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Sample records for whole-body imaging initial

  1. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  2. Combined arterial and venous whole-body MR angiography with cardiac MR imaging in patients with thromboembolic disease - initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Florian M.; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herborn, Christoph U. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Medical Prevention Center Hamburg (MPCH) at University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ruehm, Stefan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kroger, Knut [University Hospital Essen, Department of Angiology, Essen (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of a combined arterial and venous whole-body three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, together with a cardiac MR examination, in patients with arterial thromboembolism. Ten patients with arterial thromboembolism underwent a contrast-enhanced whole-body MR examination of the arterial and venous vessels, followed by a cardiac MR examination on a separate occasion within 24 h. All examinations were performed on a 1.5-T MR scanner. For both arterial and venous MR angiography only one injection of contrast agent was necessary. The cardiac imaging protocol included dark-blood-prepared half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, fast steady-state free precession cine sequences, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequences and inversion recovery gradient-echo fast low-angle-shot sequences after injection of contrast agent. MR imaging revealed additional clinically unknown arterial thromboembolisms in four patients. The thoracic aorta was depicted as embolic source in four patients, while deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found in one patient as the underlying disease. Unsuspected infarction of parenchymal organs was detected by MRI in two patients. An unknown additional DVT was found in one patient. Four patients were considered to have arterial emboli of cardiac origin. In conclusion, acquisition of arterial and venous MR angiograms of the entire vascular system combined with cardiac MR imaging is a most comprehensive and valuable strategy in patients with arterial thromboembolism. (orig.)

  3. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  4. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a relatively new technique that can enable assessment of the overall inflammatory status of people with arthritis, but standards for image acquisition, definitions of key pathologies, and a quantification system are required. Our aim...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...... was initially performed, searching for WB-MRI studies in arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthritis, or enthesitis. These results were presented to a meeting of the MRI in Arthritis Working Group together with an MR image review. Following this, preliminary standards for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritides...

  5. Feasibility of differential phase contrast CT for whole body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Bevins, Nicholas B.; Zambelli, Joseph N.; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast based imaging techniques have shown improved contrast in certain biological materials. This has led to an increased interest for the potential of preclinical and clinical imaging systems that incorporate phase sensitive imaging techniques. However, the interplay between the phase contrast mechanism and the so-called small-angle scattering or dark-field mechanism is often not considered. In this work we explore the potential for phase-sensitive whole body imaging by imaging a freshly euthanized specimen. The results suggest that when extrapolating phantom and ex vivo results to whole body imaging, one must consider the complex anatomy of the entire body and its effect on each contrast mechanism.

  6. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dae Ho; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Jai Soung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Duek Lin; Chung, Nak Eun; Lee, Bong Woo; Seo, Joong Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Materials and Methods Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16-channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Results Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. Conclusion A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations. PMID:20592923

  7. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Paik, Sang Hyun [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16- channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations

  8. Towards whole-body fluorescence imaging in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Piper

    Full Text Available Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (~10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively. When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases.

  9. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  10. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  11. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Kramer, Harald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Glaser, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The advent of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic and functional approach compared with established sequential, multimodal diagnostic algorithms.Whole-body PET with [18F]-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose is a useful imaging procedure for tumor staging and monitoring that can visualize active tumor tissue by detecting pathological glucose metabolism. The combination of PET with the detailed anatomical information of multislice computed tomography as dual-modality scanners has markedly increased lesion localization and diagnostic accuracy compared with both modalities as standalone applications.Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5 and, recently, 3 T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high-resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomical coverage in a multiplanar imaging approach. More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported. However, larger patient cohort studies will have to show the cost efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of such an approach.For initial tumor staging, PET-CT has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, mainly because of the missing metabolic information in WB-MRI. However, new applications, such as magnetic resonance whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging or lymphotropic contrast

  12. Role of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing early spondyloarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Ann-Kathrin; Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sieper, Joachim [Department of Rheumatology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kgh@charite.de

    2009-08-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototypical spondyloarthritis. Early diagnosis has gained clinical importance with the advent of new therapeutic options such as TNF-{alpha} inhibitors, which can dramatically improve clinical outcome when initiated early. Whole-body MRI can contribute important diagnostic information for detecting early forms of spondyloarthritis because it enables evaluation of all important joints that may be involved in the disease process as a one-stop shop modality. MRI allows much more accurate diagnostic evaluation of the thoracic spine, which is affected in the majority of patients. This article provides an overview of the use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spondyloarthritides. The recommendations given reflect the most recent scientific data and expert opinions. The focus of this review is on MRI findings at both the axial and the appendicular skeleton and the technical feasibility of whole-body MRI in the clinical setting.

  13. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection performance in whole-body PET oncology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E.; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Swensson, Richard G.; Trebossen, Regine; Bendriem, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    This work presents initial results from observer detection performance studies using the same volume visualization software tools that are used in clinical PET oncology imaging. Research into the FORE+OSEM and FORE+AWOSEM statistical image reconstruction methods tailored to whole- body 3D PET oncology imaging have indicated potential improvements in image SNR compared to currently used analytic reconstruction methods (FBP). To assess the resulting impact of these reconstruction methods on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors, we use a non- Monte Carlo technique to generate multiple statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data, based on an extended MCAT phantom and with clinically realistic levels of statistical noise. For each realization, we add a fixed number of randomly located 1 cm diam. lesions whose contrast is varied among pre-calibrated values so that the range of true positive fractions is well sampled. The observer is told the number of tumors and, similar to the AFROC method, asked to localize all of them. The true positive fraction for the three algorithms (FBP, FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM) as a function of lesion contrast is calculated, although other protocols could be compared. A confidence level for each tumor is also recorded for incorporation into later AFROC analysis.

  14. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    , was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical FDG patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994

  15. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  17. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Static whole body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15–20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole body PET acquisition protocol of ~45min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6-min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (6 passes x 7 bed positions, each scanned for 45sec). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares (OLS) Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of 10 different clinically

  18. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  19. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  20. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  1. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  2. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake,

  3. Predictive value of longitudinal whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, M; Hielscher, T; Wagner, B; Sauer, S; Shah, S; Raab, M S; Jauch, A; Neben, K; Hose, D; Egerer, G; Weber, M A; Delorme, S; Goldschmidt, H; Hillengass, J

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the relevance of focal lesions (FL) in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (wb-MRI) at the initial workup of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of longitudinal wb-MRIs on progression into multiple myeloma (MM). Sixty-three patients with SMM were analyzed who received at least two wb-MRIs for follow-up before progression into MM. Radiological progressive disease (MRI-PD) was defined as detection of new FL or increase in diameter of existing FL and a novel or progressive diffuse infiltration. Radiological stable disease (MRI-SD) was defined by no change compared with the prior MRI. Patients were followed-up every 3-6 months, including a serological and clinical evaluation. One Hundred and eighty-two wb-MRIs were analyzed. MRI-PD occurred in 31 patients (49%), and 25 (40%) patients developed MM. MRI-PD was highly significantly associated with progression into MM, regardless of findings at the initial MRI. In multivariate analysis, MRI-PD remained a risk factor, independent of relevant baseline parameters like serum monoclonal protein or ⩾95% aberrant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Patients with MRI-SD had no higher risk of progression, even when FL were present at the initial MRI. Therefore, MRI is suitable for the follow-up of patients with SMM.

  4. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  5. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  6. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  7. Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Hara, Takamitsu; Nanbu, Takeyuki; Suenaga, Hiroki; Sugawara, Shigeyasu; Kuroiwa, Daichi; Sekino, Hirofumi; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy. Although there have been several reports that adding diffusion weighted image (DWI) to PET/MRI protocol has had no effect on tumor detection to date, in cases of liver, kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer, the use of DWI may be beneficial in detecting lesions. Another possible option is to scan each region with different MRI sequences instead of scanning the whole body using one sequence continuously. We herein report a workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI using an integrated system in the clinical routine, designed for the detection, for example by cancer screening, of metastatic lesions, in order to help future users optimize their workflow and imaging protocols.

  8. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  9. [Whole-body MRI and FDG-PET/CT imaging diagnostics in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G P; Haug, A; Reiser, M F; Rist, C

    2010-04-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced a systemic approach to oncologic imaging compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as whole-body scanners at 1.5 Tesla and also recently 3 Tesla, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made WB-MRI clinically feasible. With this method dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, high spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage.PET/CT has established itself as a powerful modality in the staging of patients suffering from malignant tumors. In addition to the morphologic information provided by the CT component of this hybrid modality, the PET component contributes invaluable metabolic information, which greatly enhances accuracy in the assessment of lymphatic spread and viability of tumor tissue. Whole-body MR diffusion imaging is a novel and promising technique which may contribute to superior sensitivity in the detection of tumor manifestations. In the assessment of distant metastatic spread WB-MRI is highly sensitive and has advantages over PET/CT, especially in those tumors frequently spreading to the liver, bone or brain. WB-MRI is also very attractive as a radiation-free alternative for imaging of pediatric tumor patients in whom multiple follow-up examinations may be required.WB-MRI allows for precise assessment of the bone marrow and has been proven to be highly accurate for the staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma. In this article recent developments and applications of WB-MRI in oncologic imaging are addressed and compared to the results of PET/CT.

  10. An update on novel quantitative techniques in the context of evolving whole-body PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation PET has established itself as one of the standard imaging modalities enabling the quantitative assessment of molecular targets in vivo. In the past two decades, quantitative PET has become a necessity in clinical oncology. Despite introduction of various measures...... for quantification and correction of PET parameters, there is debate on the selection of the appropriate methodology in specific diseases and conditions. In this review, we have focused on these techniques with special attention to topics such as static and dynamic whole body PET imaging, tracer kinetic modeling...

  11. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  12. Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Whole-body MRI (W-B MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are two novel techniques that greatly facilitate the evaluation of many disorders of childhood. In the musculoskeletal system, these techniques primarily aid in the evaluation of the marrow, although there is increasing interest in the study of soft-tissue abnormalities with W-B MRI and of cartilage with DWI. The normal pattern of marrow transformation affects both modalities throughout childhood. Haematopoietic marrow has a much higher signal intensity than fatty marrow on W-B MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images (Darge et al. Eur J Radiol 68:289-298, 2008). Diffusion is greater in haematopoietic marrow than in fatty marrow and decreases in the skeleton with age (Jaramillo et al. Pediatr Radiol 34:S48, 2004). It is important therefore to remember that the entire skeleton is haematopoietic at birth and that there is a process of marrow transformation to fatty marrow. Marrow conversion proceeds from the fingers to the shoulders and from the toes to the hips. Within each bone, fatty marrow transformation begins in the epiphyses, and within the shaft of the long bones fatty marrow transformation begins at the diaphysis and proceeds towards the metaphyses. (orig.)

  13. RM de cuerpo entero, experiencia inicial Whole body MRI, initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Rombolá

    2008-09-01

    total of 13 controls made. The distribution of the muscle affection of polymiositis was registered in 1 case. Conclusions: The whole-body MRI represents an innovation diagnostic imaging tool and have the potential to compete in oncology and no oncology disease with another methodologies. The sensibility and specificity were proven, but the cost and non inclusion in tumor staging protocols limit the application.

  14. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  15. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroy, R.; Boisgard, R.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F.; Trebossen, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA/I2BM/SHFJ/LIME, F-91402 Orsay (France); Frouin, V. [CEA, DSV, DRR, DGF, F-91057 Evry (France); Cathier, P.; Duchesnay, E. [CEA/I2BM/Neurospin/LNAO, F-91190 Saclay (France); D; Nielsen, P.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together with physiological movements (heart beating, breathing, and bladder filling). The method was resistant to spillover and physiological movements, while other methods failed to obtain a correct segmentation. The radioactivity concentrations calculated with this method also showed an excellent correlation with the manual delineation of organs in a large set of preclinical images. In addition, it was faster, detected more organs, and extracted organs' mean time activity curves with a better confidence on the measure than manual delineation. (authors)

  16. Active scheduling of organ detection and segmentation in whole-body medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Peng, Zhigang; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-01-01

    With the advance of whole-body medical imaging technologies, computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is being scaled up to deal with multiple organs or anatomical structures simultaneously. Multiple tasks (organ detection/segmentation) in a CAD system are often highly dependent due to the anatomical context within a human body. In this paper, we propose a method to schedule multi-organ detection/segmentation based on information theory. The central idea is to schedule tasks in an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain. The scheduling rule is formulated to embed two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the scheduling criterion is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on two challenging CAD problems, multi-organ detection in whole-body CT and liver segmentation in PET-CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/segmentation, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with faster speed.

  17. Fast and memory-efficient Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction for whole-body PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Staelens, Steven; Van Holen, Roel; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kawrakow, Iwan; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2010-07-01

    Several studies have shown the benefit of an accurate system modeling using Monte Carlo techniques. For state-of-the-art whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, Monte Carlo-based image reconstruction is associated with a significant computational cost to calculate the system matrix as well as a large memory capacity to store it. In this article, the authors present a simulation-reconstruction framework to solve these problems on the Philips Gemini GS PET scanner. A fast, realistic system matrix simulation module was developed using egs_pet, which is an efficient PET simulation code based on EGSnrc. The generated system matrix was then used in a rotator-based ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) algorithm, which exploits the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical PET scanner. The system matrix was further compressed by using sparse storage techniques. The system matrix simulation took five days on 50 cores of Xeon 2.66 GHz, resulting in a system matrix of 2.01 GB. The entire system matrix could be stored in the main memory of a standard personal computer. The image quality in terms of contrast-noise trade-offs was considerably improved compared to a standard OS-EM algorithm. The image quality was also compared to the clinical software on the scanner using routine parameter settings. The contrast recovery coefficient of small hot spheres and cold spheres was significantly improved. The results indicated that the proposed framework could be used for this PET scanner with improved image quality. This method could also be applied to other state-of-the-art whole-body PET scanners and preclinical PET scanners with a similar shape.

  18. Biomechanical Model for Computing Deformations for Whole-Body Image Registration: A Meshless Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Patient-specific biomechanical models have been advocated as a tool for predicting deformations of soft body organs/tissue for medical image registration (aligning two sets of images) when differences between the images are large. However, complex and irregular geometry of the body organs makes generation of patient-specific biomechanical models very time consuming. Meshless discretisation has been proposed to solve this challenge. However, applications so far have been limited to 2-D models and computing single organ deformations. In this study, 3-D comprehensive patient-specific non-linear biomechanical models implemented using Meshless Total Lagrangian Explicit Dynamics (MTLED) algorithms are applied to predict a 3-D deformation field for whole-body image registration. Unlike a conventional approach which requires dividing (segmenting) the image into non-overlapping constituents representing different organs/tissues, the mechanical properties are assigned using the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm without the image segmentation. Verification indicates that the deformations predicted using the proposed meshless approach are for practical purposes the same as those obtained using the previously validated finite element models. To quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the predicted deformations, we determined the spatial misalignment between the registered (i.e. source images warped using the predicted deformations) and target images by computing the edge-based Hausdorff distance. The Hausdorff distance-based evaluation determines that our meshless models led to successful registration of the vast majority of the image features. PMID:26791945

  19. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects

  20. Design of the superconducting magnet for 9.4 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, Q.; Dai, Y.; Ni, Z.; Zhu, X.; Li, L.; Zhao, B.; Chen, S.

    2017-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for 9.4 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is designed and fabricated in Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this paper, the electromagnetic design methods of the main coils and compensating coils are presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed for all superconducting coils. The design of the superconducting shimming coils is also presented and the design of electromagnetic decoupling of the Z2 coils from the main coils is introduced. Stress and strain analysis with both averaged and detailed models is performed with finite element method. A quench simulation code with anisotropic continuum model and control volume method is developed by us and is verified by experimental study. By means of the quench simulation code, the quench protection system for the 9.4 T magnet is designed for the main coils, the compensating coils and the shimming coils. The magnet cryostat design with zero helium boiling-off technology is also introduced.

  1. Whole-body FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for staging primary breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, C.; Heusner, T.A. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, J.; Hahn, S.; Lauenstein, T. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Hecktor, J.; Kuemmel, S. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Essen (Germany); Otterbach, F. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, G. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    This retrospective study aimed (1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body FDG PET/CT for initial breast cancer staging with the accuracy of a conventional, multimodal imaging algorithm, and (2) to assess potential alteration in patient management based on the FDG PET/CT findings. Patients with primary breast cancer (106 women, mean age 57 {+-} 13 years) underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging (X-ray mammography, MR mammography, chest plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and breast, axillary and liver ultrasonography). The diagnostic accuracies of FDG PET/CT and a conventional algorithm were compared. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in terms of primary tumour detection rate, correct assessment of primary lesion focality, T stage and the detection rates for lymph node and distant metastases. Histopathology, imaging or clinical follow-up served as the standards of reference. FDG PET/CT was significantly more accurate for detecting axillary lymph node and distant metastases (p = 0.0125 and p < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were detected for other parameters. Synchronous tumours or locoregional extraaxillary lymph node or distant metastases were detected in 14 patients (13%) solely by FDG PET/CT. Management of 15 patients (14%) was altered based on the FDG PET/CT findings, including 3 patients with axillary lymph node metastases, 5 patients with extraaxillary lymph node metastases, 4 patients with distant metastases and 3 patients with synchronous malignancies. Full-dose, intravenous contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT was more accurate than conventional imaging for initial breast cancer staging due to the higher detection rate of metastases and synchronous tumours, although the study had several limitations including a retrospective design, a possible selection bias and a relevant false-positive rate for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases. FDG PET/CT resulted in a change of treatment in a substantial proportion of

  2. Segmentation of Skeleton and Organs in Whole-Body CT Images via Iterative Trilateration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, Marie; Peter, Loic; Nekolla, Stephan G; Eiber, Matthias; Langs, Georg; Schwaiger, Markus; Menze, Bjoern

    2017-11-01

    Whole body oncological screening using CT images requires a good anatomical localisation of organs and the skeleton. While a number of algorithms for multi-organ localisation have been presented, developing algorithms for a dense anatomical annotation of the whole skeleton, however, has not been addressed until now. Only methods for specialised applications, e.g., in spine imaging, have been previously described. In this work, we propose an approach for localising and annotating different parts of the human skeleton in CT images. We introduce novel anatomical trilateration features and employ them within iterative scale-adaptive random forests in a hierarchical fashion to annotate the whole skeleton. The anatomical trilateration features provide high-level long-range context information that complements the classical local context-based features used in most image segmentation approaches. They rely on anatomical landmarks derived from the previous element of the cascade to express positions relative to reference points. Following a hierarchical approach, large anatomical structures are segmented first, before identifying substructures. We develop this method for bone annotation but also illustrate its performance, although not specifically optimised for it, for multi-organ annotation. Our method achieves average dice scores of 77.4 to 85.6 for bone annotation on three different data sets. It can also segment different organs with sufficient performance for oncological applications, e.g., for PET/CT analysis, and its computation time allows for its use in clinical practice.

  3. Whole-body imaging of whole-organ, subresolution, basic functional unit (BFU) perfusion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-08-01

    A BFU is an organ's smallest assembly of diverse cells that functions like the organ, such as the liver's hepatic lobules. There are approximately 107 BFUs in a human organ. These 100-200 μm structures are perfused by capillaries fed by a terminal arteriole (15μm diameter). BFU sizes, function and number per organ vary with disease, either by loss of BFUs and/or their decrease in function. The BFU is the upper limit of a spherical assembly of cells, immersed in a suitably nutrient medium, which can survive without its own blood supply. However, each BFU has its own blood supply to support the extra energy and/or solutes needed for providing its physiological function (e.g., contraction or secretion). A BFU function is best evaluated by its micro-perfusion, which can be readily evaluated with whole-body CT. Resolution of individual BFUs within in-situ organs, using clinical imaging devices, would require high radiation doses and/or the intolerably long scan-durations needed for suitable signal-to-noise image-data. However, it is possible to obtain a statistical description of the BFU number, size and function from wholebody CT by way of a model. In this study we demonstrate this capability by using the distribution of myocardial terminal arteriolar perfusion territories by way of a nested, multiple, regions-of-interest analysis of the heart wall imaged during transient opacification of its blood supply.

  4. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Reese, Timothy G. [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  5. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-Nicotine from Whole-Body PET Imaging in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pradeep K; Lokitz, Stephen J; Nazih, Rachid; Garg, Sudha

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the in vivo distribution of 11C-nicotine and the absorbed radiation dose from whole-body 11C-nicotine PET imaging of 11 healthy (5 male and 6 female) subjects. Methods: After an initial CT attenuation scan, 11C-nicotine was administered via intravenous injection. A dynamic PET scan was acquired for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of 13 whole-body PET scans acquired over a 90-min period. Regions of interest were drawn over organs visible in the reconstructed PET images. Time-activity curves were generated, and the residence times were calculated. The absorbed radiation dose for the whole body was calculated by entering the residence time in OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software to model the equivalent organ dose and the effective dose for a 70-kg man. Results: The mean residence times for 11C-nicotine in the liver, red marrow, brain, and lungs were 0.048 ± 0.010, 0.031 ± 0.005, 0.021 ± 0.004, and 0.020 ± 0.005 h, respectively. The mean effective dose for 11C-nicotine was 5.44 ± 0.67 μSv/MBq. The organs receiving the highest absorbed dose from the 11C-nicotine injection were the urinary bladder wall (14.68 ± 8.70 μSv/MBq), kidneys (9.56 ± 2.46 μSv/MBq), liver (8.94 ± 1.67 μSv/MBq), and spleen (9.49 ± 3.89 μSv/MBq). The renal and hepatobiliary systems were the major clearance and excretion routes for radioactivity. Conclusion: The estimated radiation dose from 11C-nicotine administration is relatively modest and would allow for multiple PET examinations on the same subject. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Combined Whole Body and Multiparametric Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a 1-Step Approach to the Simultaneous Assessment of Local Recurrence and Metastatic Disease after Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Nicola L; Sala, Evis; Benz, Matthias; Landa, Jonathan; Scardino, Peter; Scher, Howard I; Hricak, Hedvig; Vargas, Hebert A

    2017-07-01

    We report our initial experience with whole body and dedicated prostate magnetic resonance imaging as a single examination to assess local recurrence and metastatic disease in patients with suspected recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. In this institutional review board approved, retrospective, single center study 76 consecutive patients with clinically suspected recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy underwent combined whole body and dedicated prostate magnetic resonance imaging at a single session from October 2014 to January 2016. Scans were evaluated to detect disease in the prostate bed and regional nodes, and at distant sites. Comparison was made to other imaging tests, and prostate bed, node and bone biopsies performed within 90 days. Whole body and dedicated prostate magnetic resonance imaging was completed successfully in all patients. Median prostate specific antigen was 0.36 ng/ml (range less than 0.05 to 56.12). Whole body and dedicated prostate magnetic resonance imaging identified suspected disease recurrence in 16 of 76 patients (21%), including local recurrence in the radical prostatectomy bed in 6, nodal metastases in 3, osseous metastases in 4 and multifocal metastatic disease in 3. In 43 patients at least 1 standard staging scan was done in addition to whole body and dedicated prostate magnetic resonance imaging. Concordance was demonstrated between the imaging modalities in 36 of 43 cases (84%). All metastatic lesions detected by other imaging tests were detected on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the magnetic resonance imaging modality detected osseous metastases in 4 patients with false-negative findings on other imaging tests, including 2 bone scans and 3 computerized tomography scans. It also excluded osseous disease in 1 patient with positive 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography and subsequent negative bone biopsy. Combined whole body and dedicated

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MRI using a sorted atlas approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    Quantitative whole-body PET/MR imaging is challenged by the lack of accurate and robust strategies for attenuation correction. In this work, a new pseudo-CT generation approach, referred to as sorted atlas pseudo-CT (SAP), is proposed for accurate extraction of bones and estimation of lung

  8. Whole-body vibration: is there a causal relationship to specific imaging findings of the spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Choemprayong, Songphan; O'Neill, Kevin R; Devin, Clinton J; Spengler, Dan M

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review. To perform a systematic review of the available literature for those studies that evaluated the role of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spine, using imaging modalities as well as an estimation of WBV exposure. Numerous comparative studies have reported a possible association between the occurrence of spinal symptoms and exposure to WBV. These exposures have commonly been examined in the work environment largely through self-reported questionnaires only. From a scientific perspective, the majority of studies emphasize symptoms and lack objective medical evidence, such as spinal imaging, to help establish a specific spinal disorder. Because both neck and low back pain comprise symptoms that can arise from a host of factors including age, a casual link between spinal disorders and WBV cannot be affirmed. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies related to WBV and spinal symptoms, diagnosis, and/or disorders. Our searches were limited to studies published prior to August 2011. The resulting 700 citations (after excluding 354 duplicates) were then screened by 3 independent reviewers on the basis of the following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria: inclusion-clinical studies with imaging evaluation (radiographs, computed tomographic scans, and/or magnetic resonance images) and documented WBV exposure (occupation, amount of WBV, and/or duration); exclusion-reliance solely on self-reporting of symptoms (neck pain, low back pain, and/or sciatica), those articles based on a clinical diagnosis without use of imaging, and in vitro/animal/biomechanical studies. Only 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Included were 5 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies. Although mixed results and conclusions were found, the majority of studies did not identify an association between WBV exposure and an abnormal spinal imaging finding indicating damage of the spine. We should also stress that each included study has

  9. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  10. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)

  11. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  12. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2014-01-01

    ]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  13. Feasibility of functional cardiac MR imaging in mice using a clinical 3 Tesla whole body scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, Alexander C; Engelen, Markus A; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Furkert, Juliane; Bremer, Christoph; Heindel, Walter; Stypmann, Jörg; Maintz, David

    2009-12-01

    To test the feasibility of cardiac MR imaging in mice using a clinical 3 Tesla whole body MR system for structural and functional analysis. Standard protocols for bright blood cine imaging were adapted for murine dimensions. To validate measurements of functional parameters the MR data were compared with high-resolution echocardiographic measurements. Cardiac imaging was carried out in CD 1 wild-type mice (n = 8). MR imaging studies were performed using a clinical 3 Tesla MR system (Achieva, Philips). All mice received 2 MR scans and 1 echocardiographic evaluation. For optimal MR signal detection a dedicated solenoid receive-only coil was used. Electrocardiogram signal was recorded using a dedicated small animal electrocardiogram monitoring unit. For imaging we used a retrospectively triggered TFE sequence with a repetition time of 12 ms and an echo time of 4 ms. A dedicated software patch allowed for triggering of cardiac frequency of up to 600 BPM. Doppler-echocardiography was performed using a VisualSonics Vevo 770 high-resolution imaging system with a 30 MHz scanhead. Axial/lateral resolution was 40 of 100 microm and temporal resolution was 150 to 300 frames/s (B-mode) and 1000 frames/s (M-mode) depending on the setting. MR imaging was successfully carried out in all mice with a sufficient temporal resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio levels allowing for identification of all relevant structures. Accordingly, there was a good scan-rescan reproducibility of MR measurements: Interassay coefficients of variance ranged from 4% for ejection fraction to 12% for endsystolic volume (ESV). Magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography gave comparable results when using the same geometric model (Teichholz method): EDV: 60.2 +/- 6.1 microL/59.1 +/- 12.3 microL, ESV: 20.0 +/- 2.6 microL/20.7 +/- 7.7 microL, EF: 66.7% +/- 4.0%/65.2% +/- 9.9%, CO 19.5 +/- 3.6 mL/17.9 +/- 2.9 mL. Bland-Altman analysis gave acceptable limits of agreement

  14. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  15. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation-maximization reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Casey, Michael E.; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible 18F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation-maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published 18F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10-20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  16. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  17. Cryo-sectioning of mice for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging - a simplified approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okutan, Seda; Hansen, Harald S; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites in mice with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI). Unlike most previous approaches to whole-body imaging which are based on cryo-sectioning using a cryo-macrotome, the presented approach...... bodyweight which is comparable to the normal prescribed human dose. The simultaneous imaging of endogenous and exogenous compounds facilitates registration of the drug images to certain organs in the body by colored-overlay of the two types of images. The method represents a relatively low-cost approach...... to simple, sensitive and highly selective whole-body imaging in drug distribution and metabolism studies....

  18. Clinical Muscle Testing Compared with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Facio-scapulo-humeral Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J U; Jestaedt, L; Jende, F; Bartsch, A; Meinck, H-M; Weber, M-A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In 20 patients with genetically proven FSHD1, we prospectively assessed muscular involvement and correlated the results of semi-quantitative manual muscle testing and other parameters such as disease duration, creatine kinase (CK) levels and repeat length of the D4Z4 locus with whole-body MRI. Clinical muscle testing revealed the trapezius, pectoralis and infraspinatus as the most severely affected muscles in the shoulder, and the knee flexors and gluteus medius in the hip girdle. MRI revealed the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles in the shoulder, and the hamstrings and adductor muscles in the hip girdle, as the most severely affected muscle groups. Overall, degrees of fatty degeneration on MRI scans correlated significantly with clinical weakness. Moreover, we could detect clear affection of the trunk muscles. Corresponding to earlier reports, asymmetric involvement was frequent in both clinical examination and MRI scoring. Moreover, MRI revealed inhomogeneous muscle degeneration in a considerable proportion of both, muscles and patients. Both clinical and MRI scores significantly correlated to disease duration, but not to fragment size or CK levels. Fatty degeneration in whole-body MRI correlates well to clinical muscle testing of the extremities but gives more information on deeper or trunk muscles. It shows structural changes in muscular disorders and may become an excellent tool for assessment of muscle involvement and follow-up studies.

  19. Whole-body PET/MRI: The effect of bone attenuation during MR-based attenuation correction in oncology imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Sersar, Rachida; Saabye, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In combined PET/MRI standard PET attenuation correction (AC) is based on tissue segmentation following dedicated MR sequencing and, typically, bone tissue is not represented. We evaluate PET quantification in whole-body (WB)-PET/MRI following MR-AC without considering bone attenuation...... and then investigate different strategies to account for bone tissue in clinical PET/MR imaging. To this purpose, bone tissue representation was extracted from separate CT images, and different bone representations were simulated from hypothetically derived MR-based bone classifications. Methods: Twenty oncology...

  20. Automated analysis of whole skeletal muscle for muscular atrophy detection of ALS in whole-body CT images: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Ieda, Kosuke; Zhou, Xiangrong; Yamada, Megumi; Kato, Hiroki; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Inuzuka, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes functional disorders such as difficulty in breathing and swallowing through the atrophy of voluntary muscles. ALS in its early stages is difficult to diagnose because of the difficulty in differentiating it from other muscular diseases. In addition, image inspection methods for aggressive diagnosis for ALS have not yet been established. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic analysis system of the whole skeletal muscle to support the early differential diagnosis of ALS using whole-body CT images. In this study, the muscular atrophy parts including ALS patients are automatically identified by recognizing and segmenting whole skeletal muscle in the preliminary steps. First, the skeleton is identified by its gray value information. Second, the initial area of the body cavity is recognized by the deformation of the thoracic cavity based on the anatomical segmented skeleton. Third, the abdominal cavity boundary is recognized using ABM for precisely recognizing the body cavity. The body cavity is precisely recognized by non-rigid registration method based on the reference points of the abdominal cavity boundary. Fourth, the whole skeletal muscle is recognized by excluding the skeleton, the body cavity, and the subcutaneous fat. Additionally, the areas of muscular atrophy including ALS patients are automatically identified by comparison of the muscle mass. The experiments were carried out for ten cases with abnormality in the skeletal muscle. Global recognition and segmentation of the whole skeletal muscle were well realized in eight cases. Moreover, the areas of muscular atrophy including ALS patients were well identified in the lower limbs. As a result, this study indicated the basic technology to detect the muscle atrophy including ALS. In the future, it will be necessary to consider methods to differentiate other kinds of muscular atrophy as well as the clinical application of this detection method for early ALS

  1. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiying; Jiang, Huiyan; Yang, Qiyao; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoxu

    2017-01-01

    The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS) method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD) method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair) of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = -0.933) on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826) on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = -0.496, ED = 25.847) and the compared method (NC = -0.614, ED = 16.085). Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one.

  2. A Registration Method Based on Contour Point Cloud for 3D Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PET and CT fusion image, combining the anatomical and functional information, has important clinical meaning. An effective registration of PET and CT images is the basis of image fusion. This paper presents a multithread registration method based on contour point cloud for 3D whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, a geometric feature-based segmentation (GFS method and a dynamic threshold denoising (DTD method are creatively proposed to preprocess CT and PET images, respectively. Next, a new automated trunk slices extraction method is presented for extracting feature point clouds. Finally, the multithread Iterative Closet Point is adopted to drive an affine transform. We compare our method with a multiresolution registration method based on Mattes Mutual Information on 13 pairs (246~286 slices per pair of 3D whole-body PET and CT data. Experimental results demonstrate the registration effectiveness of our method with lower negative normalization correlation (NC = −0.933 on feature images and less Euclidean distance error (ED = 2.826 on landmark points, outperforming the source data (NC = −0.496, ED = 25.847 and the compared method (NC = −0.614, ED = 16.085. Moreover, our method is about ten times faster than the compared one.

  3. In vivo quantification of {sup 177}Lu with planar whole-body and SPECT/CT gamma camera imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Dale L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Cumberland, NSW (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hennessy, Thomas M.; Willowson, Kathy P.; Henry, E. Courtney [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Chan, David L.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Aslani, Alireza [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Roach, Paul J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    2015-09-17

    Advances in gamma camera technology and the emergence of a number of new theranostic radiopharmaceutical pairings have re-awakened interest in in vivo quantification with single-photon-emitting radionuclides. We have implemented and validated methodology to provide quantitative imaging of {sup 177}Lu for 2D whole-body planar studies and for 3D tomographic imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. Whole-body planar scans were performed on subjects to whom a known amount of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate had been administered for therapy. The total radioactivity estimated from the images was compared with the known amount of the radionuclide therapy administered. In separate studies, venous blood samples were withdrawn from subjects after administration of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate while a SPECT acquisition was in progress and the concentration of the radionuclide in the venous blood sample compared with that estimated from large blood pool structures in the SPECT reconstruction. The total radioactivity contained within an internal SPECT calibration standard was also assessed. In the whole-body planar scans (n = 28), the estimated total body radioactivity was accurate to within +4.6 ± 5.9 % (range −17.1 to +11.2 %) of the correct value. In the SPECT reconstructions (n = 12), the radioactivity concentration in the cardiac blood pool was accurate to within −4.0 ± 7.8 % (range −16.1 to +7.5 %) of the true value and the internal standard measurements (n = 89) were within 2.0 ± 8.5 % (range −16.3 to +24.2 %) of the known amount of radioactivity contained. In our hands, state-of-the-art hybrid SPECT/CT gamma cameras were able to provide accurate estimates of in vivo radioactivity to better than, on average, ±10 % for use in biodistribution and radionuclide dosimetry calculations.

  4. The clinical value of routine whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje (Department of Radiology, Haraldspass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway); Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen (Norway)), Email: jtgeit@online.no; Eikeland, Joakim (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway)); Rosland, Jan Henrik (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway); Sunniva Clinic for Palliative Care, Haraldsplass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    Background. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has become an accessible method for detecting different types of pathologies both in the skeleton and the viscera, which may explain painful conditions, for example tumors and inflammation. Purpose. To assess a possible value of using WBMRI in order to improve palliative care. Material and Methods. Twenty patients (all eligible patients) admitted to the Department for Palliative Care were consecutively included in this study. They underwent a modified WBMRI, with fewer and shorter pulse sequences than in a standard WBMRI, to reduce patient stress. However, the patients' physicians were to exclude patients where little might be obtained and discomfort, distress, and pain could be induced. The treating physicians registered clinical utility directly after receiving the MRI report in a questionnaire. The registration was repeated after ended treatment. Results. Eighty percent had new findings detected, and 40% of the patients had a change in treatment due to the MRI result, mainly changes in analgesics and/or radiation therapy. Conclusion. The WBMRI helped the clinicians to improve treatment and a majority of the patients benefited from this. In eight patients the treatment was changed due to the results. The clinical value (utility) was indicated to be high

  5. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  6. Can diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI replace contrast-enhanced CT for initial staging of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regacini, Rodrigo; Puchnick, Andrea; Luisi, Flavio Augusto Vercillo; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2018-01-23

    Although positron emission tomography with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET/CT) has been recommended as the method of choice for lymphoma staging, it has limited availability in several countries, therefore, studies comparing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to conventional staging methods or to FDG-PET/CT are an important tool to establish whole-body MRI as an alternative to these methods. To compare whole-body MRI versus conventional imaging methods for staging of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. The study included 22 patients ages 5 to 21 years. Staging was performed using conventional imaging methods and whole-body MRI. Conventional imaging methods were defined as computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis and ultrasonography of the neck and/or abdomen. We calculated the sensitivity of these methods for Hodgkin lymphoma staging and their sensitivity and specificity for detecting sites of nodal and extranodal involvement. The sensitivity of whole-body MRI for Hodgkin lymphoma staging was superior to that of conventional imaging methods (95.5% vs. 86.4%, respectively), but both methods had similar sensitivity and specificity for detecting involvement of nodal sites (99.1% and 100% vs. 97.3% and 100%, respectively) and extranodal sites (90.5% and 98.7% vs. 90.5% and 99.4%, respectively). Whole-body MRI has excellent sensitivity for staging of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. It can thus be considered an alternative for this purpose, particularly because it does not expose patients to ionizing radiation.

  7. A Novel Fusion Framework Based on Adaptive PCNN in NSCT Domain for Whole-Body PET and CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PET and CT fusion images, combining the anatomical and functional information, have important clinical meaning. This paper proposes a novel fusion framework based on adaptive pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT domain for fusing whole-body PET and CT images. Firstly, the gradient average of each pixel is chosen as the linking strength of PCNN model to implement self-adaptability. Secondly, to improve the fusion performance, the novel sum-modified Laplacian (NSML and energy of edge (EOE are extracted as the external inputs of the PCNN models for low- and high-pass subbands, respectively. Lastly, the rule of max region energy is adopted as the fusion rule and different energy templates are employed in the low- and high-pass subbands. The experimental results on whole-body PET and CT data (239 slices contained by each modality show that the proposed framework outperforms the other six methods in terms of the seven commonly used fusion performance metrics.

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT of orofacial tumors, a value of whole-body imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)], E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Ferdova, Eva [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Zahlava, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Walter, Jiri [Department of Stomatosurgery, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mukensnabl, Petr; Daum, Ondrej [sikls Institute of Pathological Anatomy, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Plzen and Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: Staging of head and neck tumors is one of the most difficult tasks in imaging techniques, due to the very complicated head and neck anatomy and serious problems with the differentiation of reactive enlarged lymph nodes and lymph nodes involved with metastases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of the whole-body approach in the assessment of head and neck malignancies using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. Materials and methods: The analysis of a group of 1750 consecutive whole-body procedures in all indications of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was made according to: the presence of orofacial tumors; their histology; findings concerning the spread outside head and neck region; and findings concerning the primary staging or restaging. The examinations of head and neck tumors were performed after intravenous application of the {sup 18}F-FDG and its accumulation for one hour. Drinking and speaking is restricted during this accumulation to prevent artificial muscle {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and to minimize false positive findings. In our hospital, high resolution PET is followed by the sub-millimeter isotropic acquisition of CT data after intravenous application of an iodinated contrast material. The acquisitions of head and neck region and trunk are performed separately to obtain optimal resolution in both regions. Results: 105 examinations of the orofacial tumors were performed on 87 patients in a group of 1750 consecutive PET/CT examinations. The ratio between primary staging and restaging was 3:7. The most frequent indications were carcinomas of the tongue (19 examinations) and carcinomas of the salivary glands (19 examinations). The metastatic spread of the tumor outside the region of the head and neck was noted in 12 cases. Conclusion: Our findings of distant metastases confirmed the importance of the use of whole-body PET/CT in this indication.

  9. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  10. Partial volume correction of whole body PET images using the wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Guerrieri, Luca; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Franchi, Roberto; Boschi, Stefano; Marengo, Mario

    2008-04-01

    A general approach for partial volume correction of positron emission tomography (PET) images is introduced. The method is based on the merging of functional information from PET images and anatomical information using high resolution anatomical images. In order to decompose the PET and high resolution images the "á trous" algorithm was implemented. Results obtained with simulated and real patients images show a significant partial volume reduction and image enhancement. The relative errors in the partial volume corrected image are always less than 3,6% with respect to 16% of the original image.

  11. Implementation and performance evaluation of simultaneous PET/MR whole-body imaging with continuous table motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Harald; Ziegler, Susanne; Lentschig, Markus G; Quick, Harald H

    2014-01-01

    In current PET/MR systems, the data acquisition paradigm is based on a multistation examination, imaging the patient from hip to head. This strategy has potential limitations, especially in terms of workflow and PET acquisition efficiency. In this work, the technical implementation of simultaneous PET and MR data acquisition with continuous table motion (CTM) is presented. PET and MR data acquired with CTM are evaluated in terms of image quality with respect to table motion speed. Phantom, volunteer, and patient data were acquired on an integrated whole-body PET/MR system. Phantom experiments were used to systematically quantify image quality parameters including signal-to-noise ratio, geometric distortions, and artifacts in PET and MR scans as a function of different table speeds. Volunteer scans (n = 4) allowed evaluation of CTM MR protocols in a realistic setting, and patient scans (n = 3) were obtained to validate the technique in a clinical workflow. In phantoms, PET image quality, signal-to-noise ratio, geometry, and artifact behavior were found not to be influenced by continuous table motion over the evaluated table motion speeds from 0.8 to 4.6 mm/s. This also holds true for PET patient data where acquisitions were performed with varying table speeds of up to 46 mm/s. For MR, in most scans image quality of CTM scans was found to be comparable to the identical sequence acquired in multistation mode; however, some sequence features (e.g., signal intensity normalization) with impact on MR contrast are currently missing for CTM MR sequences. Data acquisition with continuous table motion in the PET/MR versus multistation acquisition scheme provides data of comparable quality in both PET and MR. This new acquisition paradigm potentially can provide a higher flexibility in simultaneous PET and MR whole-body data acquisition and facilitate examination planning and PET/MR hybrid imaging workflow.

  12. Computed tomography whole body imaging in multi-trauma: 7 years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, M.A. [Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: msampson@doctors.org.uk; Colquhoun, K.B.M. [Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Hennessy, N.L.M. [Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    AIM: To assess the impact of the introduction of a computed tomography (CT) imaging protocol for multi-trauma patients on the workload, overall diagnostic yield, and effect on detection of cervical spine injury and pneumothorax. METHOD: Between February 1997 and April 2004, all patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) with haemodynamically stable trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3 or more) involving more than two body systems were imaged with a comprehensive pre-set helical CT protocol (including non-contrast head, cervical spine: cranio-cervical and cervico-thoracic junctions; and oral and intravenous contrast-enhanced thoracic, abdomen and pelvis) after initial triage and a standard trauma series of radiographs (chest, lateral C-spine and pelvis). Diagnosis of cervical spine fracture and pneumothorax was noted before and after the CT protocol was carried out and findings from all studies were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Over the 7-year period 296 multi-trauma CT studies were completed of which 41 (13.8%) were negative. Of the positive cases there were 127 (43%) head injuries; 25 cervical spine fractures (8%); 66 pelvic fractures (22%);48 thoracic or lumbar spine fractures (16%); 97 pneumothoraces (33%); 22 mediastinal injuries (7%) and 49 intra-abdominal injuries (17%) with 19 (6%) splenic tears/ruptures. Positive findings included many unsuspected injuries, including 19 cervical spine fractures which were not demonstrated on the standard lateral radiograph from the resuscitation room. Of the 97 CT detected pneumothoraces, 12 were bilateral, 52 already had a chest drain in situ and 36 were not detected on initial supine chest radiography in the resuscitation room. One undetected case had bilateral tension pneumothoraces that were promptly drained on the CT table. Only three patients did not complete their multi-trauma examination because of deterioration in clinical condition and these were all immediately returned to the resuscitation

  13. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  14. Non rigid respiratory motion correction in whole body PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayad, Hadi [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, Brest (France); Schmidt, Holger [Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Wuerslin, Christian [University Hospital of Tübingen (Germany); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2014-07-29

    Respiratory motion in PET/MR imaging leads to reduced quantitative and qualitative image accuracy. Correction methodologies include the use of respiratory synchronized gated frames which lead to low signal to noise ratio (SNR) given that each frame contains only part of the count available throughout an average PET acquisition. In this work, 4D MRI extracted elastic transformations were applied to list-mode data either inside the image reconstruction or to the reconstructed respiratory synchronized images to obtain respiration corrected PET images.

  15. Whole body imaging in the abdominal cancer patient: pitfalls of PET-CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2012-02-01

    Proper interpretation of PET-CT images requires knowledge of the normal physiological distribution of the tracer, frequently encountered physiological variants, and benign pathological causes of FDG uptake that can be confused with a malignant neoplasm. In addition, not all malignant processes are associated with avid tracer uptake. A basic knowledge of the technique of image acquisition is also required to avoid pitfalls such as misregistration of anatomical and scintigraphic data. This article reviews these potential pitfalls as they apply to the abdomen and pelvis of patients with cancer.

  16. Clinical evaluation of 2D versus 3D whole-body PET image quality using a dedicated BGO PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvikis, D; Griffiths, D; Costa, D C; Bomanji, J; Ell, P J

    2005-09-01

    Three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D PET) results in higher system sensitivity, with an associated increase in the detection of scatter and random coincidences. The objective of this work was to compare, from a clinical perspective, 3D and two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions in terms of whole-body (WB) PET image quality with a dedicated BGO PET system. 2D and 3D WB emission acquisitions were carried out in 70 patients. Variable acquisition parameters in terms of time of emission acquisition per axial field of view (aFOV) and slice overlap between sequential aFOVs were used during the 3D acquisitions. 3D and 2D images were reconstructed using FORE+WLS and OSEM respectively. Scatter correction was performed by convolution subtraction and a model-based scatter correction in 2D and 3D respectively. All WB images were attenuation corrected using segmented transmission scans. Images were blindly assessed by three observers for the presence of artefacts, confidence in lesion detection and overall image quality using a scoring system. Statistically significant differences between 2D and 3D image quality were only obtained for 3D emission acquisitions of 3 min. No statistically significant differences were observed for image artefacts or lesion detectability scores. Image quality correlated significantly with patient weight for both modes of operation. Finally, no differences were seen in image artefact scores for the different axial slice overlaps considered, suggesting the use of five slice overlaps in 3D WB acquisitions. 3D WB imaging using a dedicated BGO-based PET scanner offers similar image quality to that obtained in 2D considering similar overall times of acquisitions.

  17. Clinical evaluation of 2D versus 3D whole-body PET image quality using a dedicated BGO PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [CHU Morvan, U650 INSERM, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), Brest (France); Griffiths, D. [Lister Healthcare, London PET Centre, London (United Kingdom); Costa, D.C. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); HPP Medicina Molecular, SA Porto (Portugal); Bomanji, J.; Ell, P.J. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D PET) results in higher system sensitivity, with an associated increase in the detection of scatter and random coincidences. The objective of this work was to compare, from a clinical perspective, 3D and two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions in terms of whole-body (WB) PET image quality with a dedicated BGO PET system. 2D and 3D WB emission acquisitions were carried out in 70 patients. Variable acquisition parameters in terms of time of emission acquisition per axial field of view (aFOV) and slice overlap between sequential aFOVs were used during the 3D acquisitions. 3D and 2D images were reconstructed using FORE+WLS and OSEM respectively. Scatter correction was performed by convolution subtraction and a model-based scatter correction in 2D and 3D respectively. All WB images were attenuation corrected using segmented transmission scans. Images were blindly assessed by three observers for the presence of artefacts, confidence in lesion detection and overall image quality using a scoring system. Statistically significant differences between 2D and 3D image quality were only obtained for 3D emission acquisitions of 3 min. No statistically significant differences were observed for image artefacts or lesion detectability scores. Image quality correlated significantly with patient weight for both modes of operation. Finally, no differences were seen in image artefact scores for the different axial slice overlaps considered, suggesting the use of five slice overlaps in 3D WB acquisitions. 3D WB imaging using a dedicated BGO-based PET scanner offers similar image quality to that obtained in 2D considering similar overall times of acquisitions. (orig.)

  18. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  19. MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING USING A CLINICAL WHOLE-BODY SYSTEM - AN INTRODUCTION TO A USEFUL TECHNIQUE IN SMALL ANIMAL-EXPERIMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; LAM, KH; MOOYAART, EL; BLEICHRODT, RP; NIEUWENHUIS, P; SCHAKENRAAD, JM

    A clinical whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with high resolution coils was used to obtain non-invasive images of the living rat. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the set-up and the advantages of this new imaging technique: detailed information, no extra costs,

  20. A very low-cost 3D scanning system for whole-body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost, high resolution 3D scanning system has been developed at the University of North Dakota that creates 3D models (complete with color and texture data) using hardware and software with a cost of approximately $5,000. This paper presents the design, testing and initial uses for this scanning hardware; it also discusses the efficacy of this technology for a variety of applications and the utility of being able to capture high-quality scans at low cost. A discussion of the required operating conditions and the limitations that this places on the applications the scanner is suitable for is also included.

  1. Clinically Occult Pituitary Adenoma Can Appear as a Hypermetabolic Lesion on Whole Body FDG PET Imaging in a Patient with Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç Karapolat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with a focus of intense hypermetabolism in the sellar region in the primary staging and posttreatment whole body F-18 FDG PET. Further evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging after posttreatment FDG PET revealed a pituitary adenoma. Endocrinologic workup was normal consistent with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and endocrinologists decided to follow up the patient by yearly magnetic resonance imaging. This case demonstrates a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma by whole body FDG PET and emphasizes the importance of pursuing incidental findings detected in the sella on PET imaging.

  2. Impact of detector design on imaging performance of a long axial field-of-view, whole-body PET scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, S.; Karp, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Current generation of commercial time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners utilize 20-25 mm thick LSO or LYSO crystals and have an axial FOV (AFOV) in the range of 16-22 mm. Longer AFOV scanners would provide increased intrinsic sensitivity and require fewer bed positions for whole-body imaging. Recent simulation work has investigated the sensitivity gains that can be achieved with these long AFOV scanners, and has motivated new areas of investigation such as imaging with a very low dose of injected activity as well as providing whole-body dynamic imaging capability in one bed position. In this simulation work we model a 72 cm long scanner and prioritize the detector design choices in terms of timing resolution, crystal size (spatial resolution), crystal thickness (detector sensitivity), and depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability. The generated list data are reconstructed with a list-mode OSEM algorithm using a Gaussian TOF kernel that depends on the timing resolution and blob basis functions for regularization. We use lesion phantoms and clinically relevant metrics for lesion detectability and contrast measurement. The scan time was fixed at 10 min for imaging a 100 cm long object assuming a 50% overlap between adjacent bed positions. Results show that a 72 cm long scanner can provide a factor of ten reduction in injected activity compared to an identical 18 cm long scanner to get equivalent lesion detectability. While improved timing resolution leads to further gains, using 3 mm (as opposed to 4 mm) wide crystals does not show any significant benefits for lesion detectability. A detector providing 2-level DOI information with equal crystal thickness also does not show significant gains. Finally, a 15 mm thick crystal leads to lower lesion detectability than a 20 mm thick crystal when keeping all other detector parameters (crystal width, timing resolution, and DOI capability) the same. However, improved timing performance with 15

  3. Comparison of MR-based attenuation correction vs. CT-based attenuation correction of Whole Body PET/MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Knesaurek, Karin; Narula, Jagat; Fuster, Valentin; Machac, Joseph; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of the built-in MR-based attenuation correction method (MRAC) included in the combined whole-body Ingenuity TF PET/MR scanner and compare it to the gold standard CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC). Methods Twenty-six patients undergoing clinical whole body FDG-PET/CT imaging were subsequently scanned on the PET/MR (mean delay 100min). Patients were separated in two groups: alpha group (N=14) with no MR coils during PET/MR imaging and beta group (N=12) including MR coils (Neuro-Vascular, Spine, Cardiac or Torso coils). All images were coregistered to the same space (PET/MR). Voxel- and region-based (10 regions of interest, ROIs) comparisons were made between the 2 PET images from PET/MR: using MRAC and CTAC. Additional comparison of lesions performed by an experienced clinician was also reported. Results Body mass index (BMI) and lung density showed significant differences between alpha and beta groups. Right vs. left lung density was also significantly different within each group. Overall the beta group (with coils) presented higher MRAC PET values than the alpha group when compared to the CTAC (alpha: −0.2±33.6%, R2=0.98, p<0.001, beta: 10.31±69.86%, R2=0.97, p<0.001). Conclusion In comparison to CTAC, PET values with MRAC method were underestimated by less than 10% on average, although some ROIs and lesions do differ by more (such as spine, lung or heart). The beta group (with coils) showed increased overall PET quantification as well as increased variability when compared to the alpha group (no coils). PET reconstructed with MRAC showed some differences when compared to PET reconstructed with CTAC, mostly due to air pockets, metallic implants and attenuation differences in big bone areas (such as pelvis and spine) due to the segmentation limitation of the MRAC method. PMID:24652234

  4. Whole-body CT for lymphoma staging: Feasibility of halving radiation dose and risk by iterative image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M., E-mail: mathias.meyer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Klein, S.A., E-mail: stefan.klein@umm.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Brix, G., E-mail: gbrix@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fink, C., E-mail: Christian.Fink@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, L., E-mail: lothar.pilz@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Biostatistics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Jafarov, H., E-mail: Hashim.Jafarov@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Hofmann, W.K., E-mail: w.k.hofmann@umm.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O., E-mail: Stefan.Schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); and others

    2014-02-15

    Objectives: Patients with lymphoma are at higher-risk of secondary malignancies mainly due to effects of cancer therapy as well as frequent radiological surveillance. We thus aimed to investigate the objective and subjective image quality as well as radiation exposure and risk of full-dose standard (FDS), full-dose iterative (FDI), and half-dose iterative (HDI) image reconstruction in patients with lymphoma. Material and methods: In 100 lymphoma patients, contrast-enhanced whole-body staging was performed on a dual-source CT. To acquire full-dose and half-dose CT data simultaneously, the total current-time product was equally distributed on both tubes operating at 120 kV. HDI reconstructions were calculated by using only data from one tube. Quantitative image quality was assessed by measuring image noise in different tissues of the neck, thorax, and abdomen. Overall diagnostic image quality was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Radiation doses and risks were estimated for a male and female reference person. Results: For all anatomical regions apart from the lungs image noise was significantly lower and the overall subjective image quality significantly better when using FDI and HDI instead of FDS reconstruction (p < 0.05). For the half-dose protocol, the risk to develop a radiation-induced cancer was estimated to be less than 0.11/0.19% for an adult male/female. Conclusions: Image quality of FDI and more importantly of HDI is superior to FDS reconstruction, thus enabling to halve radiation dose and risk to lymphoma patients.

  5. PVE Correction in PET-CT Whole-Body Oncological Studies From PVE-Affected Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivanone, Francesca; Stefano, Alessandro; Grosso, Eleonora; Canevari, Carla; Gianolli, Luigi; Messa, Cristina; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    Partial Volume Effect (PVE) in PET-CT oncological studies affects the estimation of quantitative parameters useful for lesion malignancy differentiation and for monitoring disease and response to therapy. The aim of this work was to investigate the clinical feasibility and accuracy of PVE correction methods based on Recovery Coefficients (RC) as function of measured Lesion-to-Background ratio (L/B)m and measured lesion volume (Vm). PET-CT measurements were performed. The radioactivity concentration (Cm) and Vm were measured from images using Operator-Dependent and Operator-Independent (OI) techniques. RC curves were obtained combining RC from NEMA 2001 IQ phantom measurements as function of Sphere-to-Background ratio (S/B)m and sphere Vm. PVE correction was applied to PET-CT studies of anthropomorphic oncological phantoms and to PET-CT oncological studies (basal and follow up). The underestimation of Cm due to PVE in the NEMA IQ spheres (up to 80%) confirmed the severity of the error. The more feasible (always applicable, noise insensitive, reproducible) way to measure radioactivity was found by the use of an OI threshold technique. Our results showed that this measurement technique allows to achieve a PVE correction accuracy >; 87% (error in radioactivity estimate ; 1 cm. In patient studies the PVE correction was found to modify both SUV and SUV variations during patient follow up and our analysis showed that a PVE corrected SUV quantification increases the diagnostic confidence of oncological PET-CT studies.

  6. Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tai-Wei; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Seri, Istvan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine and the USC Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Grimm, John; Bluml, Stefan [University of Southern California, LAC/USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become standard treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with brain MRI commonly performed after the child has been rewarmed. However, early imaging during hypothermia might provide information important in designing clinical trials that refine and personalize therapeutic hypothermia. We tested a protocol to ensure safety and maintenance of hypothermia during in-hospital transport and MRI. MRI during therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 13 newborns on the 2nd-3rd postnatal days. Mean one-way transport time was 20.0 ± 3.3 min. Mean rectal temperatures ( C) leaving the unit, upon arrival at the MR suite, during MRI scan and upon return to the unit were 33.5 ± 0.3 C, 33.3 ± 0.3 C, 33.1 ± 0.4 C and 33.4 ± 0.3 C, respectively. Using our protocol therapeutic hypothermia was safely and effectively continued during in-hospital transport and MRI without adverse effects. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve true whole-body PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miwa, Kenta; Murata, Taisuke; Miyaji, Noriaki; Wagatsuma, Kei; Motegi, Kazuki; Terauchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan PET/CT assessment in the clinical setting.

  8. A novel triple-modality reporter gene for whole-body fluorescent, bioluminescent, and nuclear noninvasive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, Vladimir; Vider, Jelena; Shavrin, Aleksander; Ageyeva, Ludmila; Tourkova, Vilia [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Doubrovin, Michael; Serganova, Inna; Beresten, Tatiana; Ivanova, Anna; Blasberg, Ronald [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Balatoni, Julius [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Bornmann, William [Organic Chemistry Synthesis Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Gelovani Tjuvajev, Juri [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Road, Box 0057, TX 77030, Houston (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Two genetic reporter systems were developed for multimodality reporter gene imaging of different molecular-genetic processes using fluorescence, bioluminescence (BLI), and nuclear imaging techniques. The eGFP cDNA was fused at the N-terminus with HSV1-tk cDNA bearing a nuclear export signal from MAPKK (NES-HSV1-tk) or with truncation at the N-terminus of the first 45 amino acids ({delta}45HSV1-tk) and with firefly luciferase at the C-terminus. A single fusion protein with three functional subunits is formed following transcription and translation from a single open reading frame. The NES-TGL (NES-TGL) or {delta}45HSV1-tk/GFP/luciferase ({delta}45-TGL) triple-fusion gene cDNAs were cloned into a MoMLV-based retrovirus, which was used for transduction of U87 human glioma cells. The integrity, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and enzymatic activity of the TGL reporter proteins were assessed in vitro. The predicted molecular weight of the fusion proteins (130 kDa) was confirmed by western blot. The U87-NES-TGL and U87-{delta}45-TGL cells had cytoplasmic green fluorescence. The in vitro BLI was 7- and 13-fold higher in U87-NES-TGL and U87-{delta}45-TGL cells compared to nontransduced control cells. The Ki of {sup 14}C-FIAU was 0.49{+-}0.02, 0.51{+-}0.03, and 0.003{+-}0.001 ml/min/g in U87-NES-TGL, U87-{delta}45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells, respectively. Multimodality in vivo imaging studies were performed in nu/nu mice bearing multiple s.c. xenografts established from U87-NES-TGL, U87-{delta}45-TGL, and wild-type U87 cells. BLI was performed after administration of d-luciferin (150 mg/kg i.v.). Gamma camera or PET imaging was conducted at 2 h after i.v. administration of [{sup 131}I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal) or [{sup 124}I]FIAU (7.4 MBq/animal), respectively. Whole-body fluorescence imaging was performed in parallel with the BLI and radiotracer imaging studies. In vivo BLI and gamma camera imaging showed specific localization of luminescence and radioactivity to the TGL

  9. High-spatial-resolution whole-body MR angiography with high-acceleration parallel acquisition and 32-channel 3.0-T unit: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nael, Kambiz; Fenchel, Michael; Krishnam, Mayil; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul; Ruehm, Stefan G

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this HIPAA-compliant study was to prospectively evaluate the technical feasibility of a multistation high-spatial-resolution whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) angiography protocol in which high-acceleration parallel imaging (with acceleration factors of three and four) is performed with a 32-channel 3.0-T MR system. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained, 10 healthy volunteers (four men and six women aged 23-68 years) and four patients (two men and two women aged 56-79 years) suspected of having peripheral vascular disease underwent multistation whole-body contrast material-enhanced MR angiography. Use of multiarray surface coil technology and highly accelerated generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition enabled the acquisition of isotropic high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional data sets for multiple stations. Two radiologists independently evaluated arterial image quality and presence of arterial stenoses. All examinations yielded good or excellent image quality. Interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.96). Multistation whole-body MR angiography with high-acceleration parallel acquisition is feasible at 3.0 T. Further clinical studies combined with ongoing optimization of radiofrequency systems and coils seem warranted to advance the potential of this technology. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  10. Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen; Davis, Corrine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice....

  11. Case-control study of low-back pain referred for magnetic resonance imaging, with special focus on whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; Harris, Clare E; Harris, E Claire; Griffin, Michael J; Bennett, James; Reading, Isabel; Sampson, Madelaine; Coggon, David

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated risk factors for low-back pain among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with special focus on whole-body vibration. A case-control approach was used. The study population comprised working-aged persons from a catchment area for radiology services. The cases were those in a consecutive series referred for a lumbar MRI because of low-back pain. The controls were age- and gender-matched persons X-rayed for other reasons. Altogether, 252 cases and 820 controls were studied, including 185 professional drivers. The participants were questioned about physical factors loading the spine, psychosocial factors, driving, personal characteristics, mental health, and certain beliefs about low-back pain. Exposure to whole-body vibration was assessed by six measures, including weekly duration of professional driving, hours driven in one period, and current root mean square A(8). Associations with whole-body vibration were examined with adjustment for age, gender, and other potential confounders. Strong associations were found with poor mental health and belief in work as a causal factor for low-back pain, and with occupational sitting for > or =3 hours while not driving. Associations were also found for taller stature, consulting propensity, body mass index, smoking history, fear-avoidance beliefs, frequent twisting, low decision latitude, and low support at work. However, the associations with the six metrics of whole-body vibration were weak and not statistically significant, and no exposure-response relationships were found. Little evidence of a risk from professional driving or whole-body vibration was found. Drivers were substantially less heavily exposed to whole-body vibration than in some earlier surveys. Nonetheless, it seems that, at the population level, whole-body vibration is not an important cause of low-back pain among those referred for MRI.

  12. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Oehmigen, Mark; Grueneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  13. Whole-body MRI screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, Ralf [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Hosten, Norbert (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald (Germany). Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2014-07-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  14. Whole body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, Firas; Laurell, Anna; Ahlström, Håkan

    2015-11-01

    Whole body (WB) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become increasingly utilized in cancer imaging, yet the clinical utility of these techniques in follow-up of testicular cancer patients has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of WB MRI with continuous table movement (CTM) technique, including multistep DWI in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer. WB MRI including DWI was performed in follow-up of 71 consecutive patients (median age, 37 years; range 19-84) with histologically confirmed testicular cancer. WB MRI protocol included axial T1-Dixon and T2-BLADE sequences using CTM technique. Furthermore, multi-step DWI was performed using b-value 50 and 1000 s/mm(2). One criterion for feasibility was patient tolerance and satisfactory image quality. Another criterion was the accuracy in detection of any pathological mass, compared to standard of reference. Signal intensity in DWI was used for evaluation of residual mass activity. Clinical, laboratory and imaging follow-up were applied as standard of reference for the evaluation of WB MRI. WB MRI was tolerated in nearly all patients (69/71 patients, 97%) and the image quality was satisfactory. Metal artifacts deteriorated the image quality in six patients, but it did not influence the overall results. No case of clinical relapse was observed during the follow-up time. There was a good agreement between conventional WB MRI and standard of reference in all patients. Three patients showed residual masses and DWI signal was not restricted in these patients. Furthermore, DWI showed abnormally high signal intensity in a normal-sized retroperitoneal lymph node indicating metastasis. The subsequent (18)F-FDG PET/CT could verify the finding. WB MRI with CTM technique including multi-step DWI is feasible in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer. DWI may contribute to important added-value data to conventional MRI sequences

  15. Brain and Whole-Body Imaging of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptor in Humans Using the PET Ligand 11C-NOP-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohith, Talakad G.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Morse, Cheryl L.; Araneta, Maria F.; Barth, Vanessa N.; Goebl, Nancy A.; Tauscher, Johannes T.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor is a new class of opioid receptor that may play a pathophysiologic role in anxiety and drug abuse and is a potential therapeutic target in these disorders. We previously developed a high-affinity PET ligand, 11C-NOP-1A, which yielded promising results in monkey brain. Here, we assessed the ability of 11C-NOP-1A to quantify NOP receptors in human brain and estimated its radiation safety profile. Methods After intravenous injection of 11C-NOP-1A, 7 healthy subjects underwent brain PET for 2 h and serial sampling of radial arterial blood to measure parent radioligand concentrations. Distribution volume (VT; a measure of receptor density) was determined by compartmental (1- and 2-tissue) and noncompartmental (Logan analysis and Ichise’s bilinear analysis [MA1]) methods. A separate group of 9 healthy subjects underwent whole-body PET to estimate whole-body radiation exposure (effective dose). Results After 11C-NOP-1A injection, the peak concentration of radioactivity in brain was high (~5–7 standardized uptake values), occurred early (~10 min), and then washed out quickly. The unconstrained 2-tissue-compartment model gave excellent VT identifiability (~1.1% SE) and fitted the data better than a 1-tissue-compartment model. Regional VT values (mL·cm−3) ranged from 10.1 in temporal cortex to 5.6 in cerebellum. VT was well identified in the initial 70 min of imaging and remained stable for the remaining 50 min, suggesting that brain radioactivity was most likely parent radioligand, as supported by the fact that all plasma radiometabolites of 11C-NOP-1A were less lipophilic than the parent radioligand. Voxel-based MA1 VT values correlated well with results from the 2-tissue-compartment model, showing that parametric methods can be used to compare populations. Whole-body scans showed radioactivity in brain and in peripheral organs expressing NOP receptors, such as heart, pancreas, and spleen. 11C-NOP-1A was significantly

  16. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  17. Whole-body PET/MRI: The effect of bone attenuation during MR-based attenuation correction in oncology imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.C., E-mail: marianne.aznar@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Sersar, R., E-mail: rachidadk@hotmail.com [DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Saabye, J., E-mail: julie_saa@hotmail.com [DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Ladefoged, C.N., E-mail: claesnl@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Andersen, F.L., E-mail: Flemming.Andersen@regionh.dk [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Rasmussen, J.H., E-mail: jacobrasmu@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy 3994, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Löfgren, J., E-mail: Johan.Loefgren@regionh.dk [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Beyer, T., E-mail: thomas.beyer@meduniwien.ac.at [Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In combined PET/MRI standard PET attenuation correction (AC) is based on tissue segmentation following dedicated MR sequencing and, typically, bone tissue is not represented. We evaluate PET quantification in whole-body (WB)-PET/MRI following MR-AC without considering bone attenuation and then investigate different strategies to account for bone tissue in clinical PET/MR imaging. To this purpose, bone tissue representation was extracted from separate CT images, and different bone representations were simulated from hypothetically derived MR-based bone classifications. Methods: Twenty oncology patients referred for a PET/CT were injected with either [18F]-FDG or [18F]-NaF and imaged on PET/CT (Biograph TruePoint/mCT, Siemens) and PET/MRI (mMR, Siemens) following a standard single-injection, dual-imaging clinical WB-protocol. Routine MR-AC was based on in-/opposed-phase MR imaging (orgMR-AC). PET(/MRI) images were reconstructed (AW-OSEM, 3 iterations, 21 subsets, 4 mm Gaussian) following routine MR-AC and MR-AC based on four modified attenuation maps. These modified attenuation maps were created for each patient by non-linear co-registration of the CT images to the orgMR-AC images, and adding CT bone mask values representing cortical bone: 1200 HU (cortCT), spongiosa bone: 350 HU (spongCT), average CT value (meanCT) and original CT values (orgCT). Relative difference images of the PET following AC using the modified attenuation maps were compared. SUVmean was calculated in anatomical reference regions and for PET-positive lesions. Results: The relative differences in SUVmean across patients following orgMR-AC and orgCT in soft tissue lesions and in bone lesions were similar (range: 0.0% to −22.5%), with an average underestimation of SUVmean of 7.2% and 10.0%, respectively when using orgMR-AC. In bone lesions, spongCT values were closest to orgCT (median bias of 1.3%, range: –9.0% to 13.5%) while the overestimation of SUVmean with respect to orgCT was

  18. Prospective, blinded trial of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography positron emission tomography in staging primary and recurrent cancer of the head and neck.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the staging of head and neck cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January to July 2009, 15 consecutive head and neck cancer patients (11 men and four women; mean age 59 years; age range 19 to 81 years) underwent computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for pre-therapeutic evaluation. All scans were staged, as per the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumour-node-metastasis classification, by two blinded consultant radiologists, in two sittings. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological examination of endoscopic biopsies, and in some cases whole surgical specimens. RESULTS: Tumour staging showed a 74 per cent concordance, node staging an 80 per cent concordance and metastasis staging a 100 per cent concordance, comparing the two imaging modalities. CONCLUSION: This study found radiological staging discordance between the two imaging modalities. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging staging modality with superior visualisation of metastatic disease, which does not require exposure to ionising radiation.

  19. Quantitative, Organ-Specific Interscanner and Intrascanner Variability for 3 T Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Multicenter, Multivendor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlett, Christopher L; Hendel, Thomas; Hirsch, Jochen; Weckbach, Sabine; Caspers, Svenja; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Ittermann, Till; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Ladd, Susanne C; Moebus, Susanne; Stroszczynski, Christian; Fischer, Beate; Leitzmann, Michael; Kuhl, Christiane; Pessler, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar; Kemmling, Yvonne; Hetterich, Holger; Amunts, Katrin; Günther, Matthias; Wacker, Frank; Rummeny, Ernst; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Forsting, Michael; Völzke, Henry; Hosten, Norbert; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bamberg, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly implemented in population-based cohorts and clinical settings. However, to quantify the variability introduced by the different scanners is essential to make conclusions about clinical and biological data, and relevant for internal/external validity. Thus, we determined the interscanner and intrascanner variability of different 3 T MR scanners for whole-body imaging. Thirty volunteers were enrolled to undergo multicentric, interscanner as well intrascanner imaging as part of the German National Cohort pilot studies. A comprehensive whole-body MR protocol was installed at 9 sites including 7 different MR scanner models by all 4 major vendors. A set of quantitative, organ-specific measures (n = 20; eg, volume of brain's gray/white matter, pulmonary trunk diameter, vertebral body height) were obtained in blinded fashion. Reproducibility was determined using mean weighted relative differences and intraclass correlation coefficients. All participants (44 ± 14 years, 50% female) successfully completed the imaging protocol except for two because of technical issues. Mean scan time was 2 hours and 32 minutes and differed significantly across scanners (range, 1 hour 59 minutes to 3 hours 12 minutes). A higher reproducibility of obtained measurements was observed for intrascanner than for interscanner comparisons (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.80 ± 0.17 vs 0.60 ± 0.31, P = 0.005, respectively). In the interscanner comparison, mean relative difference ranged from 1.0% to 53.2%. Conversely, in the intrascanner comparison, mean relative difference ranged from 0.1% to 15.6%. There were no statistical differences for intrascanner and interscanner reproducibility between the different organ foci (all P ≥ 0.24). While whole-body MR imaging-derived, organ-specific parameters are generally associated with good to excellent reproducibility, smaller differences are obtained when using identical MR scanner models

  20. Whole-Body PET/MR Imaging: Quantitative Evaluation of a Novel Model-Based MR Attenuation Correction Method Including Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H; Quick, Harald H; Geppert, Christian; Fenchel, Matthias; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Faul, David; Boada, Fernando; Friedman, Kent P; Koesters, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In routine whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging, attenuation correction (AC) is usually performed by segmentation methods based on a Dixon MR sequence providing up to 4 different tissue classes. Because of the lack of bone information with the Dixon-based MR sequence, bone is currently considered as soft tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate a novel model-based AC method that considers bone in whole-body PET/MR imaging. The new method ("Model") is based on a regular 4-compartment segmentation from a Dixon sequence ("Dixon"). Bone information is added using a model-based bone segmentation algorithm, which includes a set of prealigned MR image and bone mask pairs for each major body bone individually. Model was quantitatively evaluated on 20 patients who underwent whole-body PET/MR imaging. As a standard of reference, CT-based μ-maps were generated for each patient individually by nonrigid registration to the MR images based on PET/CT data. This step allowed for a quantitative comparison of all μ-maps based on a single PET emission raw dataset of the PET/MR system. Volumes of interest were drawn on normal tissue, soft-tissue lesions, and bone lesions; standardized uptake values were quantitatively compared. In soft-tissue regions with background uptake, the average bias of SUVs in background volumes of interest was 2.4% ± 2.5% and 2.7% ± 2.7% for Dixon and Model, respectively, compared with CT-based AC. For bony tissue, the -25.5% ± 7.9% underestimation observed with Dixon was reduced to -4.9% ± 6.7% with Model. In bone lesions, the average underestimation was -7.4% ± 5.3% and -2.9% ± 5.8% for Dixon and Model, respectively. For soft-tissue lesions, the biases were 5.1% ± 5.1% for Dixon and 5.2% ± 5.2% for Model. The novel MR-based AC method for whole-body PET/MR imaging, combining Dixon-based soft-tissue segmentation and model-based bone estimation, improves PET quantification in whole-body hybrid PET/MR imaging, especially in bony tissue and

  1. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  2. Brain SPECT imaging and whole-body biodistribution with [{sup 123}I]ADAM - a serotonin transporter radiotracer in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.-J. [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-Y. [Neuroscience Research Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Psychiatry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wey, S.-P. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I.-T. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jay [Health Physics Divisions, Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-K. [Atomic Energy Council, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yen1110@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2006-02-15

    Introduction: [{sup 123}I]-2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine ([{sup 123}I]ADAM), a novel radiotracer, has promising application in the imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the human brain. In this study, the optimal scanning time for acquiring brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was determined by performing dynamic SPECT studies at intervals from 0 to 6 h postinjection of [{sup 123}I]ADAM. Additionally, radiation-absorbed doses were determined for three healthy human subjects using attenuation-corrected images. Methods: Twelve subjects were randomized into one of three study groups as follows: whole-body distribution imaging (n=3), dynamic SPECT imaging (n=3) and brain SPECT imaging (n=6). The radiation-absorbed dose was calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 software with attenuation-corrected data. The specific binding (SB) ratio of the brain stem was measured from dynamic SPECT images to determine the optimal scanning time. Results: Dynamic SPECT images showed that the SB of the brain stem gradually increased to a maximum 4 h postinjection. Single photon emission computed tomography images at 4 h postinjection showed a high uptake of the radiotracer (SB) in the hypothalamus (1.40{+-}0.12), brain stem (1.44{+-}0.16), pons (1.13{+-}0.14) and medial temporal lobe (0.59{+-}0.10). The mean adult male value of effective dose was 3.37x10{sup -2} mSv/MBq with a 4.8-h urine-voiding interval. Initial high uptake in SERT-rich sites was demonstrated in the lung and brain. A prominent washout of the radiotracer from the lung further increased brain radioactivity that reached a peak value of 5.03% of injected dose 40 min postinjection. Conclusions: [{sup 123}I]ADAM is a promising radiotracer for SPECT imaging of SERT in humans with acceptable dosimetry and high uptake in SERT-rich regions. Brain SPECT images taken within 4 h following injection show optimal levels of radiotracer uptake in known SERT sites. However, dynamic

  3. Estimation of patient radiation dose from whole body 18F- FDG PET/CT examination in cancer imaging: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. H.; Nordin, A. J.; Saad, F. F. Ahmad; Fattah Azman, A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to estimate the radiation effective dose resulting from whole body fluorine-18 flourodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning as compared to conservative Computed Tomography (CT) techniques in evaluating oncology patients. We reviewed 19 oncology patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT at our centre for cancer staging. Internal and external doses were estimated using radioactivity of injected FDG and volume CT Dose Index (CTDIvol), respectively with employment of the published and modified dose coefficients. The median differences of dose among the conservative CT and PET protocols were determined using Kruskal Wallis test with p observed in the median effective dose between the three protocols (p < 0.01). The effective doses of whole body 18F-FDG PET technique may be effective the lowest amongst the conventional CT imaging techniques.

  4. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient mapping for staging patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chieh; Beaussart, Pauline; Brugieres, Pierre; Rahmouni, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Imagerie Medicale, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France); Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Est Creteil Val de Marne, Creteil (France); Luciani, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Imagerie Medicale, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France); Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Est Creteil Val de Marne, Creteil (France); INSERM Unite U955, Creteil (France); Itti, Emmanuel; Meignan, Michel [Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Est Creteil Val de Marne, Creteil (France); CNRS, UMR7054, Creteil (France); CHU Henri Mondor, Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France); El-Gnaoui, Taoufik; Belhadj, Karim [CHU Henri Mondor, Hematologie Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France); Vignaud, Alexandre [Siemens Healthcare, Saint-Denis (France); Lin, Shih-jui [Stanford University, Department of Statistics, Stanford, CA (United States); Evangelista, Eva [CHU Henri Mondor, Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France); Haioun, Corinne [Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Est Creteil Val de Marne, Creteil (France); CHU Henri Mondor, Hematologie Clinique, AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, Creteil (France)

    2010-08-15

    To design a whole-body MR protocol using exclusively diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with respiratory gating and to assess its value for lesion detection and staging in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with integrated FDG PET/CT as the reference standard. Fifteen patients underwent both whole-body DWI (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm{sup 2}) and PET/CT for pretreatment staging. Lymph node and organ involvement were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative image analysis, including measurement of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). A total of 296 lymph node regions in the 15 patients were analysed. Based on International Working Group size criteria alone, DWI findings matched PET/CT findings in 277 regions (94%) (kappa score = 0.85, P < 0.0001), yielding sensitivity and specificity for DWI lymph node involvement detection of 90% and 94%. Combining visual ADC analysis with size measurement increased DWI specificity to 100% with 81% sensitivity. For organ involvement, the two techniques agreed in all 20 recorded organs (100%). All involved organ lesions showed restricted diffusion. Ann Arbor stages agreed in 14 (93%) of the 15 patients. Whole-body DWI with ADC analysis can potentially be used for lesion detection and staging in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  5. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  6. Detection of microscopic diffusion anisotropy on a whole-body MR system with double wave vector imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Marco; Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    Double-wave-vector diffusion-weighting experiments can detect diffusion anisotropy on a microscopic level which, e.g., could distinguish lower fiber densities from reduced fiber coherence. The underlying signal difference between parallel and orthogonal wave vector orientations has been observed on vertical-bore MR systems (≥500 mT m(-1) ); however, numerical simulations reveal that it is expected to be considerably reduced for typical whole-body MR gradient pulse durations. Here, pig spinal cord tissue and a reference fluid phantom were investigated on a 3 T clinical MR system (40 mT m(-1) ). By averaging over different absolute wave vector orientations, signal variations caused by experimental imperfections like background gradient fields and eddy currents were minimized and a rotationally invariant anisotropy measure could be assessed. A significant microscopic anisotropy was observed in gray and white matter tissue even in the plane perpendicular to the cord which is consistent with previous vertical-bore experiments. Thus, it is demonstrated that double-wave-vector experiments can investigate the microscopic anisotropy on whole-body MR systems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 11C-choline PET/CT and whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging for patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Hinrich; Beer, Ambros J; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Henninger, Martin; Maurer, Tobias; Schwarzenboeck, Sarah; Rummeny, Ernst J; Eiber, Matthias; Stollfuss, Jens

    2017-09-12

    To compare the detection efficacy of 11C-choline positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 68, range 54-80 years) underwent 11C-choline PET/CT and MRI using T1-weighted (T1w), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), and DWI. Two readers visually rated suspicious lesions on a 5-point scale in 20 different regions. Clinical follow-up and histopathology served as the standard of reference (SOR). Fifty patients (mean PSA 29.9, range 1.0-670 ng/mL) had at least one positive lesion according to the SOR. Twenty-four patients had local recurrence (LR), 27 had lymph node (LN) involvement, and 22 had bone metastases. The overall detection rates for PET/CT and MRI on a patient basis were 94% and 88%, respectively (p = 0.07). The PSA level (>2 ng/mL vs ≤2 ng/mL) significantly influenced the overall performance of PET/CT (p = 0.003) and MRI (p = 0.03). PET/CT was significantly superior to MRI in detecting LR (p = 0.03) and bone metastasis (p = 0.02). We found no difference with respect to the detection of LN metastasis (p = 0.65). 11C-choline PET/CT was superior in the detection of local recurrence and bone metastasis on a regional basis. Whole-body MRI including DWI showed similar diagnostic accuracy only for detecting lymph node metastases. Compared with 11C-choline PET/CT, therefore, whole-body MRI including DWI cannot serve as alternative imaging modality for restaging prostate cancer.

  8. Diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Tanaka, Satomi; Sunaoshi, Takafumi; Kano, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Eriko; Shite, Misaki; Haga, Ryouta; Fukamizu, Yoshiya; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kagayama, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-07-01

    Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion (DWIBS/T2) identifies areas with high signal intensity, corresponding to inflammation. In the present study, the records and images of patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent DWIBS/T2 between January 2013 and March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 11 patients with acute cholecystitis were enrolled. In one patient, DWIBS/T2 identified a thickened wall and high signal intensity, with high signal intensity in the pericholecystic space that suggested localized peritonitis. Positive DWIBS/T2 results indicating acute cholecystitis were obtained in 10/11 patients, with a sensitivity of 90.9%. In addition, wall thickening and high signal intensity were absent in DWIBS/T2 images when wall thickening was not detected by computed tomography. Wall thickening and high signal intensity was attenuated when patients with acute cholecystitis were clinically treated. These data suggest that a thickened gallbladder wall and high signal intensity are indicative of acute cholecystitis and that DWIBS/T2 may be a useful technique in evaluating the severity of acute cholecystitis.

  9. The skeleton in congenital, generalized lipodystrophy: evaluation using whole-body radiographic surveys, magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, J.L.; Bonte, F.J. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Garg, A. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Vuitch, M.F. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Pathology); Peshock, R.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1992-08-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare genetic disease characterized by the absence of body fat from birth. Focal bone lesions have also been reported, but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. To characterize skeletal abnormalities further in 3 patients with CGL, we employed whole-body radiographic skeletal surveys, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, including gadolinium enhancement), and triple phase technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy. We conclude that the appendicular skeleton of patients with CGL is diffusely abnormal and is predisposed to focal osteolysis and cyst formation. (orig./DG).

  10. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  11. High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy on Whole-Body Imagers:Optimized Single-and Multi-Pulse Experiments in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Fritz

    1995-10-01

    From 100 ml spherical glass bottles filled with aqueous solutions and suspended in a homogeneous magnetic field, NMR spectra with linewidths of about 0.7 Hz were achieved in single-pulse and multi-pulse spectra. A relatively wide receiver coil as the body coil or the standard head coil of the manufacturer were employed to acquire spectra after different non-localized pulse sequences. Examples of single-pulse spectra and double spin-echo spectra of aqueous solutions with lactate, citrate, or glucose are demonstrated and discussed. The fact that all experiments can be performed using well-defined pulse angles acting on the entire sample at the field strenght of the whole-body unit allows to determine the characteristics (e.g. chemical shift differences, coupling constants) of spin systems of biologically important molecules precisely, without need for additional spectrometers. Constant flip angles are advantageous for adequate theoretical analysis of spectra from coupled spin systems. The effects of a defined "misadjustment" of the transmitter on the spectra can be measured directly, whereas localized methods always yield a superposition of signals due to the distribution of flip angles inside the selected volume. In some cases, optimized sequence parameters for localized examinations in vivo can be derived numerically from the analyzed coupling data.

  12. Cardiovascular whole-body MR imaging in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease; Kardiovaskulaere MR-Ganzkoerperbildgebung bei Patienten mit symptomatischer Atherosklerose der peripheren Gefaesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, M.; Kramer, U.; Stauder, N.; Bretschneider, C.; Klumpp, B.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Abt. fuer Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Jost, D.; Scheule, A. [Abt. fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Naegele, T. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: To examine patients with peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease (PAOD) for systemic effects associated with atherosclerosis using a comprehensive state-of-the-art whole-body MR examination protocol. The protocol comprises the assessment of the complete arterial vasculature (except coronary arteries), the brain, and the heart. Materials and methods: Multi-station whole-body 3D MR angiography was performed in sixty consecutive patients with clinical suspicion for PAOD at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Functional and delayed enhancement cardiac images were acquired, as well as FLAIR images of the brain and TOF angiography of intracranial vessels. MR and DSA images were assessed by independent observers for artherosclerotic manifestations and other pathology. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of vascular pathology was calculated for MR data using conventional DSA of the symptomatic region as standard-of-reference. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant vascular stenosis (>70% luminal narrowing) was 94% and 96% (PPV 87%, NPV 98%). Significant microangiopathic tissue alterations (n=7) and/or cerebral infarction (n=18) were diagnosed in 23/60 patients. Thirty-eight of 60 patients presented with systolic left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In 24 patients subendocardial or transmural delayed enhancement was detected in corresponding regions, indicating prior myocardial infarction. Conclusion: For patients with PAOD and suspected systemic atherosclerotic disease a comprehensive diagnosis of accompanying cardiovascular pathology and therefore staging of systemic atherosclerotic disease is feasible within one MR examination. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion for the diagnosis of colorectal polyp and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Fugo, Kazunori; Sunaoshi, Takafumi; Ozaki, Aika; Sugiyama, Eriko; Baba, Akira; Kano, Daisuke; Shite, Misaki; Haga, Ryota; Fukamizu, Yoshiya; Kagayama, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Kishimoto, Takashi; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion (DWIBS/T2) is useful for the diagnosis of cancer as it presents a clear contrast between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. The present study investigated the limitations and advantages of DWIBS/T2 with regards to the diagnosis of colorectal polyp (CP) or cancer (CRC). The current study included patients diagnosed with CP or CRC following colonoscopy, who were subjected to DWIBS/T2 between July 2012 and March 2015. Patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were subjected to DWIBS/T2 when they presented with abdominal cancers or inflammation. Colonoscopy was performed as part of screening, or if patients had suspected colon cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. A total of 8 male and 7 female patients were enrolled in the present study. All patients, with the exception of one who had been diagnosed with CRC following colonoscopy, had positive results and all patients diagnosed with CP following a colonoscopy, with the exception of one, had negative results on DWIBS/T2. Thus, CRC was detected by DWIBS/T2, while CP was not (P=0.0028). The diameter of CRC lesions was significantly larger than that of CP (Paffected by lesion diameter and depth of invasion.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, crossover comparison of novel continuous bed motion versus traditional bed position whole-body PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatka, Imke [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Charite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Weiberg, Desiree; Reichelt, Stephanie; Owsianski-Hille, Nicole; Derlin, Thorsten; Berding, Georg; Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Continuous bed motion has recently been introduced for whole-body PET/CT, and represents a paradigm shift towards individualized and flexible acquisition without the limitations of bed position-based planning. Increased patient comfort due to lack of abrupt table position changes may be another albeit still unproven advantage. For robust clinical implementation, image quality and quantitative accuracy should at least be equal to the prior standard of bed position-based step-and-shoot imaging. The study included 68 consecutive patients referred for whole-body PET/CT for various malignancies. The patients underwent traditional step-and-shoot and novel continuous bed motion acquisition in the same session in a randomized crossover design. The patients and two independent observers were blinded to the sequence of scan techniques. Patient comfort/satisfaction was examined using a standardized questionnaire. SUVs were compared for reference tissue (liver, muscle) and tumour lesions. PET image quality and misalignment with CT images were evaluated on a scale of 1 - 4. Patients preferred continuous bed motion over step-and-shoot (P = 0.0001). It was considered to be more relaxing (38 % vs. 8 %), quieter (34 % vs. 8 %), and more fluid (64 % vs. 8 %). Image quality, SUV and CT misalignment did not differ between the techniques. Continuous bed motion resulted in better end-plane image quality (P < 0.0001). Regardless of the technique, second examinations had significantly higher tumour lesion SUVmax values (P = 0.0002), and a higher CT misalignment score (P = 0.0017). Oncological PET/CT with continuous bed motion enhances patient comfort and is associated with image quality at least comparable to that with traditional bed position-based step-and-shoot acquisition. (orig.)

  15. Metabolic syndrome predicts vascular changes in whole body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with long standing diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findeisen Hannes M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diabetic patients have an increased rate of cardio-vascular events, there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to cardiovascular risk, requiring new approaches to individual cardiovascular risk factor assessment. In this study we used whole body-MR-angiography (WB-MRA to assess the degree of atherosclerosis in patients with long-standing diabetes and to determine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and atherosclerotic burden. Methods Long standing (≥10 years type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 59; 31 males; 63.3 ± 1.7 years were examined by WB-MRA. Based on the findings in each vessel, we developed an overall score representing the patient's vascular atherosclerotic burden (MRI-score. The score's association with components of the MetS was assessed. Results The median MRI-score was 1.18 [range: 1.00-2.41] and MetS was present in 58% of the cohort (type 2 diabetics: 73%; type 1 diabetics: 26%. Age (p = 0.0002, HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.016, hypertension (p = 0.0008, nephropathy (p = 0.0093, CHD (p = 0.001 and MetS (p = 0.0011 were significantly associated with the score. Adjusted for age and sex, the score was significantly (p = 0.02 higher in diabetics with MetS (1.450 [1.328-1.572] compared to those without MetS (1.108 [0.966-1.50]. The number of MetS components was associated with a linear increase in the MRI-score (increase in score: 0.09/MetS component; r2 = 0.24, p = 0.038. Finally, using an established risk algorithm, we found a significant association between MRI-score and 10-year risk for CHD, fatal CHD and stroke. Conclusion In this high-risk diabetic population, WB-MRA revealed large heterogeneity in the degree of systemic atherosclerosis. Presence and number of traits of the MetS are associated with the extent of atherosclerotic burden. These results support the perspective that diabetic patients are a heterogeneous population with increased but varying prevalence of atherosclerosis

  16. Whole-Body MRI Virtual Autopsy Using Diffusion-weighted Imaging With Background Suppression (DWIBS) at 3 T in a Child Succumbing to Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Kemp, Marnie L; Meiring, Michelle

    2017-03-01

    We report the use of diffusion-weighted imaging with background suppression (DWIBS) in pediatric virtual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) autopsy of a child who succumbed to chordoma. A 10-year-old girl who succumbed to relapse of a chordoma underwent whole-body virtual MRI autopsy 12 hours postmortem with short Tau inversion recovery (STIR) and DWIBS on 3 T, which demonstrated the primary mass, local and cardiac invasion, and metastatic disease to the thorax, abdomen, head/neck, and musculoskeletal system. Postmortem virtual MRI autopsy including DWIBS successfully demonstrated the transthoracic spread of chordoma and invasion of the heart, resulting in blood-borne metastases. Motion and respiratory artifact were not factors during virtual autopsy using DWIBS on 3 T, making ideal use of this technology.

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression for characterizing esophageal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Aika Ozaki,2 Akira Baba,2 Yoshiya Fukamizu,2 Futoshi Matsunaga,2 Takao Sugiyama,3 Shigenori Yamamoto,4 Makoto Sueishi,3 Takanobu Yoshida51Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Rheumatology, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, JapanPurpose: Information on the extent or structure of esophageal cancer (ESC is necessary for identifying whether the carcinoma is localized or resectable. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS are useful for this purpose.Patients and methods: One case of ESC with dysphagia presented at our hospital. Endoscopic examination revealed an elevated lesion with an ulcer, and stenosis was detected. DWI showed a high-intensity signal extending from the proximal to the distal ends of the carcinoma and extending to the tunica adventitia. A strong signal was also observed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. DWIBS clearly revealed ESC, and these findings, along with those from DWI, suggested that our case had stage-T3 ESC. FDG-PET did not reveal the detailed structure of the ESC. DWIBS, on the other hand, showed that the signal extended to the tunica adventitia and the lumen of the esophagus.Conclusion: These findings suggest that DWI and DWIBS are useful for the detection and assessment of ESC.Keywords: positron emission tomography, endoscopy, computed tomography, cross section, squamous cell carcinoma

  18. Double-phase (131)I whole body scan and (131)I SPECT-CT images in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: their effectiveness for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Fukuoka, Makoto; Inaki, Anri; Nakamura, Ayane; Kayano, Daiki; Kinuya, Seigo

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether a (131)I double-phase whole body scan (WBS) and SPECT-CT images have added value over a single-phase WBS image in identifying benign and malignant lesions in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at their first radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment. This study included 42 DTC patients who underwent their first radioablation. Post-therapeutic WBS images were acquired after 3 days (early phase) and 7 days (delayed phase). Following early-phase WBS, SPECT-CT images were obtained. The images were reviewed independently of the clinical data by 2 board-certified observers with a 6-point scoring system (benign to malignant -3 to +3). The double-phase WBS and SPECT-CT images showed 115 radioiodine-avid localizations (81 benign and 34 malignant accumulations). Confidence levels of benign accumulations were significantly higher with SPECT-CT (average score -2.40 ± 1.06) compared to those of the early-phase WBS (average score -1.39 ± 1.88) (p images (average score -1.49 ± 1.19) (p confidence score in the early-phase WBS image, the confidence level of the delayed-phase WBS was higher compared to that of the early-phase WBS images (p = 0.0012). The confidence levels of malignant accumulations were significantly higher with SPECT-CT images (average score 2.37 ± 0.96) compared to the early-phase WBS (average score 1.44 ± 1.21) (p images (average score 1.50 ± 1.13) (p image was superior to the early-phase WBS image in enhancing the confidence level and accurately localizing the lesions. The delayed-phase WBS image contributed to the accurate diagnosis of benign lesions with a low confidence level in the early-phase WBS image.

  19. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Clark, Paul A.; Nakamoto, Yuji; Wahl, Richard L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N. Caroline St., Rm 3223, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts ({rho}=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight ({rho}=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with

  20. Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow infiltration, and has therefore recently been included in the new diagnostic myeloma criteria, as proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Nevertheless, conventional MRI only provides anatomical information and is therefore only of limited use in the response assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. The additional information from functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration and the assessment of response. This can further enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the staging of multiple myeloma patients. This article provides an overview of the technical aspects of conventional and functional MRI techniques with practical recommendations. It reviews the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, and role in therapy assessment in multiple myeloma and its precursor stages. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of MR-based attenuation correction and CT-based attenuation correction of whole-body PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Sawiak, Stephen J. [University of Cambridge, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Knesaurek, Karin; Machac, Joseph [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Fayad, Zahi A. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the built-in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) included in the combined whole-body Ingenuity TF PET/MR scanner and compare it to the performance of CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) as the gold standard. Included in the study were 26 patients who underwent clinical whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging and subsequently PET/MR imaging (mean delay 100 min). Patients were separated into two groups: the alpha group (14 patients) without MR coils during PET/MR imaging and the beta group (12 patients) with MR coils present (neurovascular, spine, cardiac and torso coils). All images were coregistered to the same space (PET/MR). The two PET images from PET/MR reconstructed using MRAC and CTAC were compared by voxel-based and region-based methods (with ten regions of interest, ROIs). Lesions were also compared by an experienced clinician. Body mass index and lung density showed significant differences between the alpha and beta groups. Right and left lung densities were also significantly different within each group. The percentage differences in uptake values using MRAC in relation to those using CTAC were greater in the beta group than in the alpha group (alpha group -0.2 ± 33.6 %, R{sup 2} = 0.98, p < 0.001; beta group 10.31 ± 69.86 %, R{sup 2} = 0.97, p < 0.001). In comparison to CTAC, MRAC led to underestimation of the PET values by less than 10 % on average, although some ROIs and lesions did differ by more (including the spine, lung and heart). The beta group (imaged with coils present) showed increased overall PET quantification as well as increased variability compared to the alpha group (imaged without coils). PET data reconstructed with MRAC and CTAC showed some differences, mostly in relation to air pockets, metallic implants and attenuation differences in large bone areas (such as the pelvis and spine) due to the segmentation limitation of the MRAC method. (orig.)

  2. Impact of PET acquisition durations on image quality and lesion detectability in whole-body (68)Ga-PSMA PET-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Benjamin; Büther, Florian; Auf der Springe, Katharina; Avramovic, Nemanja; Heindel, Walter; Schäfers, Michael; Allkemper, Thomas; Stegger, Lars

    2017-12-01

    While (68)Ga-PSMA PET-MRI might be superior to PET-CT with regard to soft tissue assessment in prostate cancer evaluation, it is also known to potentially introduce additional PET image artefacts. Therefore, the impact of PET acquisition duration and attenuation data on artefact occurrence, lesion detectability, and quantification was investigated. To this end, whole-body PET list mode data from 12 patients with prostate cancer were acquired 1 h after injection of 2 MBq/kg [(68)Ga]HBED-CC-PSMA on a hybrid PET-MRI system. List mode data were further transformed into data sets representing 300, 180, 90, and 30 s acquisition duration per bed position. Standard attenuation and scatter corrections were performed based on MRI-derived attenuation maps, complemented by emission-based attenuation data in areas not covered by MRI. A total of 288 image data sets were reconstructed with varying acquisition durations for emission and attenuation data with and without scatter and prompt gamma correction, and further analysed regarding image quality and diagnostic performance. Decreased PET acquisition durations resulted in a significantly increased incidence of halo artefacts around kidneys and bladder, decreased lesion detectability and lower SUV as well as markedly lower arm attenuation values: Halo artefacts were present in 5 out of 12 cases at 300-s duration, in 6 at 180 s, in 10 at 90 s, and in 11 cases at 30 s. Using attenuation data of the 300 s scans restored artefact occurrence to the original 300-s level. Prompt gamma correction only led to small improvements in terms of artefact occurrence and size. Of the 141 detected lesions in the 300-s images one lesion was not detected at 180 s, 28 at 90 s, and 64 at 30 s. Using the 300-s attenuation map decreased non-detectability of lesions to zero at 180 s, 9 at 90 s, and 52 at 30 s. Attenuation maps at 90 and 30 s demonstrated markedly lower mean arm attenuation values (0.002 cm(-1)) than those at 300 s (0

  3. Incorporation of wavelet-based denoising in iterative deconvolution for partial volume correction in whole-body PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussion, N.; Cheze Le Rest, C.; Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, U650, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM) CHU MORVAN, Brest (France)

    2009-07-15

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited resolution of emission tomography. The aim of the present study was to compare two new voxel-wise PVE correction algorithms based on deconvolution and wavelet-based denoising. Deconvolution was performed using the Lucy-Richardson and the Van-Cittert algorithms. Both of these methods were tested using simulated and real FDG PET images. Wavelet-based denoising was incorporated into the process in order to eliminate the noise observed in classical deconvolution methods. Both deconvolution approaches led to significant intensity recovery, but the Van-Cittert algorithm provided images of inferior qualitative appearance. Furthermore, this method added massive levels of noise, even with the associated use of wavelet-denoising. On the other hand, the Lucy-Richardson algorithm combined with the same denoising process gave the best compromise between intensity recovery, noise attenuation and qualitative aspect of the images. The appropriate combination of deconvolution and wavelet-based denoising is an efficient method for reducing PVEs in emission tomography. (orig.)

  4. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: the effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su [Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  5. Spectral performance of a whole-body research photon counting detector CT: quantitative accuracy in derived image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Zhicong; Halaweish, Ahmed; Krauss, Bernhard; Schmidt, Bernhard; Yu, Lifeng; Kappler, Steffen; McCollough, Cynthia

    2017-09-01

    Photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT) uses a photon counting detector to count individual photons and allocate them to specific energy bins by comparing photon energy to preset thresholds. This enables simultaneous multi-energy CT with a single source and detector. Phantom studies were performed to assess the spectral performance of a research PCCT scanner by assessing the accuracy of derived images sets. Specifically, we assessed the accuracy of iodine quantification in iodine map images and of CT number accuracy in virtual monoenergetic images (VMI). Vials containing iodine with five known concentrations were scanned on the PCCT scanner after being placed in phantoms representing the attenuation of different size patients. For comparison, the same vials and phantoms were also scanned on 2nd and 3rd generation dual-source, dual-energy scanners. After material decomposition, iodine maps were generated, from which iodine concentration was measured for each vial and phantom size and compared with the known concentration. Additionally, VMIs were generated and CT number accuracy was compared to the reference standard, which was calculated based on known iodine concentration and attenuation coefficients at each keV obtained from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Results showed accurate iodine quantification (root mean square error of 0.5 mgI/cc) and accurate CT number of VMIs (percentage error of 8.9%) using the PCCT scanner. The overall performance of the PCCT scanner, in terms of iodine quantification and VMI CT number accuracy, was comparable to that of EID-based dual-source, dual-energy scanners.

  6. Simulation study of a D-shape PET scanner for improved sensitivity and reduced cost in whole-body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdella M.; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-05-01

    Much research effort is being made to increase the sensitivity and improve the imaging performance of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Conventionally, sensitivity can be increased by increasing the number of detector rings in the axial direction (but at high cost) or reducing the diameter of the scanner (with the disadvantages of reducing the space for patients and degrading the spatial resolution due to the parallax error). In this study, we proposed a PET scanner with a truncated ring and an array of detectors that can be arranged in a straight line below the bed. We called this system ‘D-PET’ as it resembles the letter ‘D’ when it is rotated by 90° in the counterclockwise direction. The basic design idea was to cut the unused space under the patient’s bed; this area is usually not in use in clinical diagnosis. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations of the D-PET scanner and compared its performance with a cylindrical PET scanner. The scanners were constructed from 4-layer depth-of-interaction detectors which consisted of a 16  ×  16  ×  4 LYSO crystal array with dimensions of 2.85  ×  2.85  ×  5 mm3. The results showed that the D-PET had an increase in sensitivity and peak-NECR of 30% and 18%, respectively. The D-PET had low noise in the reconstructed images throughout the field-of-view compared to the cylindrical PET. These were achieved while keeping sufficient space for the patient, and also without a severe effect on the spatial resolution. Furthermore, the number of detectors (and hence the cost) of the D-PET scanner was reduced by 12% compared to the cylindrical PET scanner.

  7. Effect of MR contrast agents on quantitative accuracy of PET in combined whole-body PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Cristina [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Particle Physics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); Bezrukov, Ilja [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Max Plank Institute for Intelligent Systems, Department of Empirical Inference, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Werner, Matthias K. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kupferschlaeger, Juergen [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Beyer, Thomas [Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); cmi-experts GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Clinical PET/MR acquisition protocols entail the use of MR contrast agents (MRCA) that could potentially affect PET quantification following MR-based attenuation correction (AC). We assessed the effect of oral and intravenous (IV) MRCA on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging. We employed two MRCA: Lumirem {sup registered} (oral) and Gadovist {sup registered} (IV). First, we determined their reference PET attenuation values using a PET transmission scan (ECAT-EXACT HR+, Siemens) and a CT scan (PET/CT Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens). Second, we evaluated the attenuation of PET signals in the presence of MRCA. Phantoms were filled with clinically relevant concentrations of MRCA in a background of water and {sup 18}F-fluoride, and imaged using a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens) and a PET/MR scanner (Biograph mMR, Siemens). Third, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant volumes of MRCA on MR-based AC using human pilot data: a patient study employing Gadovist {sup registered} (IV) and a volunteer study employing two different oral MRCA (Lumirem {sup registered} and pineapple juice). MR-based attenuation maps were calculated following Dixon-based fat-water segmentation and an external atlas-based and pattern recognition (AT and PR) algorithm. IV and oral MRCA in clinically relevant concentrations were found to have PET attenuation values similar to those of water. The phantom experiments showed that under clinical conditions IV and oral MRCA did not yield additional attenuation of PET emission signals. Patient scans showed that PET attenuation maps are not biased after the administration of IV MRCA but may be biased, however, after ingestion of iron oxide-based oral MRCA when segmentation-based AC algorithms are used. Alternative AC algorithms, such as AT and PR, or alternative oral contrast agents, such as pineapple juice, can yield unbiased attenuation maps. In clinical PET/MR scenarios MRCA are not expected to lead to markedly increased attenuation

  8. Effect of MR contrast agents on quantitative accuracy of PET in combined whole-body PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lois, Cristina; Bezrukov, Ilja; Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina; Werner, Matthias K; Kupferschläger, Jürgen; Beyer, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Clinical PET/MR acquisition protocols entail the use of MR contrast agents (MRCA) that could potentially affect PET quantification following MR-based attenuation correction (AC). We assessed the effect of oral and intravenous (IV) MRCA on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging. We employed two MRCA: Lumirem (oral) and Gadovist (IV). First, we determined their reference PET attenuation values using a PET transmission scan (ECAT-EXACT HR+, Siemens) and a CT scan (PET/CT Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens). Second, we evaluated the attenuation of PET signals in the presence of MRCA. Phantoms were filled with clinically relevant concentrations of MRCA in a background of water and (18)F-fluoride, and imaged using a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens) and a PET/MR scanner (Biograph mMR, Siemens). Third, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant volumes of MRCA on MR-based AC using human pilot data: a patient study employing Gadovist (IV) and a volunteer study employing two different oral MRCA (Lumirem and pineapple juice). MR-based attenuation maps were calculated following Dixon-based fat-water segmentation and an external atlas-based and pattern recognition (AT&PR) algorithm. IV and oral MRCA in clinically relevant concentrations were found to have PET attenuation values similar to those of water. The phantom experiments showed that under clinical conditions IV and oral MRCA did not yield additional attenuation of PET emission signals. Patient scans showed that PET attenuation maps are not biased after the administration of IV MRCA but may be biased, however, after ingestion of iron oxide-based oral MRCA when segmentation-based AC algorithms are used. Alternative AC algorithms, such as AT&PR, or alternative oral contrast agents, such as pineapple juice, can yield unbiased attenuation maps. In clinical PET/MR scenarios MRCA are not expected to lead to markedly increased attenuation of the PET emission signals. MR-based attenuation maps may be biased by oral iron

  9. The ORNL whole body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  10. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  11. [Diagnostic imaging in polytrauma: comparison of radiation exposure from whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegärtner, U; Lorenzen, M; Nagel, H D; Weber, C; Adam, G

    2004-07-01

    To compare the radiation dose of whole-body multislice CT (MSCT) and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT in polytrauma. The whole-body MSCT encompassing brain, neck and midface, chest, abdomen and pelvis was performed on a Somatom Volume Zoom (Siemens). Conventional radiography consisted of chest and cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine in two views as well as pelvis (Polymat, Siemens). Three combinations of organ specific CT were chosen: CT examination of (1) head and cervical spine, (2) head, cervical spine and chest, (3) head, cervical spine and abdomen. The effective doses of whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT were calculated. Effective doses were 20 mSv for whole-body MSCT, 2 mSv for conventional x-ray, and 5 mSv for combination (1), 8 mSv for combination (2) and (3) 16 mSv for combination (3) of the organ-specific CT. The ratio of radiation dose between whole-body MSCT and radiography was 10 : 1. This ratio was reduced to 3 : 1, 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 when a combination of radiography and CT was performed. Whole-body MSCT in polytrauma compared to conventional radiography with organ-specific CT induces a threefold increased dose in unfavorable situations and no increased dose in favorable situations. Nevertheless, routine use of whole-body MSCT should be critically evaluated and should be adapted to the clinical benefit.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of iron-oxide labeled SK-Mel 28 human melanoma cells in the chick embryo using a clinical whole body MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppitz, M; Pintaske, J; Kehlbach, R; Schick, F; Schriek, G; Busch, C

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate advantages and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the migration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled cells in the chick embryo. Labeled human SK-Mel 28 melanoma cells were injected into the E2 chick embryo neural tube. Embryos were examined with a clinical 3 T MRI whole body system using 3D T*(2)-weighted sequences with isotropic spatial resolutions of 0.3-1.0 mm. MR-measurements of embryos were performed 2 - 16 days after cell injection. MRI findings were verified by dissection and histology. After injection, melanoma cells formed aggregations that were detectable in the neural tube as signal voids in MR images from day 2 after injection. Emigrating cells later left MRI detectable tracks. Aggregates that remained in the neural tube left label that was absorbed by glia cells. In E18 chick embryos, signals of haematopoiesis interfered with signals from cell labeling. It was shown that SK-Mel 28 cells will resume the neural crest pathways after injection into the embryonic micro-environment. SPIO cell labeling allows monitoring of transplanted melanoma cells during embryonic development. MRI using the standard clinical equipment promises to be valuable for high-sensitive monitoring of ex-vivo labeled cells in the chick embryo.

  13. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  14. Potential influence of Gadolinium contrast on image segmentation in MR-based attenuation correction with Dixon sequences in whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlmann, Verena; Heusch, Philipp; Kühl, Hilmar; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Antoch, Gerald; Forsting, Michael; Bockisch, Andreas; Buchbender, Christian; Quick, Harald H

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of Gadolinium contrast agent on image segmentation in magnetic resonance (MR)-based attenuation correction (AC) with four-segment dual-echo time Dixon-sequences in whole-body [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging, and to analyze the consecutive effect on standardized uptake value (SUV). Hybrid imaging with an integrated PET/MR system was performed in 30 oncological patients. AC was based on MR imaging with a Dixon sequence with subsequent automated image segmentation. AC maps (µmaps) were acquired and reconstructed prior to (µmap-gd) and after (µmap+gd) Gd-contrast agent application. For quantification purposes, the SUV of organs and tumors based on both µmaps were compared. Tissue classification based on µmap-gd was correct in 29/30 patients; based on µmap+gd, the brain was falsely classified as fat in 12/30 patients with significant underestimation of SUV. In all cancerous lesions, tissue segmentation was correct. All concordant µmaps-gd/+gd resulted in no significant difference in SUV. In PET/MR, Gd-contrast agent potentially influences fat/water separation in Dixon-sequences of the head with above-average false tissue segmentation and an associated underestimation of SUV. Thus, MR-based AC should be acquired prior to Gd-contrast agent application. Additionally, integrating the MR-based AC maps into the reading-routine in PET/MR is recommended to avoid interpretation errors in cases where tissue segmentation fails.

  15. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different 18F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Julian; Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Herrmann, Ken; Forsting, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Umutlu, Lale

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted 18F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 18F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI1; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI2; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI3 and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. 18F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future.

  16. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Julian; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf (Germany); Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Forsting, Michael; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI{sub 1}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 2}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 3} and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future. (orig.)

  17. Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for patients with recurring prostate cancer: technical feasibility and assessment of lesion conspicuity in DWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Matthias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Ganter, Carl; Epple, Kathrin; Metz, Stephan; Geinitz, Hans; Kübler, Hubert; Gaa, Jochen; Rummeny, Ernst J; Beer, Ambros J

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the principal methodological aspects of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with background suppression using a time-optimized protocol for restaging of prostate cancer patients in a technical feasibility study. Seventeen patients underwent MRI at 1.5T from the base of the skull to the proximal thigh using axial T1-weighted (T1w), T2w short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), and DWI (b-values: 50 and 500 s/mm(2)) and sagittal T1w and T2w STIR of the spine. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, and bone were measured. Image quality in DWI was assessed by using a scale from 0-9. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of lymph node and bone metastases were determined in T1w, T2w STIR, and DWI. Bone metastases were further subclassified according to their Hounsfield units (HU) in computed tomography (CT). Mean acquisition and mean room times were 66:20 and 75:21 minutes, respectively. ADC values of normal organs showed good concordance with reported data. Good to excellent image quality was observed for DWI (mean scores 7.41-8.00) with the exception of the neck (mean score 4.76). CNR of DWI (b-value 50 s/mm(2) ) for lymph node metastases was clearly superior compared to all other sequences. For bone metastases T1w performed significantly better for sclerotic lesions (HU > 600), DWI (b-value 50 s/mm(2) ) for nonsclerotic lesion (HU bone metastases. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Diagnostic value of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: lllb146@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li, Qiong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Nie, Wei [Department of Respiratory Disease, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: lsy20112077@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DWI) technique in detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with that of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (WB-PET/CT). Materials and methods: Search Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database from January 1984 to July 2013 for studies comparing WB-DWI with WB-PET/CT for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies. Methodological quality was assessed by the quality assessment of diagnostic studies (QUADAS) instrument. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and areas under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Potential threshold effect, heterogeneity and publication bias were investigated. Result: Thirteen eligible studies were included, with a total of 1067 patients. There was no significant threshold effect. WB-DWI had a similar AUC (0.966 (95% CI, 0.940–0.992) versus 0.984 (95% CI, 0.965–0.999)) with WB-PET/CT. No significant difference was detected between AUC of WB-DWI and WB-PET/CT. WB-DWI had a pooled sensitivity of 0.897 (95% CI, 0.876–0.916) and a pooled specificity of 0.954 (95% CI, 0.944–0.962). WB-PET/CT had a pooled sensitivity of 0.895 (95% CI, 0.865–0.920) and a pooled specificity of 0.975 (95% CI, 0.966–0.981). Heterogeneity was found to stem primarily from data type (per lesion versus per patient), MR sequence (DWIBS only and DWIBS with other sequence), and primary lesion type (single type and multiple type). The Deeks's funnel plots suggested the absence of publication bias. Conclusion: WB-DWI has similar, good diagnostic performance for the detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with WB-PET/CT. DWIBS with other MR sequences could further improve the diagnostic performance. More high-quality studies regarding comparison of WB-DWI and WB

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: an essential tool for diagnosis and work up of non-oncological systemic diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchi, A M; Hanquinet, S; Anooshiravani, M; Merlini, L

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is a non-irradiating imaging technique, suitable to investigate the extent of multisystemic diseases in pediatric patients. However its real impact on diagnosis and management of non-oncological pediatric diseases remains unclear. We present our experience of pediatric WBMRI in various pathologies. We retrospectively reviewed medical files of all non- oncologic patients who underwent WBMRI from January 2008 to November 2012. The MRI protocol included T1 weighted and 3D SPACE Inversion Recovery (IR) and fat saturated diffusion weighted (DWI) sequence. We reviewed medical records in order to determine if performing WBMRI added useful information for diagnostic purposes and/or changed clinical management. Forty-two children were included in the study (19 F, 23 M) (median age 4.7 years). Twenty-one children underwent general anesthesia. WBMRI was a useful tool to provide correct diagnosis in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and to identify the origin of fever or arthralgia of unknown etiology. WBMRI allowed to determine the extent of disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), chronic granulomatous disorder, enchondromatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and in the assessment of tumor burden in neurofibromatosis type I. For the battered child syndrome, the influence on management was rather minimal. For each of these pathologies we performed a review of recent literature. WBMRI is easy to perform in children and allows the assessment of systemic diseases or discovery of lesions ignored by clinical examination. WBMRI influenced the decisional process and clinical management of various pathologies in our series.

  1. Monitoring total-body inflammation and damage in joints and entheses: the first follow-up study of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, M B; Eshed, I; Østergaard, M; Hetland, M L; Møller, J M; Jensen, D V; Krintel, S B; Hansen, M S; Terslev, L; Klarlund, M; Poggenborg, R P; Balding, L; Pedersen, S J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate changes in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) inflammatory and structural lesions in most joints and entheses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with adalimumab. WBMRI was obtained at weeks 0, 6, 16, and 52 in a 52 week follow-up study of 37 RA patients starting treatment with adalimumab. Readability and reliability of WBMRI were investigated for 76 peripheral joints, 23 discovertebral units, the sacroiliac joints, and 33 entheses. Changes in WBMRI joint and entheses counts were investigated. The readability of peripheral and axial joints was 82-100%, being less for elbows and small joints of the feet. For entheses, 72-100% were readable, except for entheses at the anterior chest wall, elbow, knee, and plantar fascia. The intrareader agreement was high for bone marrow oedema (BMO), bone erosion (80-100%), and enthesitis (77-100%), and slightly lower for synovitis and soft tissue inflammation (50-100%). All synovitis, BMO, and soft tissue inflammation counts decreased numerically during treatment. The 26-joint synovitis WBMRI count decreased significantly during the first 16 weeks for patients with a good European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response (from median 6 to 4, p joints and entheses in RA patients and can visualize a decrease in inflammatory counts during treatment. This first WBMRI follow-up study of patients with RA encourages further investigation of the usefulness of WBMRI in RA.

  2. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  3. Comparison of Whole-Body (18)F FDG PET/MR Imaging and Whole-Body (18)F FDG PET/CT in Terms of Lesion Detection and Radiation Dose in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy N; Raad, Roy A; Pujara, Akshat C; Ponzo, Fabio D; Pysarenko, Kristine M; Jhaveri, Komal; Babb, James S; Sigmund, Eric E; Kim, Sungheon G; Moy, Linda A

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To compare fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with (18)F FDG combined PET and computed tomography (CT) in terms of organ-specific metastatic lesion detection and radiation dose in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods From July 2012 to October 2013, this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant prospective study included 51 patients with breast cancer (50 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 32-76 years; one man; aged 70 years) who completed PET/MR imaging with diffusion-weighted and contrast material-enhanced sequences after unenhanced PET/CT. Written informed consent for study participation was obtained. Two independent readers for each modality recorded site and number of lesions. Imaging and clinical follow-up, with consensus in two cases, served as the reference standard. Results There were 242 distant metastatic lesions in 30 patients, 18 breast cancers in 17 patients, and 19 positive axillary nodes in eight patients. On a per-patient basis, PET/MR imaging with diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced sequences depicted distant (30 of 30 [100%] for readers 1 and 2) and axillary (eight of eight [100%] for reader 1, seven of eight [88%] for reader 2) metastatic disease at rates similar to those of unenhanced PET/CT (distant metastatic disease: 28 of 29 [96%] for readers 3 and 4, P = .50; axillary metastatic disease: seven of eight [88%] for readers 3 and 4, P > .99) and outperformed PET/CT in the detection of breast cancer (17 of 17 [100%] for readers 1 and 2 vs 11 of 17 [65%] for reader 3 and 10 of 17 [59%] for reader 4; P PET/MR imaging showed increased sensitivity for liver (40 of 40 [100%] for reader 1 and 32 of 40 [80%] for reader 2 vs 30 of 40 [75%] for reader 3 and 28 of 40 [70%] for reader 4; P PET/MR imaging may yield better sensitivity for liver and possibly bone metastases but not for pulmonary metastases, as compared with that

  4. Comparison of Whole-Body 18F FDG PET/MR Imaging and Whole-Body 18F FDG PET/CT in Terms of Lesion Detection and Radiation Dose in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy N.; Raad, Roy A.; Pujara, Akshat C.; Ponzo, Fabio D.; Pysarenko, Kristine M.; Jhaveri, Komal; Babb, James S.; Sigmund, Eric E.; Kim, Sungheon G.; Moy, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 18F FDG combined PET and computed tomography (CT) in terms of organ-specific metastatic lesion detection and radiation dose in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods From July 2012 to October 2013, this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant prospective study included 51 patients with breast cancer (50 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 32–76 years; one man; aged 70 years) who completed PET/MR imaging with diffusion-weighted and contrast material–enhanced sequences after unenhanced PET/CT. Written informed consent for study participation was obtained. Two independent readers for each modality recorded site and number of lesions. Imaging and clinical follow-up, with consensus in two cases, served as the reference standard. Results There were 242 distant metastatic lesions in 30 patients, 18 breast cancers in 17 patients, and 19 positive axillary nodes in eight patients. On a per-patient basis, PET/MR imaging with diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced sequences depicted distant (30 of 30 [100%] for readers 1 and 2) and axillary (eight of eight [100%] for reader 1, seven of eight [88%] for reader 2) metastatic disease at rates similar to those of unenhanced PET/CT (distant metastatic disease: 28 of 29 [96%] for readers 3 and 4, P = .50; axillary metastatic disease: seven of eight [88%] for readers 3 and 4, P > .99) and outperformed PET/CT in the detection of breast cancer (17 of 17 [100%] for readers 1 and 2 vs 11 of 17 [65%] for reader 3 and 10 of 17 [59%] for reader 4; P PET/MR imaging showed increased sensitivity for liver (40 of 40 [100%] for reader 1 and 32 of 40 [80%] for reader 2 vs 30 of 40 [75%] for reader 3 and 28 of 40 [70%] for reader 4; P PET/MR imaging may yield better sensitivity for liver and possibly bone metastases but not for pulmonary metastases, as compared with that

  5. Dual-Energy CT in Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusion: Overestimation of Hematoma Volumes on Standard 120-kV Images and Rectification with Virtual High-Energy Monochromatic Images after Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Body Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanapally, U K; Shanmuganathan, K; Issa, G; Dreizin, D; Guang, L; Sudini, K; Fleiter, T R

    2018-02-08

    In patients with hemorrhagic contusions, hematoma volumes are overestimated on follow-up standard 120-kV images obtained after contrast-enhanced whole-body CT. We aimed to retrospectively determine hemorrhagic progression of contusion rates on 120-kV and 190-keV images derived from dual-energy CT and the magnitude of hematoma volume overestimation. We retrospectively analyzed admission and follow-up CT studies in 40 patients with hemorrhagic contusions. After annotating the contusions, we measured volumes from admission and follow-up 120-kV and 190-keV images using semiautomated 3D segmentation. Bland-Altman analysis was used for hematoma volume comparison. On 120-kV images, hemorrhagic progression of contusions was detected in 24 of the 40 patients, while only 17 patients had hemorrhagic progression of contusions on 190-keV images ( P = .008). Hematoma volumes were systematically overestimated on follow-up 120-kV images (9.68 versus 8 mm 3 ; mean difference, 1.68 mm 3 ; standard error, 0.37; P images. There was no significant difference in volumes between admission 120-kV and 190-keV images. Mean and median percentages of overestimation were 29% (95% CI, 18-39) and 22% (quartile 3 - quartile 1 = 36.8), respectively. The 120-kV images, which are comparable with single-energy CT images, significantly overestimated the hematoma volumes, hence the rate of hemorrhagic progression of contusions, after contrast-enhanced whole-body CT. Hence, follow-up of hemorrhagic contusions should be performed on dual-energy CT, and 190-keV images should be used for the assessment of hematoma volumes. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Evaluation of Clinical Contributions Provided by Addition of the Brain, Calvarium, and Scalp to the Limited Whole Body Imaging Area in FDG-PET/CT Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Tasdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to detect additional findings in whole body FDG-PET/CT scan including the brain, calvarium, and scalp (compared to starting from the base of the skull in cancer patients and to determine contributions of these results to tumor staging and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods. We noted whether the findings related to the brain, calvarium, and scalp in 1359 patients had a potential to modify staging of the disease, chemotherapy protocol, radiotherapy protocol, and surgical management. We identified rates of metastatic findings on the brain, calvarium, and scalp according to the tumor types on FDG-PET/CT scanning. Results. We found FDG-PET/CT findings for malignancy above the base of the skull in 42 patients (3.1%, one of whom was a patient with an unknown primary tumor. Twenty-two of the metastatic findings were in the brain, 16 were in the calvarium, and two were in the scalp. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that addition of the brain to the limited whole body FDG-PET/CT scanning may provide important contributions to the patient’s clinical management especially in patients with lung cancer, bladder cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, stomach cancer, and unknown primary tumor.

  7. UK quantitative WB-DWI technical workgroup: consensus meeting recommendations on optimisation, quality control, processing and analysis of quantitative whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Anna; Alonzi, Roberto; Blackledge, Matthew; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Collins, David J; Cook, Gary; Coutts, Glynn; Goh, Vicky; Graves, Martin; Kelly, Charles; Koh, Dow-Mu; McCallum, Hazel; Miquel, Marc E; O'Connor, James; Padhani, Anwar; Pearson, Rachel; Priest, Andrew; Rockall, Andrea; Stirling, James; Taylor, Stuart; Tunariu, Nina; van der Meulen, Jan; Walls, Darren; Winfield, Jessica; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-01-01

    Application of whole body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI) for oncology are rapidly increasing within both research and routine clinical domains. However, WB-DWI as a quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) has significantly slower adoption. To date, challenges relating to accuracy and reproducibility, essential criteria for a good QIB, have limited widespread clinical translation. In recognition, a UK workgroup was established in 2016 to provide technical consensus guidelines (to maximise accuracy and reproducibility of WB-MRI QIBs) and accelerate the clinical translation of quantitative WB-DWI applications for oncology. A panel of experts convened from cancer centres around the UK with subspecialty expertise in quantitative imaging and/or the use of WB-MRI with DWI. A formal consensus method was used to obtain consensus agreement regarding best practice. Questions were asked about the appropriateness or otherwise on scanner hardware and software, sequence optimisation, acquisition protocols, reporting, and ongoing quality control programs to monitor precision and accuracy and agreement on quality control. The consensus panel was able to reach consensus on 73% (255/351) items and based on consensus areas made recommendations to maximise accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI studies performed at 1.5T. The panel were unable to reach consensus on the majority of items related to quantitative WB-DWI performed at 3T. This UK Quantitative WB-DWI Technical Workgroup consensus provides guidance on maximising accuracy and reproducibly of quantitative WB-DWI for oncology. The consensus guidance can be used by researchers and clinicians to harmonise WB-DWI protocols which will accelerate clinical translation of WB-DWI-derived QIBs.

  8. Improved image quality using monolithic scintillator detectors with dual-sided readout in a whole-body TOF-PET ring: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Surti, Suleman; Borghi, Giacomo; Karp, Joel S.; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2017-03-01

    We have recently built and characterized the performance of a monolithic scintillator detector based on a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO:Ce crystal read out by digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays coupled to the crystal front and back surfaces in a dual-sided readout (DSR) configuration. The detector spatial resolution appeared to be markedly better than that of a detector consisting of the same crystal with conventional back-sided readout (BSR). Here, we aim to evaluate the influence of this difference in the detector spatial response on the quality of reconstructed images, so as to quantify the potential benefit of the DSR approach for high-resolution, whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of clinical PET systems based on BSR and DSR detectors, using the results of our detector characterization experiments to model the detector spatial responses. We subsequently quantify the improvement in image quality obtained with DSR compared to BSR, using clinically relevant metrics such as the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and the area under the localized receiver operating characteristic curve (ALROC). Finally, we compare the results with simulated rings of pixelated detectors with DOI capability. Our results show that the DSR detector produces significantly higher CRC and increased ALROC values than the BSR detector. The comparison with pixelated systems indicates that one would need to choose a crystal size of 3.2 mm with three DOI layers to match the performance of the BSR detector, while a pixel size of 1.3 mm with three DOI layers would be required to get on par with the DSR detector.

  9. Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or Shouldn't I Get One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or shouldn't I ... What are the risks and benefits of whole-body CT screening? Many people believe incorrectly that a ...

  10. Validation of prospective whole-body bone marrow dosimetry by SPECT/CT multimodality imaging in {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucek, Jan A. [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); Turner, J. Harvey [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is emerging as a promising treatment strategy. Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity and may be particularly problematic in patients heavily pretreated with chemotherapy. Reliable dosimetry is likely to minimise toxicity and improve treatment efficacy, and the aim of this study was to elucidate the complex problems of dosimetry of RIT by using an integrated SPECT/CT system. As a part of a clinical trial of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, we employed a patient-specific prospective dosimetry method utilising the whole-body effective half-life of antibody and the patient's ideal weight to calculate the administered activity for RIT corresponding to a prescribed radiation absorbed dose of 0.75 Gy to the whole body. A novel technique of quantitation of bone marrow uptake with hybrid SPECT/CT imaging was developed to validate this methodology by using post-RIT extended imaging and data collection. A strong, statistically significant correlation (p=0.001) between whole-body effective half-life of antibody and effective marrow half-life was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that bone marrow activity concentration was proportional to administered activity per unit weight, height or body surface area (p<0.001). The results of this study show the proposed whole-body dosimetry method to be valid and clinically applicable for safe, effective RIT. (orig.)

  11. Radiation dosimetry of N-([{sup 11}C]methyl)benperidol as determined by whole-body PET imaging of primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antenor-Dorsey, Jo A.V. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Laforest, Richard; Moerlein, Stephen M. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Videen, Tom O. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Perlmutter, Joel S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Program in Physical Therapy, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2008-04-15

    N-([{sup 11}C]methyl)benperidol ([{sup 11}C]NMB) can be used for positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of D{sub 2}-like dopamine receptor binding in vivo. We report the absorbed radiation dosimetry of i.v.-administered {sup 11}C-NMB, a critical step before applying this radioligand to imaging studies in humans. Whole-body PET imaging with a CTI/Siemens ECAT 953B scanner was done in a male and a female baboon. After i.v. injection of 444-1221 MBq of {sup 11}C-NMB, sequential images taken from the head to the pelvis were collected for 3 h. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were identified that entirely encompassed small organs (whole brain, striatum, eyes, and myocardium). Large organs (liver, lungs, kidneys, lower large intestine, and urinary bladder) were sampled by drawing representative regions within the organ volume. Time-activity curves for each VOI were extracted from the PET, and organ residence times were calculated by analytical integration of a multi-exponential fit of the time-activity curves. Human radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and the standard human model. Highest retention was observed in the blood and liver, each with total residence times of 1.5 min. The highest absorbed radiation doses were to the heart (10.5 mGy/kBq) and kidney (9.19 mGy/kBq), making these the critical organs for [{sup 11}C]NMB. A heart absorption of 50 mGy would result from an injected dose of 4,762 MBq [{sup 11}C]NMB. Thus, this study suggests that up to 4,762 MBq of [{sup 11}C]NMB can be safely administered to human subjects for PET studies. Total body dose and effective dose for [{sup 11}C]NMB are 2.82 mGy/kBq and 3.7 mSv/kBq, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Comparative study of two whole-body imaging techniques in the case of melanoma metastases: Advantages of multi-contrast MRI examination including a diffusion-weighted sequence in comparison with PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Valerie, E-mail: v.laurent@chu-nancy.f [Department of Adult Radiology, Brabois Hospital, University of Nancy, 54500 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Trausch, Gregory [GE Healthcare Technologies, 283 rue de la Miniere, 78533 Buc CEDEX (France); Bruot, Olivier [Department of Adult Radiology, Brabois Hospital, University of Nancy, 54500 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Olivier, Pierre [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brabois Hospital, University of Nancy, 54500 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Felblinger, Jacques [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-ERI 13, University of Nancy, 54500 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Regent, Denis [Department of Adult Radiology, Brabois Hospital, University of Nancy, 54500 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of our study was to compare whole-body MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with a multi-contrast protocol including a DW (Diffusion Weighted) sequence to PET-CT (Positron Emission Tomography) using {sup 18}FDG (18F-fluoroDeoxyGlucose) for staging advanced melanoma. In a first part, we compared the respective overall accuracy of each modality. We analyzed in a second part the benefits of a DW sequence added to the standard whole-body MRI protocol. Among the population of the 35 patients who experienced the two examinations of our prospective blinded study, we were able to detect 120 lesions and 70 of them were found malignant. The sensitivity and specificity for whole-body MRI were respectively 82% and 97%, while PET-CT reached 72.8% and 92.7%. DW sequence allowed the detection of 14 supplementary malignant lesions (20%) in comparison with standard MRI protocol. Moreover, this technique has been shown to be the most accurate for detecting metastases in the liver, bone, subcutaneous and intra-peritoneal sites. Consequently, a DW sequence should be added systematically to the standard whole-body MRI oncologic protocol because of its high added-value for metastasis detection.

  13. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Cannie, Mieke M; Arthurs, Owen J; Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Sebire, Neil J; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-08-01

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses autopsy increases with 3-T. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for thoracic and abdominal organs. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for fetuses < 20 weeks' gestation.

  14. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xin; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Jani, Jacques C. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium); Cannie, Mieke M. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Arthurs, Owen J.; Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Fetopathology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P < 0.0001). 3-T MRI diagnostic error was significantly lower than that of 1.5-T for all anatomic structures and organ groups, except the orbits and brain. This difference was maintained for fetuses <20 weeks gestation. Moreover, 3-T was associated with fewer non-diagnostic scans and greater concordance with classical autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses <20 weeks. Post-mortem fetal 3-T MRI improves confidence scores and overall accuracy compared with 1.5-T, mainly for the thorax, heart and abdomen of fetuses <20 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  15. Whole-body MRI for the staging and follow-up of patients with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic approach compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body scanners at 1.5 T and recently 3T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage in a multi-planar imaging approach. More flexible protocols, e.g. including T1-weighted TSE- and STIR-imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen can be performed within less than 45 min. For initial tumor staging PET-CT as a competing whole-body modality in oncologic imaging has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, using the additional metabolic information of PET for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. However, new applications, such as MR-whole-body diffusion imaging, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. WB-MRI has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and it is especially useful as a radiation-free alternative for the surveillance of tumor patients with multiple follow-up exams. Furthermore, it has been introduced as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma. This article summarizes recent developments and applications of WB-MRI and highlights its performance within the scope of systemic oncologic staging and surveillance.

  16. Effects of ferumoxytol on quantitative PET measurements in simultaneous PET/MR whole-body imaging: a pilot study in a baboon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ronald Jh; Cho, Hoon-Sung; Bowen, Spencer L; Attenberger, Ulrike; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Josephson, Lee; Rosen, Bruce R; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous PET/MR imaging depends on MR-derived attenuation maps (mu-maps) for accurate attenuation correction of PET data. Currently, these maps are derived from gradient-echo-based MR sequences, which are sensitive to susceptibility changes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been used in the measurement of blood volume, tumor microvasculature, tumor-associated macrophages, and characterizing lymph nodes. Our aim in this study was to assess whether the susceptibility effects associated with iron oxide nanoparticles can potentially affect measured (18)F-FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUV) through effects on MR-derived attenuation maps. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Using a Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR scanner, we evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of ferumoxytol and ferumoxytol aggregates on MR-derived mu-maps using an agarose phantom. In addition, we performed a baboon experiment evaluating the effects of a single i.v. ferumoxytol dose (10 mg/kg) on the liver, spleen, and pancreas (18)F-FDG SUV at baseline (ferumoxytol-naïve), within the first hour and at 1, 3, 5, and 11 weeks. Phantom experiments showed mu-map artifacts starting at ferumoxytol aggregate concentrations of 10 to 20 mg/kg. The in vivo baboon data demonstrated a 53% decrease of observed (18)F-FDG SUV compared to baseline within the first hour in the liver, persisting at least 11 weeks. A single ferumoxytol dose can affect measured SUV for at least 3 months, which should be taken into account when administrating ferumoxytol in patients needing sequential PET/MR scans. Advances in knowledge 1. Ferumoxytol aggregates, but not ferumoxytol alone, produce significant artifacts in MR-derived attenuation correction maps at approximate clinical dose levels of 10 mg/kg. 2. When performing simultaneous whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/MR, a single dose of ferumoxytol can result in observed SUV decreases up to 53%, depending on the

  17. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sebastian; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter

    2009-06-01

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  18. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ley@gmx.de; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  19. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this

  20. Whole-body biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolite correction of [11C]palmitate: A PET tracer for imaging of fatty acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nana Louise; Jakobsen, Steen; Schacht, Anna Christina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were...... performed in 2 pigs and 2 healthy volunteers by whole-body [11C]palmitate PET scans. Metabolite studies were performed in 40 participants (healthy and with type 2 diabetes) under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions. Metabolites were estimated using 2 approaches and subsequently compared: Indirect [11C]CO2...... release and parent [11C]palmitate measured by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Finally, myocardial fatty acid uptake was calculated in a patient cohort using input functions derived from individual metabolite correction compared with population-based metabolite correction. RESULTS: In humans, mean...

  1. What is the most accurate whole-body imaging modality for assessment of local and distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis. Imaging for recurrent colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Monique; Lambregts, Doenja M.J. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Rutten, Iris J.G.; Cappendijk, Vincent C.; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nelemans, Patty J. [Maastricht University, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, CT and MRI as whole-body imaging modalities for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who have a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease, based on clinical findings or rise in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A meta-analysis was undertaken. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies on the accuracy of whole-body imaging for patients with suspected local and/or distant recurrence of their CRC. Additionally, studies had to have included at least 20 patients with CRC and 2 x 2 contingency tables had to be provided or derivable. Articles evaluating only local recurrence or liver metastasis were excluded. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed from the data on sensitivity and specificity of individual studies and pooled estimates of diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were calculated. To test for heterogeneity the Cochran Q test was used. Fourteen observational studies were included which evaluated PET, PET/CT, CT and/or MRI. Study results were available in 12 studies for PET, in 5 studies for CT, in 5 studies for PET/CT and in 1 study for MRI. AUCs for PET, PET/CT and CT were 0.94 (0.90-0.97), 0.94 (0.87-0.98) and 0.83 (0.72-0.90), respectively. In patient based analyses PET/CT had a higher diagnostic performance than PET with an AUC of 0.95 (0.89-0.97) for PET/CT vs 0.92 (0.86-0.96) for PET. Both whole-body PET and PET/CT are very accurate for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in CRC patients with a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease. CT has the lowest diagnostic performance. This difference is probably mainly due to the lower accuracy of CT for detection of extrahepatic metastases (including local recurrence). For clinical practice PET/CT might be the modality of choice when evaluating patients with a (high

  2. Dose reduction in 64-row whole-body CT in multiple trauma: an optimized CT protocol with iterative image reconstruction on a gemstone-based scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Markus; Harrieder, Andreas; Mueck, Fabian G; Deak, Zsuzsanna; Wirth, Stefan; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of potential dose savings by implementing adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) on a gemstone-based scintillator in a clinical 64-row whole-body CT (WBCT) protocol after multiple trauma. Methods: Dose reports of 152 WBCT scans were analysed for two 64-row multidetector CT scanners (Scanners A and B); the main scanning parameters were kept constant. ASiR and a gemstone-based scintillator were used in Scanner B, and the noise index was adjusted (head: 5.2 vs 6.0; thorax/abdomen: 29.0 vs 46.0). The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI) and dose–length product (DLP) were analysed. The estimated mean effective dose was calculated using normalized conversion factors. Student's t-test was used for statistics. Results: Both the mean CTDI (mGy) (Scanner A: 53.8 ± 2.0, 10.3 ± 2.5, 14.4 ± 3.7; Scanner B: 48.7 ± 2.2, 7.1 ± 2.3, 9.1 ± 3.6; p ASiR and a gemstone-based scintillator allows for significant dose savings in a clinical WBCT protocol. Advances in knowledge: Recent technical developments can significantly reduce radiation dose of WBCT in multiple trauma. Dose reductions of 10–34% can be achieved. PMID:26853510

  3. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  4. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DW-MRI) vs choline-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (choline-PET/CT) for selecting treatments in recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Moreno, A J; Herrando-Parreño, G; Muelas-Soria, R; Ferrer-Rebolleda, J; Broseta-Torres, R; Cozar-Santiago, M P; García-Piñón, F; Ferrer-Albiach, C

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DW-MRI) in detecting metastases by comparing the results with those from choline-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (choline-PET/CT) in patients with biochemical relapse after primary treatment, and no metastases in bone scintigraphy, CT and/or pelvic MRI, or metastatic/oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Patients with this disease profile who could benefit from treatment with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) were selected and their responses to these techniques were rated. This was a prospective, controlled, unicentric study, involving 46 consecutive patients from our centre who presented biochemical relapse after adjuvant, salvage or radical treatment with external beam radiotherapy, or brachytherapy. After initial tests (bone scintigraphy, CT, pelvic MRI), 35 patients with oligometastases or without them were selected. 11 patients with multiple metastases were excluded from the study. WB-DW-MRI and choline-PET/CT was then performed on each patient within 1 week. The results were interpreted by specialists in nuclear medicine and MRI. If they were candidates for treatment with ablative SBRT (SABR), they were then evaluated every three months with both tests. Choline-PET/CT detected lesions in 16 patients that were not observable using WB-DW-MRI. The results were consistent in seven patients and in three cases, a lesion was observed using WB-DW-MRI that was not detected with choline-PET/CT. The Kappa value obtained was 0.133 (p = 0.089); the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of WB-DW-MRI were estimated at 44.93, 64.29, 86.11, and 19.15%, respectively. For choline-PET/CT patients, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 97.10, 58.33, 93.06, and 77.78%, respectively. Choline-PET/CT has a high global sensitivity while WB-DW-MRI has a high specificity, and so they are

  5. Comparison of image quality between step-and-shoot and continuous bed motion techniques in whole-body18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with the same acquisition duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shozo; Yamamoto, Haruki; Nakaichi, Tetsu; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Kunihiko

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the qualities of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) images acquired by the step-and-shoot (SS) and continuous bed motion (CBM) techniques with approximately the same acquisition duration, through phantom and clinical studies. A body phantom with 10-37 mm spheres was filled with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) solution at a sphere-to-background radioactivity ratio of 4:1 and acquired by both techniques. Reconstructed images were evaluated by visual assessment, percentages of contrast (%Q H ) and background variability (%N) in accordance with the Japanese guideline for oncology FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). To evaluate the variability of the standardized uptake value (SUV), the coefficient of variation (CV) for both maximum SUV and peak SUV was examined. Both the SUV values were additionally compared with those of standard images acquired for 30 min, and their accuracy was evaluated by the %difference (%Diff). In the clinical study, whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT images of 60 patients acquired by both techniques were compared for liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNRliver), CV at end planes, and both SUV values. In the phantom study, the visual assessment and %Q H values of the two techniques did not differ from each other. However, the %N values of the CBM technique were significantly higher than those of the SS technique. Additionally, the CV and %Diff for both SUV values in the CBM images tended to be slightly higher than those in SS images. In the clinical study, the SNRliver values of CBM images were significantly lower than those of SS images, although the CV at the end planes in CBM images was significantly lower than those in SS images. In the Bland-Altman analysis for both SUV values, the mean differences were close to 0, and most lesions exhibited SUVs within the limits of agreement. The CBM technique exhibited slightly lesser uniformity in the center plane than the SS technique. Additionally, in the phantom study, the CV

  6. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  7. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  8. Clinical Assessment of Emission- and Segmentation-Based MR-Guided Attenuation Correction in Whole-Body Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The joint maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) for emission-based attenuation correction has regained attention since the advent of time-of-flight PET/MR imaging. Recently, we improved the performance of the MLAA algorithm using an MR imaging-constrained gaussian

  9. Generating statements at whole-body imaging with a workflow-optimized software tool - first experiences with multireader analysis; Befunderstellung bei der Ganzkoerperbildgebung mittels einer workflowoptimierten Befundungssoftware - Erste Erfahrungen einer Multireader-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Horvat, C.; Plathow, C.; Ludescher, B.; Lichy, M.P.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P. [Uniklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostische Radiologie; Canda, V.; Zindel, C. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Medical Solutions; Hahn, H.K.; Peitgen, H.O.; Kuhnigk, J. [MeVis, Bremen (Germany). Center for Medical Diagnostic Systems and Visualization

    2007-07-15

    Introduction: Due to technical innovations in sectional diagram methods, whole-body imaging has increased in importance for clinical radiology, particularly for the diagnosis of systemic tumor disease. Large numbers of images have to be evaluated in increasingly shorter time periods. The aim was to create and evaluate a new software tool to assist and automate the process of diagnosing whole-body datasets. Material and Methods: Thirteen whole-body datasets were evaluated by 3 readers using the conventional system and the new software tool. The times for loading the datasets, examining 5 different regions (head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/skeletal system) and retrieving a relevant finding for demonstration were acquired. Additionally a Student T-Test was performed. For qualitative analysis the 3 readers used a scale from 0 - 4 (0 = bad, 4 = very good) to assess dataset loading convenience, lesion location assistance, and ease of use. Additionally a kappa value was calculated. Results: The average loading time was 39.7 s ({+-} 5.5) with the conventional system and 6.5 s ({+-} 1.4) (p < 0.01) with the new software tool. For the different regions (conventional system/new software tool), the time reduction for readers 1, 2, and 3 were as follows: in the head region 35.9 % (p < 0.01)/49.9 % (p < 0.01)/54.3 % (p < 0,01), in the neck region 48.5 % (p < 0.01)/52.6 % (p < 0.01)/59.4 % (p < 0.05), in the thorax region 59.1 % (p < 0.01)/56.2 % (p < 0.05)/62.1 % (p < 0.05), in the abdominal region 61.9 % (p < 0.01)/62.7 % (p < 0.05)/47.9 % (p < 0.01) and in the pelvis region 73.1 % (p < 0.01)/63.7 % (p < 0.05)/55 % (p < 0.01), respectively. 148.2 s ({+-} 94.8) compared to 2.5 s ({+-} 0.5) were required to retrieve a previously described finding (p < 0.01). With and without the new software tool the same number of metastases was found (p < 0.01, k > 0.9). The qualitative analysis showed a significant advantage with respect to convenience (p < 0.01, k > 0.9). (orig.)

  10. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI...... out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice...

  11. Respiratory motion correction in oncologic PET using T1-weighted MR imaging on a simultaneous whole-body PET/MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würslin, Christian; Schmidt, Holger; Martirosian, Petros; Brendle, Cornelia; Boss, Andreas; Schwenzer, Nina F; Stegger, Lars

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid PET/MR combines the exceptional molecular sensitivity of PET with the high resolution and versatility of MR imaging. Simultaneous data acquisition additionally promises the use of MR to enhance the quality of PET images, for example, by respiratory motion correction. This advantage is especially relevant in thoracic and abdominal areas to improve the visibility of small lesions with low radiotracer uptake and to enhance uptake quantification. In this work, the applicability and performance of an MR-based method of respiratory motion correction for PET tumor imaging was evaluated in phantom and patient studies. PET list-mode data from a motion phantom with (22)Na point sources and 5 patients with tumor manifestations in the thorax and upper abdomen were acquired on a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR system. During the first 3 min of a 5-min PET scan, the respiration-induced tissue deformation in the PET field of view was recorded using a sagittal 2-dimensional multislice gradient echo MR sequence. MR navigator data to measure the location of the diaphragm were acquired throughout the PET scan. Respiration-gated PET data were coregistered using the MR-derived motion fields to obtain a single motion-corrected PET dataset. The effect of motion correction on tumor visibility, delineation, and radiotracer uptake quantification was analyzed with respect to uncorrected and gated images. Image quality in terms of lesion delineation and uptake quantification was significantly improved compared with uncorrected images for both phantom and patient data. In patients, in head-feet line profiles of 14 manifestations, the slope became steeper by 66.7% (P = 0.001) and full width at half maximum was reduced by 20.6% (P = 0.001). The mean increase in maximum standardized uptake value, lesion-to-background ratio (contrast), and signal-to-noise ratio was 28.1% (P = 0.001), 24.7% (P = 0.001), and 27.3% (P = 0.003), respectively. Lesion volume was reduced by an average of 26.5% (P = 0

  12. Effects of ferumoxytol on quantitative PET measurements in simultaneous PET/MR whole-body imaging: a pilot study in a baboon model

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, Ronald JH; Cho, Hoon-Sung; Bowen, Spencer L; Attenberger, Ulrike; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Josephson, Lee; Rosen, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous PET/MR imaging depends on MR-derived attenuation maps (mu-maps) for accurate attenuation correction of PET data. Currently, these maps are derived from gradient-echo-based MR sequences, which are sensitive to susceptibility changes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been used in the measurement of blood volume, tumor microvasculature, tumor-associated macrophages, and characterizing lymph nodes. Our aim in this study was to assess whether the susceptibility effec...

  13. Quality control for quantitative multicenter whole-body PET/MR studies: A NEMA image quality phantom study with three current PET/MR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boellaard, Ronald; Rausch, Ivo; Beyer, Thomas; Delso, Gaspar; Yaqub, Maqsood; Quick, Harald H; Sattler, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems derive the PET attenuation correction (AC) from dedicated MR sequences. While MR-AC performs reasonably well in clinical patient imaging, it may fail for phantom-based quality control (QC). The authors assess the applicability of different protocols for PET QC in multicenter PET/MR imaging. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 2 2007 image quality phantom was imaged on three combined PET/MR systems: a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR, a Siemens Biograph mMR, and a GE SIGNA PET/MR (prototype) system. The phantom was filled according to the EANM FDG-PET/CT guideline 1.0 and scanned for 5 min over 1 bed. Two MR-AC imaging protocols were tested: standard clinical procedures and a dedicated protocol for phantom tests. Depending on the system, the dedicated phantom protocol employs a two-class (water and air) segmentation of the MR data or a CT-based template. Differences in attenuation- and SUV recovery coefficients (RC) are reported. PET/CT-based simulations were performed to simulate the various artifacts seen in the AC maps (μ-map) and their impact on the accuracy of phantom-based QC. Clinical MR-AC protocols caused substantial errors and artifacts in the AC maps, resulting in underestimations of the reconstructed PET activity of up to 27%, depending on the PET/MR system. Using dedicated phantom MR-AC protocols, PET bias was reduced to -8%. Mean and max SUV RC met EARL multicenter PET performance specifications for most contrast objects, but only when using the dedicated phantom protocol. Simulations confirmed the bias in experimental data to be caused by incorrect AC maps resulting from the use of clinical MR-AC protocols. Phantom-based quality control of PET/MR systems in a multicenter, multivendor setting may be performed with sufficient accuracy, but only when dedicated phantom acquisition and processing protocols are used for attenuation correction.

  14. Quality control for quantitative multicenter whole-body PET/MR studies: A NEMA image quality phantom study with three current PET/MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boellaard, Ronald, E-mail: r.boellaard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd., Vienna 1060 (Austria); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Physics Committee, Vienna 1060 (Austria); Rausch, Ivo; Beyer, Thomas [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Delso, Gaspar [GE Healthcare and University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich 8091 (Switzerland); Yaqub, Maqsood [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Quick, Harald H. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MRI, University of Duisburg–Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); High Field and Hybrid MR-Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Sattler, Bernhard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Physics Committee, Vienna 1060 (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems derive the PET attenuation correction (AC) from dedicated MR sequences. While MR-AC performs reasonably well in clinical patient imaging, it may fail for phantom-based quality control (QC). The authors assess the applicability of different protocols for PET QC in multicenter PET/MR imaging. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 2 2007 image quality phantom was imaged on three combined PET/MR systems: a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR, a Siemens Biograph mMR, and a GE SIGNA PET/MR (prototype) system. The phantom was filled according to the EANM FDG-PET/CT guideline 1.0 and scanned for 5 min over 1 bed. Two MR-AC imaging protocols were tested: standard clinical procedures and a dedicated protocol for phantom tests. Depending on the system, the dedicated phantom protocol employs a two-class (water and air) segmentation of the MR data or a CT-based template. Differences in attenuation- and SUV recovery coefficients (RC) are reported. PET/CT-based simulations were performed to simulate the various artifacts seen in the AC maps (μ-map) and their impact on the accuracy of phantom-based QC. Results: Clinical MR-AC protocols caused substantial errors and artifacts in the AC maps, resulting in underestimations of the reconstructed PET activity of up to 27%, depending on the PET/MR system. Using dedicated phantom MR-AC protocols, PET bias was reduced to −8%. Mean and max SUV RC met EARL multicenter PET performance specifications for most contrast objects, but only when using the dedicated phantom protocol. Simulations confirmed the bias in experimental data to be caused by incorrect AC maps resulting from the use of clinical MR-AC protocols. Conclusions: Phantom-based quality control of PET/MR systems in a multicenter, multivendor setting may be performed with sufficient accuracy, but only when dedicated phantom acquisition and processing protocols are used for

  15. [Clinical value of 99mTc-MIBI imaging, 131I whole body scan and HTG determination for the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after 131I therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, N; Guan, C; Liu, Y; Yang, X

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a comparative evaluation of 99mTc-MIBI imaging, 131I whole body scan and HTG determination in use for the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after 131I therapy. Fifty-three patients with DTC had undergone surgical treatment and 131I ablation. Clinical examinations showed that 22 of them had metastases or recurrences. In the follow-up of all the patients, the HTG determination, the 99mTc-MIBI imaging and the 131I-WBS were performed in sequence after the discontinuance of the administration of thyroxin for 4-6 weeks. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI imaging were 86.36%, 87.10% and 86.79% respectively; those for HTG were 68.18%, 100% and 86.79% and those for 131I-WBS were 63.64%, 100% and 84.91% respectively. The total sensitivity of the three examinations was 100%; the total specificity and total accuracy were 87.10% and 92.45% respectively. The data of this study suggest that 99mTc-MIBI imaging is a highly sensitive method and the combined use of the three examinations can improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis for patients with DTC.

  16. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  17. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Hyoun Choi, Sang; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  18. An accurate 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method for mouse whole-body skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Wimberley, Catriona; Gregoire, Marie C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Small animal image registration is challenging because of its joint structure, and posture and position difference in each acquisition without a standard scan protocol. In this paper, we face the issue of mouse whole-body skeleton registration from CT images. A novel method is developed for analyzing mouse hind-limb and fore-limb postures based on geodesic path descriptor and then registering the major skeletons and fore limb skeletons initially by thin-plate spline (TPS) transform based on the obtained geodesic paths and their enhanced correspondence fields. A target landmark correction method is proposed for improving the registration accuracy of the improved 3D shape context non-rigid registration method we previously proposed. A novel non-rigid registration framework, combining the skeleton posture analysis, geodesic path based initial alignment and 3D shape context model, is proposed for mouse whole-body skeleton registration. The performance of the proposed methods and framework was tested on 12 pairs of mouse whole-body skeletons. The experimental results demonstrated the flexibility, stability and accuracy of the proposed framework for automatic mouse whole body skeleton registration.

  19. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput,

  20. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H.C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality,

  1. week whole-body vibration training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in this study therefore indicate that WBVT could be used as an ffective training modality to improve cardiovascular function in adult males. As such, WBVT is recommended for use in sedentary adults given its benefits. Keywords: Whole-body vibration training, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiovascular responses.

  2. Whole-body MRI evaluation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris G.; Carrino, John A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of FSHD has stimulated interest in developing biomarkers of disease severity. Methods Two groups of MRI scans were analyzed: whole-body scans from 13 subjects with FSHD, and upper and lower extremity scans from 34 subjects with FSHD who participated in the MYO-029 clinical trial. Muscles were scored for fat infiltration and edema-like changes. Fat infiltration scores were compared to muscle strength and function. Results Our analysis reveals a distinctive pattern of both frequent muscle involvement and frequent sparing in FSHD. Averaged fat infiltration scores for muscle groups in the legs correlated with quantitative muscle strength and 10-meter walk times. Discussion Advances in MRI technology allow for the acquisition of rapid, high-quality whole-body imaging in diffuse muscle disease. This technique offers a promising disease biomarker in FSHD and other muscle diseases. PMID:25641525

  3. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  4. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motmans, R

    2012-01-01

    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.

  5. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  6. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica...... of the plasma disappearance curve of a tracer, but mixing problems and flow-limited transport, as indicated by a PS ratio below that of the free diffusion coefficients, may be difficult to overcome, especially when using tracers of a low molecular weight....

  7. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tania C.M.; Terreri, Maria Teresa A.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  8. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tania C M; Lederman, Henrique; Terreri, Maria Teresa A; Kaste, Sue C; Hilario, Maria Odete E

    2010-09-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis.

  9. Diagnostic imaging in polytrauma: comparison of radiation exposure from whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT; Radiologische Bildgebung beim Polytrauma: Dosisvergleich von Ganzkoerper-MSCT und konventionellem Roentgen mit organspezifischer CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Lorenzen, M.; Weber, C.; Adam, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose of whole-body multislice CT (MSCT) and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT in polytrauma. Materials and Methods: The whole-body MSCT encompassing brain, neck and midface, chest, abdomen and pelvis was performed on a Somatom Volume Zoom (Siemens). Conventional radiography consisted of chest and cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine in two views as well as pelvis. Polymat, Siemens. Three combinations of organ specific CT were chosen: CT examination of (1) head and cervical spine, (2) head, cervical spine and chest, (3) head, cervical spine and abdomen. The effective doses of whole-body MSCT and conventional radiography with organ-specific CT were calculated. Results: Effective doses were 20 mSv for whole-body MSCT, 2 mSv for conventional x-ray, and 5 mSv for combination (1), 8 mSv for combination (2) and (3) 16 mSv for combination (3) of the organ-specific CT. The ratio of radiation dose between whole-body MSCT and radiography was 10: 1. This ratio was reduced to 3: 1, 2: 1 and 1: 1 when a combination of radiography and CT was performed. Conclusions: Whole-body MSCT in polytrauma compared to conventional radiography with organ-specific CT induces a threefold increased dose in unfavorable situations and no increased dose in favorable situations. Nevertheless, routine use of whole-body MSCT should be critically evaluated and should be adapted to the clinical benefit. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Dosisvergleich von Ganzkoerper-MSCT und konventioneller Basisdiagnostik mit organspezifischen Ct-Untersuchungen beim Polytrauma. Material und Methoden: Die Ganzkoerper-MSCT-Untersuchung von Schaedel, Mittelgesicht, HWS sowie Thorax, Abdomen und Becken erfolgte an einem Somatom-Volume-Zoom (Siemens). Die konventionelle Bildgebung, bestehend aus Thorax, Becken, HWS, BWS und LWs, wurde an einem Siemens-Polymat durchgefuehrt. Fuer die organspezifischen CT-Untersuchungen wurden 3 Kombinationen ausgewaehlt: (1) CCT + HWS, (2) CCT + HWS

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography; Ganzkoerper-MR-Angiografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Harald; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2009-09-15

    Cardiovascular diseases still rank number one in terms of morbidity and mortality statistics in the western industrialized world. The majority of these diseases are due to atherosclerotic vessel wall changes. Atherosclerosis gets symptomatic in an advanced stage where vessel wall changes are apparent. Thus an early diagnosis of this disease is desirable. Especially atherosclerosis but also most of the inflammatory vessel diseases are known as systemic in nature. Magnetic resonance angiography offers an excellent and ethically justifiable method for non invasive imaging of the entire arterial vasculature without ionizing radiation. DSA comparable imaging results can be achieved nowadays. Possibilities to perform a whole body MR angiography and concerning imaging protocols are very dependent on the configuration of the available MR scanner. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic potential of PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand in whole-body staging of renal cell carcinoma: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, Lino M.; Buchbender, Christian; Boos, Johannes; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Giessing, Markus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Ermert, Johannes [Juelich Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5: Nuclear Chemistry, Juelich (Germany); Antke, Christina; Hautzel, Hubertus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of whole-body PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA ligand in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Six patients with histopathologically proven RCC underwent {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Each PET/CT scan was evaluated in relation to lesion count, location and dignity. SUVmax was measured in primary tumours and PET-positive metastases. Tumour-to-background SUVmax ratios (TBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for primary RCCs in relation to the surrounding normal renal parenchyma. Metastasis-to-background SUVmax ratios (MBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for PET-positive metastases in relation to gluteal muscle. Five primary RCCs and 16 metastases were evaluated. The mean SUVmax of the primary RCCs was 9.9 ± 9.2 (range 1.7 - 27.2). Due to high uptake in the surrounding renal parenchyma, the mean TBR{sub SUVmax} of the primary RCCs was only 0.2 ± 0.3 (range 0.02 - 0.7). Eight metastases showed focal {sup 68}Ga-PSMA uptake (SUVmax 9.9 ± 8.3, range 3.4 - 25.6). The mean MBR{sub SUVmax} of these PET-positive metastases was 11.7 ± 0.2 (range 4.4 - 28.1). All PET-negative metastases were subcentimetre lung metastases. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT appears to be a promising method for detecting RCC metastases. However, no additional diagnostic value in assessing the primary tumour was found. (orig.)

  12. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  13. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  14. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  15. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Gözde; K. Alparslan ERMAN

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration training, the person’s entire body on a platform, creates a vibration that may affect the muscles and bones. Despite the vibration used of massage and treatment since ancient times, it was used as a training method in recent years and became very popular and has attracted the attention of researchers. Whole body vibration training used both sport science with the aim to improve performance and in the fields of medicine for sports therapy. Whole body vibration training bri...

  16. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, Michael; Seeger, Achim; Kramer, Ulrich; Miller, Stephan [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Nael, Kambiz; Saleh, Roya [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The quality of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography could be substantially improved over the past several years based on the introduction and application of parallel imaging, new sequence techniques, such as, e.g., centric k-space trajectories, dedicated contrast agents, and clinical high-field scanners. All of these techniques have played an important role to improve image resolution or decrease acquisition time for the dedicated examination of a single vascular territory. However, whole-body MR angiography may be the application with the potential to profit most from these technical advances. The present review article describes the technical innovations with a focus on parallel imaging at high field strength and the impact on whole-body MR angiography. The clinical value of advanced whole-body MR angiography techniques is illustrated by characteristic cases. (orig.)

  17. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...

  18. Multi-Party, Whole-Body Interactions in Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study interrogates the contributions of multi-party, whole-body interactions to students' collaboration and negotiation of mathematics ideas in a task setting called walking scale geometry, where bodies in interaction became complex resources for students' emerging goals in problem solving. Whole bodies took up overlapping roles representing…

  19. Whole-body MRI in paediatric oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Littooij, Annemieke S.

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron

  20. Integrated whole-body PET/MR imaging with 18F-FDG, 18F-FDOPA, and 18F-fluorodopamine in paragangliomas, in comparison to PET/CT: NIH first clinical experience with a single-injection, dual-modality imaging protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Elise M.; Millo, Corina; Martucci, Victoria; Maass-Moreno, Roberto; Bluemke, David A.; Pacak, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumors that can metastasize and recur; therefore, lifelong imaging follow-up is required. Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (/CT) is an essential tool to image PGLs. Novel hybrid PET/magnetic resonance (/MR) scanners are currently being studied in clinical oncology. We studied the feasibility of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR imaging to evaluate patients with PGLs. Methods Fifty-three PGLs or PGL-related lesions from eight patients were evaluated. All patients underwent a single-injection, dual-modality imaging protocol consisting of a PET/CT and subsequent PET/MR scan. Four patients were evaluated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), two with 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA), and two with 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA). PET/MR data were acquired using a hybrid whole-body 3-Tesla integrated PET/MR scanner. PET and MR data (DIXON images for attenuation correction and T2-weighted sequences for anatomic allocation) were acquired simultaneously. Imaging workflow and imaging times were documented. PET/MR and PET/CT data were visually assessed (blindly) in regards to image quality, lesion detection, and anatomic allocation and delineation of the PET findings. Results With hybrid PET/MR, we obtained high quality images in an acceptable acquisition time (median: 31 min, range: 25–40 min) with good patient compliance. A total of 53 lesions, located in the head-and-neck area (6), mediastinum (2), abdomen and pelvis (13), lungs (2), liver (4), and bone (26) were evaluated. 51 lesions were detected with PET/MR and confirmed by PET/CT. Two bone lesions (L4 body (8 mm) and sacrum (6 mm)) were not detectable on an 18F-FDA scan PET/MR, likely due to washout of the 18F-FDA. Co-registered MR tended to be superior to co-registered CT for head-and-neck, abdomen, pelvis, and liver lesions for anatomic allocation and delineation. Conclusions Clinical PGL evaluation with hybrid PET/MR is feasible with high image

  1. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    texture mapping hardware," IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Submitted. [14] C.R. Castro Pareja , J.M. Jagadeesh and R. Shekhar...modulation in real-time three-dimensional sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging systems "* Carlos R. Castro Pareja , Masters of Science, The Ohio...C.R. Castro Pareja , "An architecture for real-time image registration," M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, March 2002. 14. C.R. Castro Pareja , R

  2. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    diagnosis of breast diseases . Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill, Livingstone, 1994, pp 50-73. 8. Fornage BD, Lorigan JG, Andry E: Fibroadenoma of the breast ...to distinguish between mammographically identified cystic and solid masses. The accuracy rate of breast ultrasound (US) has been reported to be 96...and post-processing algorithms. PARTIALLY COMPLETED - The breast imaging toolbox has been completed and refined. The automated diagnostic tool

  3. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M T

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  4. Whole body MRI for detecting metastatic bone tumor: comparison with bone scintigrams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakanishi, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Nakata, S.; Kyakuno, M.; Nakaguchi, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of whole body MRI (WB-MRI [magnetic resonance imaging]) and bone scintigram (BS) at detecting bone metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: WB-MRI was performed on 16 patients for detecting bone metastasis (6 breast carcinoma, 7 prostatic carcinoma, 1 renal cell

  5. Patient acceptance of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography: A prospective questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef Jesper Wirenfeldt; Eiberg, Jonas Peter; Løgager, Vibeke Berg

    2010-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing the systemic distribution of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic performance of WB-MRA, but no studies have investigated patient acceptance of this imaging method....

  6. Whole-body computed tomography versus conventional skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillengass, J; Moulopoulos, L A; Delorme, S

    2017-01-01

    For decades, conventional skeletal survey (CSS) has been the standard imaging technique for multiple myeloma (MM). However, recently whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) has been implemented into the diagnostic criteria of MM. This analysis compares sensitivity and prognostic significance of WBC...

  7. Inter-station Intensity Standardization for Whole-Body MR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzyubachyk, O; Staring, M; Reijnierse, M; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; van der Geest, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a method for performing inter-station intensity standardization in multispectral whole-body MR data. Methods Different approaches for mapping the intensity of each acquired image stack into the reference intensity space were developed and validated. The registration

  8. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, MCA; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric

  9. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for staging and follow-up of pediatric patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma: comparison of different sequences; Aplicacao da ressonancia magnetica de corpo inteiro para o estadiamento e acompanhamento de pacientes com linfoma de Hodgkin na faixa etaria infanto-juvenil: comparacao entre diferentes sequencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, Daniel; Oliveira, Heverton Cesar de, E-mail: daniel@centrus.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Luisi, Flavio Augusto; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/IOP/GRAACC), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Oncologia Pediatrica. Grupo de Apoio ao Adolescente e a Crianca com Cancer; Ximenes, Andrea Regina da Silveira [Clinica Centrus, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Objective: to compare the performance of the T1, T2, STIR and DWIBS (diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression) sequences in the staging and follow-up of pediatric patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in lymph node chains, parenchymal organs and bone marrow, and to evaluate interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: the authors studied 12 patients with confirmed diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patients were referred for whole body magnetic resonance imaging with T1-weighted, T2-weighted, STIR and DWIBS sequences. Results: the number of lymph node sites characterized as affected by the disease on T1- and T2-weighted sequences showed similar results (8 sites for both sequences), but lower than DWIBS and STIR sequences (11 and 12 sites, respectively). The bone marrow involvement by lymphoma showed the same values for the T1-, T2-weighted and DWIBS sequences (17 lesions), higher than the value found on STIR (13 lesions). A high rate of interobserver agreement was observed as the four sequences were analyzed. Conclusion: STIR and DWIBS sequences detected the highest number of lymph node sites characterized as affected by the disease. Similar results were demonstrated by all the sequences in the evaluation of parenchymal organs and bone marrow. A high interobserver agreement was observed as the four sequences were analyzed. (author)

  11. Transient global amnesia following a whole-body cryotherapy session

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin Carrard; Anne Chantal Lambert; Daniel Genné

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), which consists of a short exposure to very cold and dry air in special 'cryo-chambers', is believed to reduce inflammation and musculoskeletal pain as well as improve athletes' recovery...

  12. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related fitness benefits; not only those associated with obesity, but also the reduction ... The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise intervention for health ..... muscular strength, muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. In addition ...

  13. Digital monitoring by whole body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy detects thinner melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Marius; Oakley, Amanda

    2010-12-01

    Population screening for melanoma remains controversial. There are no studies demonstrating that population screening increases survival. As prognosis of melanoma is directly related to Breslow thickness, a surrogate marker of survival is thickness of melanoma. The development of several self-referred, whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging services reflects the public's concern regarding melanoma. To assess the ability of one of these services to detect melanoma at an early, thin stage. Demographic and histological details from 100 melanomas diagnosed through self-referred whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging service compared to those diagnosed through traditional methods from data held by the New Zealand Cancer Registry. There were 52 invasive and 48 in-situ melanomas: 90% superficial spreading type, 6% lentigo-maligna type and 4% nodular on histology. Forty-eight were diagnosed on first visit; the remainder by serial digital dermoscopy. Thirty-five percent of patients reported having had previous primary melanoma. In 60%, patients had been concerned by the lesion, the rest (40%) detected solely by screening. Patients diagnosed by whole-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy screening had thinner melanomas compared to the Registry data: 69% Melanomas detected by self-referred, whole-body photography with sequential digital dermoscopy service are thinner than melanomas detected by traditional diagnostic methods. It remains to be determined whether earlier diagnosis results in improved survival.

  14. Whole-body MRI in children: Current status and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Kassa [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: darge@email.chop.edu; Jaramillo, Diego [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: jaramillo@email.chop.edu; Siegel, Marilyn J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 South Kingshighway Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: siegelm@mir.wustl.edu

    2008-11-15

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is a novel technique that makes imaging of the whole patient in a manner similar to scintigraphy or positron emission tomography (PET) possible. Unlike the latter two methods, it is without exposure to radiation and thus gaining increasing importance and application in pediatrics. With the introduction of a moving tabletop, sequential movement of the patient through the magnet has become possible with automatic direct realignment of the images after acquisition. The common scan plane is coronal with additional planes being added depending on the indication. WBMRI is targeted for maximum coverage of the body within the shortest possible time using the minimum number of sequences. The evaluation of the bone marrow has been the primary indication thus inversion recovery sequences like STIR or TIRM are mostly used with the T1-weighted sequence being added variably. For correct evaluation of the bone marrow in the pediatric age group understanding normal pattern of marrow transformation is essential. The primary role of WBMRI has been in oncology for the detection of tumor spread and also for the follow-up and evaluation of complications. The initial comparative studies of WBMRI with scintigraphy and PET in children have shown the high diagnostic potential of WBMRI. Emerging potential applications of WBMRI include the evaluation for osteonecrosis, chronic multifocal recurrent osteomyelitis, myopathies, and generalized vascular malformations. Future use of WBMRI may incorporate non-accidental trauma, virtual autopsy, body fat mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  15. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  16. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  17. Comparison of high resolution whole-body MRI using parallel imaging and PET-CT. First experiences with a 32-channel MRI system; Hochaufloesendes Ganzkoerpertumorstaging unter Verwendung paralleler Bildgebung im Vergleich zur PET-CT. Erste Erfahrungen auf einem 32-Kanal-MRT-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Baur-Melnyk, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany); Tiling, R.; Hahn, K. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    To compare the accuracy in the detection and staging of various malignant tumors with high resolution whole-body MRI using parallel imaging with whole-body dual-modality PET-CT. Preliminary results of an interim analysis from a prospective, blinded study are presented, in which 20 patients (mean age 59 years, range 27-77 years) with different oncological diseases underwent whole-body dual modality FDG-PET-CT screening for tumor search or staging in case of confirmed or suspected metastatic disease. All patients also underwent whole-body MRI imaging with the use of parallel imaging (iPAT). High-resolution coronal T1w- and STIR-sequences of 5 body levels with 512 x 512 matrix, axial fast T2w imaging of lung and abdomen (HASTE), contrast-enhanced dynamic and static T1w-sequences of liver, brain, abdomen, and pelvis were performed. Using a 32-channel whole-body MRI scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions) with a total field of view of 205 cm and free table movement, all patients could be covered from head to toe within one examination. With this technique, high spatial resolution and acceptable scanning times could be obtained. Two experienced radiologists read the MRI-scans, one radiologist and one nuclear scientist read PET-CT scans, each in consensus in a clinical setting. Delineation of the primary tumor (T-stage) or recurrent tumor, pathologic lymph node involvement, as well as degree and localization of metastatic disease, was assessed using PET-CT as standard of reference. Metastases from gastrointestinal tumor (25%) and breast cancer (25%), genitourinary tumor (15%) and malignant melanoma (15%) were detected. In 4/20 patients the primary tumor was identified, 2/20 patients showed recurrent tumor. Of 140 malignant lesions detected by PET-CT, 124 lesions were detected with MRI, resulting in a sensitivity of 89% at a specificity of 86%. In malignant lymph node detection, sensitivity of MRI was 83% and specificity 85%. Whole-body MRI is a promising

  18. Detecting the relevance to performance of whole-body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuki, Daisuke; Takiyama, Ken

    2017-11-15

    Goal-directed whole-body movements are fundamental in our daily life, sports, music, art, and other activities. Goal-directed movements have been intensively investigated by focusing on simplified movements (e.g., arm-reaching movements or eye movements); however, the nature of goal-directed whole-body movements has not been sufficiently investigated because of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. One open question is how to overcome high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy to achieve the desired performance. It is possible to approach the question by quantifying how the motions of each body part at each time point contribute to movement performance. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify an explicit relation between each motion element (the motion of each body part at each time point) and performance as a result of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. The current study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the relevance of each motion element to the performance. The current findings indicate that linear regression may be used to quantify this relevance without considering the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of whole-body motion.

  19. Melanoma screening with serial whole body photographic change detection using Melanoscan technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Rhett J; Nguyen, Chi; Drugge, Elizabeth D; Gliga, Luciana; Broderick, Patrick A; McClain, Steve A; Brown, Christopher C

    2009-06-15

    The use of an automated, whole-body, diffusely lit digital imaging enclosure to produce serial images, which were then compared, using an astrophysics image display method, enabled a private practice dermatologist to detect melanoma at significantly thinner Breslow depths compared to all other clinical detection paradigms examined in this study. The patients were triaged to scanning using a melanoma risk survey system. The system employed a 24 camera semicircular imaging wall, with front and back views. 10,000 whole body photographic scans were obtained. Privacy was maintained with 128-bit image encryption and off-line storage. Image to image comparison of whole body digital photography was combined with a whole body skin exam in order to sensitize a clinical dermatologist to skin changes in individuals at risk for melanoma. Mean depths (Breslow scores) were compiled from six distinct melanoma biopsy cohorts segregated and based on different clinical screening paradigms. The Breslow depth of invasive lesions of the serial screening cohort was significantly less (by at least 0.050 mm) compared to three other clinical screening groups (patient self-detection 0.55 mm, p=0.007; referred by outside non-dermatologist physician 0.73 mm, p=0.03; and serial dermatologic evaluation 0.23 mm, p=0.03) as well as two pathology laboratory cohorts (community hospital laboratory 1.45 mm, p=0.003; dermatopathology laboratory 0.18, p=0.0003). This approach provides a quick and effective method for detection of early melanomas with a significant reduction in the skin area required for lesion examination.

  20. Whole-Body Profiling of Cancer Metastasis with Single-Cell Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei I. Kubota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic and proliferative events initiated from a single cell can disrupt homeostatic balance and lead to fatal disease processes such as cancer metastasis. To overcome metastasis, it is necessary to detect and quantify sparsely distributed metastatic cells throughout the body at early stages. Here, we demonstrate that clear, unobstructed brain/body imaging cocktails and computational analysis (CUBIC-based cancer (CUBIC-cancer analysis with a refractive index (RI-optimized protocol enables comprehensive cancer cell profiling of the whole body and organs. We applied CUBIC-cancer analysis to 13 mouse models using nine cancer cell lines and spatiotemporal quantification of metastatic cancer progression at single-cell resolution. CUBIC-cancer analysis suggests that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition promotes not only extravasation but also cell survival at metastatic sites. CUBIC-cancer analysis is also applicable to pharmacotherapeutic profiling of anti-tumor drugs. CUBIC-cancer analysis is compatible with in vivo bioluminescence imaging and 2D histology. We suggest that a scalable analytical pipeline with these three modalities may contribute to addressing currently incurable metastatic diseases.

  1. Whole-body impedance control of wheeled humanoid robots

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introducing mobile humanoid robots into human environments requires the systems to physically interact and execute multiple concurrent tasks. The monograph at hand presents a whole-body torque controller for dexterous and safe robotic manipulation. This control approach enables a mobile humanoid robot to simultaneously meet several control objectives with different pre-defined levels of priority, while providing the skills for compliant physical contacts with humans and the environment. After a general introduction into the topic of whole-body control, several essential reactive tasks are developed to extend the repertoire of robotic control objectives. Additionally, the classical Cartesian impedance is extended to the case of mobile robots. All of these tasks are then combined and integrated into an overall, priority-based control law. Besides the experimental validation of the approach, the formal proof of asymptotic stability for this hierarchical controller is presented. By interconnecting the whole-body ...

  2. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  3. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  4. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  5. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  6. Effect of fatigue on the precision of a whole-body pointing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Schieppati, M; Pozzo, T

    2006-01-01

    We addressed the issue of the possible degradation of the aiming precision of a whole-body pointing task, when movement coordination is deranged by selective fatigue of the postural task component. The protocol involved continuous repetition (0.1 Hz frequency) of rapid whole-body pointing trials toward a target located beyond arm length, starting from stance and requiring knee flexion. Six healthy human subjects repeated the trials until exhaustion. Such repetition led to electromyography signs of fatigue in rectus femoris (active in body lowering and raising), but not in deltoid (prime mover for arm reaching component). Rectus femoris fatigue affected the equilibrium control strategy, since the anteroposterior displacement of the center of foot pressure was reduced during the fatigued compared with the initial trials. Conversely, the precision of the aiming movement was unaffected by the rectus femoris fatigue in spite of changes in finger trajectory. Trunk inclination at the end of whole-body pointing task and hip and shoulder marker trajectories were unaffected by rectus femoris fatigue. Control experiments were made, whereby fatiguing repetitions of the postural component of the task were performed without finger pointing, except in the first and last five complete whole-body pointing trials. The results were not different from those of the main protocol, except for a transient change in finger trajectory in the very first trial after fatigue. The CNS takes into account the state of postural muscles' fatigue and the concurrently ensuing equilibrium constraints in order to appropriately modify whole-body pointing strategy and keep pointing precision at the target.

  7. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  8. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern...

  9. Do whole-body vibrations affect spatial hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Guastavino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along the vertical axis on spatial hearing. The first was a free-field, narrow-band noise localisation experiment with 5- Hz vibration at 0.88 ms(-2). The other experiments used headphone-based sound lateralisation tasks. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of vibration frequency (4 vs. 8 Hz) at two different magnitudes (0.83 vs. 1.65 ms(-2)) on a left-right discrimination one-interval forced-choice task. Experiment 3 assessed the effect on a two-interval forced-choice location discrimination task with respect to the central and two peripheral reference locations. In spite of the broad range of methods, none of the experiments show a reliable effect of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance. We report three experiments that used both free-field localisation and headphone lateralisation tasks to assess their sensitivity to whole-body vibrations at low frequencies. None of the experiments show a reliable effect of either frequency or magnitude of whole-body vibrations on localisation performance.

  10. Interventions for chronic low back pain: whole body vibration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study explored, described and compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional spinal stabilisation exercises in persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used to delineate the base of volunteers gathered by a combination ...

  11. Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of whole body vibration intervention on handgrip strength of Brazilian healthy soldiers. Danielle Soares Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Samuel Brandão Sobrinho Neto, Laisa Liane Paineiras Domingos, Patrícia Lopes de Souza, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Glenda Dias Costa, Cláudia Ferreira de Figueiredo, ...

  12. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  13. The effect of whole-body vibration training on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on the use of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on some health-related risk factors such as body composition and biochemical parameters is limited. The purpose of the study was therefore, to assess the effect of progressive WBVT on selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy ...

  14. Whole body vibration improves attention and motor performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation via mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. It is assumed that WBV induces sensory stimulation in cortical brain regions through the activation of skin and muscle receptors responding to the vibration. The effects of WBV on muscle strength are ...

  15. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  16. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. Researchers are divided on the safety and effectiveness of WBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV on muscle activation. Healthy university students (N = 11; ...

  17. Acute effects of varying whole body vibration exposure on jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to result in rapid improvement in muscle strength and power. However, WBV studies have utilised sedentary individuals as participants and research is limited on athletes for whom strength and power are their primary assets in sport. Utilising WBV as part of a training ...

  18. Back disorders and whole-body vibration at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the relation between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and the incidence and prevalence of disorders of the spine and the back. It focuses on sickness absence and permanente work disability of crane operators, tractor drivers, helicopter pilots, forklift

  19. Visuospatial memory computations during whole-body rotations in roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, S. van; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van; Medendorp, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a memory-saccade task to test whether the location of a target, briefly presented before a whole-body rotation in roll, is stored in egocentric or in allocentric coordinates. To make this distinction, we exploited the fact that subjects, when tilted sideways in darkness, make systematic

  20. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  1. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  2. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V. [State Research Center, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I. [Clinical Hospital No. 6 of Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux Roses (France)

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of {gamma}-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. {sup 241}Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy {gamma}-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for {sup 241}Am administered via injection and less than 10% for {sup 241}Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  3. Whole Body MRI at 3T with Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Sequences for the Characterization of Peripheral Lesions in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Schwannomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Blakeley, Jaishri; Plotkin, Scott; Widemann, Brigitte; Jacobs, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. WB-MRI is mainly used for tumor detection and surveillance. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of WB-MRI at 3T for lesion characterization, with DWI/ADC-mapping and contrast-enhanced sequences, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and schwannomatosis. Materials and Methods. At 3T, WB-MRI was performed in 11 subjects (10 NF-2 and 1 schwannomatosis) with STIR, T1, contrast-enhanced T1, and DWI/ADC mapping (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm(2)). Two readers reviewed imaging for the presence and character of peripheral lesions. Lesion size and features (signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement characteristics, and ADC values) were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported. Results. Twenty-three lesions were identified, with average size of 4.6 ± 2.8 cm. Lesions were characterized as tumors (21/23) or cysts (2/23) by contrast-enhancement properties (enhancement in tumors, no enhancement in cysts). On T1, tumors were homogeneously isointense (5/21) or hypointense (16/21); on STIR, tumors were hyperintense and homogeneous (10/21) or heterogeneous (11/21); on postcontrast T1, tumors enhanced homogeneously (14/21) or heterogeneously (7/21); on DWI, tumor ADC values were variable (range 0.8-2.7), suggesting variability in intrinsic tumor properties. Conclusion. WB-MRI with quantitative DWI and contrast-enhanced sequences at 3T is feasible and advances the utility of WB-MRI not only to include detection, but also to provide additional metrics for lesion characterization.

  4. Effect of energy restriction and physical exercise intervention on phenotypic flexibility as examined by transcriptomics analyses of mRNA from adipose tissue and whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sindre; Norheim, Frode; Langleite, Torgrim M; Noreng, Hans J; Storås, Trygve H; Afman, Lydia A; Frost, Gary; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Tangen, Daniel S; Stadheim, Hans K; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Gulseth, Hanne L; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jensen, Jørgen; Drevon, Christian A; Holen, Torgeir

    2016-11-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to changes in adipose tissue such as inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to assess how altered energy balance by reduced food intake or enhanced physical activity affect these processes. We studied sedentary subjects with overweight/obesity in two intervention studies, each lasting 12 weeks affecting energy balance either by energy restriction (~20% reduced intake of energy from food) in one group, or by enhanced energy expenditure due to physical exercise (combined endurance- and strength-training) in the other group. We monitored mRNA expression by microarray and mRNA sequencing from adipose tissue biopsies. We also measured several plasma parameters as well as fat distribution with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Comparison of microarray and mRNA sequencing showed strong correlations, which were also confirmed using RT-PCR In the energy restricted subjects (body weight reduced by 5% during a 12 weeks intervention), there were clear signs of enhanced lipolysis as monitored by mRNA in adipose tissue as well as plasma concentration of free-fatty acids. This increase was strongly related to increased expression of markers for M1-like macrophages in adipose tissue. In the exercising subjects (glucose infusion rate increased by 29% during a 12-week intervention), there was a marked reduction in the expression of markers of M2-like macrophages and T cells, suggesting that physical exercise was especially important for reducing inflammation in adipose tissue with insignificant reduction in total body weight. Our data indicate that energy restriction and physical exercise affect energy-related pathways as well as inflammatory processes in different ways, probably related to macrophages in adipose tissue. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Coregistered whole body magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography (MRI-PET) versus PET-computed tomography plus brain MRI in staging resectable lung cancer: comparisons of clinical effectiveness in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Seonwoo; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Hojoong; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Hwang, Hye Sun; Shim, Young Mog

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess whether coregistered whole brain (WB) magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography (MRI-PET) would increase the number of correctly upstaged patients compared with WB PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) plus dedicated brain MRI in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 2010 through November 2011, patients with NSCLC who had resectable disease based on conventional staging were assigned randomly either to coregistered MRI-PET or WB PET-CT plus brain MRI (ClinicalTrials.gov trial NCT01065415). The primary endpoint was correct upstaging (the identification of lesions with higher tumor, lymph node, or metastasis classification, verified with biopsy or other diagnostic test) to have the advantage of avoiding unnecessary thoracotomy, to determine appropriate treatment, and to accurately predict patient prognosis. The secondary endpoints were over staging and under staging compared with pathologic staging. Lung cancer was correctly upstaged in 37 of 143 patients (25.9%) in the MRI-PET group and in 26 of 120 patients (21.7%) in the PET-CT plus brain MRI group (4.2% difference; 95% confidence interval, -6.1% to 14.5%; P = .426). Lung cancer was over staged in 26 of 143 patients (18.2%) in the MRI-PET group and in 7 of 120 patients (5.8%) in the PET-CT plus brain MRI group (12.4% difference; 95% confidence interval, 4.8%-20%; P = .003), whereas lung cancer was under staged in 18 of 143 patients (12.6%) and in 28 of 120 patients (23.3%), respectively (-10.7% difference; 95% confidence interval, -20.1% to -1.4%; P = .022). Although both staging tools allowed greater than 20% correct upstaging compared with conventional staging methods, coregistered MRI-PET did not appear to help identify significantly more correctly upstaged patients than PET-CT plus brain MRI in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-02-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this end, a variety of atlas-based segmentation strategies commonly used in medical image segmentation and pseudo-CT generation were implemented and evaluated in terms of whole-body bone segmentation accuracy. Bone segmentation was performed on 23 whole-body CT/MR image pairs via leave-one-out cross validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice criterion, global weighting atlas fusion methods provided moderate improvement of whole-body bone segmentation (DSC= 0.65 ± 0.05) compared to non-weighted IA (DSC= 0.60 ± 0.02). The local weighed atlas fusion approach using the MSD similarity measure outperformed the other strategies by achieving a DSC of 0.81 ± 0.03 while using the NCC and NMI measures resulted in a DSC of 0.78 ± 0.05 and 0.75 ± 0.04, respectively. Despite very long computation time, the extracted

  7. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

    2014-12-01

    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  8. Thermal, circulatory, and neuromuscular responses to whole-body cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, T. (Tarja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine thermal (body temperature, thermal sensation and comfort ratings), circulatory (blood pressure, heart rate variability) and neuromuscular performance responses to whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, -110 °C). Altogether 66 healthy subjects were exposed to WBC for two minutes. The acute and long-term changes were examined, when the subjects were exposed to WBC three times a week during three months. Skin temperatures decreased very rapidl...

  9. A whole body statistical shape model for radio frequency simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lin; Ali, Khaleda; Brizzi, Alessio; Keegan, Jennifer; Hao, Yang; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The development of ultra low power wireless sensors for customized wearable and implantable medical devices requires patient specific models for radio frequency simulation to understand wave propagation in the body. In practice, the creation of a patient specific whole-body model is difficult and time consuming to create. It is therefore necessary to establish a method for studying a population in a statistical manner. In this paper, we present a statistical shape model for the whole body for RF simulation. It is built from 10 male and 10 female subjects of varying size and height. This model has the ability to instantiate a new surface mesh with the parameters allowed by the training set. This model would provide shapes of varying sizes for studies, without the requirement of obtaining subject specific whole body models. Results from finite-differences time-domain simulation are presented on the extreme shapes from the model and demonstrate the need for a full understanding of the range in body shapes.

  10. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, Marrie C A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    2017-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated according to a uniform paediatric Hodgkin protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Whole-body MRI was performed in all 24 included patients (mean age 15·1 years, 12 girls) both before treatment and after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and in 16 patients after completion of chemotherapy. Osteonecrosis was identified in 10 patients (41·7%, 95% confidence interval: 22·0-61·4%), with a total of 56 osteonecrotic sites. Osteonecrosis was detected in 8 patients after 2 cycles of OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, doxorubicin), and in 2 additional patients after completion of chemotherapy. Epiphyseal involvement of long bones was seen in 4 of 10 children. None of the patients with osteonecrosis had any signs of bone collapse at the times of scanning. Whole-body MRI demonstrates osteonecrosis to be a common finding occurring during therapy response assessment of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Detection of early epiphyseal osteonecrosis could allow for treatment before bone collapse and joint damage may occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future.

  12. Assessment of whole-body retention to worker after accidental inhalation of {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: lucas.se@usp.b, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In June 2009, an incident occurred at the radiopharmaceutical production plant of the Nuclear Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), which resulted in internal contamination of one worker with particles containing Mo-99. The measurements were made in the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of IPEN. The counting system used for measuring high-energy gamma emitters comprises two thallium-activated sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detectors. The data used in this assessment include six whole body and five extra thoracic measurements over 21 days. The initial measurements have indicated retention of (136 {+-} 6) kBq and (25.1{+-} 1.6) kBq in whole body and extra thoracic measurements, respectively, after approximately one day from the incident. The effective half-lives obtained were (1.68 {+-} 0.08) d for whole-body and (1.78{+-}0.02) d for extra thoracic. The estimated effective dose was (0.049 {+-} 0.002) mSv. (author)

  13. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  14. Whole-Body Distribution of Donepezil as an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor after Oral Administration in Normal Human Subjects: A 11C-donepezil PET Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikuko Mochida; Eku Shimosegawa; Yasukazu Kanai; Sadahiro Naka; Jun Hatazawa; Keiko Matsunaga; Kayako Isohashi; Genki Horitsugi; Tadashi Watabe; Hiroki Kato

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, we aimed to examine the whole-body distribution of donepezil (DNP) as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor by means of 11C-DNP PET imaging, combined with the oral administration of pharmacological doses of DNP.Methods...

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; McConathy, Jonathan; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax/mean) of normal organs and SUVmax of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUVmean r(2): 0.88, Pcompared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children.

  16. Internal absorbed dose estimation by a TLD method for -FDG and comparison with the dose estimates from whole body PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloar, Hossain M.; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Shidahara, Miho; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamadera, Akira; Itoh, Masatoshi

    1999-02-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) method has been proposed as a useful tool for estimating internal radiation absorbed dose in nuclear medicine. An efficient approach to verify the accuracy of the TLD method has been performed in this study. Under the standard protocol for 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose , whole body PET experiments and simultaneous body surface dose measurements by TLDs were performed on six normal volunteers. By using the body surface dose measured with TLDs, the cumulated activities of nine source organs were estimated with a mathematical unfolding technique for three different initial guesses. The accuracy of the results obtained by the TLD method was investigated by comparison with the actual cumulated activity of the same source organs measured by whole body PET. The cumulated activities of the source organs obtained by the TLD method and whole body PET show a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, , level of confidence, ) with each other. The mean effective doses in this study are obtained from the TLD method and obtained from the whole body PET. Good agreement between the results of the TLD method and whole body PET was observed.

  17. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-01-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pu...

  18. Assessments of whole body scan images (PCI) obtained in patients undergoing treatment of radioiodine (pre and post-treatment); Avaliacoes das imagens de pesquisa de corpo inteiro (PCI) obtidas em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de radioiodoterapia (pre e pos-tratamento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fernanda Karolina Mendonca da; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de Jesus; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Souza, Milena Thays Barbosa de, E-mail: fernanda.radiologia8@gmail.com, E-mail: milena_thays@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br, E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used for diagnosis and therapy of some diseases. For the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) Radioiodine therapy is employed, in order to eliminate the rest of thyroid tissue after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). In radioiodine therapy is used radioisotope iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as Sodium Iodide (NaI). The amount of the activity (dose) of {sup 131}I administered is generally the responsibility of nuclear medicine, which is based on an image Research Length of the patient (pre-dose therapy PCI). PCI is also used after treatment (post-PCI therapeutic dose) to evaluate possible metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of biokinetic {sup 131}I at length and in some organs of the patient, in order to note any similarity. Exams PCI pre-dose and post-dose were analyzed, the anterior and posterior projections of ten patients. Contours in these images (ROI - Region Of Interest) were made in the whole body and in areas with high uptake of {sup 131}I. The total score was used in the calculation to obtain the percentage distribution of {sup 13I} in the organs of the patient. The results showed that there similarity on the biodistribution of {sup 131}I between pre-dose and post-dose PCI. Therefore, it was found that it is valuable images of PCI pre-dose therapy as a way to assist the nuclear medicine physician in choosing the best activity to be administered to the patient in order to minimize the dose to adjacent organs. (author)

  19. Whole body vibration in cystic fibrosis--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J; Wust, M; Rawer, R; Schnabel, D; Armbrecht, G; Beller, G; Rembitzki, I; Wahn, U; Felsenberg, D; Staab, D

    2008-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), bone mass deficits as well as a lack of muscle mass and force have been described. The bone mass deficits are thought to be at least in part secondary to the reduced muscle mass. Whole body vibration has recently been suggested as an effective technique to increase muscle force and power. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the compliance and safety of a side-alternating, whole body vibration platform in patients with CF and to assess its effects on muscle force, muscle power, bone mass and lung function. Eleven adult CF patients participated in a six-months home-based training programme on a whole body vibration platform. Muscle force and power were assessed with three standard manoeuvres on a ground reaction force plate at regular intervals. Bone densitometry was performed at the spine, the radius and the tibia using quantitative computerized tomography. Regular cardiovascular monitoring did not show any critical drop in oxygen saturation or blood pressure. Lung function remained relatively constant with a median FEV1 change [% of norm] of -3.1% (range -7-20). Trabecular density at the spine and parameters of bone density and geometry at the radius and tibia did not show consistent changes. A median decrease of -0.3% (-31.0-17.9) for muscle force and a median increase of 4.7% (-16.4-74.5) for muscle power and 6.6% (-0.9-48.3) for velocity was noted in the two-leg jump. In the one-leg jump, a median increase of 6.7% (-8.5-24.3) for muscle force was measured. Whole body vibration was well tolerated in the majority of the study participants. Most patients were able to increase peak force in the one-leg jump. In the two-leg jump, velocity and muscle power increased with equal or decreased muscle force. This may indicate an improvement in neuromuscular and intramuscular co-ordination (and therefore efficiency) with less muscle force necessary to generate the same power.

  20. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Blasimann, A.; Fleuti, U.; Rufener, M.; Elfering, A.; Radlinger, L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. METHODS: Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An asse...

  1. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  2. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  3. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  4. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using a whole-body small-animal ring-shaped photoacoustic computed tomography system. Dry coupling was found to provide image quality comparable to that of conventional water coupling.

  5. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  6. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  7. Safety aspects of whole-body cryochamber and cryosauna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Piotrowska

    2017-12-01

    Interest in low temperature treatment is constantly increasing. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) devices are becoming available not only in medical centers but also in local gyms and spa centers. A new group of users are professional sport clubs where 3-minutes session of whole-body cryotherapy is post-training procedure to improve and speed up the recovery process. There are four different types of WBC devices available on the market and offered to commercial (non-medical) users. The American and European market is dominated by two of them: classic cryochambers and cryosaunas. Both constructions are supplied with liquid nitrogen. Low temperature inside classic cryochamber is produced by evaporating of liquid nitrogen in two or more heat exchangers. There is never a direct contact between user and cryogenic medium in any of system operation mode (closed supply system). Cryosauna is cooled down by filling with cold vapor of liquid nitrogen. Supply system is considered open because it allows for direct contact between user and cryogenic medium. Open supply system of cryosauna is primary and most questionable issue of its operational safety, particularly after tragic accident in October 2015. This paper presents the comparative analysis of classic cryochamber and cryosauna from safety point of view. Both devices have been analyzes and tested on existing systems in operation. Paper gives detailed analysis of constructions, supply systems and working parameters. Special attention has been focused to problem of oxygen deficiency hazard. Different failure or accident scenarios have been analyzed and discussed.

  8. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  10. Automatic and quantitative assessment of regional muscle volume by multi-atlas segmentation using whole-body water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Romu, Thobias; Tallberg, Joakim; Grönqvist, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof

    2015-06-01

    To develop and demonstrate a rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for automatic quantification of total and regional skeletal muscle volume. The method was based on a multi-atlas segmentation of intensity corrected water-fat separated image volumes. Automatic lean muscle tissue segmentations were achieved by nonrigid registration of atlas datasets with 10 different manually segmented muscle groups. Ten subjects scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T were used as atlases, initial validation and optimization. Further validation used 11 subjects scanned at 3.0 T. The automated and manual segmentations were compared using intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions, and delta volumes. For the 1.5 T datasets, the intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions (mean ± standard deviation, SD), and delta volumes (mean ± SD) were 0.99, 0.91 ± 0.02, -0.10 ± 0.70L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.07L (left anterior thigh), and 0.98, 0.80 ± 0.07, -0.08 ± 0.15L (left abdomen). The corresponding values at 3.0 T were 0.97, 0.92 ± 0.03, -0.17 ± 1.37L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.03 ± 0.08L (left anterior thigh), and 0.89, 0.90 ± 0.04, -0.03 ± 0.42L (left abdomen). The validation datasets showed similar results. The method accurately quantified the whole-body skeletal muscle volume and the volume of separate muscle groups independent of field strength and image resolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  12. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Gatta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  13. Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects.

  14. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  15. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  16. Whole-body MRI for inflammatory arthritis and other multifocal rheumatoid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sabine

    2012-11-01

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is an excellent tool for the imaging of rheumatologic diseases with a multifocal and systemic character. These include the different forms of spondyloarthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and inflammatory muscle diseases along with diseases such as systemic lupus and systemic sclerosis that show organ involvement. Although it is not recommended as a first-line investigation in every patient, it may add important information in difficult cases. Currently WBMRI for inflammatory arthritis is mainly used in imaging the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. The technique visualizes most of the involved joints and soft tissue structures with both (early) active and chronic inflammatory changes in one examination. Different patterns of joint involvement can be recognized, with both the acute features of the disease and the longer term sequelae being shown. The technique also allows therapeutic response to be assessed. In CRMO, WBMRI is able to detect asymptomatic and radiographically occult multifocal lesions that typically show a symmetrical distribution predominating in the lower extremity. In inflammatory muscle diseases, WBMRI is able to provide important information for biochemical and genetic differential diagnosis because there is growing knowledge of the correlation between typical patterns of disease and defined clinical entities. In addition, it helps in biopsy localization and is very well suited for assessing disease activity. WBMRI is particularly useful for studying internal organ involvement, especially the brain, heart, and lungs in connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus in one whole-body exam. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Retrospective analysis of whole-body multislice computed tomography findings taken in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bingol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Using whole-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT excessively or with irrelevant indications can be seen in many centers. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the MSCT findings in trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. Methods: Records of the patients who have applied to the emergency department due to blunt trauma in a 12 month period and whose whole body MSCT images have been taken, were evaluated using the “Nucleus Medical Information System”. Results: The most frequent type of trauma was traffic accidents in 61.4%, falling down from the height in 22.4%, and motorcycle accidents in 11.4% of patients. Of the patients, 25.2% were discharged from the emergency, while 73.8% were hospitalized. At least one CT findings associated with trauma was present in 61.4% of our patients. Pathological findings in MSCT were most frequently detected in the head and face (35.3% and thoracic (28.6% regions, respectively. The most common finding in the head and face region was fractures. The most common pathological findings in the thoracic region were pulmonary contusion and rib fractures. A significant relationship was detected between trauma type and spinal MSCT result (p < 0.001. In a large percentage of the patients, MSCT findings were normal in the abdominal region and genitourinary system. Vertebral fractures were most frequently detected in the thoracolumbar region. Conclusions: In our study, our rate of negative CT was found to be 38.6%, which is a higher ratio compared to other studies conducte on this topic. Keywords: Emergency, Trauma, Whole-body multislice computed tomography

  18. Changes of whole-body power, muscle function, and jump performance with prolonged cycling to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Mawston, Grant A; Cairns, Simeon P

    2012-12-01

    To quantify how whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures change during prolonged cycling and recovery and determine whether there are relationships between the different fatigue measures. Ten competitive or recreationally active male cyclists underwent repeated 20-min stages of prolonged cycling at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion. Whole-body peak power output (PPO) was assessed using an all-out 30-s sprint 17 min into each cycle stage. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout. Isometric and isokinetic muscle-function tests were made between cycle stages, over ~6 min, and during 30-min recovery. Drop-jump measures were tested at exhaustion and during recovery. PPO initially increased or was maintained in some subjects but fell to 81% of maximum at exhaustion. RPE was near maximal (18.7) at exhaustion, with the time to exhaustion related to the rate of rise of RPE. PPO first started to decline only when RPE exceeded 16 (ie, hard). Peak isometric and concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) for the quadriceps fell to 86% and 83% of pretest at exhaustion, respectively. In contrast, the peak concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) of the hamstrings increased by 10% before declining to 93% of maximum. Jump height fell to 92% of pretest at exhaustion and was correlated with the decline in PPO (r = .79). Muscle-function and jump-performance measures did not recover over the 30-min postexercise rest period. At exhaustion, whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures had all fallen by 7-19%. PPO and drop-jump decrements were linearly correlated and are appropriate measures of maximal performance.

  19. Whole-body adipose tissue analysis: comparison of MRI, CT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullberg, J; Brandberg, J; Angelhed, J-E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a recently proposed MRI-based T(1)-mapping method for analysis of whole-body adipose tissue (AT) using an established CT protocol as reference and to include results from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 10 subjects, drawn from the Swedish Obese Subje......-processing of whole-body MRI data, allowing longitudinal whole-body studies that are also applicable for children and adolescents.......The aim of this study was to validate a recently proposed MRI-based T(1)-mapping method for analysis of whole-body adipose tissue (AT) using an established CT protocol as reference and to include results from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 10 subjects, drawn from the Swedish Obese...... Subjects Sibling-pairs study, were examined using CT, MRI and DEXA. The CT analysis was based on 28 imaged slices. T(1) maps were calculated using contiguous MRI data from two different gradient echo sequences acquired using different flip angles. CT and MRI comparison was performed slice...

  20. Whole Body Awareness for Controlling a Robotic Transfemoral Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Parri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Restoring locomotion functionality of transfemoral amputees is essential for early rehabilitation treatment and for preserving mobility and independence in daily life. Research in wearable robotics fostered the development of innovative active mechatronic lower-limb prostheses designed with the goal to reduce the cognitive and physical effort of lower-limb amputees in rehabilitation and daily life activities. To ensure benefits to the users, active mechatronic prostheses are expected to be aware of the user intention and properly interact in a closed human-in-the-loop paradigm. In the state of the art various cognitive interfaces have been proposed to online decode the user's intention. Electromyography in combination with mechanical sensing such as inertial or pressure sensors is a widely adopted solution for driving active mechatronic prostheses. In this framework, researchers also explored targeted muscles re-innervation for an objective-oriented surgical amputation promoting wider usability of active prostheses. However, information kept by the neural component of the cognitive interface deteriorates in a prolonged use scenario due to electrodes-related issues, thereby undermining the correct functionality of the active prosthesis. The objective of this work is to present a novel controller for an active transfemoral prosthesis based on whole body awareness relying on a wireless distributed non-invasive sensory apparatus acting as cognitive interface. A finite-state machine controller based on signals monitored from the wearable interface performs subject-independent intention detection of functional tasks such as ground level walking, stair ascent, and sit-to-stand maneuvres and their main sub-phases. Experimental activities carried out with four transfemoral amputees (among them one dysvascular demonstrated high reliability of the controller capable of providing 100% accuracy rate in treadmill walking even for weak subjects and low walking

  1. Electromyographic activity of back muscles during stochastic whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimann, A; Fleuti, U; Rufener, M; Elfering, A; Radlinger, L

    2014-09-01

    Stochastic resonance whole body vibrations (SR-WBV) may reduce and prevent musculoskeletal problems (MSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate how activities of the lumbar erector spinae (ES) and of the ascending and descending trapezius (TA, TD) change in upright standing position during SR-WBV. Nineteen female subjects completed 12 series of 10 seconds of SR-WBV at six different frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12Hz) and two types of "noise"-applications. An assessment at rest had been executed beforehand. Muscle activities were measured with EMG and normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC%). For statistical testing a three-factorial analysis of variation (ANOVA) was applied. The maximum activity of the respective muscles was 14.5 MVC% for the ES, 4.6 MVC% for the TA (12Hz with "noise" both), and 7.4 MVC% for the TD (10Hz without "noise"). Furthermore, all muscles varied significantly at 6Hz and above (p⋜0.047) compared to the situation at rest. No significant differences were found at SR-WBV with or without "noise". In general, muscle activity during SR-WBV is reasonably low and comparable to core strength stability exercises, sensorimotor training and "abdominal hollowing" in water. SR-WBV may be a therapeutic option for the relief of MSP.

  2. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  3. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen or cold pack has an effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also acts antiinflammatorily, eases swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control groups. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocarias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zu Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken, Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung, wird unter Ryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus erbit sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  4. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie: Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift, Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen, or cold packs has an analgetic effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also inhibits inflammation, relieves swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control group. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocardias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zur Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken. Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung wird unter Kryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus ergibt sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  5. Whole body vibration as an adjunct to static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feland, J B; Hawks, M; Hopkins, J T; Hunter, I; Johnson, A W; Eggett, D L

    2010-08-01

    This study was a randomized control trial. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if stretching the hamstrings during whole-body-vibration (WBV) is more effective than static stretching alone; and 2) to monitor retention of flexibility changes. The main outcome measure was hamstring flexibility as measured in degrees using a passive knee extension test. Thirty-four recreationally active college-age subjects (23.4+/-1.7 yrs) completed this study (22 males, 12 females, avg. ht.=175.6+/-6.4 cm, avg. wt.=74.9+/-11.8 kg). Subjects were assigned to a control group (C), a static stretch group (SS), or a vibration + static stretch group (V). Subjects stretched 5 days/wk for 4-weeks and were followed for 3-weeks after cessation to monitor retention. Analysis showed a significant difference between treatment groups (pstretching for the SS and V groups respectively. Three-week follow-up showed SS returning to baseline with V group still 6.4 degrees (11%+/-3.88% (SEM)) more flexible than at baseline. Stretching concurrently with vibration on a WBV platform appears to be a good adjunct to static stretching with the potential to enhance retention of flexibility gains. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  6. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  7. Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2011-07-01

    Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

  8. Three-region MRI-based whole-body attenuation correction for automated PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Jeffrey [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: js274@duke.edu; Jia Guang; Sammet, Steffen; Zhang Jun; Hall, Nathan; Knopp, Michael V. [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: In this study we proposed and developed a simple attenuation mapping approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the purpose of reconstructing positron emission tomography (PET) images in PET/MRI imaging devices. Methods: After experimental development, an in vivo calibration was performed by whole-body scanning of five beagles on both a PET/CT and an MRI. The attenuation was determined by using an automated segmentation algorithm to segment regions of background, lung, soft tissue and bone, and assigning them values of 0.002, 0.030, 0.098 and 0.130 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Results: The CT-attenuated and MRI-attenuated PET images had average standardized uptake values (SUVs) that differed by 1-6% for most regions of interest (ROIs). Also, mean relative differences (MRDs) between the images were between 5% and 9% for most regions. The only exception is bone, where the three-region MRI-attenuated PET images had an SUV 10% less on average than the CT-attenuation images, and the MRD averaged 14%. Also, additional segmentation of the bone in the four-region MRI-attenuated PET images reduced the SUV difference to 3% and the MRD to 6%. Conclusion: Therefore, despite the improvements in the four-region segmentation, the three-region segmentation, without delineation of osseous tissues, produces high-quality images that are sufficient for most expected clinical and research purposes.

  9. Noninvasive Assessment of Elimination and Retention using CT-FMT and Kinetic Whole-body Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawashdeh, Wa'el; Zuo, Simin; Melle, Andrea; Appold, Lia; Koletnik, Susanne; Tsvetkova, Yoanna; Beztsinna, Nataliia; Pich, Andrij; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Gremse, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) is a quantitative three-dimensional imaging technique for preclinical research applications. The combination with micro-computed tomography (µCT) enables improved reconstruction and analysis. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of µCT-FMT and kinetic modeling to determine elimination and retention of typical model drugs and drug delivery systems. We selected four fluorescent probes with different but well-known biodistribution and elimination routes: Indocyanine green (ICG), hydroxyapatite-binding OsteoSense (OS), biodegradable nanogels (NG) and microbubbles (MB). µCT-FMT scans were performed in twenty BALB/c nude mice (5 per group) at 0.25, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after intravenous injection. Longitudinal organ curves were determined using interactive organ segmentation software and a pharmacokinetic whole-body model was implemented and applied to compute physiological parameters describing elimination and retention. ICG demonstrated high initial hepatic uptake which decreased rapidly while intestinal accumulation appeared for around 8 hours which is in line with the known direct uptake by hepatocytes followed by hepatobiliary elimination. Complete clearance from the body was observed at 48 h. NG showed similar but slower hepatobiliary elimination because these nanoparticles require degradation before elimination can take place. OS was strongly located in the bones in addition to high signal in the bladder at 0.25 h indicating fast renal excretion. MB showed longest retention in liver and spleen and low signal in the kidneys likely caused by renal elimination or retention of fragments. Furthermore, probe retention was found in liver (MB, NG and OS), spleen (MB) and kidneys (MB and NG) at 72 h which was confirmed by ex vivo data. The kinetic model enabled robust extraction of physiological parameters from the organ curves. In summary, µCT-FMT and kinetic modeling enable differentiation of hepatobiliary and

  10. Accuracy of whole-body plethysmography requires biological calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Vrang, Carsten; Henriksen, Jorn Molgaard; Klug, Bent; Hanel, Birgitte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by whole-body plethysmography in young children is increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The method is precise and feasible. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. Our aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in six centers and expand normative sRaw values for nonasthmatic children including these centers. Identical hardware with different software versions was used at the six centers. Measurements followed a standard operating procedure: (1) seven healthy young children were brought to each of the six centers for sRaw measurements; and (2) 105 healthy preschool children (52 boys; mean age, 5.1 years; interquartile range, 4.3 to 6.0) were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. (1) The sRaw of the seven-children study group was significantly lower at two centers compared with the other four centers, and one center had significantly higher sRaw than all the other centers (p factory settings of the software was subsequently discovered in one of the deviating centers. (2) Normative data (105 preschool children) were generated and were without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age, and gender. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with our previous data from 121 healthy young children (overall mean sRaw, 1.27; SD, 0.25). Control using biological standards revealed errors in the factory setting and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly, other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values.

  11. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-04-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  13. Optimum coupling and multimode excitation of traveling-waves in a whole-body 9.4T scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschewski, Frank H; Brenner, Daniel; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon

    2013-06-01

    Given the absence of a body coil, the radio frequency screen of a whole-body 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner can be used as a circular waveguide. In the unloaded case, the screen allows propagation of the dominant TE11- as well as the TM01-mode. In the first part of this study, the optimum coupling of a circular polarized TE11-mode was determined empirically for excitation and reception with a rectangular patch antenna. Employing full-wave simulations, two simulation models and two phantoms, different patch positions were tested to find the optimum position with respect to coupled power and homogenous excitation field. The best simulation results were validated with measurements. The second part of this study describes the design and measurements of a multimode excitation device. Using the parallel transmit system of the MR scanner, all propagable traveling wave modes could be excited and detected independently. The performance of the multimode device related to field of view, B1+-efficiency and radio frequency shimming was assessed by phantom measurements. Initial results show that three modes are sufficient to homogeneously excite regions of interest at 9.4 T. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-01

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

  15. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I [U605 INSERM, Villejuif (France); Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H [DOSIsoft, Cachan (France)], E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@igr.fr

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  16. Metabolic characteristics of patients with myocardial visualization in fasting whole body F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. S.; Kang, W. Z.; Jeong, J. M.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    When we would like to find a lesion in the chest malignant or benign, increased myocardial metabolic rate of glucose is so disturbing that bright myocardium obscures nearby lesions in F-18-FDG PET. This study aimed at finding metabolic characteristics of myocardial visualization when we tried not to make myocardium shining by fasting our patients. Plasma insulin, free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose were measured before injection of F-18-FDG in 36 cancer patients who had performed F-18-FDG PET in fasting state. F-18-FDG PET images were grouped in two according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of myocardial visualization. When the myocardium was visualized, we measured myocardium to backgroud (lung) count ratio using regions of interest on the segmented attenuation-corrected whole body PET coronal images. We examined the characteristics of metabolic mileu of group I and II. We correlated myocardium to background (M/B) ratio and metabolic indices in group I. Myocardium was visualized in 21 cases (58%) and not in 15 (42%) during fasting. Plasma glucose concentration was 98.5{+-}13.3 and 91.4{+-}9.1 mg/dl in group I and II, respectively (P <0.05). Plasma insulin concentration was 10.5{+-}5.0 and 8.1{+-}3.2mIU/L in group I and II(P >0.05). Plasma FFA concentration was 0.62{+-}0.23 and 0.92{+-}0.17 mEq/L in group I and II (P<0.05). Among the correlation between M/B ratios and metabolic factors, FFA concentration was negatively correlated with M/B ratio (r=0.3, p<0.05). In conclusion, free fatty acid concentration could be a determining factor to let myocardium show up and shine in fasting state. Artificial increase of free fatty acid could help myocardium not to appear in fasting whole body F-18-FDG PET.

  17. Whole-body MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with plasma cell neoplasms in comparison to the radiological skeletal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Lohrmann, Christian; Pache, Gregor; Uhl, Markus; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Engelhardt, Monika [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI versus radiological skeletal survey (RSS) in staging patients with plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and to evaluate the possible therapeutic impact of the replacement of RSS by whole-body MRI. Fifty-four patients with PCN [multiple myeloma (MM), n=47; monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), n=7] were studied by whole-body MRI and RSS in a monocenter prospective analysis from August 2002 to May 2004. The MRIs were performed using a rolling table platform ''AngioSURF'' for unlimited field of view with a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Sonata/Maestro Class, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). A coronal STIR sequence (TR5500-4230/TE102-94/TI160) was used for imaging of the different body regions, including the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and upper and lower extremities. The RSS consisted of eight different projections of the axial and appendicular skeleton. In 41/54 (74%) patients, the results of the whole-body MRI and RSS were concordant. In 11/54 (20%) patients, both imaging techniques were negative. Bone involvement was observed in 30/54 (55%) patients; however, whole-body MRI revealed this more extensively than the RSS in 27/30 (90%) patients with concordant positive imaging findings. In 3/30 (10%) patients, both imaging techniques demonstrated a similar extent of bone marrow infiltration. In 10/54 (19%) patients, the whole-body MRI was superior to RSS in detecting bone marrow infiltration, whereas the RSS was negative. In 3/54 (6%) patients, the RSS was proven to be false positive by the clinical course, whereas the whole-body MRI was truly negative. Whole-body MRI is a fast and highly effective method for staging PCN patients by the use of a rolling table platform. Moreover, it is more sensitive and specific than RSS and reveals bone marrow infiltration and extensive disease more reliably. Therefore, whole-body MRI should be performed as an additional method of exactly

  18. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  19. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover, muscle relaxation after

  20. Whole-body vibration therapy in intensive care patients: A feasibility and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeselt, Tobias; Nell, Christoph; Kehr, Katahrina; Holland, Angélique; Dresel, Marc; Greulich, Timm; Tackenberg, Björn; Kenn, Klaus; Boeder, Johannes; Klapdor, Benjamin; Kirschbaum, Andreas; Vogelmeier, Claus; Alter, Peter; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2016-03-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit is associated with sustained loss of muscle mass, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Early rehabilitation measures may counteract this process. New approaches to rehabilitation while the patient remains in bed are whole-body vibration alone and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. The aims of this study are to determine the safety of whole-body vibration for patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and to compare the effects of these techniques in intensive care unit patients and healthy subjects. Twelve intensive care unit patients and 12 healthy subjects using whole-body vibration for the first time were examined while lying in bed. First both groups performed whole body vibration over 3 min. In a second step whole body vibration with dumbbell was performed. In order to determine the safety of the training intensity, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were measured. The study was approved by the Marburg ethics committee. There were minor reversible and transient increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.005) and heart rate (p = 0.001) in the control group with whole-body vibration with a dumbbell. In intensive care patients receiving whole-body vibration alone, there were increases in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.011) and heart rate (p vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell for intensive care unit in-bed patients. No clinically significant safety problems were found. Whole-body vibration and whole-body vibration with a dumbbell might therefore be alternative methods for use in early in-bed rehabilitation, not only for hospitalized patients.

  1. Whole-body distribution and metabolism of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C](R)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide in humans; an imaging agent for in vivo assessment of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activity with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, Anne; Hirvonen, Jussi; Oikonen, Vesa; Virsu, Pauliina; Tolvanen, Tuula [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Naagren, Kjell [University of Turku, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Turku (Finland); Rinne, Juha O. [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku Imanet, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Turku (Finland)

    2009-04-15

    {sup 11}C-PK11195 is a radiopharmaceutical for in vivo assessment of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) activity using PET. We sought to clarify the metabolic fate of {sup 11}C-PK11195 in a test-retest setting using radio-HPLC in comparison with radio-TLC, and the whole-body distribution in humans. In order to evaluate the reproducibility of radio-HPLC metabolite analyses, ten patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) underwent two successive {sup 11}C-PK11195 examinations on separate days. For comparison of different analytical methods, plasma samples from seven patients were also analysed by radio-TLC. In addition, we evaluated the whole-body distribution of {sup 11}C-PK11195 and its uptake in the brain. The level of unmetabolized {sup 11}C-PK11195 decreased slowly from 96.3 {+-} 1.6% (mean{+-}SD) at 5 min to 62.7 {+-} 8.3% at 40 min after injection. Large individual variation was observed in the amount of plasma {sup 11}C-PK11195 radiometabolites. The whole-body distribution of {sup 11}C-PK11195 showed the highest radioactivity levels in urinary bladder, adrenal gland, liver, salivary glands, heart, kidneys, and vertebral column. In addition, the hip bone and breast bone were clearly visualized by PET. In patients with AD, {sup 11}C-PK11195 uptake in the brain was the highest in the basal ganglia and thalamus, followed by the cortical grey matter regions and the cerebellum. Low {sup 11}C-PK11195 uptake was observed in the white matter. Our results indicate that {sup 11}C-PK11195 is eliminated both through the renal and hepatobiliary systems. Careful analysis of plasma metabolites is required to determine the accurate arterial input function for quantitative PET measurement. (orig.)

  2. Digimouse: a 3D whole body mouse atlas from CT and cryosection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogdas, Belma; Stout, David; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2007-02-01

    We have constructed a three-dimensional (3D) whole body mouse atlas from coregistered x-ray CT and cryosection data of a normal nude male mouse. High quality PET, x-ray CT and cryosection images were acquired post mortem from a single mouse placed in a stereotactic frame with fiducial markers visible in all three modalities. The image data were coregistered to a common coordinate system using the fiducials and resampled to an isotropic 0.1 mm voxel size. Using interactive editing tools we segmented and labelled whole brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, striatum, medulla, masseter muscles, eyes, lachrymal glands, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys, testes, bladder, skeleton and skin surface. The final atlas consists of the 3D volume, in which the voxels are labelled to define the anatomical structures listed above, with coregistered PET, x-ray CT and cryosection images. To illustrate use of the atlas we include simulations of 3D bioluminescence and PET image reconstruction. Optical scatter and absorption values are assigned to each organ to simulate realistic photon transport within the animal for bioluminescence imaging. Similarly, 511 keV photon attenuation values are assigned to each structure in the atlas to simulate realistic photon attenuation in PET. The Digimouse atlas and data are available at http://neuroimage.usc.edu/Digimouse.html.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results.

  4. Quantitative assessment of whole-body tumor burden in adult patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Munn, Lance L; Muzikansky, Alona; Askenazi, Manor; Nguyen, Rosa; Wenzel, Ralph; Mautner, Victor F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are at risk for multiple nerve sheath tumors and premature mortality. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. We determined the number, volume, and distribution of internal nerve sheath tumors in patients using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and three-dimensional computerized volumetry. We quantified the distribution of tumor volume across body regions and used unsupervised cluster analysis to group patients based on tumor distribution. We correlated the presence and volume of internal tumors with disease-related and demographic factors. WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). Tumor volume was unevenly distributed across body regions with overrepresentation of the head/neck and pelvis. Risk factors for internal nerve sheath tumors included decreasing numbers of café-au-lait macules in NF1 patients (P = 0.003) and history of skeletal abnormalities in NF2 patients (P = 0.09). Risk factors for higher tumor volume included female gender (P = 0.05) and increasing subcutaneous neurofibromas (P = 0.03) in NF1 patients, absence of cutaneous schwannomas in NF2 patients (P = 0.06), and increasing age in schwannomatosis patients (p = 0.10). WBMRI provides a comprehensive phenotype of neurofibromatosis patients, identifies distinct anatomic subgroups, and provides the basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with unique disease manifestations.

  5. Implementation of whole body scanner for determining somatotype index at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T H; Chiou, W K; Lin, J D; Yu, C Y

    2001-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) using 1-dimensional circumference data have been proven to be highly related to blood pressure and total cholesterol; these 2 indices have been widely used as health indicators in preventive diagnosis and health examination. Sophisticated software, which allows calculation of the triangular mesh related to the body surface in 3D space, is capable of computing the circumference, width, sectional surface, volume, and surface area of the body. Chang Gung Whole Body Scanner (CGWBS) was used to capture 3D whole body surface images. In this study, the human body was divided into 10 segments consisting of the head, breast, wrist, hip, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot. Five independent assessments were made on a total of 32 anthropometric sites, including 12 circumferences, 3 widths, 3 profile areas, 7 surface areas, and 7 volumes. In this study, the somatotype index (SI) was computed through anthropometric data after 1,323 subjects were investigated. Correlation analysis was used to describe the relationship between BMI, WHR, SI, and anthropometric data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to examine differences between examination variables across sex and SI groups. This study found 4 somatotypes from anthropometric data. SI determined by CGWBS has better correlation with anthropometry than WHR or BMI. Of the 644 male subjects, 155 were in the ectomorph group, 232 in the semi-mesomorph group, 136 in the full-mesomorph group, and 121 in the endomorph group. Of the 679 female subjects, 160 were in the ectomorph group, 235 in the semi-mesomorph group, 168 in the full-mesomorph group, and 116 in the endomorph group. The results show that SI has great potential to perform precise somatotype classification.

  6. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-03-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pursuit signals, we examined the latency and time course of discharge modulation to horizontal whole body rotation during different vestibular task conditions in head-stabilized monkeys. Pursuit neurons with horizontal preferred directions were selected, and they were classified either as gaze-velocity neurons or eye/head-velocity neurons based on the previous criteria. Responses of these neurons to whole body step-rotation at 20 degrees/s were examined during cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), VOR x1, and during chair steps in complete darkness without a target (VORd). The majority of pursuit neurons tested (approximately 70%) responded during VORd with latencies smooth pursuit. The shortest latency to the onset of target motion during smooth pursuit was 80 ms and the modal value was 95 ms. The time course of discharge rate difference of the two groups of neurons between VOR cancellation and x1 was predicted by the discharge modulation associated with smooth pursuit. These results provide further support for the involvement of the caudal FEF in integration of vestibular inputs and pursuit signals.

  8. False-positive 131I whole-body scan in well-differentiated thyroid cancer patient with respiratory bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thientunyakit, Tanyaluck

    2013-09-01

    (131)I whole-body scan is performed during treatment and follow-up after radioiodine treatment to detect functioning thyroid remnant and metastatic lesions in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). False-positive scans are rare, but may cause a potential pitfall by misleading to unnecessary radiation exposure from inappropriate radioiodine treatment. We report a case of papillary thyroid cancer patient with false-positive (131)I scan in the lung due to pulmonary bronchiolitis. Clinical correlation and imaging characteristics obtained from additional SPECT/CT images are very helpful to indicate this lesion as a benign condition.

  9. Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, H; Ratib, O [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Shao, L [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)

    2011-05-21

    The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET-MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET-MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU 2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET-MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET-CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq{sup -1}, whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET-MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET-CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that

  10. Individuals' decision to co-donate or donate alone: an archival study of married whole body donors in Hawaii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Anteby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School's whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals' characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002. Moreover, registrants' main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001. Married registrants (regardless of sex in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014. Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers. Thus, variations in donors' occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors' marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of

  11. [(Very) high Creatinkinase concentration after exertional whole-body electromyostimulation application: health risks and longitudinal adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Due to its individualization, time-efficiency and effectiveness Whole-body-Electromyo-stimulation (WB-EMS) becomes increasingly popular. However, recently (very) high Creatin-kinase concentration were reported, at least after initial WB-EMS-application. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine (1) WB-EMS induced increases of CK-concentration, (2) their impact on corresponding health parameters and (3) training-induced changes of CK-levels.Twenty-six healthy, sportive volunteers without previous experience with WB-EMS were included. Initial high intense WB-EMS application (bipolar, 85 Hz; 350 ms; intermittent, 20 min) led to an increase of the CK-level by the 117fold (28.545 ± 33.611 IU/l) of baseline. CK-peaks were detected after 72-96 h. Despite this pronounced "exertional rhabdomyolysis", we did not determine rhabdomyolysis-induced complications (e.g. acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia). After 10 weeks of WB-EMS (1 session/week) CK-reaction to intensive WB-EMS-Application was significantly blunted (906 ± 500 IE/l) and averaged in the area of conventional resistance exercise.In summary, intensity of WB-EMS should be carefully increased during the initial sessions.

  12. Evaluation of a single-pass continuous whole-body 16-MDCT protocol for patients with polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Platon, Alexandra; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a conventional multiregional MDCT protocol with two continuous single-pass whole-body MDCT protocols in imaging of patients with polytrauma. Ninety patients with polytrauma underwent whole-body 16-MDCT with a conventional (n=30) or one of two single-pass (n=60) protocols. The conventional protocol included unenhanced scans of the head and cervical spine and contrast-enhanced helical scans (140 mL, 4 mL/s, 300 mg I/mL) of the thorax and abdomen. The single-pass protocols consisted of unenhanced scans of the head followed by one-sweep acquisition from the circle of Willis through the pubic symphysis with a biphasic (150 mL, 6 and 4 mL/s, 300 mg I/mL) or monophasic (110 mL, 4 mL/s, 400 mg I/mL) injection. Acquisition times and interval delays between head, chest, and abdominal scans were recorded. Contrast enhancement was measured in the aortic arch, liver, spleen, and kidney. Diagnostic image quality in the same areas was assessed on a 4-point scale. Median acquisition times for the single-pass protocols were significantly shorter (-42.5%) than the acquisition time for the conventional protocol. No significant differences were found in mean enhancement values in the aorta, liver, spleen, and kidney for the three protocols. The image quality with both single-pass protocols was better than that with the conventional protocol in assessment of the mediastinum and cervical spine (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the single-pass protocols. Use of single-pass continuous whole-body MDCT protocols can significantly decrease examination time for patients with polytrauma and improve image quality compared with a conventional serial scan protocol. Monophasic injection with highly concentrated contrast medium can reduce injection flow rate and should therefore be preferred to a biphasic injection technique.

  13. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  14. Neural correlates of decision making on whole body yaw rotation: An fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winkel, K N; Nesti, A; Ayaz, H; Bülthoff, H H

    2017-07-27

    Prominent accounts of decision making state that decisions are made on the basis of an accumulation of sensory evidence, orchestrated by networks of prefrontal and parietal neural populations. Here we assess whether these findings generalize to decisions on self-motion. Participants were presented with whole body yaw rotations of different durations in a 2-Interval-Forced-Choice paradigm, and tasked to discriminate motions on the basis of their amplitude. The cortical hemodynamic response was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while participants were performing the task. The imaging data was used to predict the specific response on individual experimental trials, and to predict whether the comparison stimulus would be judged larger than the reference. Classifier performance on the former variable was negligible. However, considerable performance was achieved for the latter variable, specifically using parietal imaging data. The findings provide support for the notion that activity in the parietal cortex reflects modality independent decision variables that represent the strength of the neural evidence in favor of a decision. The results are encouraging for the use of fNIRS as a method to perform neuroimaging in moving individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review of the benefits and harms of whole-body computed tomography in the early management of multitrauma patients: are we getting the whole picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Arthavan; Mori, Alfredo; Varma, Dinesh K; Gruen, Russell L

    2014-04-01

    There is considerable interest in whether routine whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging produces different patient outcomes in blunt trauma patients when compared with selective imaging. This article aimed to systematically review the literature for all outcomes measured in comparing WBCT with selective imaging in trauma patients and to evaluate the comprehensiveness of relevant dimensions for this comparison. We performed a systematic review of studies comparing WBCT and selective imaging approaches during the initial assessment of multitrauma patients. Peer-reviewed studies including cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews were identified through large database searches and filtered through methodologic inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics, hypotheses and conclusions made, outcomes assessed, and references to potential benefits and harms were extracted. Eight retrospective cohort studies and two systematic reviews were identified. Six primary studies evaluated mortality as an outcome, and four studies found a significant difference in results favoring WBCT imaging over selective imaging. All five articles assessing various time intervals in hospital following imaging after injury found significantly reduced times with WBCT. Radiation exposure was found to be increased after WBCT imaging compared with selective imaging in the only study in which it was evaluated. The two systematic reviews analyzed the same three articles with regard to mortality but concluded differently about overall benefits. WBCT imaging seems to be associated with reduced times to events in hospital following traumatic injury and seems to be associated with decreased mortality. Whether this is a true effect mediated through an as yet unsubstantiated change in management or the result of hospital- or individual-level confounders is unclear. When evaluating these outcomes, it seems that the authors of both primary studies and

  16. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  17. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  18. Mouse whole-body organ mapping by non-rigid registration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Green, Heather; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Automatic small animal whole-body organ registration is challenging because of subject's joint structure, posture and position difference and loss of reference features. In this paper, an improved 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method is applied for mouse whole-body skeleton registration and lung registration. A geodesic path based non-rigid registration method is proposed for mouse torso skin registration. Based on the above registration methods, a novel non-rigid registration framework is proposed for mouse whole-body organ mapping from an atlas to new scanned CT data. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the method on lung and skin registration. A whole-body organ mapping was performed on three target data and the selected organs were compared with the manual outlining results. The robust of the method has been demonstrated.

  19. Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of whole-body vibration training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paohung Chung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

  20. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Francisco Javier; Riva-Perez, Pablo Antonio de la; Calvo-Moron, Cinta; Bujan-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montano, Juan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results. (author)

  1. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuo Otsuka; Toshiyuki Kurihara; Tadao Isaka

    2017-01-01

    Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT) and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five va...

  2. A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    continues to be difficult, whether the density is a result of fibrocystic diseases or young age. Accurate detection of very small breast tumors (2...DAMD17-02-1-0461 TITLE: A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wai-Hoi...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A High Resolution Clinical PET with Breast and Whole Body Transfigurations 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0461

  3. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Deborah J; Bennett, Suzanne; Samaratunga, Chandrasiri; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Jeffrey P; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lisco, Steven J

    2013-11-01

    Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging. Patients admitted into 15 predesignated SICU beds in a level I trauma center during a 30-day consecutive period were prospectively observed. Effective dose was determined using Huda's method for all radiography, CT imaging, and fluoroscopic examinations. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the relationships between observed values and outcomes. Five of 74 patients (6.8%) exceeded exposures of 50 mSv. Univariate analysis showed trauma designation, length of stay, number of CT scans, fluoroscopy minutes, and number of general radiographs were all associated with increased doses, leading to exceeding occupational exposure limits. In a multivariable analysis, only the number of CT scans and fluoroscopy minutes remained significantly associated with increased whole-body radiation dose. Radiation levels frequently exceeded occupational exposure standards. CT imaging contributed the most exposure. Health-care providers must practice efficient stewardship of radiologic imaging in all critically ill and injured patients. Diagnostic benefit must always be weighed against the risk of cumulative radiation dose.

  5. Comparison between a linear versus a macrocyclic contrast agent for whole body MR angiography in a clinical routine setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittig Kilian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous experiences of whole body MR angiography are predominantly available in linear 0.5 M gadolinium-containing contrast agents. The aim of this study was to compare image quality on a four-point scale (range 1–4 and diagnostic accuracy of a 1.0 M macrocyclic contrast agent (gadobutrol, n = 80 patients with a 0.5 M linear contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine, n = 85 patients on a 1.5 T whole body MR system. Digital subtraction angiography served as standard of reference. Results All examinations yielded diagnostic image quality. There was no significant difference in image quality (3.76 ± 0.3 versus 3.78 ± 0.3, p = n.s. and diagnostic accuracy observed. Sensitivity and specificity of the detection of hemodynamically relevant stenoses was 93%/95% in the gadopentetate dimeglumine group and 94%/94% in the gadobutrol group, respectively. Conclusion The high diagnostic accuracy of gadobutrol in the clinical routine setting is of high interest as medical authorities (e.g. the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products recommend macrocyclic contrast agents especially to be used in patients with renal failure or dialysis.

  6. Comparison between a linear versus a macrocyclic contrast agent for whole body MR angiography in a clinical routine setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Achim; Kramer, Ulrich; Fenchel, Michael; Grimm, Florian; Bretschneider, Christiane; Döring, Jörg; Klumpp, Bernhard; Tepe, Gunnar; Rittig, Kilian; Seidensticker, Peter R; Claussen, Claus D; Miller, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous experiences of whole body MR angiography are predominantly available in linear 0.5 M gadolinium-containing contrast agents. The aim of this study was to compare image quality on a four-point scale (range 1–4) and diagnostic accuracy of a 1.0 M macrocyclic contrast agent (gadobutrol, n = 80 patients) with a 0.5 M linear contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine, n = 85 patients) on a 1.5 T whole body MR system. Digital subtraction angiography served as standard of reference. Results All examinations yielded diagnostic image quality. There was no significant difference in image quality (3.76 ± 0.3 versus 3.78 ± 0.3, p = n.s.) and diagnostic accuracy observed. Sensitivity and specificity of the detection of hemodynamically relevant stenoses was 93%/95% in the gadopentetate dimeglumine group and 94%/94% in the gadobutrol group, respectively. Conclusion The high diagnostic accuracy of gadobutrol in the clinical routine setting is of high interest as medical authorities (e.g. the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) recommend macrocyclic contrast agents especially to be used in patients with renal failure or dialysis. PMID:19116027

  7. Importance of whole body MRI for staging of colorectal cancer; Bedeutung der Ganzkoerper-MRT beim Staging des kolorektalen Karzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Staging and follow-up of colorectal cancer are usually performed with multimodal imaging strategies. These can be time-intensive and potentially lead to examiner-dependent bias. Alternatively, whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) provides oncologic imaging with a systemic approach. Ultrasound, multislice computed tomography (MSCT), dedicated MRI and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT). High-resolution WB-MRI with focused examination of various organs, such as the pelvis and abdomen, lungs, brain and skeletal system, using different sequence and contrast techniques. Detection of colorectal tumor recurrence with WB-MRI provides 83% accuracy (lymph node metastases 80%, organ metastases 86%). Potential cost reduction through decreased examination time and personnel costs. Whole body MRI is a radiation-free alternative to standard sequential algorithms of staging and follow-up of colorectal cancer. (orig.) [German] Staging/Follow-up beim kolorektalen Karzinom wird normalerweise mit multimodalen Bildgebungsverfahren durchgefuehrt. Diese koennen jedoch zeitintensiv sein und bergen die Gefahr einer untersucherabhaengigen Befundvarianz. Alternativ bietet die Ganzkoerper-MRT eine onkologische Bildgebung mit einem systemischen Ansatz. Sonographie, dedizierte MRT, Mehrzeilencomputertomographie (MSCT) oder Positronenemissionstomographie/CT (PET/CT). Hochaufloesende Ganzkoerper-MRT mit fokussierten Untersuchungen einzelner Organe, z. B. Becken und Bauchorgane, Lunge, Gehirn oder Skelettsystem mit unterschiedlichen Sequenztechniken und Kontrastierungen. Kolorektale Rezidiverkennung mit der Ganzkoerper-MRT: 83% Genauigkeit (Lymphknotenmetastasen 80%, Fernmetastasen 86%). Potenzielle Kostenreduktion durch Verringerung der Untersuchungszeiten und Personalkosten. Strahlungsfreie Alternative zu klassischen Stufenalgorithmen beim Staging/Follow-up des kolorektalen Karzinoms. (orig.)

  8. Mapping of arterial location for the design of automated identification and analysis algorithms in whole body MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lynne; Weir-McCall, Jonathan; Gandy, Stephen; White, Richard; McNeil, Andrew; Trucco, Emanuele; Houston, J Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Technological and medical advances have led to the realisation of full body imaging, with systemic diagnostic approaches becoming increasingly more prevalent. In the imaging of atherosclerotic disease, contrast -enhanced whole-body MRA has been demonstrated to enable detection of stenosis with a high sensitivity and specificity. Characterization of the systemic cardiovascular disease burden has significant prognostic value. A whole-body acquisition does however generate a large volume of three-dimensional data and as such there are expected to be significant advantages in developing automated techniques for the analysis of these images. Improved radiological workflow, reduced analysis time and increased analytical standardization are expected to be among the benefits offered by this approach. As part of a process of automated software development this study aimed to collect and validate arterial location ground truth. The data will be used to inform the development of semi-automated vascular identity tools, and allow the potential for the further development of semi-automated anatomically informed cardiovascular disease analysis and reporting.

  9. Motor imagery beyond the motor repertoire: Activity in the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole body movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K

    2016-02-19

    To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  11. Estimation of signal and noise for a whole-body research photon-counting CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhoubo; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Zhicong; Kappler, Steffen; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2017-04-01

    Photon-counting detector CT has a large number of acquisition parameters that require optimization, particularly the energy threshold configurations. Fast and accurate estimation of both signal and noise in photon-counting CT (PCCT) images can facilitate such optimization. Using the detector response function of a research PCCT system, we derived mathematical models for both signal and noise estimation, taking into account beam spectrum and filtration, object attenuation, water beam hardening, detector response, radiation dose, energy thresholds, and the propagation of noise. To determine the absolute noise value, a noise lookup table (LUT) for all available energy thresholds was acquired using a number of calibration scans. The noise estimation algorithm then used the noise LUT to estimate noise for scans with a variety of combination of energy thresholds, dose levels, and object attenuations. Validation of the estimation algorithms was performed on a whole-body research PCCT system using semianthropomorphic water phantoms and solutions of calcium and iodine. Clinical feasibility of noise estimation was assessed with scans of a cadaver head and a living swine. The algorithms achieved accurate estimation of both signal and noise for a variety of scanning parameter combinations. Maximum discrepancies were below 15%, while most errors were below 5%.

  12. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  13. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: a whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G; Clément, Karine; Wahbi, Karim; Petit, François M; Eymard, Bruno; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-02-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardiometabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of resistance training with whole-body vibration on muscle fitness in untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Y; Oguma, Y

    2013-02-01

    The effects of resistance training (RT) combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscle fitness, particularly muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular performance, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of WBV in healthy, untrained participants after a 13-week RT course by performing magnetic resonance imaging and by measuring maximal isometric (with electromyography) and isokinetic knee extension strengths, isometric lumbar extension torque, countermovement-jump, knee extension endurance, and sit-ups. Thirty-two individuals (22-49 years old) were randomly assigned to RT groups with (RT-WBV, n=16) or without WBV (RT, n=16). Following the RT course, significantly higher increases in the cross-sectional areas of m. psoas major (vs baseline values) and erector spinae muscle (vs the RT group) were observed in the RT-WBV group (+10.7%, Phypertrophy and isometric lumbar extension torque suggest a potential benefit of incorporating WBV into slow-velocity RT programs involving exercises of long duration. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Taki, Junichi; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+). The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (PFIFA 11+ program.

  16. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuke Nakase

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+. The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. RESULTS: FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program.

  17. Whole-body computed tomography in polytrauma: techniques and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Kroetz, Michael; Rock, Clemens; Rieger, Johannes; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian [Department of Radiology, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Haeuser, Hannes; Bohndorf, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team should be involved in the diagnosis and management of severely injured patients. The adoption of criteria for starting treatment for multiple trauma avoids underestimation of seriousness of injury. These criteria are established by the circumstances of the accident, the patterns of trauma, and the vital findings. Basic diagnosis comprises a limited number of plain films in the trauma room, including supine chest, lateral cervical spine, and pelvis, and ultrasound of abdomen, pleura, and pericardium. Organ diagnosis using CT is complementary and depends on the clinical findings and findings from the basic investigations. We recommend spiral CT (skull base 2/2/4 mm, cerebrum 8/8/8 mm native) and after intravenous contrast medium thoracic (5/7.5/5 mm) and abdominal CT (8/12/8 mm). Image reconstruction of bony structures can be added. The CT and the trauma center should be in close proximity; time-consuming transfers must be avoided. If this is not possible, a CT can be integrated in the trauma room. Our hospital trauma registry contains over 2200 entries. A quality committee has been established and external quality control is implemented. (orig.)

  18. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob L; MacMahon, Peter J; Torriani, Martin; Merker, Vanessa L; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A

    2012-08-01

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 & NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time ~40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings.

  19. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time {proportional_to}40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  20. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  1. Role of rapid sequence whole-body MRI screening in SDH-associated hereditary paraganglioma families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Kory W; Kohlmann, Wendy; Gammon, Amanda; Slack, Heidi; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Baskin, Henry; Shaaban, Akram; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2014-06-01

    Patients with germline mutations in one of the SDH genes are at substantially increased risk of developing paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas (pheos), and other tumors (all combined referred to as SDH-related tumors). However, limited data exist on screening in SDH mutation carriers and no studies have evaluated whole-body MRI as a screening tool in asymptomatic patients. This was a single-center observational study. We evaluated the results of screening in 37 SDH carriers who underwent 45 whole-body MRIs and 47 biochemical tests. Screening included annual biochemical testing (catecholamines, metanephrines and chromogranin A) and biennial or annual rapid sequence whole-body MRI from the base of the skull to the pelvis beginning at age 10 years old. Six tumors (paragangliomas of the organ of Zuckerkandl, the aortocaval/vas deferens, of the carotid body times three, and a renal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed in five patients. In total, 13.5 % of all patients screened were diagnosed with SDH-related tumors. Whole-body MRI missed one tumor, while biochemical testing was normal in five patients with SDH-related tumors. The sensitivity of whole-body MRI was 87.5 % and the specificity was 94.7 %, while the sensitivity of biochemical testing was 37.5 % and the specificity was 94.9 %. Whole-body MRI had a higher sensitivity for SDH-related tumors than biochemical testing in patients undergoing screening due to their SDHB or SDHC mutation status. Whole-body MRI reduces radiation exposure compared to computed tomography scan and time compared to dedicated MRI of the head/neck, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis.

  2. Whole body magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography in the vascular mapping of head and neck: an intraindividual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the detectability of neck vessels with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the setting of a whole-body MRA and multislice computed tomography angiography (CTA) for preoperative vascular mapping of head and neck. Methods In 20 patients MRA was performed prior to microvascular reconstruction of the mandible with osteomyocutaneous flaps. CTA of the neck served as the method of reference. 1.5 T contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiograms were acquired to visualize the vascular structures of the neck in the setting of a whole-body MRA examination. 64-slice spiral computed tomography was performed with a dual-phase protocol, using the arterial phase images for 3D CTA reconstruction. Maximum intensity projection was employed to visualize MRA and CTA data. To retrieve differences in the detectability of vessel branches between MRA and CTA, a McNemar test was performed. Results All angiograms were of diagnostic quality. There were no statistically significant differences between MRA and CTA for the detection of branches of the external carotid artery that are relevant host vessels for microsurgery (p = 0.118). CTA was superior to MRA if all the external carotid artery branches were included (p < 0.001). Conclusions MRA is a reliable alternative to CTA in vascular mapping of the cervical vasculature for planning of microvascular reconstruction of the mandible. In the setting of whole-body MRA it could serve as a radiation free one-stop-shop tool for preoperative assessment of the arterial system, potentially covering both, the donor and host site in one single examination. PMID:24884580

  3. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...

  4. Whole-body MRI for full assessment and characterization of diffuse inflammatory myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Saleh Elessawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a highly valuable tool for full assessment of the extent of bilateral symmetrical diffuse inflammatory myopathy, owing to its high sensitivity in the detection of edema which correlates with, and sometimes precedes, clinical findings. Purpose To evaluate the use of whole-body (WB-MRI in characterization and full assessment of the extent and distribution of diffuse inflammatory myopathy. Material and Methods A prospective study on 15 patients presenting with clinical evidence of inflammatory myopathy. It included 4 boys/men and 11 girls/women (age range, 6–44 years; mean age, 25.5 years. 1.5 T WB-MRI was performed and the distribution and extent of disease severity was assessed according to muscle edema on STIR images. Results Four cases of dermatomyositis showed lower limb disease predilection with edema in gluteal, thigh, and calf muscles. The same finding was seen in one case with recurrent polymyositis and three cases with overlap myositis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Bilateral upper and lower limb myositis was demonstrated in three cases of polymyositis and one case of overlap myositis with scleroderma. Bilateral edema involving all scanned muscle groups was detected in three cases of polymyositis with paraneoplastic syndrome, SLE, and severe active dermatomyositis (including the neck muscles. Conclusion WB-MRI is the diagnostic modality of choice for cases of inflammatory myopathy. It accurately detects the most severely affected muscles candidate for biopsy and provides a reliable baseline study for follow-up of disease progression as well as response to treatment.

  5. Simultaneous whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in primary staging of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Sangeeta, E-mail: s_taneja1974@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Jena, Amarnath, E-mail: drjena2002@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Goel, Reema, E-mail: reemagoell@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Sarin, Ramesh, E-mail: sarinramesh@hotmail.com [Department of Surgical Oncology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi––Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Kaul, Sumaid, E-mail: sumaidkaul53@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Initial staging of breast cancer important in treatment planning and prognostication. • We assessed role of simultaneous {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast cancer. • Primary, nodes and metastases on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for count and diagnostic confidence. • High diagnostic accuracy and confidence in detecting index and satellite lesions. • Comprehensive nodal and distant metastases staging with altered management (12 cases). - Abstract: Purpose: Accurate initial staging in breast carcinoma is important for treatment planning and for establishing the likely prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of whole body simultaneous {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI in initial staging of breast carcinoma. Methods: 36 patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma underwent simultaneous whole body {sup 18}F-FDG PET-MRI on integrated 3 T PET-MR scanner (Siemens Biograph mMR) for primary staging. Primary lesion, nodes and metastases were evaluated on PET, MRI and PET-MRI for lesion count and diagnostic confidence (DC). Kappa co relation analysis was done to assess agreement between the satellite, nodal and metastatic lesions detected by PET and MRI. Histopathology, clinical/imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. Results: 36 patients with 37 histopathologically proven index breast cancer were retrospectively studied. Of 36 patients, 25 patients underwent surgery and 11 patients received systemic therapy. All index cancers were seen on PET and MR. Fused PET-MRI showed highest diagnostic confidence score of 5 as compared to PET (median 4; range 3–5) and MRI (median 4; range 4–5) alone. 2/36 (5.5%) patients were detected to have unsuspected contralateral synchronous cancer. 47 satellite lesions were detected on DCE MRI of which 23 were FDG avid with multifocality and multicentricity in 21 (58%) patients. Kappa co relation analysis revealed fair agreement for satellite lesion detection by the two

  6. Response of a Shadow-Shield Whole-Body Counter to a Variety of Physical Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviv, O; Spitz, H B; Datz, H; Haquin, G; Shamai, Y; Daniely, E; Yungrais, Z; Koch, J

    2017-05-01

    The performance characteristics of a shadow-shield whole-body counter system with an array of four high-resolution germanium detectors using whole-body and organ-specific (lungs, liver, head, knee and thyroid) physical phantoms are described. Detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities for selected radionuclides and several measurement configurations are presented. Results demonstrate that the system meets the requirements for direct radio bioassay and that detection efficiency and minimum detectable activities are similar in magnitude to other whole-body (or organ) counting systems installed in fully shielded structures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  8. Analysis of whole-body vibration on rheological models for tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crastiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibrations have become a very popular method in recent years, both in physical therapy and in sports. This popularity is due to the fact that, as a result of analyzing the groups of subjects, the effects of small amplitude vibration and low frequency vibration, it was found an increase in the force developed by the feet, a hardening of bone strength or an increase in bone density. In this paper we propose to give a possible explanation of the stress relieving in muscle and/or bone after whole body vibration treatment. To do this we consider some rheological models which after whole body vibrations and after the analysis of their response lead to various experiments.

  9. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  10. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  11. Whole-body bone segmentation from MRI for PET/MRI attenuation correction using shape-based averaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    PET-CT images. Conclusions: The performance of SBA was enhanced through application of local atlas weighting or regularization schemes (L-STAPLE and L-Shp). Bone recognition, fragmentation of the contiguous structures, and quantitative PET uptake recovery improved dramatically using these methods...... in less than 3% SUV mean relative error and 6% SUV mean absolute error in bony structures owing to superior bone identification accuracy. The quantitative analysis using joint histograms revealed good correlation between PET-MRAC images using the proposed L-Shp algorithm and the corresponding reference......Purpose: The authors evaluate the performance of shape-based averaging (SBA) technique for whole-body bone segmentation from MRI in the context of MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) in hybrid PET/MRI. To enhance the performance of the SBA scheme, the authors propose to combine...

  12. Role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in treatment planning for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ezzat, Amany; Azmy, Emad; Tharwat, Nehal

    2013-08-01

    The authors evaluated the role of whole-body 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (WB-MDCT) in treatment planning for multiple myeloma. This was a prospective study of 28 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (19 men, nine women; age range, 51-73 years; mean age, 60 years) who underwent WB-MDCT and conventional radiography (CR) of the skeleton. The images were interpreted for the presence of bony lesions, medullary lesions, fractures and extraosseous lesions. We evaluated any changes in treatment planning as a result of WB-MDCT findings. WB-MDCT was superior to CR for detecting bony lesions (p=0.001), especially of the spine (p=0.001) and thoracic cage (p=0.006). WB-MDCT upstaged 14 patients, with a significant difference in staging (p=0.002) between WB-MDCT and CR. Medullary involvement either focal (n=6) or diffuse (n=3) had a positive correlation with the overall score (r=0.790) and stage (r=0.618) of disease. Spine fractures were better detected at WB-MDCT (n=4) than at CR (n=2). Extraosseous soft tissue lesions (n=7) were detected only at WB-MDCT. Findings detected at the WB-MDCT led to changes in the patient's treatment plan in 39% of cases. Upstaging of seven patients (25%) altered the medical treatment plan, and four of 28 (14%) patients required additional radiotherapy (7%) and vertebroplasty (7%). We conclude that WB-MDCT has an impact on treatment planning and prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, as it has high rate of detecting cortical and medullary bone lesions, spinal fracture and extraosseous lesions. This information may alter treatment planning in multiple myeloma due to disease upstaging and detection of spine fracture and extraosseous spinal lesions.

  13. Antihysteresis of perceived longitudinal body axis during continuous quasi-static whole-body rotation in the earth-vertical roll plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalias, M; Bockisch, C J; Bertolini, G; Straumann, D; Palla, A

    2011-03-01

    Estimation of subjective whole-body tilt in stationary roll positions after rapid rotations shows hysteresis. We asked whether this phenomenon is also present during continuous quasi-static whole-body rotation and whether gravitational cues are a major contributing factor. Using a motorized turntable, 8 healthy subjects were rotated continuously about the earth-horizontal naso-occipital axis (earth-vertical roll plane) and the earth-vertical naso-occipital axis (earth-horizontal roll plane). In both planes, three full constant velocity rotations (2°/s) were completed in clockwise and counterclockwise directions (acceleration = 0.05°/s(2), velocity plateau reached after 40 s). Subjects adjusted a visual line along the perceived longitudinal body axis (pLBA) every 2 s. pLBA deviation from the longitudinal body axis was plotted as a function of whole-body roll position, and a sine function was fitted. At identical whole-body earth-vertical roll plane positions, pLBA differed depending on whether the position was reached by a rotation from upright or by passing through upside down. After the first 360° rotation, pLBA at upright whole-body position deviated significantly in the direction of rotation relative to pLBA prior to rotation initiation. This deviation remained unchanged after subsequent full rotations. In contrast, earth-horizontal roll plane rotations resulted in similar pLBA before and after each rotation cycle. We conclude that the deviation of pLBA in the direction of rotation during quasi-static earth-vertical roll plane rotations reflects static antihysteresis and might be a consequence of the known static hysteresis of ocular counterroll: a visual line that is perceived that earth-vertical is expected to be antihysteretic, if ocular torsion is hysteretic.

  14. Trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays during whole-body turns in spasmodic torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Ziavra, Nafsica; Pearce, Ronald; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated how the abnormal head posture and motility in spasmodic torticollis interferes with ecological movements such as combined eye-to-foot whole-body reorientations to visual targets. Eight mildly affected patients and 10 controls voluntarily rotated eyes and body in response to illuminated targets of eccentricities up to ± 180°. The experimental protocol allowed separate evaluation of the effects of target location, visibility and predictability on movement parameters. Patients' latencies of eye, head, trunk and foot motion were prolonged but showed a normal modification pattern when target location was predictable. Peak head-on-trunk displacement and velocity were reduced both ipsi- and contralaterally with respect to the direction of torticollis. Surprisingly, peak trunk velocity was also reduced, even more than in previously studied patients with Parkinson's disease. As a consequence, patients made short, hypometric gaze saccades and only exceptionally foveated initially nonvisible targets with a single large gaze shift (4 % of predictable trials as opposed to 30 % in controls). Foveation of distant targets was massively delayed by more than half a second on average. Spontaneous dystonic head movements did not interfere with the execution of voluntary gaze shifts. The results show that neck dystonia does not arise from gaze (head-eye) motor centres but the eye-to-foot turning synergy is seriously compromised. For the first time we identify significant 'secondary' complications of torticollis such as trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays, likely to cause additional disability in patients. Eye movements per se are intact and compensate for the reduced head/trunk performance in an adaptive manner.

  15. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ON RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR UNTRAINED ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Osawa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although resistance training (RT combined with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular among untrained adults, the additional effects of WBV on muscle fitness are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBV on muscle strength, muscle power, muscle endurance, and neuromuscular activities compared with the identical RT without WBV. Thirty-three individuals (6 males and 27 females; 22-49 years old were randomly assigned to a training program using slow-velocity RT coupled with WBV (RT- WBV group, n = 17 or an identical exercise program without WBV (RT group, n = 16. Participants performed eight exercises per 60 min session on a vibration platform (RT-WBV group, frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm twice weekly for seven weeks. To evaluate the effects of WBV, the maximal isometric and isokinetic knee extension strength, maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, countermovement-jump, and the number of sit-ups were measured before and after the trial. Significantly higher increases were observed in the maximal isometric and concentric knee extension strength (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 , respectively, and maximal isometric lumbar extension strength at 60 degrees of trunk flexion (p = 0.02 in the RT-WBV group (+36.8%, +38.4%, +26.4%, respectively in comparison to the RT group (+16.5%, +12.8%, +14.3%, respectively. A significant difference was also observed between the RT-WBV group (+8.4% and the RT group (+4.7% in the countermovement jump height (p = 0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that significant additional increases in maximal isometric and concentric knee extension and lumbar extension strength, and countermovement jump height can be achieved by incorporating WBV into a slow-velocity RT program during the initial stage of regular RT in untrained healthy adults

  16. Six weeks of whole-body vibration exercise improves pain and fatigue in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Padilla, Jaume; Moras, Gerard; Lázaro Haro, Cristina; Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 6-week traditional exercise program with supplementary whole-body vibration (WBV) in improving health status, physical functioning, and main symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM) in women with FM. Thirty-six (36) women with FM (mean +/- standard error of the mean age 55.97 +/- 1.55) were randomized into 3 treatment groups: exercise and vibration (EVG), exercise (EG), and control (CG). Exercise therapy, consisting of aerobic activities, stretching, and relaxation techniques, was performed twice a week (90 min/day). Following each exercise session, the EVG underwent a protocol with WBV, whereas the EG performed the same protocol without vibratory stimulus. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was administered at baseline and 6 weeks following the initiation of the treatments. Estimates of pain, fatigue, stiffness, and depression were also reported using the visual analogue scale. A significant 3 x 2 (group x time)-repeated measures analysis of variance interaction was found for pain (p = 0.018) and fatigue (p = 0.002) but not for FIQ (p = 0.069), stiffness (p = 0.142), or depression (p = 0.654). Pain and fatigue scores were significantly reduced from baseline in the EVG, but not in the EG or CG. In addition, the EVG showed significantly lower pain and fatigue scores at week 6 compared to the CG, whereas no significant differences were found between the EG and CG (p > 0.05). Results suggest that a 6-week traditional exercise program with supplementary WBV safely reduces pain and fatigue, whereas exercise alone fails to induce improvements.

  17. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): lesion visualization on a 3 tesla Clinical whole-body system after intraperitoneal contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, S.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Herrmann, M.; Gaertner, S.; Weissert, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Kueker, W. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intravital visibility of CNS lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis, using a 3-Tesla (T) wholebody MR system. Materials and Methods: Three healthy Dark Agouti (DA) rats and 16 DA rats with clinical signs of EAE were examined on a 3T whole body-system using a normal wrist coil. In total, 25 examinations were preformed using T2- and T1-weighted images in transverse and sagittal orientation with a slice thickness of 2 mm or 1 mm (voxel size up to 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm). Sedation was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine. In addition, T1-weighted images were obtained after the instillation of 1.0 ml of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.5 mmol/ml) into the peritoneal cavity. Results: T2- and T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord with high spatial and contrast resolution could be obtained in all animals. The anatomical details of the olfactory bulb glomeruli, cerebellum foliae, ventricles and corpus callosum were clearly visible. The EAE lesions presented as hyperintense area in T2-weighted images and could be demonstrated in all clinically affected animals by MRI and histologically verified. In total, the 16 affected rats had 28 cerebral and 2 spinal cord lesions (range 1 to 4, median 2). Contrast enhancement was noted in 12 animals and ranked as severe in ten and moderate in two cases. No adverse effects were noted due to sedation or intraperitoneal contrast injection. Conclusions: The intravital demonstration of cerebral and spinal cord EAE lesions in rats is possible on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using a normal wrist coil. Intraperitoneal injection of ketamine/xylazine and contrast agent is an easy, safe and effective procedure in rats. (orig.)

  18. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Lammers, Nicolette M.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Fliers, Eric; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. Objective: The objective was

  19. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  20. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body ... nitrogen content with a source of protein which is resistant to degradation in the rumen has ... are well established for use in humans (Waterlow et ai., 1978), and have been success- ...

  1. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A

    1984-01-01

    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  2. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    amino acid needs of other fish in order to design and improve their test diets. Wilson and Poe (1985) have reported that the amino acid patterns of fish eggs and whole body tissue have been used for this purpose in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Rumsey and Ketola (1975) reported that improved growth was observed ...

  3. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  4. Whole body clearance of norepinephrine. The significance of arterial sampling and of surgical stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the ...

  5. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  6. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...

  7. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present

  8. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; Scholte, A; Rijssenbeek, LHM; vanderBaan, S; Bogaard, JM; deMonchy, JGR

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  9. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Weller, F. R.; Scholte, A.; Rijssenbeek, L. H.; van der Baan, S.; Bogaard, J. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  10. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  11. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  12. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Cintia Renata de Sousa-Gonçalves, Luciana Camargo Bernardo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio ...

  13. The acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute whole body vibration (WBV) training on the speed, agility and explosive power performance measurements of university field hockey players. A two-way randomized, crossover experimental research design was used in the study. Seventeen university field ...

  14. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  15. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H. C.; Bongers, P. M.; Hulshof, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly

  16. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  17. Self-limiting benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of whole-body vibration training plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, I; Young, E; Belloso, A

    2010-07-01

    We describe a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo which occurred after use of a whole-body vibration training plate. Case report and literature review concerning the secondary causes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and the physiological effects of whole-body vibration training plates. A 44-year-old woman was referred with classic symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following use of a whole-body vibration training plate, a popular form of fitness equipment widely used in sports, rehabilitation and beauty treatments. The condition resolved spontaneously after several days. There have been reports of negative side effects in users of this equipment, such as dizziness, headache and a sensation of imbalance; however, there have been no reported cases involving vertigo. Based on a literature review, this equipment may cause side effects, including vertigo, by generating forces that can increase the original amplitude of internal organs, which may potentially cause labyrinthine trauma or dislocation of otoconia, leading to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We suggest that whole-body vibration training plates may potentially induce benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Manufacturers may need to make users of this equipment aware of this risk, and remind them to use it with caution.

  18. Whole-body vibration exercise is well tolerated in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that ...

  19. Automated segmentation of the skeleton in whole-body bone scans: influence of difference in atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Horikoshi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Aim Automated segmentation of the skeleton is the first step for quantitative analysis and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of whole-body bone scans. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of differences in skeletal atlas on the automated segmentation of skeletons in a Japanese...

  20. Effect of whole body x-radiation on a presumed mucoprotein of rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, R.N.; Butler, C.L.

    1950-12-31

    In a previous report, the separation of a protein fraction from rat intestine was described. This fraction is being considered to be mucoprotein solely on the basis of its method of preparation. The present report describes an experiment indicating that whole body x-radiation of rats reduces the amount of this fraction to a statistically significant degree. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%. One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

  2. Back disorders and exposure to whole-body vibration: Thesis summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is widespread and may cause back trouble. Several epidemiological studies of the relationship between WBV exposure and back trouble were carried out at the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. This project comprised studies of

  3. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat-Verboom, L.; Spruit, M.A.; van den Borne, B.E.; Smeenk, F.W.; Wouters, E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the

  4. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  5. Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittusamy, N Kumar; Buchholz, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has been suggested that operating engineers (OEs) are exposed to two important risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders: whole-body vibration and non-neutral body postures. This review evaluates selected papers that have studied exposure to whole-body vibration and awkward posture among operators of mobile equipment. There have been only few studies that have specifically examined exposure of these risk factors among operators of construction equipment. Thus other studies from related industry and equipment were reviewed as applicable. In order to better understand whole-body vibration and postural stress among OEs, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among OEs.

  6. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in lambs fed roughage diets supplemented with various levels of protein. and to compare these amino acids as tracers of whole-body ... further protein supplementation, the efficiency of protein synthesis was still sub-optimal, possibly as a result of an ..... production of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in the rumen of sheep.

  7. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with advancing age and some clinical disorders, as in diabetes and in rheumatologic diseases. Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to ...

  8. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  9. Kidney, lower limb and whole-body uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1988-01-01

    Regional (kidney, lower limb) and whole-body kinetics of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) and tritium-labelled L-noradrenaline (3H-NA) were determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease (one alcoholic hepatitis, 12 cirrhosis) and in control subjects (n = 6) in order to get information on the s...

  10. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  11. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  12. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  13. Protein intake during hemodialysis maintains a positive whole body protein balance in chronic hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Boer, TS; Stellaard, F; De Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    Protein energy malnutrition is present in 18 to 56% of hemodialysis patients. Because hemodialysis has been regarded as a catabolic event, we studied whether consumption of a protein- and energy-nriched meal improves the whole body protein balance during dialysis in chronic hemodialysis (CHD)

  14. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    Abstract Background and purpose: Spastic diplegia is a common form of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walk- ing ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, ...

  15. Back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    In The Netherlands so far little research has been carried out to investigate the health effects of exposure to whole-body vibration at work. In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of permanent work disabilities in crane operators exposed to vibration was compared to that of a

  16. A Demographic Exploration of Whole Body Donors at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Ritter, Dale

    2016-02-01

    To examine and characterize the occupational histories of individuals who donated their whole bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program at Warren Alpert Medical School (AMS) from the academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014. A retrospective chart review of 491 individuals who donated their whole bodies to Alpert Medical School was conducted upon IRB approval from Brown University. Demographic, social, and occupational histories were abstracted for analysis and review. There were no interventions. Descriptive statistics, Student T-test and Difference in Proportions Test were used to characterize information abstracted from donor applications to the Anatomical Gift Program. From academic years 2003-2004 to 2013-2014, 491 individuals donated their bodies to the Anatomical Gift Program. Donors were split equally by gender (female = 52%; male = 48%). The median age of donors was 82 years; the vast majority self-identified as white (98%). The majority of donors came from occupations involved with industry (23%) or office work, hospitality and retail (24%). Of the 491 body donors, 2 were physicians (0.4%). Our data demonstrate that in the past decade, physicians have made few contributions to AMS. This remains in concert with current literature showing a lack of physician whole body donors. Future research must explore physician attitudes towards whole body donation.

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  18. Utility of whole-body (head-to-toe) PET/CT in the evaluation of melanoma and sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather R; Latifi, Hamid R; Griffeth, Landis K

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the added benefit of whole-body (head-to-toes) PET/CT versus routine 'eyes-to-thighs' PET/CT of melanoma and sarcoma patients. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive whole-body PET/CT scans from January 2006 through December 2010 in patients with melanoma or sarcoma. PET abnormalities in the brain, distal thighs, and legs were recorded and clinical significance was assessed on the basis of pathology, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up. Patients with known primary lesions distal to the proximal femora were excluded as these patients would routinely undergo 'head-to-toe' PET/CT. We reviewed reports from 352 PET/CT examinations in 194 patients with melanoma and 75 PET/CT examinations in 44 patients with sarcoma. Melanoma: 13 patients had brain metastases on PET. In five of these patients, lesions were unknown, but all were in the setting of other metastatic disease. Twenty-seven patients had lower extremity metastases, all in the setting of other metastatic disease. No lower extremity metastases were found in the remaining 167 patients. Sarcoma: one patient had an isolated, unexpected brain metastasis. Six patients had leg metastases, but none were isolated. No lower extremity metastases were found in the remaining 38 patients. In patients with melanoma and sarcoma, inclusion of entire lower extremities adds little additional clinical value as detection of isolated, unexpected metastasis is rare. Brain imaging may add value as the presence of brain metastases alters clinical management. Overall, in patients with melanoma or sarcoma, whole-brain PET/CT imaging may be of value, but routine inclusion of the entire lower extremities adds little additional value.

  19. Parallax-sensitive remapping of visual space in occipito-parietal alpha-band activity during whole-body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, T P; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-03-01

    Despite the constantly changing retinal image due to eye, head, and body movements, we are able to maintain a stable representation of the visual environment. Various studies on retinal image shifts caused by saccades have suggested that occipital and parietal areas correct for these perturbations by a gaze-centered remapping of the neural image. However, such a uniform, rotational, remapping mechanism cannot work during translations when objects shift on the retina in a more complex, depth-dependent fashion due to motion parallax. Here we tested whether the brain's activity patterns show parallax-sensitive remapping of remembered visual space during whole-body motion. Under continuous recording of electroencephalography (EEG), we passively translated human subjects while they had to remember the location of a world-fixed visual target, briefly presented in front of or behind the eyes' fixation point prior to the motion. Using a psychometric approach we assessed the quality of the memory update, which had to be made based on vestibular feedback and other extraretinal motion cues. All subjects showed a variable amount of parallax-sensitive updating errors, i.e., the direction of the errors depended on the depth of the target relative to fixation. The EEG recordings show a neural correlate of this parallax-sensitive remapping in the alpha-band power at occipito-parietal electrodes. At parietal electrodes, the strength of these alpha-band modulations correlated significantly with updating performance. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillatory activity reflects the time-varying updating of gaze-centered spatial information during parallax-sensitive remapping during whole-body motion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Timing of Gun Fire Influences Sprinters’ Multiple Joint Reaction Times of Whole Body in Block Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Otsuka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experienced sprinters are specifically adapted to pre-planning an advanced motor program. Herein, sprinters are able to immediately accelerate their center of mass forward with a whole-body coordinated motion, following a steady state crouched position. We examined the effect of variable timing of reaction signals on multiple joint reaction times (RT and whole-body RT for specialist sprinters. Twenty well-experienced male sprinters performed five start-dashes from a block start under five variable foreperiod (FP length conditions (1.465, 1.622, 1.780, 1.938, and 2.096 s, with trials randomly timed between a warning and an imperative tone. Participants’ sprinting motion and ground reaction forces of their four limbs during the block start were measured simultaneously. Whole-body RT was significantly shorter when FP length was longer; the values of whole-body RT were 117 ± 5 ms, 129 ± 5 ms, 125 ± 4 ms, 133 ± 6 ms, and 156 ± 8 ms in the 2.096, 1.938, 1.780, 1.622, and 1.465-s FP-length conditions, respectively. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found a significant joint-by-FP length interaction in joint-moment RT. These findings suggest that FP length affects coordinated motion in four limbs and whole-body RT. This information will be able to lead to new methods for start signals in sprint running events and advance our understanding of the association between FP length and dynamic coordinated motion.

  1. Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, GF; Iwaniec, UT; Turner, RT; Rosen, CJ; Widrick, JJ

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Methods/Design Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=7–10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30–50 Hz (6mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. Results There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control groups. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean ± s.d.; 207 ± 10 vs 222 ± 15 g, Pbody fat (20.8 ± 3.8 vs 26.8 ± 5.9 g, Pbody fat (10.2 ± 1.7 vs 12 ± 2.0%, Pbody vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33 ± 0.05 vs 0.26 ± 0.03 g, Pbody vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption. PMID:18663370

  2. Patient acceptance of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography: A prospective questionnaire study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirenfeldt Nielsen, Yousef; Loegager, Vibeke B.; Thomsen, Henrik S. (Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Herlev, Herlev (Denmark)), e-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.dk; Eiberg, Jonas P.; Schroeder, Torben V. (Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Just, Sven (Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing the systemic distribution of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic performance of WB-MRA, but no studies have investigated patient acceptance of this imaging method. Purpose: To measure patient acceptance of WB-MRA compared to the gold standard, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Material and Methods: In a prospective design, 79 consecutive patients (51 male, mean age 67 years) with symptomatic PAD, scheduled to undergo both WB-MRA and DSA, were included. Patient acceptance of each imaging procedure was assessed with a postal questionnaire (13 questions). A five-point rank scale (1, no discomfort; 5, severe discomfort) was used to grade patient discomfort. Results: One patient was excluded from data analysis (did not undergo DSA). Of the remaining 78 patients, 69 completed the questionnaire (response rate 88%). Overall discomfort scores were higher in DSA compared to WB-MRA (mean 2.1 and 1.7, respectively; P = 0.06). In WB-MRA, overall discomfort was strongly correlated to feeling confined in the MRI system (R = 0.77, P< 0.001). In DSA, discomfort was strongly correlated to arterial puncture (R 0.66, P< 0.001) and contrast injection (R= 0.65, P< 0.001). Injection of iodinated contrast agent at DSA was graded more uncomfortable than injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent at WB-MRA (mean 2.1 vs. 1.5, respectively; P<0.001). Sixty-two patients (90%) were willing to repeat WB-MRA, and 64 patients (93%) would repeat DSA if they needed another vascular examination. Forty-one patients preferred WB-MRA (60%), 12 patients preferred DSA (17%), and 16 patients had no preference (23%). Patient preference of WB-MRA over DSA was statistically significant (P< 0.001). Conclusion: Patient acceptance of WB-MRA is superior to that of DSA in patients with PAD, with the majority

  3. The emerging role of whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Taralli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this article is to examine the emerging role of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG in patients with sarcoidosis.Materials and methodsWe reviewed the literature on the use of FDG-PET in patients with sarcoidosis to identify how this technique is being applied in clinical practice.Results and discussionOur review shows that: 1 sarcoidosis is commonly associated with increased FDG uptake. Therefore, positive findings should be interpreted with caution when FDG-PET is being used to distinguish benign from malignant abnormalities; 2 FDG-PET seems to be a very useful molecular imaging method for staging sarcoidosis, identification of occult sites of involvement, guiding biopsy procedures, and monitoring patients’ responses to treatment; and 3 in patients with sarcoidosis, the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET is superior to that of 67Ga scintigraphy.

  4. Real-time whole-body visualization of Chikungunya Virus infection and host interferon response in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Palha

    Full Text Available Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ∼14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.

  5. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  6. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Sasser, L.B.; Stuit, D.B. [US Transuranium and Uranium Registries, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, 1845 Terminal Drive, Suite 201, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Glover, S.E. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 598 Rhodes Hall, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Carbaugh, E.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are {approx}40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise

  7. Whole-body FDG-PET in patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Daugaard, G; Eigtved, A

    2003-01-01

    Relapse occurs in 30% of patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) within 1 year after orchiectomy. Whole-body positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) may detect small metastases when standard staging with computed tomography (CT) and tumour...... markers is negative. In this study, 46 patients underwent FDG-PET after staging with normal CT and tumour markers. To exclude diagnostic test bias and workup bias, all patients had routine follow-up with repeated CT and tumour marker evaluation, even though the initial FDG-PET was positive. Thirty...... predictive value of standard staging procedures was 78%. FDG-PET thus seems to be superior to conventional staging (P=0.06) in stage I NSGCT. This non-invasive method may improve the overall management of patients with NSGCT....

  8. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  9. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  10. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism...... resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets....

  11. Stochastic resonance whole body vibration reduces musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Thomann, Jan; Schade, Volker; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2011-12-18

    To examined the effects of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training on musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Participants were 43 undergraduate students of a Swiss University. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomized group allocation. The RCT consisted of two groups each given 12 training sessions during four weeks with either 5 Hz- Training frequency (training condition) or 1.5 Hz Training frequency (control condition). Outcome was current musculoskeletal pain assessed in the evening on each day during the four week training period. Multilevel regression analysis showed musculoskeletal pain was significantly decreased in the training condition whereas there was no change in the control condition (B = -0.023, SE = 0.010, P = 0.021). Decrease in current musculoskeletal pain over four weeks was linear. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration reduced musculoskeletal pain in young healthy individuals. Stochastic resonance vibration and not any other exercise component within training caused pain reduction.

  12. Heart rate recording method validated by whole body indirect calorimetry in 10-yr-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, A; Vermorel, M; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Chamoux, A; Coudert, J

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the heart rate (HR) recording method against whole body indirect calorimetry in prepubertal children. Nineteen 10.5-yr-old healthy children (10 boys, 9 girls) participated in this study. HR and energy expenditure (EE) were recorded through laboratory tests. Individual relationships between HR and EE were computed (equation established in laboratory). Several models were tested and validated from 24-h measurements of EE and HR by whole body indirect calorimetry. The best fit was obtained with individual polynomial relationships. Mean differences between predicted (equation established in laboratory) and measured total daily EE averaged 7.6 +/- 20.1%. The causes of the differences and the means of improving the accuracy of the prediction equation are discussed.

  13. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  14. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein...... and azygos vein in the postprandial period in these patients. Whole-body oxygen uptake, hepatic blood flow, hepatic venous pressure gradient and net-hepatic fluxes of oxygen, lactate, glucose, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in 12 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis before and for 2 h after.......1 kJ/120 min (means +/- SD), P body oxygen uptake was lower in patients receiving propranolol (19.2 +/- 38 vs. 135.7 +/- 61 mmol/120 min, P

  15. Whole body bone scintigraphy in tenofovir-related osteomalacia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Biagio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread® is the only nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of HIV. It is frequently prescribed not only for its efficacy but also for its decreased side effect profile compared with other nucleotide analogs. In addition, it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of acquired Fanconi's syndrome in individuals with HIV. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman infected with HIV, with chronic renal insufficiency, who developed Fanconi's syndrome after inclusion of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in her antiretroviral therapy. A whole body bone scintigraphy was performed, revealing an abnormal distribution of radiotracer uptake, with characteristic changes compatible with osteomalacia. All symptoms disappeared after tenofovir discontinuation and mineral supplementation. No other explanation for the sudden and complete resolution of the bone disease was found. Conclusion The case highlights the role of whole body bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tenofovir-related osteomalacia.

  16. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBouyarmane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI, motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  17. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  18. Development of an Ergonomics Checklist for Investigation of Work-Related Whole-Body Disorders in Farming - AWBA: Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y K; Lee, S J; Lee, K S; Kim, G R; Kim, D M

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have been using various ergonomic tools to study occupational musculoskeletal diseases in industrial contexts. However, in agricultural work, where the work environment is poorer and the socio-psychological stress is high due to the high labor intensities of the industry, current research efforts have been scarce, and the number of available tools is small. In our preliminary studies, which focused on a limited number of body parts and other working elements, we developed separate evaluation tools for the upper and lower extremities. The current study was conducted to develop a whole-body ergonomic assessment tool for agricultural work that integrates the existing assessment tools for lower and upper extremities developed in the preliminary studies and to verify the relevance of the integrated assessment tool. To verify the relevance of the Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment (AWBA) tool, we selected 50 different postures that occur frequently in agricultural work. Our results showed that the AWBA-determined risk levels were similar to the subjective risk levels determined by experts. In addition, as the risk level increased, the average risk level increased to a similar extent. Moreover, the differences in risk levels between the AWBA and expert assessments were mostly smaller than the differences in risk levels between other assessment tools and the expert assessments in this study. In conclusion, the AWBA tool developed in this study was demonstrated to be appropriate for use as a tool for assessing various postures commonly assumed in agricultural work. Moreover, we believe that our verification of the assessment tools will contribute to the enhancement of the quality of activities designed to prevent and control work-related musculoskeletal diseases in other industries.

  19. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  20. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1...

  1. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, J.L.; Green, K.; Eicher, J.; Palm, D.C.; Penkler, G.; du Toit, F.; Walters, N.; Burger, R.; Westerhoff, H.V.; van Niekerk, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging

  2. Predicting Whole Body Vibration Exposure from Occupational Quad Bike Use in Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Lynne; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure is recognised as a risk factor to the high prevalence of spinal musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) experienced by farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify self-reported predictors that could be used to develop statistical models for WBV exposure (expressed as A8rms and VDV) in farmers operating agricultural quad bikes. Data were collected in the field from 130 farmers. Linear mixed effects modeling was used to determine the models of best fit. The p...

  3. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole-body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Stephan; Loehnert, Daniela [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany).; Schreiber, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    A large part of radionuclides to be evaluated in the frame of incorporation monitoring are gamma emitter that can be directly measured (in vivo). In order to reach the required detection limits for the relevant radionuclides in the short measuring time high effort is necessary for the shielding of natural radioactivity. The contribution describes planning, construction and installation of the shielding chamber for the new in vivo whole body counter in Rossendorf. First experiences and preliminary results are discussed.

  4. Whole body vibration therapy: a novel potential treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hongyu; Henrik O Berdel; Moore, David; Davis, Franklin; Liu, Jun; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Jack C Yu; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    There is a worsening epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the world. Life style interventions including dietary changes and increase in exercise can improve glucose metabolism and health in general. However, standard exercise programs are strenuous, time-consuming, and thus have low long-term compliance issues. We tested the feasibility of using high frequency, low amplitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy to improve glucose metabolism in young type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. We also aimed to ...

  5. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erika L Simmerman; Xu Qin; Henrik O Berdel; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Babak Baban; Jack C Yu

    2016-01-01

    Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mell...

  6. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwill, Alicia M; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ? 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, invol...

  7. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, Bruce David; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions—walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting—while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustwo...

  8. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Chruściak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA, according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods : The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60% and 20 men (40%. Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents, 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%, and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%. The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results: According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%, an improvement in 9 patients (18%, and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%. Conclusions : Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  9. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  10. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Sargan, David R.; Adams, Vicki J.; Ladlow, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldog...

  11. Localised Muscle Tissue Oxygenation During Dynamic Exercise With Whole Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Daniel; Elwell, Clare; Jimenez, Alfonso; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV) exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration). Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001) depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. Key pointsWhole body vibration affects tissue oxygenation of the lateral gastrocnemius.The underlying mechanism could be either increased blood flow or a vasospastic response in the feet.The local metabolic cost of heel

  12. Selective COX2 inhibition improves whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, P-S; Tsai, H-C; Kuo, C-H; Chan, J Y-H; Shyu, J-F; Cheng, W-T; Liu, T-T

    2008-11-01

    The effects of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibition on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. Aims of this study were to examine the effects of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors on whole body and muscular insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats, an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. The rats on regular or 60% fructose-enriched diets for 6 weeks were further divided into rats combined with or without piroxicam (a selective COX1 inhibitor) or celecoxib (a selective COX2 inhibitor) treatment for an additional 2 weeks. Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) with a tracer dilution method was performed at the end of the study. The present result showed that fructose-induced increases in systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly suppressed in rats treated with celecoxib but not piroxicam. In the EHC period, celecoxib significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in whole body glucose uptake, mainly by glucose storage. Hepatic glucose production and whole body glycolysis were not significantly changed among groups. Celecoxib but not piroxicam significantly reversed fructose-induced decreases in glycogen synthase activities in red and white quadriceps muscles and insulin-stimulated membrane GLUT4 recruitment in soleus muscles. Celecoxib and piroxicam both significantly diminished fructose-induced increases in plasma thromboxane B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha; but only celecoxib treatment significantly attenuated a fructose-induced increase in 8-isoprostane levels. Plasma PGE metabolites were not different among groups. This study demonstrates that a therapeutic dose of celecoxib, but not piroxicam, could significantly attenuate fructose-induced whole body and muscular insulin resistance in rats.

  13. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  14. Whole-body vibration exposure of occupational horseback riding in agriculture: A ranching example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoke; Trask, Catherine; Kociolek, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Horse riding is common in many occupations; however, there is currently no research evaluating exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock on horseback. Whole-body vibration was measured on a cattle rancher during two 30 min horseback rides using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on a western saddle. Vibration was summarized into standardized metrics, including the 8 hr equivalent root-mean-squared acceleration (A[8]) and the daily 4th power vibration dose value (VDV). The resulting exposures were compared to the exposure limit and action values provided by European Union Directive 2002/44/EC. The highest vibration for both rides was in the vertical axis, with average A(8) and VDV of 0.56 m/s 2 and 26.24 m/s 1.75 , respectively. The A(8) value indicated moderate risk while the VDV suggested high risk of harmful health effects. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock during occupational horseback riding may pose deleterious health risks and increased susceptibility to low back pain. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:215-220, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A G; Tabiev, V I; Rassulova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy. The study included 55 patients randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of the patients treated with the use of the common mineral baths, physiotherapy, therapeutic physical exercises, spinal massage, and whole body air-cryotherapy. Group 2 contained the patients who were treated in a similar way with the exception of whole body cryotherapy; they served as controls. Muscular disorders were diagnosed by means of functional muscular testing. The study has demonstrated the high prevalence of muscular disorders in the patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, it revealed the profile of such disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and showed significant correlation between the results of functional muscular testing, BASMI and BASFI indices as well as characteristics of chest excursions (pcryotherapy in comparison with the alternative therapeutic modalities employed in the present study. This therapeutic modality ensured the statistically more pronounced improvement of functional muscular testing parameters (pcryotherapy accounting for its corrective influence on the muscular disorders in the patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that the proposed approach can be recommended for the introduction in the combined therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

  16. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  17. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  18. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Floeth, Frank; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Tellmann, Lutz; Müller, Hans-W; Coenen, Heinz H; Langen, Karl-J

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)- l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV

  19. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauleit, Dirk [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Research Center Juelich, P.O. Box 1913, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Floeth, Frank [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Herzog, Hans; Tellmann, Lutz; Langen, Karl-J. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Mueller, Hans-W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV {<=}1.6) which remained constant between early and late PET scans. No increased uptake was seen in the bone, the biliary tract or the pancreas. Twenty-two percent of the injected activity was excreted 5 h p.i. (approx. 5.3% ID/h). The highest absorbed dose was found for the urinary bladder wall. The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 16.5 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults, which would lead to an effective dose of 6.1 mSv in a PET study using 370 MBq FET. (orig.)

  20. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  1. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  2. Evaluation of a 4-steps-1-day whole body challenge protocol for the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidler, L; Sucker, K; Taeger, D; van Kampen, V; Heinze, E; Marczynski, B; Monsé, C; Brüning, T; Merget, R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalative challenges are important in the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to diisocyanates. As existing protocols are time-consuming and costly, it was the aim of this study to develop a short duration whole body exposure protocol. Ninety three subjects with suspected occupational diisocyanate-induced asthma and verified current or previous occupational exposure to diisocyanates and ten control subjects without diisocyanate exposure but with bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated. After baseline examination on the first day, subjects underwent a standardized whole body multiple-steps-1-day challenge with exposures of up to four times 30 min to concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 30 ppb of the dominant diisocyanate used at work on the second day. Common spirometric and body plethysmographic parameters were used as positivity criteria. Overall, 14 subjects demonstrated a positive diisocyanate challenge, 19 were considered doubtful, and 60 were negative. All controls had negative challenges. Positive reactions occurred during the challenge (n = 10) or during follow-up (n = 4). Eight subjects showed >40 % fall of FEV1. These severe reactions occurred after 5 ppb (n = 2) or 10 ppb (n = 3), while isolated late reactions after 2 h of follow-up were not observed. Multivariate analysis showed an association between a positive challenge and both the degree of previous occupational exposure and the presence of baseline bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In summary, the proposed 4-steps-1-day diisocyanate challenge protocol induced pronounced bronchial reactions in a small number of subjects. As these reactions were more likely to occur after low concentrations, it is recommended to shift the initial concentration/dose step to lower exposures.

  3. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  4. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles during synchronous whole-body vibration--a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stania, Magdalena; Chmielewska, Daria; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-10-24

    More and more frequently stress urinary incontinence affects young healthy women. Hence, early implementation of effective preventive strategies in nulliparous continent women is essential, including pelvic floor muscle training. An initial evaluation based on the bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) during whole-body vibration (WBV) would help to devise the best individualized training for prevention of stress urinary incontinence in woman. We hypothesized that synchronous WBV enhances bioelectrical activity of the PFM which depends on vibration frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement. The sample consisted of 36 nulliparous continent women randomly allocated to three comparative groups. Group I and II subjects participated in synchronous whole-body vibrations on a vibration platform; the frequency and peak-to-peak displacement of vibration were set individually for each group. Control participants performed exercises similar to those used in the study groups but without the concurrent application of vibrations. Pelvic floor surface electromyography (sEMG) activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during three experimental trials limited to 30s, 60s and 90 s. The mean amplitude and variability of the signal were normalized to the Maximal Voluntary Contraction - MVC. Friedman's two-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean normalized amplitudes (%MVC) of the sEMG signal from the PFM during 60s- and 90 s-trials between the group exposed to high-intensity WBV and control participants (p pelvic floor muscle fatigue. The trial was registered in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (no. ACTRN12615000966594); registration date: 15/09/2015.

  5. Whole body diffusion for metastatic disease assessment in neuroendocrine carcinomas: comparison with OctreoScan® in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossetti Rachel Jorge D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroendocrine tumor (NET patients must be adequately staged in order to improve a multidisciplinary approach and optimal management for metastatic disease. Currently available imaging studies include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, like OctreoScan®, computed tomography (CT, scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which analyze vascular concentration and intravenous contrast enhancement for anatomic tumor localization. However, these techniques require high degree of expertise for interpretation and are limited by their availability, cost, reproducibility, and follow-up imaging comparisons. NETs significantly reduce water diffusion as compared to normal tissue. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI in MRI has an advantageous contrast difference: the tumor is represented with high signal over a black normal surrounding background. The whole-body diffusion (WBD technique has been suggested to be a useful test for detecting metastasis from various anatomic sites. In this article we report the use of DWI in MRI and WBD in two cases of metastatic pulmonary NET staging in comparison with OctreoScan® in order to illustrate the potential advantage of DWI and WBD in staging NETs.

  6. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of Recreational Drugs on Dopaminergic Terminal Neuron by PET and Whole-Body Autoradiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hsin-Hsien Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little investigation for the functional roles of peripheral dopamine. [18F]FDOPA has been used in cancer imaging (i.e., neuroendocrine and tumors pancreatic tumors and neuroimaging (i.e., Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Here, we accessed side effects of recreational drugs such as ketamine, cocaine, and methamphetamine on dopamine neurons in peripheral organs by using positron emission tomography (PET imaging and quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBAR with [18F]FDOPA. The images were applied for the measurement of specific binding ratios (SBRs of striatum with the cerebellum as the reference region. Clear striatal [18F]FDOPA-derived radioactivity was observed. Moderate level of radiotracer accumulation was presented in the mucosal layers of the stomach and small intestine. The medulla layers of kidney had higher radioactivity than that of the cortex. Blocking images markedly eliminated the specific binding of [18F]FDOPA in the striatum and in peripheral organs such as stomachs, intestines, and kidney. Ketamine showed the highest inhibitory effect on striatal [18F]FDOPA-derived radioactivity followed by cocaine and methamphetamine. The current results demonstrated a useful crossing-validating tool that enhances the capability of [18F]FDOPA for further investigations of the alteration of dopaminergic neurons in the brain disorder or cancer diseases in peripheral tissues.

  7. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marianna S; Newman, David; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N; Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Borga, Magnus; Toms, Andoni P

    2014-09-01

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19·32 L (SD9·1) and 19·28 L (SD9·12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1·0, 95% level of agreement -0·32-0·2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0·99-1·0) with 95% levels of agreement 1.8-6.6% of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1·68 L (2SD0·6) compared to automated 1·64 L (2SD 0·6), left lower leg: manual 1·69 L (2SD 0·64) compared to automated 1·63 L (SD0·61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0·94-0·96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. Sarcopaenia is an important reversible complication of a number of diseases. Manual quantification of muscle volume is time-consuming and expensive. Muscles can be imaged using in and out of phase MRI. Automated atlas-based segmentation can identify muscle groups. Automated muscle volume segmentation is reproducible and can replace manual measurements.

  8. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  9. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers Samoori-Sakhvidi F (MSc* Barkhordari A (PhD** Dehghani A (PhD*** Tavakoli-Manesh S (MSc**** *Corresponding Author: MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ** Professor, Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran *** Professor, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran **** MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Abstract Introduction: One of the most common sources of whole body vibration are vehicles in which the driver is exposed to vibration caused by the vehicle and the road. Including the people who continuously exposure to whole-body vibration can be noted to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers during their work shift Encountered with numerous deleterious effects such as noise, vibration, air pollution, and psychological stress and long work shifts. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration in the taxi drivers can communicate with adverse effects such as reduce perception, annoyance, disturbance of vision and fine motor tasks, spinal cord injury, damage to the digestive and reproductive systems. The purpose of this study was cross - sectional study of whole body vibration exposure in Yazd city taxi drivers. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate exposure to whole body vibration in taxi drivers, vibration measurement Was carried out in 80 taxi from 3 vehicle (Samand-Peugeot 405 and Pridein 3 mileage groups, with 63 male drivers and 17 female drivers. parameters Including the vibration Weighing the acceleration frequency (rms, Equivalent acceleration (Aeq and vibration doseVDV in 3-axis was recorded. The results obtained were compared with the values recommended by the standard (ISO 2631-1. Results: The mean (rms acceleration

  10. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  11. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  12. Whole-body MRI in generalized cystic lymphangiomatosis in the pediatric population: diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herruela-Suffee, Cecile; Warin, Mathilde; Castier-Amouyel, Melody; Dallery, Florine; Bonnaire, Bruno; Constans, Jean-Marc [CHU Amiens-Picardie, Service de Radiologie, Amiens Cedex 1 (France)

    2016-02-15

    Generalized cystic lymphangiomatosis is a particularly rare disease with variable involvement of skeletal and extraskeletal sites. The key role of imaging in the diagnosis of this disease is no longer in doubt. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the contribution of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) at the diagnostic stage and during the follow-up in the pediatric population. Three children were included from 2008. The inclusion criteria were radiological images (conventional radiographs, computed tomography, and MRI) compatible with histological confirmation. Each child included received WB-MRI at the diagnosis stage and during follow-up. WB-MRI detected multiple hypointense T1 and hyperintense T2-STIR cystic bony lesions. One unnoticed mass in the retroperitoneum on computed tomography was easily detected by MRI. Mediastinal involvement was observed in one asymptomatic case. Histology was contributory in all cases. Preventive intramedullary nailings was done in one case. Follow-up WB-MRI detected new asymptomatic lesions in all cases. One child presented a third episode of lymphangitis of the right thigh during follow-up. Due to its high sensitivity to diagnose, ability to eliminate differential diagnoses and make exhaustive lesions assessment, and its non-radiating character for long-term follow-up, WB-MRI is highly recommended for generalized cystic lymphangiomatosis in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  13. Is Whole-Body Computed Tomography the Standard Work-up for Severely-Injured Children? Results of a Survey among German Trauma Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J; Reising, K; Kuminack, K; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body computed tomography is accepted as the standard procedure in the primary diagnostic of polytraumatised adults in the emergency room. Up to now there is still controversial discussion about the same algorithm in the primary diagnostic of children. The aim of this study was to survey the participation of German trauma-centres in the care of polytraumatised children and the hospital dependant use of whole-body computed tomography for initial patient work-up. A questionnaire was mailed to every Department of Traumatology registered in the DGU (German Trauma Society) databank. We received 60,32% of the initially sent questionnaires and after applying exclusion criteria 269 (53,91%) were applicable to statistical analysis. In the three-tiered German hospital system no statistical difference was seen in the general participation of children polytrauma care between hospitals of different tiers (p = 0.315). Even at the lowest hospital level 69,47% of hospitals stated to participate in polytrauma care for children, at the intermediate and highest level hospitals 91,89% and 95,24% stated to be involved in children polytrauma care, respectively. Children suspicious of multiple injuries or polytrauma received significantly fewer primary whole-body CTs in lowest level compared to intermediate level hospitals (36,07% vs. 56,57%; p = 0.015) and lowest level compared to highest level hospitals (36,07% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.001). Comparing the use of whole-body CT in intermediate to highest level hospitals a not significant increase in its use could be seen in highest level hospitals (56,57% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.174). According to our survey, taking care of polytraumatised children in Germany is not limited to specialised hospitals or a defined hospital level-of-care. Additionally, there is no established radiologic standard in work-up of the polytraumatised child. However, in higher hospital care -levels a higher percentage of hospitals employs whole-body CTs for primary

  14. Improved clinical workflow for simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI using high-resolution CAIPIRINHA-accelerated MR-based attenuation correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Martin T; Fenchel, Matthias; Bäumer, Philipp; Heußer, Thorsten; Rank, Christopher M; Kachelrieß, Marc; Paech, Daniel; Kopka, Klaus; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Floca, Ralf; Ladd, Mark E; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2017-11-01

    To explore the value and reproducibility of a novel magnetic resonance based attenuation correction (MRAC) using a CAIPIRINHA-accelerated T1-weighted Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence for whole-body PET/MRI compared to the clinical standard. The PET raw data of 19 patients from clinical routine were reconstructed with standard MRAC (MRACstd) and the novel MRAC (MRACcaipi), a prototype CAIPIRINHA accelerated Dixon 3D-VIBE sequence, both acquired in 19 s/bed position. Volume of interests (VOIs) for liver, lung and all voxels of the total image stack were created to calculate standardized uptake values (SUVmean) followed by inter-method agreement (Passing-Bablok regression, Bland-Altman analysis). A voxel-wise SUV comparison per patient was performed for intra-individual correlation between MRACstd and MRACcaipi. Difference images (MRACstd-MRACcaipi) of attenuation maps and SUV images were calculated. The image quality of in/opposed-phase water and fat images obtained from MRACcaipi was assessed by two readers on a 5-point Likert-scale including intra-class coefficients for inter-reader agreement. SUVmean correlations of VOIs demonstrated high linearity (0.95attenuation correction by providing a high spatial resolution DIXON-based dataset suited for diagnostic assessment towards time-efficient whole-body PET/MRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, F; Feveile, H; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole......-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions...

  16. Whole-body vibration versus proprioceptive training on postural control in post-menopausal osteopenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nils; Belavý, Daniel L; Rawer, Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    To prevent falls in the elderly, especially those with low bone density, is it necessary to maintain muscle coordination and balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of classical balance training (BAL) and whole-body vibration training (VIB) on postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. Sixty-eight subjects began the study and 57 completed the nine-month intervention program. All subjects performed resistive exercise and were randomized to either the BAL- (N=31) or VIB-group (N=26). The BAL-group performed progressive balance and coordination training and the VIB-group underwent, in total, four minutes of vibration (depending on exercise; 24-26Hz and 4-8mm range) on the Galileo Fitness. Every month, the performance of a single leg stance task on a standard unstable surface (Posturomed) was tested. At baseline and end of the study only, single leg stance, Romberg-stance, semi-tandem-stance and tandem-stance were tested on a ground reaction force platform (Leonardo). The velocity of movement on the Posturomed improved by 28.3 (36.1%) (p<0.001) in the VIB-group and 18.5 (31.5%) (p<0.001) in the BAL-group by the end of the nine-month intervention period, but no differences were seen between the two groups (p=0.45). Balance tests performed on the Leonardo device did not show any significantly different responses between the two groups after nine months (p≥0.09). Strength training combined with either proprioceptive training or whole-body vibration was associated with improvements in some, but not all, measures of postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. The current study could not provide evidence for a significantly different impact of whole-body vibration or balance training on postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  18. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  19. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise and whole body vibration on glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, Lale; Azarbayjani, Mohammad-Ali; Aghaalinejad, Hamid; Salavati, Mahyar

    2011-06-01

    Aerobic exercise has been identified as the main treatment for type 2 diabetic patients. Such an exercise, however, is usually repined by some of patients who suffer from lack of stamina. Therefore, whole body vibration has recently been introduced as a passive intervention. The present study aimed at comparing how aerobic exercise and whole body vibration affect glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Thirty diabetic males were divided into three groups, namely aerobic exercise (AE), whole body vibration (WBV), and control. Aerobic exercise schedule consisted of three walking sessions a week, each for 30-60 minutes and in 60-70% of maximum stock heartbeat. Vibration exercise was composed of 8-12-min stand-up and semi-squat positioning in frequency of 30 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm. Concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured in the beginning of the trial, after the fourth week, and after the eighth week. After 8 weeks of exercise, no significant difference was detected in concentrations of fasting glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin between the groups (P=0.83, P=0.12). There were no significant differences in any of the variables between AE and WBV (P>0.05). But a more significant decrease in fasting glucose was observed in exercise groups (AE and WBV) compared with control group (P=0.02). The present study showed that AE and WBV identically stimulate metabolic system. Thus, it can be concluded that type 2 diabetic patients lacking stamina for aerobic exercise can opt for vibration exercise as an effective substitute.

  1. MR imaging of thrombi using EP-2104R, a fibrin-specific contrast agent: initial results in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, Elmar [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wiethoff, Andrea J.; Graham, Phil B. [EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA (United States); Ibrahim, Tareq [Technical University Munich, German Heart Center Munich and Medical Clinic 1, Munich (Germany); Kelle, Sebastian; Nagel, Eike [German Heart Institute, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Homburg (Germany); Oezgun, Murat; Maintz, David [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Vymazal, Josef [Hospital Na Homolce, Praque (Czech Republic); Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    This study was an initial phase II trial in humans of molecular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for improved visualization of thrombi in vessel territories potentially responsible for stroke using a new fibrin-specific contrast agent (EP-2104R). Eleven patients with thrombus in the left ventricle (n=2), left or right atrium (n=4), thoracic aorta (n=4) or carotid artery (n=1) as verified by an index examination (ultrasound, computed tomography, or conventional MR) were enrolled. All MR imaging was performed on 1.5 T whole-body MR-system using an inversion-recovery black-blood gradient-echo sequence. The same sequence was performed before and 2-6 h after low-dose intravenous administration of 4{mu}mol/kg EP-2104R. Two investigators assessed image quality and signal amplification. Furthermore, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between the clot and the blood pool/surrounding soft tissue before and after administration of the contrast agent were compared using Student's t-test. MR imaging and data analysis were successfully completed in 10 patients. No major adverse effects occurred. On enhanced images, thrombi demonstrated high signal amplification, typically at the clot surface, with a significantly increased contrast in comparison to the surrounding blood pool and soft tissue (CNR for clot vs. blood pool, unenhanced and enhanced: 6{+-}8 and 29{+-}14; CNR for clot vs. soft tissue, unenhanced and enhanced: 0{+-}4 and 21{+-}13; P<0.01 for both comparisons). EP-2104R allows for molecular MR imaging of thrombi potentially responsible for stroke. High contrast between thrombus and surrounding blood and soft tissues can be achieved with enhanced imaging. (orig.)

  2. Caffeine-induced hematological changes after whole-body irradiation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Recent research indicated dietary antioxidants were useful radioprotectors to protect organisms against radiation-induced tissue lethality and other deleterious effects. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the previous studies indicated that caffeine had been shown to potently act the radioprotector in irradiated mice. However it is not clear exactly about effects of caffeine treatments chronically after irradiation. So the present studies were designed to identify the hematological effect of caffeine treatments chronically one month after whole-body gamma irradiation.

  3. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  4. Open-Ended Measurement of Whole-Body Movement: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Michael T. M.; Smith, Connor L.; Nash, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    As the importance of embodiment emerges for psychology, there is a need to advance methodology for measuring the dynamics of movement in an open-ended fashion. Such a tool should be versatile across contexts and track spontaneous and natural movement with minimal constraints. We test the feasibility of a method for measuring whole-body movement over time that attempts to meet this need. We use a motion capture system comprised of two Microsoft Kinect version 2.0 cameras and iPiSoft Motion Cap...

  5. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease......The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... status was measured using WOMAC. It was found that muscle strength increased significantly (p

  6. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus