (n=24 were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: In total, 20/24 (83% students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion: Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying

  2. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-01

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

  3. Complement C3 Is the Strongest Predictor of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ursini

    Full Text Available To evaluate the correlation between inflammatory measures and whole-body insulin sensitivity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients.For the present study, 40 nondiabetic PsA patients were recruited. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI, insulinogenic index (IGI and oral disposition index (ODI were calculated from dynamic values of glucose and insulin obtained during OGTT.In our study population, mean ISI was 3.5 ± 2.5, median IGI was 1.2 (0.7-1.8, mean ODI 4.5 ± 4.5. In univariate correlation analysis, ISI correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure (sBP (R = -0.52, p = 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (dBP (R = -0.45, p = 0.004 and complement C3 (R = -0.43, p = 0.006 and ODI correlated inversely with sBP (R = -0.38, p = 0.02, dBP (R = -0.35, p = 0.03 and complement C3 (R = -0.37, p = 0.02. No significant correlations were found between analyzed variables and IGI. In a stepwise multiple regression, only complement C3 entered in the regression equation and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance of ISI. Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve we identified the best cut-off for complement C3 of 1.32 g/L that yielded a sensitivity of 56% and a specificity of 96% for classification of insulin resistant patients.In conclusion, our data suggest that serum complement C3 could represent a useful marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity in PsA patients.

  4. Assessment of an infant whole-body plethysmograph using an infant lung function model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, B; Stocks, J; Frey, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to facilitate international multicentre studies and improve the quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society Task Force for infant lung function testing has recently developed specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. A mechanical infant lung model analogue has been developed to assess whether infant lung function equipment is able to meet these requirements. However, the practical testing of infant lung function equipment using such models is highly complex because of the need to use very small pressure and flow changes, and the numerous potentially confounding factors associated with both the design of the device and the testing procedure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the infant lung model is capable of assessing the overall function of an whole-body infant- plethysmograph, using the only infant plethysmograph that was commercially available at the time as an example. The mechanical characteristics of the model such as vibrations or noise did not disturb the delicate plethysmographic measurements and thereby allowed a reliable assessment of the system. A series of tests revealed that the plethysmograph was able to measure airway resistance 1-3.5 kPa.L(-1).s with an accuracy of +/-2.5% and lung volumes 75-300 mL with an accuracy of +/-2.5% under in vitro conditions. To conclude, the infant lung model is a useful means of assessing the overall in vitro performance of infant whole-body plethysmographs, but thermal, mechanical and frequency response characteristics of such a device must be taken into account when interpreting the results of such assessments.

  5. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I [U605 INSERM, Villejuif (France); Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H [DOSIsoft, Cachan (France)], E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@igr.fr

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  6. A Framework for Analyzing the Whole Body Surface Area from a Single View.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Piccirilli

    Full Text Available We present a virtual reality (VR framework for the analysis of whole human body surface area. Usual methods for determining the whole body surface area (WBSA are based on well known formulae, characterized by large errors when the subject is obese, or belongs to certain subgroups. For these situations, we believe that a computer vision approach can overcome these problems and provide a better estimate of this important body indicator. Unfortunately, using machine learning techniques to design a computer vision system able to provide a new body indicator that goes beyond the use of only body weight and height, entails a long and expensive data acquisition process. A more viable solution is to use a dataset composed of virtual subjects. Generating a virtual dataset allowed us to build a population with different characteristics (obese, underweight, age, gender. However, synthetic data might differ from a real scenario, typical of the physician's clinic. For this reason we develop a new virtual environment to facilitate the analysis of human subjects in 3D. This framework can simulate the acquisition process of a real camera, making it easy to analyze and to create training data for machine learning algorithms. With this virtual environment, we can easily simulate the real setup of a clinic, where a subject is standing in front of a camera, or may assume a different pose with respect to the camera. We use this newly designated environment to analyze the whole body surface area (WBSA. In particular, we show that we can obtain accurate WBSA estimations with just one view, virtually enabling the possibility to use inexpensive depth sensors (e.g., the Kinect for large scale quantification of the WBSA from a single view 3D map.

  7. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  8. Fast and memory-efficient Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction for whole-body PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Staelens, Steven; Van Holen, Roel; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kawrakow, Iwan; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2010-07-01

    Several studies have shown the benefit of an accurate system modeling using Monte Carlo techniques. For state-of-the-art whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction is associated with a significant computational cost to calculate the system matrix as well as a large memory capacity to store it. In this article, the authors present a simulation-reconstruction framework to solve these problems on the Philips Gemini GS PET scanner. A fast, realistic system matrix simulation module was developed using egs_pet, which is an efficient PET simulation code based on EGSnrc. The generated system matrix was then used in a rotator-based ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) algorithm, which exploits the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical PET scanner. The system matrix was further compressed by using sparse storage techniques. The system matrix simulation took five days on 50 cores of Xeon 2.66 GHz, resulting in a system matrix of 2.01 GB. The entire system matrix could be stored in the main memory of a standard personal computer. The image quality in terms of contrast-noise trade-offs was considerably improved compared to a standard OS-EM algorithm. The image quality was also compared to the clinical software on the scanner using routine parameter settings. The contrast recovery coefficient of small hot spheres and cold spheres was significantly improved. The results indicated that the proposed framework could be used for this PET scanner with improved image quality. This method could also be applied to other state-of-the-art whole-body PET scanners and preclinical PET scanners with a similar shape.

  9. Interaction between testosterone and growth hormone on whole-body protein anabolism occurs in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Meinhardt, Udo J; Umpleby, Margot A; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-04-01

    GH and testosterone both exert protein-anabolic effects and may act synergistically. Liver and muscle are major sites of protein metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether the site of GH and testosterone interaction on protein metabolism is primarily hepatic or extrahepatic. In this open-label randomized crossover study, the impact on whole-body protein metabolism of oral (solely hepatic testosterone exposure) and transdermal (systemic testosterone exposure) testosterone replacement in the presence or absence of GH was compared. Eleven hypopituitary men with GH and testosterone deficiency were randomized to 2-wk treatments with transdermal testosterone (10 mg) or oral testosterone (40 mg), with or without GH replacement (0.6 mg/d). The dose of testosterone administered orally achieves physiological portal testosterone concentrations without spillover into the systemic circulation. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown, and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were estimated at the end of each treatment. In the absence of GH, neither transdermal nor oral testosterone affected LRa or Lox. GH therapy significantly increased LRa, an effect equally reduced by transdermal and oral testosterone administration. GH replacement alone did not significantly change Lox, whereas addition of testosterone treatment reduced Lox, with the effect not significantly different between transdermal and oral testosterone. In the doses used, testosterone stimulates protein anabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation only in the presence of GH. Because the net effect on protein metabolism during GH therapy is not different between systemic and solely hepatic testosterone administration, we conclude that the liver is the primary site of this hormonal interaction.

  10. Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2011-07-01

    Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

  11. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  12. Determining the optimal whole-body vibration dose-response relationship for muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; De Hoyo, Moisés; Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; García-Manso, Juan M

    2011-12-01

    Da Silva-Grigoletto, ME, de Hoyo, M, Sañudo, B, Corrales, L, and García-Manso, JM. Determining the optimal whole-body vibration dose-response relationship for muscle performance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3326-3333, 2011-The aim of this investigation was twofold: first, to determine the optimal duration of a single whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure (phase 1) and second to find out the ideal number of sets per intervention to maximize muscle performance (phase 2). All participants were young (age: 19.4 ± 1.6 years), healthy, physically active men. In both studies, a 30-Hz frequency and a 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement were used. In phase 1, subjects (n = 30) underwent 3 sets of different durations (30, 60, and 90 seconds), whereas in phase 2, subjects (n = 27) underwent 3 interventions where the duration remained fixed at 60 seconds, and the number of sets performed (3, 6, or 9) was modified. The recovery time between sets was set at 2 minutes. In all interventions, each set consisted of 1 isometric repetition in a squat position with knees flexed at 100°. Before and after each session, jump height (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump [SJ]) and power output in half squat (90° knee flexion) were assessed. In phase 1, an improvement in jump ability and power output was observed after the 30- and 60-second intervention (p effect for the program of 6 sets (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a WBV intervention consisting of six 60-second sets produces improved muscle performance measured by SJ, CMJ, and power output.

  13. Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K

    2014-10-17

    Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic characteristics of patients with myocardial visualization in fasting whole body F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. S.; Kang, W. Z.; Jeong, J. M.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    When we would like to find a lesion in the chest malignant or benign, increased myocardial metabolic rate of glucose is so disturbing that bright myocardium obscures nearby lesions in F-18-FDG PET. This study aimed at finding metabolic characteristics of myocardial visualization when we tried not to make myocardium shining by fasting our patients. Plasma insulin, free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose were measured before injection of F-18-FDG in 36 cancer patients who had performed F-18-FDG PET in fasting state. F-18-FDG PET images were grouped in two according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of myocardial visualization. When the myocardium was visualized, we measured myocardium to backgroud (lung) count ratio using regions of interest on the segmented attenuation-corrected whole body PET coronal images. We examined the characteristics of metabolic mileu of group I and II. We correlated myocardium to background (M/B) ratio and metabolic indices in group I. Myocardium was visualized in 21 cases (58%) and not in 15 (42%) during fasting. Plasma glucose concentration was 98.5{+-}13.3 and 91.4{+-}9.1 mg/dl in group I and II, respectively (P <0.05). Plasma insulin concentration was 10.5{+-}5.0 and 8.1{+-}3.2mIU/L in group I and II(P >0.05). Plasma FFA concentration was 0.62{+-}0.23 and 0.92{+-}0.17 mEq/L in group I and II (P<0.05). Among the correlation between M/B ratios and metabolic factors, FFA concentration was negatively correlated with M/B ratio (r=0.3, p<0.05). In conclusion, free fatty acid concentration could be a determining factor to let myocardium show up and shine in fasting state. Artificial increase of free fatty acid could help myocardium not to appear in fasting whole body F-18-FDG PET.

  15. Quantitative assessment of whole-body tumor burden in adult patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Munn, Lance L; Muzikansky, Alona; Askenazi, Manor; Nguyen, Rosa; Wenzel, Ralph; Mautner, Victor F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are at risk for multiple nerve sheath tumors and premature mortality. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. We determined the number, volume, and distribution of internal nerve sheath tumors in patients using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and three-dimensional computerized volumetry. We quantified the distribution of tumor volume across body regions and used unsupervised cluster analysis to group patients based on tumor distribution. We correlated the presence and volume of internal tumors with disease-related and demographic factors. WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). Tumor volume was unevenly distributed across body regions with overrepresentation of the head/neck and pelvis. Risk factors for internal nerve sheath tumors included decreasing numbers of café-au-lait macules in NF1 patients (P = 0.003) and history of skeletal abnormalities in NF2 patients (P = 0.09). Risk factors for higher tumor volume included female gender (P = 0.05) and increasing subcutaneous neurofibromas (P = 0.03) in NF1 patients, absence of cutaneous schwannomas in NF2 patients (P = 0.06), and increasing age in schwannomatosis patients (p = 0.10). WBMRI provides a comprehensive phenotype of neurofibromatosis patients, identifies distinct anatomic subgroups, and provides the basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with unique disease manifestations.

  16. Automatic and quantitative assessment of regional muscle volume by multi-atlas segmentation using whole-body water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Romu, Thobias; Tallberg, Joakim; Grönqvist, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof

    2015-06-01

    To develop and demonstrate a rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for automatic quantification of total and regional skeletal muscle volume. The method was based on a multi-atlas segmentation of intensity corrected water-fat separated image volumes. Automatic lean muscle tissue segmentations were achieved by nonrigid registration of atlas datasets with 10 different manually segmented muscle groups. Ten subjects scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T were used as atlases, initial validation and optimization. Further validation used 11 subjects scanned at 3.0 T. The automated and manual segmentations were compared using intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions, and delta volumes. For the 1.5 T datasets, the intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions (mean ± standard deviation, SD), and delta volumes (mean ± SD) were 0.99, 0.91 ± 0.02, -0.10 ± 0.70L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.07L (left anterior thigh), and 0.98, 0.80 ± 0.07, -0.08 ± 0.15L (left abdomen). The corresponding values at 3.0 T were 0.97, 0.92 ± 0.03, -0.17 ± 1.37L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.03 ± 0.08L (left anterior thigh), and 0.89, 0.90 ± 0.04, -0.03 ± 0.42L (left abdomen). The validation datasets showed similar results. The method accurately quantified the whole-body skeletal muscle volume and the volume of separate muscle groups independent of field strength and image resolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effect of whole-body vibration therapy on bone metabolism, motor function, and anthropometric parameters in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaotian; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhang, Chi; He, Chengqi; Wang, Pu

    2017-11-01

    To review the research literature on the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers. Mean differences (MDs), standardized mean differences (SMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 test. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Nine randomized controlled trials involving 625 patients met the inclusion criteria. No significant improvement was found in bone mineral density (BMD) (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI= -0.22-0.11, p = 0.50); bone turnover markers (MD = -0.25, 95%CI= -0.54-0.03, p = 0.08); anthropometric parameters, including muscle mass, fat mass, body mass index (BMI), and weight (SMD = 0.02, 95%CI= -0.16-0.21, p = 0.81); or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength (SMD = 0.16, 95%CI= -0.63-0.95, p = 0.69). However, maximal isometric knee extensor strength improved (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.34-1.08, p = 0.0002). WBV is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength, but it has no overall treatment effect on BMD, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters, or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Implication of rehabilitation Osteoporosis is the leading underlying cause of fractures in postmenopausal women, whole body vibration (WBV) has received much attention as a potential intervention for the management of osteoporosis in recent years. Whole body vibration is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Whole body vibration has no overall treatment effect on bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters and maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Internal absorbed dose estimation by a TLD method for -FDG and comparison with the dose estimates from whole body PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloar, Hossain M.; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Shidahara, Miho; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamadera, Akira; Itoh, Masatoshi

    1999-02-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) method has been proposed as a useful tool for estimating internal radiation absorbed dose in nuclear medicine. An efficient approach to verify the accuracy of the TLD method has been performed in this study. Under the standard protocol for 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose , whole body PET experiments and simultaneous body surface dose measurements by TLDs were performed on six normal volunteers. By using the body surface dose measured with TLDs, the cumulated activities of nine source organs were estimated with a mathematical unfolding technique for three different initial guesses. The accuracy of the results obtained by the TLD method was investigated by comparison with the actual cumulated activity of the same source organs measured by whole body PET. The cumulated activities of the source organs obtained by the TLD method and whole body PET show a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, , level of confidence, ) with each other. The mean effective doses in this study are obtained from the TLD method and obtained from the whole body PET. Good agreement between the results of the TLD method and whole body PET was observed.

  19. Effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the rheological parameters of blood in older women with spondyloarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Aleksandra; Misiorek, Anna; Marchewka, Jakub; Głodzik, Jacek; Teległów, Aneta; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a physiotherapy method used to treat back pain in older persons. This study aims to evaluate the changes in the rheological parameters of blood in older women with spondyloarthrosis, who underwent whole-body cryotherapy. The experimental group comprised 69 older women with lumbar spondyloarthrosis, aged between 65 and 70 years. Due to the methodology of the procedure, the experimental group was randomly divided into three groups. Each group underwent two weeks of different types of physiotherapy: only whole-body cryotherapy (22 women); only kinesitherapy (23 women); and both cryotherapy and kinesitherapy (24 women). The control group comprised 25 women who did not undergo any form of therapy. The evaluation of the rheological properties of the blood encompassed measurements of the plasma viscosity, the erythrocyte elongation and aggregation indices, and the level of fibrinogen. The conducted rheological tests revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocyte elasticity and aggregation indices only in the group of women who had undergone both whole-body cryotherapy and kinesitherapy. Applying whole-body cryotherapy to older women with spondyloarthrosis decreases the elasticity of erythrocytes and, despite favourable changes in the aggregation parameters, problems with perfusion may still appear. For this reason, the benefit of using whole-body cryotherapy in these persons is debatable.

  20. Cryptochrome and phytochrome cooperatively but independently reduce active gibberellin content in rice seedlings under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants.

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  2. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular whole-body MR imaging in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease; Kardiovaskulaere MR-Ganzkoerperbildgebung bei Patienten mit symptomatischer Atherosklerose der peripheren Gefaesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, M.; Kramer, U.; Stauder, N.; Bretschneider, C.; Klumpp, B.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Abt. fuer Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Jost, D.; Scheule, A. [Abt. fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Naegele, T. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: To examine patients with peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease (PAOD) for systemic effects associated with atherosclerosis using a comprehensive state-of-the-art whole-body MR examination protocol. The protocol comprises the assessment of the complete arterial vasculature (except coronary arteries), the brain, and the heart. Materials and methods: Multi-station whole-body 3D MR angiography was performed in sixty consecutive patients with clinical suspicion for PAOD at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Functional and delayed enhancement cardiac images were acquired, as well as FLAIR images of the brain and TOF angiography of intracranial vessels. MR and DSA images were assessed by independent observers for artherosclerotic manifestations and other pathology. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of vascular pathology was calculated for MR data using conventional DSA of the symptomatic region as standard-of-reference. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant vascular stenosis (>70% luminal narrowing) was 94% and 96% (PPV 87%, NPV 98%). Significant microangiopathic tissue alterations (n=7) and/or cerebral infarction (n=18) were diagnosed in 23/60 patients. Thirty-eight of 60 patients presented with systolic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In 24 patients subendocardial or transmural delayed enhancement was detected in corresponding regions, indicating prior myocardial infarction. Conclusion: For patients with PAOD and suspected systemic atherosclerotic disease a comprehensive diagnosis of accompanying cardiovascular pathology and therefore staging of systemic atherosclerotic disease is feasible within one MR examination. (orig.)

  4. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity.......4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories...

  5. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load: methodological problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  7. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoep, Jacky L; Green, Kathleen; Eicher, Johann; Palm, Daniel C; Penkler, Gerald; du Toit, Francois; Walters, Nicolas; Burger, Robert; Westerhoff, Hans V; van Niekerk, David D

    2015-12-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging two detailed kinetic models for glucose metabolism in the parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the human red blood cell with a coarse-grained model for whole-body glucose metabolism. In addition we use a genome-scale metabolic model for the parasite to predict amino acid production profiles by the malaria parasite that can be used as a complex biomarker. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. RM de cuerpo entero, experiencia inicial Whole body MRI, initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Rombolá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Exponer y compartir nuestra experiencia en resonancia magnética de cuerpo entero (RMCE. Material y métodos: Se realizó estudio prospectivo entre octubre de 2005 y mayo de 2007 sobre 165 RMCE. Edad de los pacientes: 21 y 85 años, media de 51,64. Se utilizó equipo de 1,5 Tesla de campo magnético y tabla deslizable. El protocolo de estudio estuvo integrado por cortes coronales multicontraste (T1, T2 y STIR, axiales y sagitales en T2. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 140 (84,84 % estudios con hallazgos relevantes y 25 (15,15 % sin alteraciones. Se halló predominancia de enfermedades degenerativas articulares del esqueleto axial en 94 pacientes (56,96% sin diferencias significativas entre sexos. Trece pacientes realizaron controles oncológicos demostrándose diseminación a distancia en 6 estudios. En 1 examen se registró la distribución de polimiositis. Conclusiones: La RMCE no representa solamente una innovadora herramienta diagnóstica, sino también ostenta el potencial de competir con metodologías preexistentes en aplicaciones oncológicas y no oncológicas. La sensibilidad y especificidad del método están probadas, pero su aplicación se encuentra limitada por el alto costo y la falta de inclusión en protocolos diagnósticos de estadificación tumoral.Objective: To expose and share our experience in whole-body MRI. Material and methods: A prospective study of 165 whole-body MRI was made from october 2005 to may 2007. The age range was between 21 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 51, 64. A 1.5 Tesla MRI scan was utilized with a table-top movement. Multicontrast coronal scans (T1, T2 and STIR, sagittal and axial T2 compose the study protocol. Results: 140 (84,84 % scans with relevant results and 25 (15,15 % without abnormalities were found. The axial skeletal articular degenerative disease prevalence on 94 (56,96 % cases, without significant difference. Six MRI scans showed secondary dissemination of the oncology disease in a

  9. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  10. Thyroid hormone effects on whole-body energy homeostasis and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieverik, Lars P; Coomans, Claudia P; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J; Rensen, Patrick C N; Romijn, Johannes A; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (TH) status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific substrate supply in vivo are incompletely understood. To study the effects of TH status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific fatty acid (FA) fluxes, we used metabolic cages as well as (14)C-labeled FA and (3)H-labeled triglyceride (TG) infusion in rats treated with methimazole and either 0 (hypothyroidism), 1.5 (euthyroidism), or 16.0 (thyrotoxicosis) microg per 100 g/d T(4) for 11 d. Thyrotoxicosis increased total energy expenditure by 38% (P = 0.02), resting energy expenditure by 61% (P = 0.002), and food intake by 18% (P = 0.004). Hypothyroidism tended to decrease total energy expenditure (10%; P = 0.064) and resting energy expenditure (12%; P = 0.025) but did not affect food intake. TH status did not affect spontaneous physical activity. Thyrotoxicosis increased fat oxidation (P = 0.006), whereas hypothyroidism decreased glucose oxidation (P = 0.035). Plasma FA concentration was increased in thyrotoxic but not hypothyroid rats. Thyrotoxicosis increased albumin-bound FA uptake in muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas hypothyroidism had no effect in any tissue studied, suggesting mass-driven albumin-bound FA uptake. During thyrotoxicosis, TG-derived FA uptake was increased in muscle and heart, unaffected in WAT, and decreased in brown adipose tissue. Conversely, during hypothyroidism TG-derived FA uptake was increased in WAT in association with increased lipoprotein lipase activity but unaffected in oxidative tissues and decreased in liver. In conclusion, TH status determines energy expenditure independently of spontaneous physical activity. The changes in whole-body lipid metabolism are accompanied by tissue-specific changes in TG-derived FA uptake in accordance with hyper- and hypometabolic states induced by thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively.

  11. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  12. Peculiarities of tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NMR method, was undertaken to compare the water fractional composition in nature tissues (group 1 with those damaged by experimental whole-body hyperthermia (group 2. We measured longitudinal or “spin-lattice” (T1 and transverse or “spin-spin” (T2 relaxation times of protons of tissues (brain, the atria of the heart, the kidneys and the renal cortex from adult Wistar rats. The differences in T1, T2 and percentage of the intra- and extracellular water between group 1 and 2 were studied to help understand how the water moves in tissues at hyperthermia. The results of this study and the literature data allow to make conclusions about tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia: (1 fractional composition of water and the distribution of intra- and extracellular fluid in the tissue of the atria of the heart did not change (T1 and T2 relaxation times remained unchanged; (2 the crystalline water fraction increased in brain (longer T1 relaxation rate and shorter T2 relaxation rate. This is obstructing the exchange of protons between free and bound water in brain. Thus, loss of water by brain cells is prevented. The distribution between intra- and extracellular fluid in brain remained unchanged; (3 fraction of free water increased in renal tissue (simultaneous longer T1 and T2 relaxation rates by reducing the volume of extracellular fluid; (4 thick hydration layer of water (longer T1 relaxation rate, T2 remained unchanged was formed in the extracellular fluid of renal cortex. This water layer is formed around the sodium ions which concentration is increased in renal cortex tissue of rats from group 2. Аs a result, the amount of fluid secreted by kidneys is reduced, i.e. there is a retention of water in the body. The relevance of our research for the understanding of high temperatures’ adaptation mechanisms is discussed in this paper.

  13. Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, H; Ratib, O [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Shao, L [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)

    2011-05-21

    The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET-MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET-MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU 2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET-MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET-CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq{sup -1}, whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET-MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET-CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that

  14. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Reese, Timothy G. [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  15. Parameters of a simple whole body counter and thyroid monitor established at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schoenmuth, T. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At the Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. a simple whole body counter and an iodine-thyroid monitor are used for measuring the internal contamination of workers. There is no shielding chamber in both cases. By using the chamber at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory the lower limit of detection could be improved by a factor of about 3 for whole body counting and by a factor of 2,5 for thyroid monitoring (I 131, I 125). Concerning the lower limit of detection the applicability of the German standard DIN 25 482 implemented in the Gamma-Vision software packadge is discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  16. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-01-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pu...

  17. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  18. Comparison of whole-body phantom designs to estimate organ equivalent neutron doses for secondary cancer risk assessment in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Geyer, Amy; Drenkhahn, Robert; Bolch, Wesley E.; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Secondary neutron fluence created during proton therapy can be a significant source of radiation exposure in organs distant from the treatment site, especially in pediatric patients. Various published studies have used computational phantoms to estimate neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy. In these simulations, whole-body patient representations were applied considering either generic whole-body phantoms or generic age- and gender-dependent phantoms. No studies to date have reported using patient-specific geometry information. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of patient-phantom matching when using computational pediatric phantoms. To achieve this goal, three sets of phantoms, including different ages and genders, were compared to the patients’ whole-body CT. These sets consisted of pediatric age-specific reference, age-adjusted reference and anatomically sculpted phantoms. The neutron equivalent dose for a subset of out-of-field organs was calculated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit, where proton fields were used to irradiate the cranium and the spine of all phantoms and the CT-segmented patient models. The maximum neutron equivalent dose per treatment absorbed dose was calculated and found to be on the order of 0 to 5 mSv Gy-1. The relative dose difference between each phantom and their respective CT-segmented patient model for most organs showed a dependence on how close the phantom and patient heights were matched. The weight matching was found to have much smaller impact on the dose accuracy except for very heavy patients. Analysis of relative dose difference with respect to height difference suggested that phantom sculpting has a positive effect in terms of dose accuracy as long as the patient is close to the 50th percentile height and weight. Otherwise, the benefit of sculpting was masked by inherent uncertainties, i.e. variations in organ shapes, sizes and locations. Other sources of uncertainty included errors associated

  19. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis...... no differences were observed during insulin tolerance tests. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp revealed tissue-specific effects on glucose homeostasis in all HFD-fed groups. HFD-fed mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in white but not in brown adipose tissue, and sustained endogenous...

  20. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic potential of high-fat diets (HFD) in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased. However, it is not known if intake of an HFD irrespective of the protein:carbohydrate ratio and in the absence of weight gain, affects glucose homeostasis and th...... involved in gluconeogenesis in intestinal epithelial cells of the jejunum. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of a HFD profoundly affected glucose homeostasis, gut inflammatory responses, and gut microbiota composition in the absence of fat mass accretion....

  1. Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-03-01

    Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.

  2. Biomechanical Model for Computing Deformations for Whole-Body Image Registration: A Meshless Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Patient-specific biomechanical models have been advocated as a tool for predicting deformations of soft body organs/tissue for medical image registration (aligning two sets of images) when differences between the images are large. However, complex and irregular geometry of the body organs makes generation of patient-specific biomechanical models very time consuming. Meshless discretisation has been proposed to solve this challenge. However, applications so far have been limited to 2-D models and computing single organ deformations. In this study, 3-D comprehensive patient-specific non-linear biomechanical models implemented using Meshless Total Lagrangian Explicit Dynamics (MTLED) algorithms are applied to predict a 3-D deformation field for whole-body image registration. Unlike a conventional approach which requires dividing (segmenting) the image into non-overlapping constituents representing different organs/tissues, the mechanical properties are assigned using the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm without the image segmentation. Verification indicates that the deformations predicted using the proposed meshless approach are for practical purposes the same as those obtained using the previously validated finite element models. To quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the predicted deformations, we determined the spatial misalignment between the registered (i.e. source images warped using the predicted deformations) and target images by computing the edge-based Hausdorff distance. The Hausdorff distance-based evaluation determines that our meshless models led to successful registration of the vast majority of the image features. PMID:26791945

  3. Systematic review of whole body vibration exercises in the treatment of cerebral palsy: Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia C; Costa-Cavalcanti, Rebeca; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle P; Arnóbio, Adriano; Bernardo, Raquel M; Ronikeile-Costa, Pedro; Kutter, Cristiane; Giehl, Paula M; Asad, Nasser R; Paiva, Dulciane N; Pereira, Heloisa V F S; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro J; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is increasingly being used to improve balance and motor function and reduce the secondary complications associated with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to systematically appraise published research regarding the effects of static and/or dynamic exercise performed on a vibrating platform on gait, strength, spasticity and bone mineral density (BMD) within this population. Systematic searches of six electronic databases identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria (2 at Level II and 3 at Level III-2). Studies were analysed to determine: (a) participant characteristics; (b) optimal exercise and WBV treatment protocol; (c) effect on gait, strength, spasticity and BMD; and (d) the outcome measures used to evaluate effect. As data was not homogenous a meta-analysis was not possible. Several design limitations were identified and intervention protocols are poorly described. The effects on strength, gait, spasticity and BMD in persons with CP remain inconclusive with weak evidence that WBV may improve selected muscle strength and gait parameters and that prolonged exposure may improve BMD; there is currently no evidence that WBV can reduce spasticity. The evidence for exercise performed on a vibrating platform on mobility, strength, spasticity and BMD in CP remains scant and further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters to better understand the effects of WBV exercises in this population is recommended.

  4. [(Very) high Creatinkinase concentration after exertional whole-body electromyostimulation application: health risks and longitudinal adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Due to its individualization, time-efficiency and effectiveness Whole-body-Electromyo-stimulation (WB-EMS) becomes increasingly popular. However, recently (very) high Creatin-kinase concentration were reported, at least after initial WB-EMS-application. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine (1) WB-EMS induced increases of CK-concentration, (2) their impact on corresponding health parameters and (3) training-induced changes of CK-levels.Twenty-six healthy, sportive volunteers without previous experience with WB-EMS were included. Initial high intense WB-EMS application (bipolar, 85 Hz; 350 ms; intermittent, 20 min) led to an increase of the CK-level by the 117fold (28.545 ± 33.611 IU/l) of baseline. CK-peaks were detected after 72-96 h. Despite this pronounced "exertional rhabdomyolysis", we did not determine rhabdomyolysis-induced complications (e.g. acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia). After 10 weeks of WB-EMS (1 session/week) CK-reaction to intensive WB-EMS-Application was significantly blunted (906 ± 500 IE/l) and averaged in the area of conventional resistance exercise.In summary, intensity of WB-EMS should be carefully increased during the initial sessions.

  5. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Whole-Body Calisthenics on Army ROTC Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Nicholas H; Freese, Eric C; Ryan, Terence E; Cureton, Kirk J

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps cadets. Twenty-six college-aged (20.5 ± 1.7 years) participants completed 4 weeks of exercise training 3 days · wk(-1) consisting of either approximately 60 minutes of typical physical training or HIT whole-body calisthenics involving 4 to 7 sets of 30-second "all out" burpees separated by 4 minutes of active recovery. Several pre- and postintervention fitness variables were compared. We observed no changes across time or differences between groups in aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, or Army Physical Fitness Test performance (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant Group × Time interaction (p = 0.015) for skeletal muscle mitochondrial function (Tc: time constant of recovery). For the typical physical training group, we observed improved mitochondrial function (Tc decreased 2.4 ± 4.6 seconds; Cohen's d = -0.51); whereas, mitochondrial function decreased in HIT (Tc increased 2.4 ± 4.6 seconds; d = 0.50). HIT sustained fitness despite the short duration and reduced volume of activity. A program that includes HIT as part of a larger program may be well suited for maintaining fitness in moderately trained armed forces personnel without access to equipment. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Whole body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2013-10-15

    A cellular compartment was added to our previous mathematical model of steady-state acid-base and fluid-electrolyte chemistry to gain further understanding and aid diagnosis of complex disorders involving cellular involvement in critically ill patients. An important hypothesis to be validated was that the thermodynamic, standard free-energy of cellular H(+) and Na(+) pumps remained constant under all conditions. In addition, a hydrostatic-osmotic pressure balance was assumed to describe fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, including incorporation of compliance curves of vascular and interstitial spaces. The description of the cellular compartment was validated by close comparison of measured and model-predicted cellular pH and electrolyte changes in vitro and in vivo. The new description of plasma-interstitial fluid exchange was validated using measured changes in fluid volumes after isoosmotic and hyperosmotic fluid infusions of NaCl and NaHCO3. The validated model was used to explain the role of cells in the mechanism of saline or dilutional acidosis and acid-base effects of acidic or basic fluid infusions and the acid-base disorder due to potassium depletion. A module was created that would allow users, who do not possess the software, to determine, for free, the results of fluid infusions and urinary losses of water and solutes to the whole body.

  7. Whole-Body Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots by Specifying Via-Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHyun Sung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We design a framework about the planning of whole body motion for humanoid robots. Motion planning with various constraints is essential to success the task. In this research, we propose a motion planning method corresponding to various conditions for achieving the task. We specify some via-points to deal with the conditions for target achievement depending on various constraints. Together with certain constraints including task accomplishment, the via-point representation plays a crucial role in the optimization process of our method. Furthermore, the via-points as the optimization parameters are related to some physical conditions. We applied this method to generate the kicking motion of a humanoid robot HOAP-3. We have confirmed that the robot was able to complete the task of kicking a ball over an obstacle into a goal in addition to changing conditions of the location of a ball. These results show that the proposed motion planning method using via-point representation can increase articulation of the motion.

  8. Supervised Remote Robot with Guided Autonomy and Teleoperation (SURROGATE): A Framework for Whole-Body Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul; Ma, Jeremy; Borders, James; Aydemir, Alper; Bajracharya, Max; Hudson, Nicolas; Shankar, Krishna; Karumanchi, Sisir; Douillard, Bertrand; Burdick, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The use of the cognitive capabilties of humans to help guide the autonomy of robotics platforms in what is typically called "supervised-autonomy" is becoming more commonplace in robotics research. The work discussed in this paper presents an approach to a human-in-the-loop mode of robot operation that integrates high level human cognition and commanding with the intelligence and processing power of autonomous systems. Our framework for a "Supervised Remote Robot with Guided Autonomy and Teleoperation" (SURROGATE) is demonstrated on a robotic platform consisting of a pan-tilt perception head, two 7-DOF arms connected by a single 7-DOF torso, mounted on a tracked-wheel base. We present an architecture that allows high-level supervisory commands and intents to be specified by a user that are then interpreted by the robotic system to perform whole body manipulation tasks autonomously. We use a concept of "behaviors" to chain together sequences of "actions" for the robot to perform which is then executed real time.

  9. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration, musculoskeletal symptoms, and body balance: a worksite training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-09-01

    Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work.

  10. Whole-body MRI in children: Current status and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Kassa [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: darge@email.chop.edu; Jaramillo, Diego [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: jaramillo@email.chop.edu; Siegel, Marilyn J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 South Kingshighway Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: siegelm@mir.wustl.edu

    2008-11-15

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is a novel technique that makes imaging of the whole patient in a manner similar to scintigraphy or positron emission tomography (PET) possible. Unlike the latter two methods, it is without exposure to radiation and thus gaining increasing importance and application in pediatrics. With the introduction of a moving tabletop, sequential movement of the patient through the magnet has become possible with automatic direct realignment of the images after acquisition. The common scan plane is coronal with additional planes being added depending on the indication. WBMRI is targeted for maximum coverage of the body within the shortest possible time using the minimum number of sequences. The evaluation of the bone marrow has been the primary indication thus inversion recovery sequences like STIR or TIRM are mostly used with the T1-weighted sequence being added variably. For correct evaluation of the bone marrow in the pediatric age group understanding normal pattern of marrow transformation is essential. The primary role of WBMRI has been in oncology for the detection of tumor spread and also for the follow-up and evaluation of complications. The initial comparative studies of WBMRI with scintigraphy and PET in children have shown the high diagnostic potential of WBMRI. Emerging potential applications of WBMRI include the evaluation for osteonecrosis, chronic multifocal recurrent osteomyelitis, myopathies, and generalized vascular malformations. Future use of WBMRI may incorporate non-accidental trauma, virtual autopsy, body fat mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  11. Estimating relative physical workload using heart rate monitoring: a validation by whole-body indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garet, Martin; Boudet, Gil; Montaurier, Christophe; Vermorel, Michel; Coudert, Jean; Chamoux, Alain

    2005-05-01

    Measuring physical workload in occupational medicine is fundamental for risk prevention. An indirect measurement of total and relative energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) is widely used but it has never been validated. The aim of this study was to validate this HR-estimated energy expenditure (HREEE) method against whole-body indirect calorimetry. Twenty-four-hour HR and EE values were recorded continuously in a calorimetric chambers for 52 adult males and females (19-65 years). An 8-h working period was retained, comprising several exercise sessions on a cycloergometer at intensities up to 65% of the peak rate of oxygen uptake. HREEE was calculated with reference to cardiac reserve. A corrected HREEE (CHREEE) was also calculated with a modification to the lowest value of cardiac reserve. Both values were further compared to established methods: the flex-HR method, and the use of a 3rd order polynomial relationship to estimate total and relative EE. No significant difference was found in total EE when measured in a calorimetric chamber or estimated from CHREEE for the working period. A perfect linear and identity relationship was found between CHREEE and energy reserve values for intensities ranging from 15% to 65%. Relative physical workload can be accurately assessed from HR recordings when expressed in CHREEE between 15% to 65%, and EE can be accurately estimated using the CHREEE method.

  12. Validation of experimental whole-body SAR assessment method in a complex indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Andersen, Jørgen B; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc

    2013-02-01

    Experimentally assessing the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR(wb) ) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the line-of-sight as specular path) is validated using numerical simulations with the finite-difference time-domain method. Furthermore, the method accounts for diffuse multipath components (DMC) in the total absorption rate by considering the reverberation time of the investigated room, which describes all the losses in a complex indoor environment. The advantage of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computational burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, that is, at large distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations of 0.71% and 4% have been obtained for far-field scenarios, and 77.5% for the near field-scenario. The contribution of the DMC in the total absorption rate is also quantified here, which has never been investigated before. It is found that the DMC may represent an important part of the total absorption rate; its contribution may reach up to 90% for certain scenarios in an indoor environment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  14. Whole-body imaging of whole-organ, subresolution, basic functional unit (BFU) perfusion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-08-01

    A BFU is an organ's smallest assembly of diverse cells that functions like the organ, such as the liver's hepatic lobules. There are approximately 107 BFUs in a human organ. These 100-200 μm structures are perfused by capillaries fed by a terminal arteriole (15μm diameter). BFU sizes, function and number per organ vary with disease, either by loss of BFUs and/or their decrease in function. The BFU is the upper limit of a spherical assembly of cells, immersed in a suitably nutrient medium, which can survive without its own blood supply. However, each BFU has its own blood supply to support the extra energy and/or solutes needed for providing its physiological function (e.g., contraction or secretion). A BFU function is best evaluated by its micro-perfusion, which can be readily evaluated with whole-body CT. Resolution of individual BFUs within in-situ organs, using clinical imaging devices, would require high radiation doses and/or the intolerably long scan-durations needed for suitable signal-to-noise image-data. However, it is possible to obtain a statistical description of the BFU number, size and function from wholebody CT by way of a model. In this study we demonstrate this capability by using the distribution of myocardial terminal arteriolar perfusion territories by way of a nested, multiple, regions-of-interest analysis of the heart wall imaged during transient opacification of its blood supply.

  15. Three-region MRI-based whole-body attenuation correction for automated PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: js274@duke.edu; Jia Guang; Sammet, Steffen; Zhang Jun; Hall, Nathan; Knopp, Michael V. [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: In this study we proposed and developed a simple attenuation mapping approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the purpose of reconstructing positron emission tomography (PET) images in PET/MRI imaging devices. Methods: After experimental development, an in vivo calibration was performed by whole-body scanning of five beagles on both a PET/CT and an MRI. The attenuation was determined by using an automated segmentation algorithm to segment regions of background, lung, soft tissue and bone, and assigning them values of 0.002, 0.030, 0.098 and 0.130 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Results: The CT-attenuated and MRI-attenuated PET images had average standardized uptake values (SUVs) that differed by 1-6% for most regions of interest (ROIs). Also, mean relative differences (MRDs) between the images were between 5% and 9% for most regions. The only exception is bone, where the three-region MRI-attenuated PET images had an SUV 10% less on average than the CT-attenuation images, and the MRD averaged 14%. Also, additional segmentation of the bone in the four-region MRI-attenuated PET images reduced the SUV difference to 3% and the MRD to 6%. Conclusion: Therefore, despite the improvements in the four-region segmentation, the three-region segmentation, without delineation of osseous tissues, produces high-quality images that are sufficient for most expected clinical and research purposes.

  16. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (pvolleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  17. Estimation of signal and noise for a whole-body photon counting research CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhoubo; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Zhicong; Kappler, Stephen; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-02-01

    Photon-counting CT (PCCT) may yield potential value for many clinical applications due to its relative immunity to electronic noise, increased geometric efficiency relative to current scintillating detectors, and the ability to resolve energy information about the detected photons. However, there are a large number of parameters that require optimization, particularly the energy thresholds configurations. Fast and accurate estimation of signal and noise in PCCT can benefit the optimization of acquisition parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. Based on the acquisition parameters and detector response of our research PCCT system, we derived mathematical models for both signal and noise. The signal model took the tube spectrum, beam filtration, object attenuation, water beam hardening, and detector response into account. The noise model considered the relationship between noise and radiation dose, as well as the propagation of noise as threshold data are subtracted to yield energy bin data. To determine the absolute noise value, a noise look-up table (LUT) was acquired using a limited number of calibration scans. The noise estimation algorithm then used the noise LUT to estimate noise for scans with a variety of combination of energy thresholds, dose levels, and object attenuation. Validation of the estimation algorithms was performed on our whole-body research PCCT system using semi-anthropomorphic water phantoms and solutions of calcium and iodine. The algorithms achieved accurate estimation of signal and noise for a variety of scanning parameter combinations. The proposed method can be used to optimize energy thresholds configuration for many clinical applications of PCCT.

  18. Estimation of signal and noise for a whole-body research photon-counting CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhoubo; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Zhicong; Kappler, Steffen; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2017-04-01

    Photon-counting detector CT has a large number of acquisition parameters that require optimization, particularly the energy threshold configurations. Fast and accurate estimation of both signal and noise in photon-counting CT (PCCT) images can facilitate such optimization. Using the detector response function of a research PCCT system, we derived mathematical models for both signal and noise estimation, taking into account beam spectrum and filtration, object attenuation, water beam hardening, detector response, radiation dose, energy thresholds, and the propagation of noise. To determine the absolute noise value, a noise lookup table (LUT) for all available energy thresholds was acquired using a number of calibration scans. The noise estimation algorithm then used the noise LUT to estimate noise for scans with a variety of combination of energy thresholds, dose levels, and object attenuations. Validation of the estimation algorithms was performed on a whole-body research PCCT system using semianthropomorphic water phantoms and solutions of calcium and iodine. Clinical feasibility of noise estimation was assessed with scans of a cadaver head and a living swine. The algorithms achieved accurate estimation of both signal and noise for a variety of scanning parameter combinations. Maximum discrepancies were below 15%, while most errors were below 5%.

  19. Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration, Musculoskeletal Symptoms, and Body Balance: A Worksite Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Arnold, Sibille; Schade, Volker; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Background Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training (SR-WBV) was tested to reduce work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Methods Participants were 54 white-collar employees of a Swiss organization. The controlled crossover design comprised two groups each given 4 weeks of exercise and no training during a second 4-week period. Outcome was daily musculoskeletal well-being, musculoskeletal pain, and surefootedness. In addition, participants performed a behavioral test on body balance prior to when SR-WBV started and after 4 weeks of SR-WBV. Results Across the 4-week training period, musculoskeletal well-being and surefootedness were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas musculoskeletal pain was significantly reduced only in those who reported low back pain during the last 4 weeks prior to the study (p < 0.05). Body balance was significantly increased by SR-WBV (p < 0.05). Conclusion SR-WBV seems to be an efficient option in primary prevention of musculoskeletal complaints and falls at work. PMID:24106645

  20. Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogdas, Belma; Stout, David; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2007-02-01

    We have constructed a three-dimensional (3D) whole body mouse atlas from coregistered x-ray CT and cryosection data of a normal nude male mouse. High quality PET, x-ray CT and cryosection images were acquired post mortem from a single mouse placed in a stereotactic frame with fiducial markers visible in all three modalities. The image data were coregistered to a common coordinate system using the fiducials and resampled to an isotropic 0.1 mm voxel size. Using interactive editing tools we segmented and labelled whole brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, striatum, medulla, masseter muscles, eyes, lachrymal glands, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys, testes, bladder, skeleton and skin surface. The final atlas consists of the 3D volume, in which the voxels are labelled to define the anatomical structures listed above, with coregistered PET, x-ray CT and cryosection images. To illustrate use of the atlas we include simulations of 3D bioluminescence and PET image reconstruction. Optical scatter and absorption values are assigned to each organ to simulate realistic photon transport within the animal for bioluminescence imaging. Similarly, 511 keV photon attenuation values are assigned to each structure in the atlas to simulate realistic photon attenuation in PET. The Digimouse atlas and data are available at http://neuroimage.usc.edu/Digimouse.html.

  1. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  2. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  3. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  4. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Sonza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3±2.6 years participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P≤0.05. Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  5. Whole-Body Profiling of Cancer Metastasis with Single-Cell Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei I. Kubota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic and proliferative events initiated from a single cell can disrupt homeostatic balance and lead to fatal disease processes such as cancer metastasis. To overcome metastasis, it is necessary to detect and quantify sparsely distributed metastatic cells throughout the body at early stages. Here, we demonstrate that clear, unobstructed brain/body imaging cocktails and computational analysis (CUBIC-based cancer (CUBIC-cancer analysis with a refractive index (RI-optimized protocol enables comprehensive cancer cell profiling of the whole body and organs. We applied CUBIC-cancer analysis to 13 mouse models using nine cancer cell lines and spatiotemporal quantification of metastatic cancer progression at single-cell resolution. CUBIC-cancer analysis suggests that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition promotes not only extravasation but also cell survival at metastatic sites. CUBIC-cancer analysis is also applicable to pharmacotherapeutic profiling of anti-tumor drugs. CUBIC-cancer analysis is compatible with in vivo bioluminescence imaging and 2D histology. We suggest that a scalable analytical pipeline with these three modalities may contribute to addressing currently incurable metastatic diseases.

  6. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: a whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G; Clément, Karine; Wahbi, Karim; Petit, François M; Eymard, Bruno; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-02-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardiometabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Incidentalomas Discovered by Whole Body FDG PETCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernandez Pampaloni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of incidentalomas in a patient population with no known thyroid malignancy who underwent whole body FDG-PET/CT for staging or restaging of neoplasia. The additional aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using PETCT as a screening tool for malignant thyroid incidentalomas. Methods. Retrospective review of medical records of all the thyroid exams done at our institution between January 1, 2000 and August 20, 2008. We made a criterion of PET/CT as the primary method of detection of incidentalomas. Results. From a total of 8464 thyroid exams, 156 incidentalomas were found and 40 incidentalomas underwent anatomopathology analysis, which was used as gold standard. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data. There is no significant association between SUV value and the prevalence of incidentalomas. Discussion. From January 1, 2000 to August 20, 2008, incidentalomas have a prevalence of 1.84% at our institution. 38% of the incidentalomas that were biopsied were characterized as representing malignant tumors. Conclusion. Focal, abnormal FDG uptake representing incidentalomas must be followed up with biopsies. It is impractical to use PET/CT as a screening tool to detect incidentalomas for the general population but it must be done in patients with history of any type of cancer.

  8. Effects of resistance training with whole-body vibration on muscle fitness in untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Y; Oguma, Y

    2013-02-01

    The effects of resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscle fitness, particularly muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular performance, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of WBV in healthy, untrained participants after a 13-week RT course by performing magnetic resonance imaging and by measuring maximal isometric (with electromyography) and isokinetic knee extension strengths, isometric lumbar extension torque, countermovement-jump, knee extension endurance, and sit-ups. Thirty-two individuals (22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to RT groups with (RT-WBV, n=16) or without WBV (RT, n=16). Following the RT course, significantly higher increases in the cross-sectional areas of m. psoas major (vs baseline values) and erector spinae muscle (vs the RT group) were observed in the RT-WBV group (+10.7%, Phypertrophy and isometric lumbar extension torque suggest a potential benefit of incorporating WBV into slow-velocity RT programs involving exercises of long duration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Interleukin-6 release is higher across arm than leg muscles during whole-body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Klein, Ditte K; Andersen, Thor Munch

    2011-01-01

    ± 7 and 47 ± 7 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) were lower, glucose uptake similar (51 ± 12 and 41 ± 8 mmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) and lactate release higher (82 ± 32 and -2 ± 12 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) in arms than legs, respectively, during exercise (P ....05). No correlations were present between IL-6 release and exogenous substrate uptakes. Muscle glycogen was similar in arms and legs before exercise (388 ± 22 and 428 ± 25 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)), but after exercise it was only significantly lower in the leg (219 ± 29 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)). The novel finding......Exercising muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the IL-6 release differs in arm and leg muscle during whole-body exercise, owing to differences in muscle metabolism. Sixteen...

  10. Whole-body distribution of americium in rats for different pathways of intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Weber, Waylon; Melo, Dunstana R; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Purpose: To compare data on the whole-body distribution of americium-241 ((241)Am) in rats following intravenous injection (IV), inhalation, and wound (intramuscular injection, IM). Following exposure, each rat was placed in an individual metabolism cages for the duration of the study, 28 days (d). Urine and feces were collected daily. Tissues and organs were collected and measured. Liver and skeleton were the main sites of deposition for all routes of exposure but the content differed substantially. By 28 d, (241)Am content in liver was similar for IV and IM administrations (12 ± 4% and 14 ± 5%, respectively), which was 3-fold higher compared to inhalation. Americium-241 content in skeleton was 27% by the end of the IV study; which was 50% higher compared to the IM study and 6-fold higher compared to inhalation. The cumulative excretion in 28 d was 54% for IV (44% by feces and 10% by urine); 38% for IM (34% by feces and 4% by urine); and 84% for inhalation (83% by feces and 1% by urine). Unperturbed rat models for the three routes of administration are the baseline for evaluating the efficacy of chelating agents.

  11. Whole-body vibration induces distinct reflex patterns in human soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Cidem, Mehmet; Türker, Kemal S

    2017-06-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying whole body vibration (WBV)-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) are not well understood. To define a possible pathway for WBV-IMR, this study investigated the effects of WBV amplitude on WBV-IMR latency by surface electromyography analysis of the soleus muscle in human adult volunteers. The tendon (T) reflex was also induced to evaluate the level of presynaptic Ia inhibition during WBV. WBV-IMR latency was shorter when induced by low- as compared to medium- or high-amplitude WBV (33.9±5.3msvs. 43.8±3.6 and 44.1±4.2ms, respectively). There was no difference in latencies between T-reflex elicited before WBV (33.8±2.4ms) and WBV-IMR induced by low-amplitude WBV. Presynaptic Ia inhibition was absent during low-amplitude WBV but was present during medium- and high-amplitude WBV. Consequently, WBV induces short- or long-latency reflexes depending on the vibration amplitude. During low-amplitude WBV, muscle spindle activation may induce the short- but not the long-latency WBV-IMR. Furthermore, unlike the higher amplitude WBV, low-amplitude WBV does not induce presynaptic inhibition at the Ia synaptic terminals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

  13. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT) has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  14. Whole-Body Vibration Sensor Calibration Using a Six-Degree of Freedom Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cation

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV is associated with a wide variety of health disorders and as a result WBV levels are frequently assessed. Literature outlining WBV accelerations rarely address the calibration techniques and procedures used for WBV sensors to any depth, nor are any detailed information provided regarding such procedures or sensor calibration ranges. The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method for a 6 DOF transducer using a hexapod robot. Also described is a separate motion capture technique used to verify the calibration for acceleration values obtained which were outside the robot calibration range in order to include an acceptable calibration range for WBV environments. The sensor calibrated in this study used linear (Y=mX calibration equations resulting in r2 values greater than 0.97 for maximum and minimum acceleration amplitudes of up to ±8 m/s2 and maximum and minimum velocity amplitudes up to ±100°/s. The motion capture technique verified that the translational calibrations held for accelerations up to ±4 g. Thus, the calibration procedures were shown to calibrate the sensor through the expected range for 6-DOF WBV field measurements for off-road vehicles even when subjected to shocks as a result of high speed travel over rough terrain.

  15. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Latella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications.

  16. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling.

  18. The clinical value of routine whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje (Department of Radiology, Haraldspass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway); Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen (Norway)), Email: jtgeit@online.no; Eikeland, Joakim (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway)); Rosland, Jan Henrik (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway); Sunniva Clinic for Palliative Care, Haraldsplass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    Background. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has become an accessible method for detecting different types of pathologies both in the skeleton and the viscera, which may explain painful conditions, for example tumors and inflammation. Purpose. To assess a possible value of using WBMRI in order to improve palliative care. Material and Methods. Twenty patients (all eligible patients) admitted to the Department for Palliative Care were consecutively included in this study. They underwent a modified WBMRI, with fewer and shorter pulse sequences than in a standard WBMRI, to reduce patient stress. However, the patients' physicians were to exclude patients where little might be obtained and discomfort, distress, and pain could be induced. The treating physicians registered clinical utility directly after receiving the MRI report in a questionnaire. The registration was repeated after ended treatment. Results. Eighty percent had new findings detected, and 40% of the patients had a change in treatment due to the MRI result, mainly changes in analgesics and/or radiation therapy. Conclusion. The WBMRI helped the clinicians to improve treatment and a majority of the patients benefited from this. In eight patients the treatment was changed due to the results. The clinical value (utility) was indicated to be high

  19. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  20. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.

  1. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  2. [Evaluation of forklift trucks operated in dockyards for reducing exposure to whole-body vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hiroji; Taoda, Kazushi; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2005-03-01

    Our preceding study revealed that many fork-lift truck drivers in Japanese dockyards suffer from fatigue symptoms such as low back pain (LBP). It has been suggested that exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a cause of their LBP. Using forklift models manufactured from 1982 to 2000, we measured and evaluated the vibration of forklift trucks operated in dockyards, adopting experimental procedures based on the European Standard. We investigated various factors related to WBV, with the main focus on attenuating seat vibration. This study showed that (1) the seats did not attenuate vibration in the vertical direction, (2) forklift trucks and their seats had not improved in terms of WBV attenuation for a decade, (3) some forklift trucks in which the seat suspension could no longer be adjusted to the driver's weight continued to be used without being repaired, and impractical seat adjustment methods were adopted, and (4) the seats did not attenuate vertical vibration well in the most undesirable frequency range. We conclude that forklift trucks and especially their seats should urgently be improved with regard to WBV attenuation in order to prevent LBP in forklift truck drivers.

  3. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  4. Whole-body muscle MRI to detect myopathies in non-extrapyramidal bent spine syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael [Nouvel Hopital Civil - Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B, Strasbourg (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Neurologie, Garches (France); Marty, Catherine; Lazareth, Jean-Philippe [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Rhumatologie, Garches (France); Maisonobe, Thierry [APH-HP - Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Neuropathologie, Paris (France); Mompoint, Dominique; Carlier, Robert-Yves [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2014-08-15

    Bent spine syndrome (BSS), defined as an abnormal forward flexion of the trunk resolving in supine position, is usually related to parkinsonism, but can also be encountered in myopathies. This study evaluates whole-body muscle MRI (WB-mMRI) as a tool for detecting underlying myopathy in non-extrapyramidal BSS. Forty-three patients (90 % women; 53-86 years old) with a non-extrapyramidal BSS were prospectively included. All underwent a 1.5-T WB-mMRI and a nerve conduction study. Muscle biopsy was performed if a myopathy could not be eliminated based on clinical examination and all tests. Systematic MRI interpretation focused on peripheral and axial muscle injury; spinal posture and incidental findings were also reported. WB-mMRI was completed for all patients, with 13 muscle biopsies ultimately needed and myopathy revealed as the final etiological diagnosis in five cases (12 %). All biopsy-proven myopathies were detected by the WB-mMRI. Relevant incidental MRI findings were made in seven patients. This study supports WB-mMRI as a sensitive and feasible tool for detecting myopathy in BSS patients. Associated with electroneuromyography, it can better indicate when a muscle biopsy is needed and guide it when required. Rigorous radiological interpretation is mandatory, so as not to miss incidental findings of clinical consequence. (orig.)

  5. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Suljevic, Şenay; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Bilgili, Hasan; Demirel, Haydar Ali

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) on serum type I collagen turnover in immobilized rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: immobilization (IS), immobilization + remobilization (IR), immobilization + WBV (IV), control (C), and WBV control (CV). Immobilization was achieved by casting from the crista iliaca anterior superior to the lower part of the foot for 2 weeks. The applied WBV protocol involved a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm for 7 days starting a day after the end of the immobilization period. Serum type I collagen turnover markers were measured by using ELISA kits. Serum NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) levels were significantly lower in the immobilization groups (p immobilization groups. Similarly, serum COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels were higher in the WBV controls than their own controls (p Immobilization led to deterioration of tendon tissue, as observed by histopathological analysis with a transmission electron microscope. Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Whole-body MRI (W-B MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are two novel techniques that greatly facilitate the evaluation of many disorders of childhood. In the musculoskeletal system, these techniques primarily aid in the evaluation of the marrow, although there is increasing interest in the study of soft-tissue abnormalities with W-B MRI and of cartilage with DWI. The normal pattern of marrow transformation affects both modalities throughout childhood. Haematopoietic marrow has a much higher signal intensity than fatty marrow on W-B MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images (Darge et al. Eur J Radiol 68:289-298, 2008). Diffusion is greater in haematopoietic marrow than in fatty marrow and decreases in the skeleton with age (Jaramillo et al. Pediatr Radiol 34:S48, 2004). It is important therefore to remember that the entire skeleton is haematopoietic at birth and that there is a process of marrow transformation to fatty marrow. Marrow conversion proceeds from the fingers to the shoulders and from the toes to the hips. Within each bone, fatty marrow transformation begins in the epiphyses, and within the shaft of the long bones fatty marrow transformation begins at the diaphysis and proceeds towards the metaphyses. (orig.)

  7. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  8. Segmentation of Skeleton and Organs in Whole-Body CT Images via Iterative Trilateration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, Marie; Peter, Loic; Nekolla, Stephan G; Eiber, Matthias; Langs, Georg; Schwaiger, Markus; Menze, Bjoern

    2017-11-01

    Whole body oncological screening using CT images requires a good anatomical localisation of organs and the skeleton. While a number of algorithms for multi-organ localisation have been presented, developing algorithms for a dense anatomical annotation of the whole skeleton, however, has not been addressed until now. Only methods for specialised applications, e.g., in spine imaging, have been previously described. In this work, we propose an approach for localising and annotating different parts of the human skeleton in CT images. We introduce novel anatomical trilateration features and employ them within iterative scale-adaptive random forests in a hierarchical fashion to annotate the whole skeleton. The anatomical trilateration features provide high-level long-range context information that complements the classical local context-based features used in most image segmentation approaches. They rely on anatomical landmarks derived from the previous element of the cascade to express positions relative to reference points. Following a hierarchical approach, large anatomical structures are segmented first, before identifying substructures. We develop this method for bone annotation but also illustrate its performance, although not specifically optimised for it, for multi-organ annotation. Our method achieves average dice scores of 77.4 to 85.6 for bone annotation on three different data sets. It can also segment different organs with sufficient performance for oncological applications, e.g., for PET/CT analysis, and its computation time allows for its use in clinical practice.

  9. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  10. Respiratory function parameters in ventilated newborn infants undergoing whole body hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore; Austin, Topun

    2014-02-01

    Whole body hypothermia (WBH) exerts proven neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to describe how WBH could impact on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated newborn infants, by recording primary and composite indices of oxygenation and ventilation before, during and after WBH. The medical notes of 31 mechanically ventilated full-term newborn infants who underwent WBH for HIE were retrospectively reviewed. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), tidal volume (TV), mean airway Pressure (MAP), minute ventilation (MV), static compliance of the respiratory system (C(statRS)), ventilation efficiency index (VEI), alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient) and oxygenation index (OI) were documented before and during hypothermic treatment, as well as during and after rewarming. Fraction of inspired oxygen, MAP, OI and A-a gradient decreased during induction of hypothermia and tended to increase during rewarming. C(statRS), VEI and TV increased during induction of hypothermia and tended to decrease during rewarming. None of the changes achieved statistical significance. These results suggest that WBH might affect respiratory function in mechanically ventilated infants with HIE. Oxygenation might be enhanced by hypothermia, probably as a result of decreased metabolism, while ventilation might also be facilitated as a result of the effect of hypothermia on lung mechanics. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.

  12. The kinetics of lactate production and removal during whole-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while treadmill roller skiing, from where work rate, aerobic power and blood lactate concentration were measured. A two-compartment simulation model for blood lactate production and removal was constructed. Results The simulated and experimental data differed less than 0.5 mmol/L both during steady state and varying sub-maximal intensities. However, the simulation model for lactate removal after high exercise intensities seems to require further examination. Conclusions Overall, the simulation models of lactate production and removal provide useful insight into the parameters that affect blood lactate response, and specifically how blood lactate concentration during practical training and testing in dynamical situations should be interpreted.

  13. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  14. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Osteonecrosis detected by whole body magnetic resonance in patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma treated by BEACOPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Domenico; La Grutta, Ludovico; Grassedonio, Emanuele; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo; Galia, Massimo [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology, DIBIMED, Palermo (Italy); Patti, Caterina; Mule, Antonino [Azienda Ospedali Riuniti Villa Sofia-Cervello, Department of Hematology I, Palermo (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of our retrospective review of prospectively acquired Whole Body Magnetic Resonance (WB-MRI) scans was to assess the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who received different chemotherapies. We evaluated the WB-MRI scans performed on 42 patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma treated by three chemotherapy regimens (6ABVD, 2ABVD + 4BEACOPP, 2ABVD + 8BEACOPP), excluding patients with the main risk factors for osteonecrosis. Six out of seven patients (86 %) who received eight BEACOPP and one out of five patients (20 %) treated by four BEACOPP presented osteonecrosis, with a statistically significant difference of frequency between the two groups of patients (p < 0.05); no injury has been reported in patients treated by only ABVD. Among a total of 48 osteonecrotic lesions observed, 48 % were detected in the knee; multifocal osteonecrosis were detected in six out of seven patients (86 %). The development of osteonecrosis is strictly related to the chemotherapy protocol adopted and the number of cycles received, with a strong correlation between the dose of corticosteroids included in the BEACOPP scheme and this complication. WB-MRI can be considered as a helpful tool that allows detecting earlier osteonecrotic lesions in patients treated with corticosteroids. (orig.)

  16. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation effects on gaze and whole-body stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, Chris A; Krebs, David E; Wolf, Steven L; Wayne, Peter M; Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Parker, Stephen W

    2004-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a comparatively new intervention for peripheral vestibular hypofunction, which is often treated with vestibular rehabilitation (VR). We compared gaze stability (GZS), whole-body stability (WBS) and footfall stability (FFS) during locomotion among 26 people with vestibulopathy (VSP), randomized into two treatment arms (13 TC and 13 VR). Each intervention program was offered for 10 weeks. GZS improved more for VR than for TC, but WBS (and FFS) improved more for TC than for VR. There was a significant relationship between changes in GZS and WBS for the VR subjects (r=0.60, p=0.01), but not for TC subjects. There was a significant relationship between changes in WBS and FFS for both VR (r=0.65, p VR but not the TC group when controlling for GZS. These findings suggest that VR and TC both benefit patients with VSP but via differing mechanisms. Moreover, these data are the first to test the assumption that improving gaze control among patients with VSP perforce improves postural stability: it does not. We conclude that GZS is most improved in those who receive VR, but that TC improves WBS and FFS without improving GZS, suggesting patients with VSP can rely on non-gaze related mechanisms to improve postural control.

  17. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Figueroa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  18. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  19. USING WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TO IMPROVE JUMP ABILITY IN YOUNG RECREATIONAL SPORTMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Hoyo Lora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The whole body vibrations (WBV it is nowadays one of the most widely used methods for improvingthe explosive strength. In this study, 12 subjects participating in recreational physical activity were allocated to a5 sets of 60 s training, using a frequency of 30 Hz, an amplitude of 2.5 mm. and a isometric position (110 °bending knees on a Galileo Fitness ® (Novotech, Germany platform. The results showed an increase in SJ(+1.76 ± 4.05 cm and CMJ (+1.10 ± 3.20 cm in the post-test conducted just after the vibration. The values of the post-test performed 30 minutes after the squat jump remained above the ones of pre-test but just below the ones of the immediate post-test (+0.42 ± 4.43 cm. By contrast the values in the counter movement jump drop below the pre-test ones (-0.12 ± 2.45 cm. Based on these data it seems that when the frequency is not high it is necessary to use a greater amplitude in order to achieve the desired effects. The effect achieved after the vibration is transient, not remaining after 30 minutes.

  20. Gα13 ablation reprograms myofibers to oxidative phenotype and enhances whole-body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Shi-Young; Joo, Min Sung; Han, Chang Yeob; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sang Geon

    2017-10-02

    Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243. Ser243 phosphorylation of NFATc1 was reduced after exercise, but was higher in obese animals. Consequently, Gα13 ablation in muscles enhanced whole-body energy metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity, thus affording protection from diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis. Our results define Gα13 as a switch regulator of myofiber reprogramming, implying that modulations of Gα13 and its downstream effectors in skeletal muscle are a potential therapeutic approach to treating metabolic diseases.

  1. Osteonecrosis detected by whole body magnetic resonance in patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma treated by BEACOPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Domenico; Patti, Caterina; La Grutta, Ludovico; Grassedonio, Emanuele; Mulè, Antonino; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo; Galia, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our retrospective review of prospectively acquired Whole Body Magnetic Resonance (WB-MRI) scans was to assess the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who received different chemotherapies. We evaluated the WB-MRI scans performed on 42 patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma treated by three chemotherapy regimens (6ABVD, 2ABVD + 4BEACOPP, 2ABVD + 8BEACOPP), excluding patients with the main risk factors for osteonecrosis. Six out of seven patients (86 %) who received eight BEACOPP and one out of five patients (20 %) treated by four BEACOPP presented osteonecrosis, with a statistically significant difference of frequency between the two groups of patients (p osteonecrosis were detected in six out of seven patients (86 %). The development of osteonecrosis is strictly related to the chemotherapy protocol adopted and the number of cycles received, with a strong correlation between the dose of corticosteroids included in the BEACOPP scheme and this complication. WB-MRI can be considered as a helpful tool that allows detecting earlier osteonecrotic lesions in patients treated with corticosteroids. • Osteonecrosis is a possible complication of patients with Lymphoma treated by chemotherapy. • Osteonecrosis is related to the corticosteroids included within the BEACOPP protocol. • WB-MRI allows detecting osteonecrotic lesions in patients treated with corticosteroids.

  2. Development of an LSI for Tactile Sensor Systems on the Whole-Body of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We have developed a network type tactile sensor system, which realizes high-density tactile sensors on the whole-body of nursing and communication robots. The system consists of three kinds of nodes: host, relay and sensor nodes. Roles of the sensor node are to sense forces and, to encode the sensing data and to transmit the encoded data on serial channels by interruption handling. Relay nodes and host deal with a number of the encoded sensing data from the sensor nodes. A sensor node consists of a capacitive MEMS force sensor and a signal processing/transmission LSI. In this paper, details of an LSI for the sensor node are described. We designed experimental sensor node LSI chips by a commercial 0.18µm standard CMOS process. The 0.18µm LSIs were supplied in wafer level for MEMS post-process. The LSI chip area is 2.4mm × 2.4mm, which includes logic, CF converter and memory circuits. The maximum clock frequency of the chip with a large capacitive load is 10MHz. Measured power consumption at 10MHz clock is 2.23mW. Experimental results indicate that size, response time, sensor sensitivity and power consumption are all enough for practical tactile sensor systems.

  3. Whole-body and thoracic bioimpedance measurement: hypertension and hyperhydration in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L; Bogónez, P; Calpe, J; Hernández, R; Doñate, T; Rosell, J

    2007-01-01

    Mono-frequency (50 kHz) and multi-frequency (3 kHz - 1 MHz) whole-body and thoracic segment bioimpedance measurement were doing before and after hemodialysis session in 20 patients. The patients were classified in hypertensive or non-hypertensive according to the mean blood pressure, BPmean. The relation between hyper-hydration in thorax segment through real part of impedance and mean blood pressure was analyzed. Also the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis method was used to analyze the displacement of Z/H vector in order to establish the relation with hyper-hydration (edema). Finally we made multi-frequency measurements with the objective to find a significative change in high and low frequency. We obtained a significant difference (P bioimpedance measurement show an important change at low and high frequency and indicate that is possible to obtain more information about extra-cellular or intra-cellular fluid status, to find the relation between fluid loads, bioimpedance parameters, extra-cellular water, and blood pressure.

  4. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  5. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Taki, Junichi; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+). The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (PFIFA 11+ program.

  6. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuke Nakase

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+. The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. RESULTS: FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program.

  7. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, were tested for markers of muscular (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and renal (creatinine, cystatin C functions. eGFR was calculated with two formulas based on either serum creatinine concentration (MDRD or serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations (creatinine/cystatin C CKD EPI. Pre- and posttreatment differences were determined by Wilcoxon’s test; correlations were evaluated with Spearman’s test. Cryostimulation helped muscular recovery (increased lactate dehydrogenase activity (P<0.001 and the stabile creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Creatinine was unaffected while cystatin C was increased (P=0.013. Creatinine-based eGFR was not affected by cryostimulation, while creatinine/cystatin C-based eGFR showed a slight decrease (P=0.015. eGFR and muscular biomarkers were not correlated, suggesting a real recovery effect of cryotherapy. Cystatin C seemed more sensible than creatinine in evaluating the kidney function.

  8. Field-frequency locked in vivo proton MRS on a whole-body spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P G; van de Moortele, P F; Giacomini, E; Nauerth, A; Bloch, G

    1999-10-01

    The stability of the main magnetic field is critical for prolonged in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquisitions, especially for difference spectroscopy. This study was focused on the implementation and optimization of a field-frequency lock (FFL) on a whole body spectrometer, to correct the main field drift during localized proton MRS of the human brain. The FFL was achieved through a negative feed-back applied in real time on the Z0 shim coil current, after calculation of the frequency shift from a reference signal. This signal was obtained from the whole head with a small flip angle acquisition interleaved with the PRESS acquisition of interest. To avoid propagation of the important short-term time-correlated fluctuations of the head water frequency (mainly due to respiratory motion) onto Z0 correction, the sampling rate of the reference frequency and the smoothing window for the Z0 correction were carefully optimized. Thus, an effective FFL was demonstrated in vivo with no significant increase of the short-term variance of the water frequency. Magn Reson Med 1999 42:636-642, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    clinically healthy adult male rhesus maca - ques (M. mulatta), 7–13 kg and 5–14 years of age, were obtained from the non-naı̈ve pool of NHPs of the US...11/9/2009. 15 Reinhardt V: Space utilization by captive rhesus maca - ques. Anim Technol 1992; 43:11–7. 16 Rosoff CB: Role of intestinal bacteria in the

  10. Ciprofloxacin Enhances Stress Erythropoiesis in Spleen and Increases Survival after Whole-Body Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Assessment, Immunofluorencent Staining and Confocal Microscopic Analyses Spleen and kidney specimens were collected from euthanized animals on the days...DAPI (Life Technologies Corporation, Grand Island, NY). A Zeiss LSM710 laser scanning confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging; Thornwood, NY) with...ciprofloxacin in TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13: 557–565. 9. Thia KT, Mahadevan U, Feagan BG, Wong C, Cockeram A, et al. (2009) Ciprofloxacin

  11. Immunohistochemical study of postnatal neurogenesis after whole-body exposure to electromagnetic fields: evaluation of age- and dose-related changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendácová, Judita; Raceková, Eniko; Orendác, Martin; Martoncíková, Marcela; Saganová, Kamila; Lievajová, Kamila; Abdiová, Henrieta; Labun, Ján; Gálik, Ján

    2009-09-01

    It is well established that strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can give rise to acute health effects, such as burns, which can be effectively prevented by respecting exposure guidelines and regulations. Current concerns are instead directed toward the possibility that long-term exposure to weak EMF might have detrimental health effects due to some biological mechanism, to date unknown. (1) The possible risk due to pulsed EMF at frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) on rat postnatal neurogenesis was studied in relation to the animal's age, duration of the exposure dose, and post-irradiation survival. (2) Proliferating cells marker, BrdU, was used to map age- and dose-related immunohistochemical changes within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) after whole-body exposure of newborn (P7) and senescent (24 months) rats. (3) Two dose-related exposure patterns were performed to clarify the cumulative effect of EMF: short-term exposure dose, 2 days irradiation (4 h/day), versus long-term exposure dose, 3 days irradiation (8 h/day), both followed by acute (24 h) and chronic (1-4 weeks) post-irradiation survival. (4) We found that the EMF induces significant age- and dose-dependent changes in proliferating cell numbers within the RMS. Our results indicate that the concerns about the possible risk of EMF generated in connection with production, transmission, distribution, and the use of electrical equipment and communication sets are justified at least with regard to early postnatal neurogenesis.

  12. Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, I. J. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. This study assessed individual factors, work-related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline

  13. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  14. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, T.; Rider, P.; DeVita, P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50Hz depressed the H-reflex

  15. Coordination of wing and whole-body development at developmental milestones ensures robustness against environmental and physiological perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marisa M; Shingleton, Alexander W; Mirth, Christen K

    2014-06-01

    Development produces correctly patterned tissues under a wide range of conditions that alter the rate of development in the whole body. We propose two hypotheses through which tissue patterning could be coordinated with whole-body development to generate this robustness. Our first hypothesis states that tissue patterning is tightly coordinated with whole-body development over time. The second hypothesis is that tissue patterning aligns at developmental milestones. To distinguish between our two hypotheses, we developed a staging scheme for the wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae using the expression of canonical patterning genes, linking our scheme to three whole-body developmental events: moulting, larval wandering and pupariation. We used our scheme to explore how the progression of pattern changes when developmental time is altered either by changing temperature or by altering the timing of hormone synthesis that drives developmental progression. We found the expression pattern in the wing disc always aligned at moulting and pupariation, indicating that these key developmental events represent milestones. Between these milestones, the progression of pattern showed greater variability in response to changes in temperature and alterations in physiology. Furthermore, our data showed that discs from wandering larvae showed greater variability in patterning stage. Thus for wing disc patterning, wandering does not appear to be a developmental milestone. Our findings reveal that tissue patterning remains robust against environmental and physiological perturbations by aligning at developmental milestones. Furthermore, our work provides an important glimpse into how the development of individual tissues is coordinated with the body as a whole.

  16. An accurate 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method for mouse whole-body skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Wimberley, Catriona; Gregoire, Marie C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Small animal image registration is challenging because of its joint structure, and posture and position difference in each acquisition without a standard scan protocol. In this paper, we face the issue of mouse whole-body skeleton registration from CT images. A novel method is developed for analyzing mouse hind-limb and fore-limb postures based on geodesic path descriptor and then registering the major skeletons and fore limb skeletons initially by thin-plate spline (TPS) transform based on the obtained geodesic paths and their enhanced correspondence fields. A target landmark correction method is proposed for improving the registration accuracy of the improved 3D shape context non-rigid registration method we previously proposed. A novel non-rigid registration framework, combining the skeleton posture analysis, geodesic path based initial alignment and 3D shape context model, is proposed for mouse whole-body skeleton registration. The performance of the proposed methods and framework was tested on 12 pairs of mouse whole-body skeletons. The experimental results demonstrated the flexibility, stability and accuracy of the proposed framework for automatic mouse whole body skeleton registration.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MRI using a sorted atlas approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    Quantitative whole-body PET/MR imaging is challenged by the lack of accurate and robust strategies for attenuation correction. In this work, a new pseudo-CT generation approach, referred to as sorted atlas pseudo-CT (SAP), is proposed for accurate extraction of bones and estimation of lung

  18. Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has recently been linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been suggested to affect glucose metabolism. To determine whether acute IL-6 administration affects whole-body glucose kinetics or muscle glucose uptake, 18 healthy young men were assigned to one of thr...

  19. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body…

  20. The fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for recognition of whole-body vibration injury as an occupational disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, C. T. J.; van der Laan, G.; Braam, I. T. J.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset