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Sample records for whole-body averaged sar

  1. Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

    2012-05-07

    Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y(50th), 3y(50th), 5y(50th), 7y(50th), and 20y(50th). The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y(10th), 5y(10th), and 20y(10th) with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg(-1), was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

  2. Intercomparison of whole-body averaged SAR in European and Japanese voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter J; Hirata, Akimasa; Nagaoka, Tomoaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an intercomparison of the HPA male and female models, NORMAN and NAOMI with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) male and female models, TARO and HANAKO. The calculations of the whole-body SAR in these four phantoms were performed at the HPA, at NICT and at the Nagoya Institute of Technology (NIT). These were for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the front of the body from 30 MHz to 3 GHz for isolated conditions. As well as investigating the general differences through this frequency range, particular emphasis was placed on the assumptions of how dielectric properties are assigned to tissues (particularly skin and fat) and the consequence of using different algorithms for calculating SAR at the higher frequencies.

  3. Experimental Quasi-Microwave Whole-Body Averaged SAR Estimation Method Using Cylindrical-External Field Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    The aim of this study is to develop a new whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation method based on the external-cylindrical field scanning technique. This technique is adopted with the goal of simplifying the dosimetry estimation of human phantoms that have different postures or sizes. An experimental scaled model system is constructed. In order to examine the validity of the proposed method for realistic human models, we discuss the pros and cons of measurements and numerical analyses based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We consider the anatomical European human phantoms and plane-wave in the 2GHz mobile phone frequency band. The measured whole-body averaged SAR results obtained by the proposed method are compared with the results of the FDTD analyses.

  4. Experimental Quasi-Microwave Whole-Body Averaged SAR Estimation Method Using Cylindrical-External Field Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation method based on the external-cylindrical field scanning technique. This technique is adopted with the goal of simplifying the dosimetry estimation of human phantoms that have different postures or sizes. An experimental scaled model system is constructed. In order to examine the validity of the proposed method for realistic human models, we discuss the pros and cons of measurements and nume...

  5. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kodera, Sachiko; Watanabe, Soichi

    2006-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band

  6. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianqing [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Fujiwara, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kodera, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Soichi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band.

  7. Simplified segmented human models for whole body and localised SAR evaluation of 20 MHz to 6 GHz electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The digital human model is a key element in evaluating the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This paper proposes the application of simplified segmented human models for EMF exposure compliance evaluation with the whole body and the localised limits. The method is based on the fact that most of the EMF power absorption is concentrated in several major tissues. Two kinds of human models were simply (the proposed method) and precisely segmented from two sets of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanned images. The whole body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) and the peak localised SAR averaging over 10 g tissues for the two kinds of models are calculated for various exposure configurations. The results confirmed the efficiency and the validity of the proposed method. The application as evaluating the MRI radiofrequency EMF exposure is also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  8. Validation of Experimental whole-body SAR Assessment Method in a Complex Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Assessing experimentally the whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the Line-Of-Sight as specular path) to assess the whole-body SAR is validated by numerical...... of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computation burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, i.e., for high distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations 0...

  9. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, A; Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Thielens, A; Tanghe, E; Martens, L

    2014-01-01

    A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SAR wb ) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SAR wb in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones—using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method—at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14–12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of −39.40%, −11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SAR wb induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research. (paper)

  11. A study of exposure to RF radiation during MRI examinations. 2. A comparison of two procedures measuring the whole body SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masayuki; Imaeda, Isao; Koga, Sukehiko; Sugie, Masami; Anno, Hirofumi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Okada, Tatsuhiko; Endou, Yukio; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Particularly, in this paper, the authors compared the measuring procedures of a whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) set forth in two safety guidelines respectively: the safety guideline of MRI equipments in Japan which based on the 1988 guideline of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the 1995 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As a result of the measurement, the measuring procedure set forth in the Japanese guideline underestimated the whole body SAR of a torso phantom in a tuneless type QD coil. The result of our experiment clearly showed that the measuring procedure set forth in the Japanese guideline did not adjust to the tuneless type QD coil. Therefore, the authors recommended ''the pulse energy method'' which is provided by the IEC standard as a measuring procedure of the whole body SAR. (author)

  12. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Whole-body bone segmentation from MRI for PET/MRI attenuation correction using shape-based averaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the performance of shape-based averaging (SBA) technique for whole-body bone segmentation from MRI in the context of MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) in hybrid PET/MRI. To enhance the performance of the SBA scheme, the authors propose to combine it with stati......Purpose: The authors evaluate the performance of shape-based averaging (SBA) technique for whole-body bone segmentation from MRI in the context of MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) in hybrid PET/MRI. To enhance the performance of the SBA scheme, the authors propose to combine...... it with statistical atlas fusion techniques. Moreover, a fast and efficient shape comparisonbased atlas selection scheme was developed and incorporated into the SBA method. Methods: Clinical studies consisting of PET/CT and MR images of 21 patients were used to assess the performance of the SBA method. In addition...... voting (MV) atlas fusion scheme was also evaluated as a conventional and commonly used method. MRI-guided attenuation maps were generated using the different segmentation methods. Thereafter, quantitative analysis of PET attenuation correction was performed using CT-based attenuation correction...

  14. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method

  15. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  16. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Integrin Marker 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 Determined from Whole-Body PET/CT in a Non-Human Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Vorobyova, Ivetta; Park, Ryan; Conti, Peter S.

    2017-10-01

    Introduction: 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 is a positron emission radiotracer taken up by integrin αvβ3, which is overexpressed in many malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 in a non-human primate with positron emission tomography and to estimate the absorbed doses in major organs for human. Materials and methods: Whole-body PET imaging was done in a Siemens Biograph scanner in a male macaque monkey. After an i.v. injection of 13.1–19.7 MBq/kg of 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2, whole body scan was collected for a total duration of 180 min. Attenuation and scatter corrections were applied to reconstruction of the whole-body emission scan. After image reconstruction, three-dimensional volumes of interest (VOI) were hand-drawn on the PET transaxial or coronal slices of the frame where the organ was most conspicuous. Time-activity curves for each VOI were obtained, and residence time of each organ was calculated by integration of the time-activity curves. Human absorbed doses were estimated using the standard human model in OLINDA/EXM software. Results: Injection of 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 was well tolerated in the macaque monkey, with no serious tracer-related adverse events observed. 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 was cleared rapidly from the blood pool, with a 12.1-min biological half-time. Increased 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 uptake was observed in the kidneys, and bladder, with mean percentage injected dose (ID%) values at 1 h after injection approximately 35.50 ± 6.47 and 36.89 ± 5.48, respectively. The calculated effective dose was 15.30 ± 2.21 µSv/MBq, and the kidneys had the highest absorbed dose at 108.43 ± 16.41 µGy/MBq using the non-voiding model. For an injected activity of 925 MBq 64Cu for human, the effective dose would be 14.2 ± 2.1 mSv. Discussion: Due to the limitation of the monkey number, we evaluated 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 in the same monkey of three imaging sessions. Measured absorbed doses and effective doses of 64Cu-BaBaSar-RGD2 are

  18. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author) [pt

  19. Spatial averaging of fields from half-wave dipole antennas and corresponding SAR calculations in the NORMAN human voxel model between 65 MHz and 2 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2009-04-21

    If an antenna is located close to a person, the electric and magnetic fields produced by the antenna will vary in the region occupied by the human body. To obtain a mean value of the field for comparison with reference levels, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommend spatially averaging the squares of the field strength over the height the body. This study attempts to assess the validity and accuracy of spatial averaging when used for half-wave dipoles at frequencies between 65 MHz and 2 GHz and distances of lambda/2, lambda/4 and lambda/8 from the body. The differences between mean electric field values calculated using ten field measurements and that of the true averaged value were approximately 15% in the 600 MHz to 2 GHz range. The results presented suggest that the use of modern survey equipment, which takes hundreds rather than tens of measurements, is advisable to arrive at a sufficiently accurate mean field value. Whole-body averaged and peak localized SAR values, normalized to calculated spatially averaged fields, were calculated for the NORMAN voxel phantom. It was found that the reference levels were conservative for all whole-body SAR values, but not for localized SAR, particularly in the 1-2 GHz region when the dipole was positioned very close to the body. However, if the maximum field is used for normalization of calculated SAR as opposed to the lower spatially averaged value, the reference levels provide a conservative estimate of the localized SAR basic restriction for all frequencies studied.

  20. Whole body imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Luca, P.C.; Stoddart, H.F.; Jeffries, D.

    1976-01-01

    A whole body imaging system rapidly forms a quality image of the bony structure, soft tissue or specific organs of a patient who has been injected with a suitable radioactive tracer chemical. A radiation detector head assembly includes a number of detector subassemblies, each having a lead collimator with tapered holes for admitting gamma radiation from a small area of the patient to a scintillation crystal that converts the gamma rays admitted by the collimator into visible or ultraviolet energy pulses. A photomultiplier converts these pulses into electrical pulses. A row of equally spaced detector subassemblies reciprocate within a nonreciprocating lead shield along the long axis of the array over a distance substantially equal to the separation between adjacent ones of the small areas. Associated electronic and electromechanical apparatus control the reciprocating motion and the longitudinal motion of the radiation detector head assembly, and process the photodetected signals to produce in a relatively short time a visible image of the radiant energy emanating from the whole body of the patient scanned

  1. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  2. The ORNL whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  4. In Vivo Radiofrequency Heating in Swine in a 3T (123.2 MHz) Birdcage Whole-Body Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Devashish; Utecht, Lynn; Tian, Jinfeng; Hughes, John; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study in vivo radiofrequency (RF) heating produced due to power deposition from a 3T (Larmour frequency = 123.2 MHz), birdcage, whole-body coil. Methods The RF heating was simulated in a digital swine by solving the mechanistic generic bioheat transfer model (GBHTM) and the conventional, empirical Pennes bioheat transfer equation for the following two cases: (1) when the porcine head was in the isocenter, and (2) when the porcine trunk was in the isocenter. The simulation results were validated by making direct fluoroptic temperature measurements in the skin, brain, simulated hot regions, and rectum of ten swine (Case 1, N= 5, mean animal weight = 84.03 ± 6.85 kg, Whole-body average SAR = 2.65 ± 0.22 W/kg; Case 2, N= 5, mean animal weight = 81.59 ± 6.23 kg, Whole-body average SAR = 2.77 ± 0.26 W/kg) during one hour of exposure to a turbo spin echo sequence. Results The GBHTM simulated the RF heating more accurately compared to the Pennes equation. In vivo temperatures exceeded safe temperature thresholds with allowable SAR exposures. Hot regions may be produced deep inside the body, away from the skin. Conclusion SAR exposures to produce safe temperature thresholds may need re-investigation. PMID:24259413

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Whole-body computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    The vast literature on whole-body CT is presented in this bibliography which is published as a self-contained supplement to the monography entitled whole-body CT. For this documentation, the following journals have been scanned back to the year 1980: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography (JCAT), Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Roentgenstrahlen (RoeFo), Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), Der Radiologe, Neuroradiology, and American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR). The supplement includes keyword indexes that can be searched for terms indicating body organs, body regions, or certain lesions. The author index offers an additional access to the publication wanted. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Whole-body MRI screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, Ralf [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Hosten, Norbert (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald (Germany). Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2014-07-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  8. Whole-body MRI screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, Ralf; Hosten, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The advent of dedicated whole-body MRI scanners has made it possible to image the human body from head to toe with excellent spatial resolution and with the sensitivity and specificity of conventional MR systems. A comprehensive screening examination by MRI relies on fast image acquisition, and this is now feasible owing to several very recent developments, including multichannel techniques, new surface coil systems, and automatic table movement. The daily analysis of whole-body MRI datasets uncovers many incidental findings, which are discussed by an interdisciplinary advisory board of physicians from all specialties. This book provides a systematic overview of these incidental findings with the aid of approximately 240 high-quality images. The radiologists involved in the project have written chapters on each organ system, presenting a structured compilation of the most common findings, their morphologic appearances on whole-body MRI, and guidance on their clinical management. Chapters on technical and ethical issues are also included. It is hoped that this book will assist other diagnosticians in deciding how to handle the most common incidental findings encountered when performing whole-body MRI.

  9. In vivo radiofrequency heating in swine in a 3T (123.2-MHz) birdcage whole body coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Devashish; Utecht, Lynn; Tian, Jinfeng; Hughes, John; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-10-01

    To study in vivo radiofrequency (RF) heating produced due to power deposition from a 3T (Larmour frequency = 123.2 MHz), birdcage, whole body coil. The RF heating was simulated in a digital swine by solving the mechanistic generic bioheat transfer model (GBHTM) and the conventional, empirical Pennes bioheat transfer equation for two cases: 1) when the swine head was in the isocenter and 2) when the swine trunk was in the isocenter. The simulation results were validated by making direct fluoroptic temperature measurements in the skin, brain, simulated hot regions, and rectum of 10 swine (case 1: n = 5, mean animal weight = 84.03 ± 6.85 kg, whole body average SAR = 2.65 ± 0.22 W/kg; case 2: n = 5, mean animal weight = 81.59 ± 6.23 kg, whole body average SAR = 2.77 ± 0.26 W/kg) during 1 h of exposure to a turbo spin echo sequence. The GBHTM simulated the RF heating more accurately compared with the Pennes equation. In vivo temperatures exceeded safe temperature thresholds with allowable SAR exposures. Hot regions may be produced deep inside the body, away from the skin. SAR exposures that produce safe temperature thresholds need reinvestigation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000?y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations...

  11. Whole body autoradiography, ch. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkman, J.H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of 35 S-ringlabelled thiazinamium methylsulphate has been studied by means of whole body autoradiography in a squirrel and in mice. Accumulation of activity was found in liver, kidney and intestines (the excretion of pathways). High concentrations were also found in organs with high amount of acetylcholine receptors and in the glandular tissue. No radioactivity was seen in the central nervous system, indicating no passage through the 'blood-brain barrier'. This is the most significant difference with its tertiary analogue Prometharine hydrochloride. In pregnant mice, high concentrations were found in the placenta but only low amounts were found in liver and kidneys of the foetuses

  12. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  13. Whole body detectors for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.

    The requirements are presented on the parameters of whole-body detectors suitable for clinical retention assays and the detector-patient configuration described. A whole-body detector was developed with an axial configuration of two pairs of large-volume scintillation detectors with NaI(Tl) crystals. One pair is placed under the bed, the other above the bed on which the patient is being examined. The axes of the crystals are located at a distance of 90 cm apart. The field of vision of the detector is described for the application of a 137 Cs source in the air and in a 24 cm layer of water. The positive characteristics of the detector are listed as being homogeneous sensitivity, energy resolution, long-term stability of signal pulse amplitude and average pulse rate in the integral mode. The results obtained show that the detector may be used to evaluate the level of contamination of persons by gamma emitters within the region of approximately 800 Bq to 74 MBq. The error in converting the number of signal pulses in the integral mode does not exceed 50% for gamma emitters with a photon energy above 30O keV. (J.B.)

  14. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  15. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  16. Quantitative whole body scintigraphy - a simplified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marienhagen, J.; Maenner, P.; Bock, E.; Schoenberger, J.; Eilles, C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present investigations on a simplified method of quantitative whole body scintigraphy by using a dual head LFOV-gamma camera and a calibration algorithm without the need of additional attenuation or scatter correction. Validation of this approach to the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in patient studies showed a high accuracy concerning quantification of whole body activity (102.8% and 97.72%, resp.), by contrast organ activities were recovered with an error range up to 12%. The described method can be easily performed using commercially available software packages and is recommendable especially for quantitative whole body scintigraphy in a clinical setting. (orig.) [de

  17. whole body vibration and spinal stabilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A range of exercise modalities is used in the rehabilitation of indi- viduals with chronic lower ... effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional ... with musculoskeletal, sensory, emotional, cognitive and behavioural components ...

  18. Internal dosimetry by whole body counting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Over decades, whole body counting and bioassay - the two principal methods of internal dosimetry have been most widely used to assess, limit and control the intakes of radioactive materials and the consequent internal doses by the workers in nuclear industry. This paper deals with the whole body counting techniques. The problems inherent in the interpretation of monitoring data and likely future directions of development in the assessments of internal doses by direct methods are outlined. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Whole-body counters in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.

    1986-08-01

    A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting

  20. Development of novel whole-body exposure setups for rats providing high efficiency, National Toxicology Program (NTP) compatibility and well-characterized exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, Wolfgang [Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), 12725 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Nikoloski, Neviana [IT' IS Foundation-The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Oesch, Walter [IT' IS Foundation-The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Berdinas-Torres, Veronica [IT' IS Foundation-The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Juerg [IT' IS Foundation-The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Neubauer, Georg [ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH, Kramergasse 1, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Kuster, Niels [IT' IS Foundation-The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-21

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and verification of novel whole-body exposure setups for rats. The setups operating at 902 MHz and 1747 MHz provide highly efficient, National Toxicology Program (NTP) compatible and well-characterized exposures. They are compared to existing concepts of exposure setups with respect to efficiency, induced field uniformity, good laboratory practice (GLP) compatibility and cost. The novel exposure setup consists of a circular cascade of 17 sectorial waveguides excited by a novel loop antenna placed in the centre. The 70% overall efficiency of the exposure setup surpasses comparable values of existing setups. A field uniformity inside the phantom of more than 86% for the 1g cubical averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) within {+-}5 dB of the whole-body SAR (WB-SAR) was attained. The uniformity of the exposure inside the setup, defined as the variation of the WB-SAR between animals, was better than {+-}24%. Using only stainless steel, gold and polycarbonate in the vicinity of the animals ensured full GLP compatibility. The entire exposure system features fully automated computer controlled exposure and data monitoring, data storing and failure handling. Therefore, the proposed exposure system can be used to run blinded large scale, long-term exposure studies.

  1. Comparison of whole-body-imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hoffer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there are four different devices that have found clinical utility in whole-body imaging. These are the rectilinear scanner, the multicrystal whole-body scanner, the Anger-type camera with a whole-body-imaging table, and the tomoscanner. In this text, the basic theory of operation and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages in whole-body imaging is presented for each device. When applicable, a comparative assessment of the various devices is also presented. As with all else in life, there is no simple answer to the question ''which total body imaging device is best.'' Institutions with a very heavy total-body-imaging load may prefer to use an already available dual-headed rectilinear scanner system for these studies, rather than invest in a new instrument. Institutions with moderate total-body-imaging loads may wish to invest in moving table or moving camera devices which make total body imaging more convenient but retain the basic flexibility of the camera. The large-field Anger camera with or without motion offers another flexible option to these institutions. The laboratory with a very heavy total body imaging load may select efficiency over flexibility, thereby freeing up other instruments for additional studies. Finally, reliability as well as availability and quality of local service must be considered. After all, design features of an instrument become irrelevant when it is broken down and awaiting repair

  2. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia.

  3. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, Sabine; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  4. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  5. Whole-body monitoring: Goiania case, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A. de; Becker, P.H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: individuals from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1); occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121, 57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was stablished according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job that will be done. Some body burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement, are presented. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity X time curve. (author) [pt

  6. Measurements of whole-body radioactivity in the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J.D.; Boddy, K.; McKenzie, A.L.; Oxby, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of whole-body radioactivity was undertaken. A mobile whole-body counter visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and Hospitals in England and Wales. Data were also obtained from an installed whole-body counter at the West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven, and from a control site at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. 1657 volunteer members of the public were measured, including 162 children. 36% of volunteers had been measured in a similar survey 2 years earlier, and showed between a two and five fold reduction in body radiocaesium. No radiocaesium was detected in 54% of people measured. Measurements showed a progressive fall over the course of the study, reaching a baseline of 0.3 Bq 137 Cs/gK. In 1989, the additional radiation dose incurred from radiocaesium varied from a maximum of 4.1 μSv in Cumbria to 1.5 μSv in the South East, compared with the average annual radiation dose of 2500 μSv due to all other causes. No other gamma-emitting radionuclides were found. Results are consistent with Chernobyl as the source of the radiocaesium detected. (author)

  7. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm 3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  8. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels, E-mail: neufeld@itis.ethz.ch [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm{sup 3} of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  9. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  10. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Berg, D.

    1992-12-01

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.) [de

  11. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  12. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadulina, Albina; Panzera, Aurora; Verasztó, Csaba; Liebig, Christian; Jékely, Gáspár

    2012-12-03

    Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere) of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE), which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP) in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental stage. We then registered to these templates the

  13. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  14. Whole body acid-base modeling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    The textbook account of whole body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion, and gastrointestinal alkali absorption, which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. To improve understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production were already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption in terms of urine excretions. With a few assumptions it was possible to see that this expression of net acid balance was arithmetically identical to minus urine charge, whereby under the development of acidosis, urine was predicted to acquire a net negative charge. The literature already mentions unexplained negative urine charges so we scrutinized a series of seminal papers and confirmed empirically the theoretical prediction that observed urine charge did acquire negative charge as acidosis developed. Hence, we can conclude that the conventional model is problematic since it predicts what is physiologically impossible. Therefore, we need a new model for whole body acid-base balance, which does not have impossible implications. Furthermore, new experimental studies are needed to account for charge imbalance in urine under development of acidosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  16. Myelopoiesis in whole-body-irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of dose-rate (DR) (either 5.2 or 52 cGy/min.) on the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) myelopoietic progenitor cells was studied in beagles after exposure to whole-body-irradiation (235, 375 and 1500 cGy + autologous BM-transplantation). Myelopoietic progenitor cells were assayed as colony-forming units in agar cultures (GM-CFU), in correlation with the colony-stimulation activity (CSA) in serum. At 235 cGy, the influence of DR on the recovery of GM-CFU was insignificant. However, at 375 cGy, the recovery was critically dependent on the DR. Depletion of GM-CFU numbers elevated CSA levels above pre-irradiation values. The DR determines the regenerative ability when the dose itself is critical to survival of the least number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) necessary for restitution. (author)

  17. Possibilities of whole-body MRI for investigating musculoskeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenk, S.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Fischer, S.; Koetter, I.

    2004-01-01

    This contribution outlines possibilities and limitations of whole-body MRI for investigating musculoskeletal diseases. Benefits and drawbacks of the novel whole-body MRI technology are discussed and a possible whole-body MRI sequence protocol for musculoskeletal examinations is proposed. Muscle, joint and bone diseases are discussed in which the application of whole-body MRI may be of advantage. Particularly, polymyositis, muscledystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis ancylosans, multiple trauma, skeletal metastases, multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma are mentioned. Whole-body MRI opens new advantages for the examination of multifocal musculoskeletal diseases. The clinical benefit of this method for particular diseases has to be evaluated in further studies, however. (orig.) [de

  18. Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas; Luijten, Peter; Kibune, Satoshi; Ochiai, Reiji; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Niwa, Tetsu; Van Cauteren, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide. Ten consecutive asymptomatic subjects prospectively underwent whole-body MRI for health screening. Whole-body MRI included T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted sequences, and was performed using a non-integrated surface coil to image four different stations without patient repositioning. The four separately acquired stations were merged, creating seamless coronal whole-body T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations were qualitatively assessed. The average time (±SD) taken to change the surface coil from one station to the next station was 53.8 (±7.1) s. The average total extra examination time ± SD was 2 min 41.4 s (±15.3 s). Anatomical alignment, image quality at the boundaries of adjacent stations, and overall image quality of all stations of T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI were overall graded as ''good'' to ''excellent''. This study shows that a time-efficient and high-quality whole-body MRI examination can easily be performed by using a non-integrated sliding surface coil approach. (orig.)

  19. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-05-07

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling

  20. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  1. Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

    2004-08-01

    A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

  2. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  3. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  4. Utilization pattern of whole body computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Chul Ho; Lee, Sang Suk

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography scanner (CT scanner) is one of the most expensive and sophisticated diagnostic tool and has already been utilized in many hospitals in Korea. The price as well as operating costs of CT scanner is so expensive as to regulate its installment by government even in the United States. In order to identify the efficient utilization of the CT scanner, the utilization pattern for CT scanning was analyzed at three general hospital in seoul. The results are as follows: 1. Five out of one thousand outpatients and five out of one hundred inpatients were CT scanned. 2. Eighty percent of patients who were scanned were those of inpatients of the hospitals where the scanned are installed. 3. Head standings constitute 45.6 percent of examinations, internal medicine 63.8 percent, and 38.5 percent neurosurgery respectively. 4. The rate of indication for CT scanning showed no statistically significant difference between insured and non-insured groups. 5. Computed tomography scanner units were operated 5.5 days a week in average and full operation rate was 79.5% in average. 6. The major diagnoses mode by head scanning were: hematoma (56.7%), infarction (12.6%), tumor (8.2%), and hydrocephalus (4.4%). 7. Number of patients taken CT Scanning was 43 persons a week in average for each whole body scanner unit

  5. Comparison of SAR calculation algorithms for the finite-difference time-domain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Uusitupa, Tero; Ilvonen, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of specific-absorption rate (SAR) have several uncertainty factors. For example, significantly varying SAR values may result from the use of different algorithms for determining the SAR from the FDTD electric field. The objective of this paper is to rigorously study the divergence of SAR values due to different SAR calculation algorithms and to examine if some SAR calculation algorithm should be preferred over others. For this purpose, numerical FDTD results are compared to analytical solutions in a one-dimensional layered model and a three-dimensional spherical object. Additionally, the implications of SAR calculation algorithms for dosimetry of anatomically realistic whole-body models are studied. The results show that the trapezium algorithm-based on the trapezium integration rule-is always conservative compared to the analytic solution, making it a good choice for worst-case exposure assessment. In contrast, the mid-ordinate algorithm-named after the mid-ordinate integration rule-usually underestimates the analytic SAR. The linear algorithm-which is approximately a weighted average of the two-seems to be the most accurate choice overall, typically giving the best fit with the shape of the analytic SAR distribution. For anatomically realistic models, the whole-body SAR difference between different algorithms is relatively independent of the used body model, incident direction and polarization of the plane wave. The main factors affecting the difference are cell size and frequency. The choice of the SAR calculation algorithm is an important simulation parameter in high-frequency FDTD SAR calculations, and it should be explained to allow intercomparison of the results between different studies. (note)

  6. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice....../MRI. To this end, a variety of atlas-based segmentation strategies commonly used in medical image segmentation and pseudo-CT generation were implemented and evaluated in terms of whole-body bone segmentation accuracy. Bone segmentation was performed on 23 whole-body CT/MR image pairs via leave-one-out cross...... validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean...

  7. The assessment of whole body bone SPECT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scortechini, Shonika

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To assess the significance and practicability of oncology whole body bone SPECT as part of the standard skeletal survey and its impact on the traditional planar whole body bone imaging protocol. Method: Three consenting oncology patients were injected with a standard adult dose of Tc-99m MOP. Delayed Imaging of whole body sweep and SPECT acquisitions were performed on a Siemens Symbia T6. The patient was positioned supine with arms down with a SPECT scan length covering vortex to thighs. SPECT data was reconstructed and a single whole body zipped file created. Normal SPECT slices along with a cine/MIP of the zipped data were created for review. Results: Both image data sets were reviewed to assess if SPECT provided any further diagnostic clinical information not apparent in planer imaging. In our limited review, whole body SPECT did not add extra value to the planar whole body scans performed; it did however demonstrate vertebral involvement with greater resolution. The processing software and system limitations in seamlessly knitting data sets (creating image artefacts) was a major limiting factor in not pursuing further studies. Conclusion: Both imaging techniques offer differing advantages and limitations, however due to image artefact in the triple knitted SPECT approach with current software technology, it cannot be substituted for whole body imaging at this time.

  8. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  9. Whole body scan system based on γ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Tianyu; Jin Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    Most existing domestic γ cameras can not perform whole body scan protocol, which is of important use in clinic. The authors designed a set of whole body scan system, which is made up of a scan bed, an ISA interface card controlling the scan bed and the data acquisition software based on a data acquisition and image processing system for γ cameras. The image was obtained in clinical experiment, and the authors think it meets the need of clinical diagnosis. Application of this system in γ cameras can provide whole body scan function at low cost

  10. Whole body autoradiography with mice using 14C-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, R. et al

    1982-06-01

    Whole body autoradiography was performed using common histology equipment. Results were useful with some restrictions. 14C-thymidine and/or itsmetabolites were found in those tissues with high rate of mitosis. (Author)

  11. Whole body traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging at high field strength: homogeneity, efficiency, and energy deposition as compared with traditional excitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C

    2012-04-01

    In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish 137 Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. 137 Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. 137 Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average 137 Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22±4 μSv. For Utirik, the dose was 33± 3 μSv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2±2 μSv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 μSv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab

  13. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  14. Whole-body impedance control of wheeled humanoid robots

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introducing mobile humanoid robots into human environments requires the systems to physically interact and execute multiple concurrent tasks. The monograph at hand presents a whole-body torque controller for dexterous and safe robotic manipulation. This control approach enables a mobile humanoid robot to simultaneously meet several control objectives with different pre-defined levels of priority, while providing the skills for compliant physical contacts with humans and the environment. After a general introduction into the topic of whole-body control, several essential reactive tasks are developed to extend the repertoire of robotic control objectives. Additionally, the classical Cartesian impedance is extended to the case of mobile robots. All of these tasks are then combined and integrated into an overall, priority-based control law. Besides the experimental validation of the approach, the formal proof of asymptotic stability for this hierarchical controller is presented. By interconnecting the whole-body ...

  15. The whole-body counter of the radiation centre Giessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    The layout of the whole-body counter at the institute for biophysics of the Giessen radiation centre is decribed. With suitable collimators, the whole-body counter may be used to determine the radioactivity in human and animal organs. The shielding and the measuring and waiting rooms for the patients are described with regard to their technical details. The whole-body counting system enables the radioactivity and the retention of various radioisotopes (e.g. 58 Co-vitamin B 12 , 40 K, 54 Mn, 137 Co, 131 J, 22 Na) to be measured. The estimation of the radiation exposure due to different types of examinations in nuclear medicine, in terms of the critical organs for each type of examination, is very accurate with this counting device. (GSE) [de

  16. Whole body MRI in children; Ganzkoerper-MRT bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Juergen F.; Tsiflikas, Ilias [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Bereich Kinderradiologie

    2014-09-15

    In pediatric patients whole body MRI has a relevant impact on both, diagnostic work-up and treatment. Using adapted sequence protocols comprehensive imaging without radiation exposure is possible avoiding additional examinations in many cases. Especially in bone marrow the differentiation between normal and abnormal finding can be difficult, therefore the knowledge of normal maturing of organs is important. Whole body diffusion weighted imaging particularly in neuroblastomas or sarcomas improves the low specificity of conventional MR-protocols. Technical prerequisites, examination protocol and strategies, image interpretation, indications and clinical relevance as well as advantages and disadvantages of whole body MRI will be discussed on the basis of application-oriented cases and the literature.

  17. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition

  18. Automatic aortic root segmentation in CTA whole-body dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinpei; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an evolving technique for patients with serious aortic stenosis disease. Typically, in this application a CTA data set is obtained of the patient's arterial system from the subclavian artery to the femoral arteries, to evaluate the quality of the vascular access route and analyze the aortic root to determine if and which prosthesis should be used. In this paper, we concentrate on the automated segmentation of the aortic root. The purpose of this study was to automatically segment the aortic root in computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets to support TAVR procedures. The method in this study includes 4 major steps. First, the patient's cardiac CTA image was resampled to reduce the computation time. Next, the cardiac CTA image was segmented using an atlas-based approach. The most similar atlas was selected from a total of 8 atlases based on its image similarity to the input CTA image. Third, the aortic root segmentation from the previous step was transferred to the patient's whole-body CTA image by affine registration and refined in the fourth step using a deformable subdivision surface model fitting procedure based on image intensity. The pipeline was applied to 20 patients. The ground truth was created by an analyst who semi-automatically corrected the contours of the automatic method, where necessary. The average Dice similarity index between the segmentations of the automatic method and the ground truth was found to be 0.965±0.024. In conclusion, the current results are very promising.

  19. Intercalibration of CDTN and IRD whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Alonso, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Intercalibration exercises are designed to harmonize analytical techniques and ensure reliability of measurement results performed in a laboratory network. Such strategy helps to improve laboratory performance among participants in future intercomparison exercises, when it is verified the metrological capacity, by determining accuracy, precision and reproducibility of data produced by each laboratory. In Brazil, there are currently four in vivo monitoring systems, located in IRD, in Rio de Janeiro, CDTN, in Belo Horizonte, IPEN, in Sao Paulo and CNAAA, in Angra dos Reis. Such systems, generically referred as whole body counters, aim to detect and quantify radionuclides in organs and tissues for radiological protection purposes and to provide useful information for studies on biokinetic behavior of radionuclides in humans and animals. The objective of this work is to establish a methodology to be applied for intercalibration of whole body counters. The IRD whole body counter is installed in a 15 cm steel shielded room where two NaI(Tl) and four HPGe detectors are calibrated for the determination of radionuclides in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The CDTN whole body counter has one NaI detector set up in a shadow shield configuration, and is able to determine radionuclides emitting photons from 100 to 2000 keV. The intercalibration exercise described in this work was planed for whole body geometry using the scintillation detectors available in both laboratories. It was used a thin glass vial containing 2,6615 g of a solution of four gamma emitters ( 57 Co, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn), supplied by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The glass vial was measured in the same geometry in both IRD and CDTN whole body counters, being positioned at 31,5 cm distance from the NaI(Tl) detector of each laboratory. The calibration curves (photo peak channel and Efficiency vs Energy) of each detection system were compared. The

  20. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica......In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured...

  1. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  2. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Simon; Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris

    2018-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether adalimumab (ADA) reduces whole-body (WB-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices for inflammation in the entheses, peripheral joints, sacroiliac joints, spine, and the entire body in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods. An investigator-initia...

  4. Whole-body MR imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F.; Baur-Melnyk, A.

    2005-01-01

    In clinical routine, multimodality algorithms, including X-ray, computed tomography, scintigraphy and MRI, are used in case of suspected bone marrow malignancy. Skeletal scintigraphy is widely used to asses metastatic disease to the bone, CT is the technique of choice to assess criteria of osseous destruction and bone stability. MRI is the only imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow and its components with high spatial resolution. The combination of unenhanced T1-weighted-spin echo- and turbo-STIR-sequences have shown to be most useful for the detection of bone marrow abnormalities and are able to discriminate benign from malignant bone marrow changes. Originally, whole-body MRI bone marrow screening was performed in sequential scanning techniques of five body levels with time consuming coil rearrangement and repositioning of the patient. The introduction of a rolling platform mounted on top of a conventional MRI examination table facilitated whole-body MR imaging and, with the use of fast gradient echo, T1-weighted and STIR-imaging techniques, for the first time allowed whole-body imaging within less than one hour. With the development of parallel imaging techniques (PAT) in combination with global matrix coil concepts, acquisition time could be reduced substantially without compromises in spatial resolution, enabling the implementation of more complex and flexible examination protocols. Whole-body MRI represents a new alternative to the stepwise multimodality concept for the detection of metastatic disease, multiple myeloma and lymphoma of the bone with high diagnostic accuracy

  5. The A.R.L. whole body monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes a Whole Body Monitor based on four uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors in a static geometry in use at the Australian Radiation Laboratory. A detailed discussion is presented on the methodology used to estimate the detector efficiency for any arbitrary source whose shape can be described analytically. This procedure is valid for photon emitters in the range 120 keV to 2.6 MeV. By the use of simple geometric models, this approach is applied to the whole body as well as for certain internal organs. For lower photon energies, a discussion of methods using NaI(Tl) detectors to detect in-vivo sources by analysis of pulse-height spectra, is presented. In addition, the application of the Whole Body Monitor in the study of human calcium metabolism, using the tracer 47 Ca is described. Results of measurments on the natural activity of possible candidates for components of the concrete base of the Whole Body Monitor are presented. 74 refs., 22 tabs., 40 figs

  6. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration

  7. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  8. Interventions for chronic low back pain: whole body vibration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study explored, described and compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional spinal stabilisation exercises in persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used to delineate the base of volunteers gathered by a combination ...

  9. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  10. Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

  11. Improved measurement system for the whole body monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    A static four-detector system has been established as a whole body radioactivity measurement system. A technique is being developed to position the detectors in such a manner as to minimise longitudinal distribution effects within a subject. This technique, which represents the human body as a simple geometric model, requires the determination of efficiency at any point within this model

  12. Whole body vibration improves attention and motor performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation via mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. It is assumed that WBV induces sensory stimulation in cortical brain regions through the activation of skin and muscle receptors responding to the vibration. The effects of WBV on muscle strength are ...

  13. Visuospatial memory computations during whole-body rotations in roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, S. van; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van; Medendorp, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We used a memory-saccade task to test whether the location of a target, briefly presented before a whole-body rotation in roll, is stored in egocentric or in allocentric coordinates. To make this distinction, we exploited the fact that subjects, when tilted sideways in darkness, make systematic

  14. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  15. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma through whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenario, H.S.; Pascacio, F.M.; Cruz, Benjamin de la; Anden, A.B.

    Whole body counters are not only used in measuring radioactivity in the body for radiation protection purposes but also in the measurement of iron absorption, body potassium and cesium, chronic blood loss, and also in the determination of the effectiveness of surgery, thyroid hormone and radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid carcinoma. This report deals with our experience in the use of a shadow-shield whole body counter in the determination of I-131 uptake by metastatic lesions of cancer of thyroid after total thyroidectomy and ablation therapy with I-131. This study was undertaken jointly by the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans Memorial Hospital and the Biomedical Research Division of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Preliminary results indicate that the 22 patients who underwent whole body counting after total thyroidectomy I-131 ablation therapy, 9 patients had elevated percentage retention of I-131, 10 patients with normal values and 3 patients with rising values. Foci of I-131 concentration in those with elevated and rising percentage concentration values were seen in the thyroidal bed scintiscans, while the 10 patients with normal values had negative scintiscans. The results of our observations confirm the results obtained by other workers abroad. Our preliminary results indicate that with the use of whole body counters a sensitive method of assessing whether functioning metastatic lesion of cancer of the thyroid still exist after total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy can be provided. (author)

  16. Corrections of the whole body counting for various measurement geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Ragan, P.; Lahham, A.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method was suggested for making corrections during the calibration of HPGe detectors employed for the whole-body counting of humans ranging from infants to adults. The results obtained by calculations were verified by using phantoms. (P.A.). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  17. Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict and monitor the number of beds occupied during a SARS outbreak in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Arul; Chen, Mark I; Ng, Donald; Sin, Leo Yee

    2005-05-11

    The main objective of this study is to apply autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to make real-time predictions on the number of beds occupied in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, during the recent SARS outbreak. This is a retrospective study design. Hospital admission and occupancy data for isolation beds was collected from Tan Tock Seng hospital for the period 14th March 2003 to 31st May 2003. The main outcome measure was daily number of isolation beds occupied by SARS patients. Among the covariates considered were daily number of people screened, daily number of people admitted (including observation, suspect and probable cases) and days from the most recent significant event discovery. We utilized the following strategy for the analysis. Firstly, we split the outbreak data into two. Data from 14th March to 21st April 2003 was used for model development. We used structural ARIMA models in an attempt to model the number of beds occupied. Estimation is via the maximum likelihood method using the Kalman filter. For the ARIMA model parameters, we considered the simplest parsimonious lowest order model. We found that the ARIMA (1,0,3) model was able to describe and predict the number of beds occupied during the SARS outbreak well. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for the training set and validation set were 5.7% and 8.6% respectively, which we found was reasonable for use in the hospital setting. Furthermore, the model also provided three-day forecasts of the number of beds required. Total number of admissions and probable cases admitted on the previous day were also found to be independent prognostic factors of bed occupancy. ARIMA models provide useful tools for administrators and clinicians in planning for real-time bed capacity during an outbreak of an infectious disease such as SARS. The model could well be used in planning for bed-capacity during outbreaks of other infectious diseases as well.

  18. SAR in the mother and foetus for RF plane wave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimbylow, Peter [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-07

    This paper describes the finite-difference time-domain calculation of SAR from 20 MHz to 3 GHz in hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-week gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the reference adult female model, NAOMI at a resolution of 2 mm. Whole-body averaged SAR in the mother is presented as well as the average over the foetus, over the foetal brain and in 10 g of the foetus. The electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure restriction of 2 W kg{sup -1} when averaged over 10 g of the foetus were calculated. Comparison suggests that the ICNIRP public reference level is a conservative predictor of local SAR in the foetus.

  19. SAR in the mother and foetus for RF plane wave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the finite-difference time-domain calculation of SAR from 20 MHz to 3 GHz in hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-week gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the reference adult female model, NAOMI at a resolution of 2 mm. Whole-body averaged SAR in the mother is presented as well as the average over the foetus, over the foetal brain and in 10 g of the foetus. The electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure restriction of 2 W kg -1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus were calculated. Comparison suggests that the ICNIRP public reference level is a conservative predictor of local SAR in the foetus

  20. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Chruściak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA, according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods : The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60% and 20 men (40%. Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents, 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%, and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%. The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results: According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%, an improvement in 9 patients (18%, and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%. Conclusions : Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.

  1. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C; Christ, A; Kuster, N

    2010-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb ) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR 10g ). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR wb ) and 58% (SAR 10g ) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR wb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR 10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  2. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.n [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR{sub wb}) and 58% (SAR{sub 10g}) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR{sub wb} is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR{sub 10g} values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  3. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evidence of impaired learning during whole-body vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effects of whole-body vibration on learning and memory was conducted, in which a context-dependent experimental design was used. Forty subjects completed a simple associative learning task, half during exposure to 16 Hz whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration at 2.0 m s -2 r.m.s. and half while static. The results show that the rates of learning of the two groups differed, with that of the vibrated subjects significantly impaired. A second session, one week later, indicated that information learnt in one vibration environment could be recalled equally well in a different environment, suggesting no context-dependent effects on memory processes.

  5. Local SAR in High Pass Birdcage and TEM Body Coils for Multiple Human Body Models in Clinical Landmark Positions at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Desmond TB; Wang, Zhangwei; Loew, Wolfgang; Vogel, Mika W; Hancu, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use EM simulations to study the effects of body type, landmark position, and RF body coil type on peak local SAR in 3T MRI. Materials and Methods Numerically computed peak local SAR for four human body models (HBMs) in three landmark positions (head, heart, pelvic) were compared for a high-pass birdcage and a transverse electromagnetic 3T body coil. Local SAR values were normalized to the IEC whole-body average SAR limit of 2.0 W/kg for normal scan mode. Results Local SAR distributions were highly variable. Consistent with previous reports, the peak local SAR values generally occurred in the neck-shoulder area, near rungs, or between tissues of greatly differing electrical properties. The HBM type significantly influenced the peak local SAR, with stockier HBMs, extending extremities towards rungs, displaying the highest SAR. There was also a trend for higher peak SAR in the head-centric and heart-centric positions. The impact of the coil-types studied was not statistically significant. Conclusion The large variability in peak local SAR indicates the need to include more than one HBM or landmark position when evaluating safety of body coils. It is recommended that a HBM with arms near the rungs be included, to create physically realizable high-SAR scenarios. PMID:21509880

  6. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  7. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...

  8. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Measurement of Organ Uptake by Whole-Body Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for the measurement of radioactivity in body organs based on whole-body radioactivity measurements. Such measurements can of course only be used to measure radioactivity in a body organ when the radioactivity is exclusively localized in the organ or when the ratio of radioactivity in the organ to that in the whole body is known from other sources of information. They find particular applications, however, when the organ is so widely dispersed throughout the body that more localized measurement is impossible. Examples of situations in which whole-body radioactivity measurements have been used in this way are cited. The more important techniques used for such measurements are described and their respective advantages and disadvantages indicated. The importance of uniformity of counting efficiency with position of source throughout the body is stressed. Simple systems incorporating sodium iodide crystal scintillation detectors are shown to combine satisfactory sensitivity and uniformity of efficiency for clinical measurements of radioactivity in body organs and have the additional advantage that they can be readily adapted for profile scanning. Systems incorporating plastic or liquid scintillation detectors are less convenient in this respect. (author)

  10. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  11. Mosquito bite anaphylaxis: immunotherapy with whole body extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, D R; Salata, K F; Hershey, J N; Carpenter, G B; Engler, R J

    1995-01-01

    Adverse reactions to mosquito bites have been recognized for some time. These usually consist of large local swellings and redness, generalized urticaria, angioedema and less easily definable responses such as nausea, dizziness, headaches, and lethargy. We report two patients who experienced systemic anaphylaxis from mosquito bites. Both were skin tested and given immunotherapy using whole body mosquito extracts. Skin testing using whole body mosquito extracts was positive to Aedes aegypti at 1/1,000 weight/volume (wt/vol) in one patient and to Aedes aegypti at 1/100,000 wt/vol, and Culex pipiens at 1/10,000 wt/vol in the other. Skin testing of ten volunteers without a history of adverse reactions to mosquito bites was negative. Immunotherapy using these extracts resulted in resolution of adverse reactions to mosquito bites in one patient and a decrease in reactions in the other. Immunotherapy with whole body mosquito extracts is a viable treatment option that can play a role in patients with mosquito bite-induced anaphylaxis. It may also result in severe side effects and one must determine the benefit versus risks for each individual patient.

  12. Whole body organization during a symmetric bimanual pick up task in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Mangiafreno, Melissa; Gill, Simone V

    2017-02-01

    Information on the effects of obesity on the biomechanics of whole body movement control in children is limited. The purpose of the current study is to test the hypothesis that during a simple pick up task, overweight and obese children will organize their whole body movements differently than those in normal weight children. Twelve children who were overweight or obese (5-13 years old) and twelve age matched normal weight children participated in the study. Children picked up an empty box to waist height at a self-selected pace while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed using a VICON system and two AMTI force plates. The overweight and obese group showed less knee flexion in both legs, more spine flexion, and less excursion in the height of their center of mass (all Psoverweight and obese group had more anterior movement in their center of mass (Poverweight and obese group had greater anterior excursion with faster average anterior moving speed and spent a longer time with the center of pressure reached forward (all Psoverweight and obese children organize their whole body movement during a simple pick up task differently with higher and more forward center of mass, quickly shifting their center of pressure anteriorly, and with a longer period of time with the center of pressure remaining forward. Their movement strategy may put them in a less stable condition and thus make them prone to losing balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  14. Estimation of the protein synthesis rates of the whole body of growing broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, R.; Pahle, T.; Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.; Jeroch, H.; Gebhardt, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations was to prove a method, developed for monogastric mammalians, based on a 3-compartment model and assuming a proportional growth of the pools of total N, whether it is applicable to growing poultry. The tracer, 15 N-L-lysine, was given quasi-continuously for four days. In this time and in the following period of five days without tracer intake, the 15 N excretion in the urine was measured. The average of the live weight of the broiler cockerels was 1724 g. The animals were colostomized for sampling the urine separately. Using the fluxes of lysine, the calculation of the whole-body protein synthesis rate was 64.1 g/d. The protein degradation rate was 54.4 g/d. The adequate values of the fractional rates of protein synthesis and degradation for the whole body (without feathers) were 23.3% and 19.8%, resp. Thus it is clearly shown, that the method applied gives real data of the parameters of the N metabolism for growing broilers, being in the range of values for muscle proteins and proteins of the whole body of growing poultry, published by other authors. (author)

  15. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    in the Z-axis is equal to .45 m/s2 that was more than out of the axes X, Y. (rms acceleration values in the range of potential risks to health. The average Aeq acceleration in the Pride was obtained. 62 m/s2, which was more than 2 cars, although statistically significant difference was not found between the types of vehicles. But average Aeq acceleration of the vehicle was located in the zone caution health. Average vibration dose for all vehicles were less than limits recommended in the ISO 2631 standard. The results showed that increasing the mileage and life of the car and also traffic during driving can increase exposure to vibration in the taxi drivers. Conclusion: The results suggest that taxi drivers are exposed to significant amounts of whole body vibration. Therefore, we must take measures to reduce the adverse effects of vibration on these people.

  16. Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to predict and monitor the number of beds occupied during a SARS outbreak in a tertiary hospital in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Arul

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to apply autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to make real-time predictions on the number of beds occupied in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, during the recent SARS outbreak. Methods This is a retrospective study design. Hospital admission and occupancy data for isolation beds was collected from Tan Tock Seng hospital for the period 14th March 2003 to 31st May 2003. The main outcome measure was daily number of isolation beds occupied by SARS patients. Among the covariates considered were daily number of people screened, daily number of people admitted (including observation, suspect and probable cases and days from the most recent significant event discovery. We utilized the following strategy for the analysis. Firstly, we split the outbreak data into two. Data from 14th March to 21st April 2003 was used for model development. We used structural ARIMA models in an attempt to model the number of beds occupied. Estimation is via the maximum likelihood method using the Kalman filter. For the ARIMA model parameters, we considered the simplest parsimonious lowest order model. Results We found that the ARIMA (1,0,3 model was able to describe and predict the number of beds occupied during the SARS outbreak well. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE for the training set and validation set were 5.7% and 8.6% respectively, which we found was reasonable for use in the hospital setting. Furthermore, the model also provided three-day forecasts of the number of beds required. Total number of admissions and probable cases admitted on the previous day were also found to be independent prognostic factors of bed occupancy. Conclusion ARIMA models provide useful tools for administrators and clinicians in planning for real-time bed capacity during an outbreak of an infectious disease such as SARS. The model could well be used in planning for bed-capacity during outbreaks of other infectious

  17. Dynamics of human whole body amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of regulation of the nitrogen metabolism in humans under various nutritional and physiological states was examined using stable isotopes. In the simultaneous continuous infusion of 1- [ 13 ] - leucine and α- [ 15 N]- lysine, their fluxed decreased when individuals received lower protein intake. The rates of oxidation and incorporation into body proteins of leucine changed in parallel with the protein intake. Such effects of diet on whole body leucine kinetics were modified by the energy state and dietary energy level. The nitrogen balance was also improved by an excess level of dietary energy. When the intake of dietary protein was lowered below the maintenance level, the whole body flux and de novo synthesis of glycine were lowered, but alanine synthesis was clearly increased. The intravenous infusion of glucose at 4 mg/kg.min, which causes increase in excess blood sugar and plasma insulin, increased the alanine flux, but had no effect on the glycine flux. The rate of albumin synthesis, determined by giving 15 N-glycine orally every 3 hr, decreased with the lowered intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. This explains why the serum albumin synthesis increases with the increase in the intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. The rate of whole body protein synthesis in young men receiving the L-amino acid diets providing with the required intake of specific amino acid was much lower than that in the men receiving the diets providing with generous intake of specific amino acid. Thus the control mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of body nitrogen and amino acids is related in some unknown way to the nutritional requirement of the hosts. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of whole body irradiation on different tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, V.; Nardino, A.; Tomassi, I.; Becciolini, A.; Rizzi, M.; Martelli, T.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of 14 C leucine were analysed in controls and in rats irradiated 2 h before injection with 8 Gy whole-body irradiation. Plasma, small intestine, kidney and skin were assayed after homogenization for TCA soluble and insoluble activity curves. In highly differentiated tissues with poor proliferative activity and low protein turnover, the uptake and elimination of the tracer did not appear to be affected by irradiation. In the small intestine differences between control and irradiated animals seemed significant. (Auth.)

  20. SCT-4800T whole body X-ray CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yukio; Kuwahara, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A whole body X-ray CT scanner, the SCT-4800T (trade name: INTELLECT series), has been developed. This system is the first CT scanner that is combined with general radiographic functions. The general radiographic functions include a patient couch with film casette and several tube support systems along with the CT scanner. This newly designed CT scanner also features a compact and light-weight gantry with a 700 mm diameter apperture and user-friendly operater's console. The SCT-4800T brings a new level of patient and operator comfort to the emergency radiology examination site. (author)

  1. Start up of the whole body detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Angeles C, A.; Cuapio O, A.; Tejera R, A.

    1991-12-01

    The management of Radiological Safety of the Nuclear Center of Mexico has a whole body detection system Trade mark Canberra, manufactured by Bio-nuclear Measurements Inc. Ipswich Massachusetts. These systems are used to detect contamination of I-131 in thyroid and other nuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, etc.) in thorax. In this work the procedure that was continued for the setting in march of the thyroid detector is presented. A description of this system and an analysis of the uncertainties involved in the measures of activity of I-131 in thyroid of people occupationally exposed is made. (Author)

  2. Early diagnosis and monitoring of whole-body accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Jullien, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the handling of accidental, acute or protracted, whole-body overexposures. It is complementary to the report DPS 86/07 SEAPS previously published. The criteria for initial classification, as a function of the mean absorbed dose, the clinical and paraclinical evaluation, the monitoring methods and the treatments to undertake are described successively. The basic components of the therapy are the intensive care of the hematological syndrome with blood products transfusions and anti-infection prophylaxy. The indications and conditions for bone-marrow grafts are also discussed [fr

  3. The A.E.E. Winfrith Whole Body Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peabody, C.O.; Fraser, V.M.; Speight, R.G.

    1962-10-01

    The function, design and construction of the A.E.E. Winfrith Whole Body Monitor are described. The main purpose of the monitor is to measure gamma emitting radioisotopes in the human body. Its performance, capabilities and limitations are discussed and a summary is given of experience gained and results obtained during the first few months of operation. The future programme of measurements and development is outlined. Some basic design criteria are put forward as a result of the experience and results obtained. (author)

  4. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a relatively new technique that can enable assessment of the overall inflammatory status of people with arthritis, but standards for image acquisition, definitions of key pathologies, and a quantification system are required. Our aim...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...

  5. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  6. Safety aspects of whole-body cryochamber and cryosauna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Piotrowska

    2017-12-01

    Interest in low temperature treatment is constantly increasing. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) devices are becoming available not only in medical centers but also in local gyms and spa centers. A new group of users are professional sport clubs where 3-minutes session of whole-body cryotherapy is post-training procedure to improve and speed up the recovery process. There are four different types of WBC devices available on the market and offered to commercial (non-medical) users. The American and European market is dominated by two of them: classic cryochambers and cryosaunas. Both constructions are supplied with liquid nitrogen. Low temperature inside classic cryochamber is produced by evaporating of liquid nitrogen in two or more heat exchangers. There is never a direct contact between user and cryogenic medium in any of system operation mode (closed supply system). Cryosauna is cooled down by filling with cold vapor of liquid nitrogen. Supply system is considered open because it allows for direct contact between user and cryogenic medium. Open supply system of cryosauna is primary and most questionable issue of its operational safety, particularly after tragic accident in October 2015. This paper presents the comparative analysis of classic cryochamber and cryosauna from safety point of view. Both devices have been analyzes and tested on existing systems in operation. Paper gives detailed analysis of constructions, supply systems and working parameters. Special attention has been focused to problem of oxygen deficiency hazard. Different failure or accident scenarios have been analyzed and discussed.

  7. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  8. The Health Effects and Keep Down of Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration was defined that oscillation of the body according to the reference point. The tools that are used in industry and are the source of vibration cause diseases. For this reason, the vibration has been one of the factors that affect the health and of the most widely researched in the field of ergonomics. The perceived intensity and health effects of vibration depend on the vibration frequency, intensity, direction, acceleration, duration of exposure, vibration affects the region, age, gender, posture, distance from the source person, activity, time of day and the person\\s overall health condition. The one of the most common health effects of whole body vibration is impact on musculoskeletal system. In many studies, indicated that whole-body vibration effect waist, back, shoulder and neck especially. There were varied studies that hormone levels were not changed as well there were varied studies that hormone levels were increased or decreased. There were varied studies about the digestive and circulatory system. In these studies, digestive system complaints, peptic ulcer, gastritis, varicose veins and hemorrhoids were determined frequently. For protection the health effect of vibration, Directives of the European Commission, Turkish Standards, Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise and Vibration Regulations were published. For the control of vibration are need technical and medical measures and education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 177-186

  9. Nasal reaction to changes in whole body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, G R; Pedersen, O F; Hilberg, O; Nielsen, B

    1993-11-01

    The changes in nasal patency following a 1.5 degrees C decrease or increase in whole body temperature were measured in 8 healthy young males, during and after 30 min of immersion in a 15 degrees C cold or a 40 degrees C warm bath, breathing air at the same temperature, in a cross-over experimental design. The nasal reactions were traced by consecutive measurements of changes in nasal cavity volumes by acoustic rhinometry. Swelling of the mucosa during cooling and an almost maximal shrinkage of the mucosa during heating were indicated by respectively a decrease and an increase in nasal cavity volumes. The reactions were determined predominantly by the whole body thermal balance, but were also influenced by the temperature of the inhaled air, either enhanced, reduced or temporarily reversed. The greatest change occurred in the nasal cavity, left or right, which differed most from the final state at the beginning of exposure due to the actual state of nasal cycle.

  10. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  11. Multi-controller based 29 channel whole body portal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Portal Monitors are an essential part of personnel monitoring programme in any Nuclear Power Plant or Radiochemical/Reprocessing Plant. Compared to conventional Portal Monitors, whole-body Portals are preferred, for effective monitoring of entire body of the person being monitored for radioactive contamination. This is achieved by effectively distributing a large number of detectors on front/back of the person being monitored. The entry and exit for such Portals is usually side ways. The electronic system, designed essentially consists of powerful compact electronic circuits, comprising of three micro-controllers, a host of (32) 12C serial counters, other serial ADCs, DACs etc., apart from pulse processing, HV and LV circuits. Built-in embedded code has powerful fault diagnostics routines to show up failures in detector / detector electronics, HV, LV and other circuits apart from indicating contamination status, through visual and aural indications such as MIMIC, visual LCD display and individual channel counts etc. The Portal structural design consists of four individual SS members integrated, lead shielding assemblies (inside), on hinged support frames facilitate ease of assembling and dismantling of the structure. The detector arrangement is so arranged to have optimal uniform spread out, so as to record contamination of the whole body of the person being monitored. (author)

  12. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  13. Integrating Cellular Metabolism into a Multiscale Whole-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Markus; Schaller, Stephan; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf; Lippert, Jörg; Kuepfer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development. PMID:23133351

  14. Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or Shouldn't I Get One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging Whole-Body CT Screening--Should I or shouldn't I ... What are the risks and benefits of whole-body CT screening? Many people believe incorrectly that a ...

  15. Effects of a whole body vibration training program on strength, power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a whole body vibration training program on knee extensor isokinetic peak torque, average power, and functional tests in the physically active elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who participated in a training program for the elderly, were recruited. The subjects were divided into two groups: whole body vibration group (WBV (n=24, 70.7±5.8 years, 62.7±12.3 kg and 155.9±8.0 cm and control group (n=23. 70.0±5.7 years, 65.3±10.7 kg and 157.9±6.6 cm. The WBS group underwent whole body vibration exercise and their regular training program for 13 weeks, 2 times per week, whereas the control group performed the regular training program only. Whole body vibration training was not effective in increasing isokinetic peak torque, average power, or performance in the functional tests. On the other hand, the regular training program was effective in increasing elbow flexor strength endurance, distance covered in the 6-min walk test, and speed in the timed up and go test. The results suggest that vibration training is not effective in modifying functionality or muscle strength and power in the physically active elderly.

  16. Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Olivia [Department of Radiology, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)]. E-mail: olivia.louis@az.vub.ac.be; Verlinde, Siska [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); Thomas, Muriel [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); De Schepper, Jean [Department of Pediatrics, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n = 18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p < 0.001), lean (p < 0.005) and total mass (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned.

  17. [Psychological effects of long-term occupational whole body vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Wall, H

    1989-04-01

    Long-term effects of occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) on psychic performance and on well-being have hardly been described in the literature to date. However, they cannot be excluded, since numerous findings exist on impairments of performance and of well-being in experimentally conditioned short-term effects. Within the framework of comprehensive clearing-up diagnostics in occupational health, 20 male subjects with many years of occupational exposure to WBV were investigated according to a standardized psychodiagnostic programme of methods. The highest rate of pathological findings resulted in the areas of visual perception speed and subtle motory speed of movements. Furthermore, the results are evidence for an interrelation between the duration of exposure and disturbances in the areas of attention, as well as of sensomotory selection responses. As a whole, the results essentially affect the same psychological variables as the results of the short-term studies, but are to be evaluated with reservations on methodological grounds.

  18. Interpolation method by whole body computed tomography, Artronix 1120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kyoichi; Koga, Issei; Tokunaga, Mitsuo

    1981-01-01

    Reconstruction of the whole body CT images by interpolation method was investigated by rapid scanning. Artronix 1120 with fixed collimator was used to obtain the CT images every 5 mm. X-ray source was circully movable to obtain perpendicular beam to the detector. A length of 150 mm was scanned in about 15 min., with the slice width of 5 mm. The images were reproduced every 7.5 mm, which was able to reduce every 1.5 mm when necessary. Out of 420 inspection in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, 5 representative cases for which this method was valuable were described. The cases were fibrous histiocytoma of upper mediastinum, left adrenal adenoma, left ureter fibroma, recurrence of colon cancer in the pelvis, and abscess around the rectum. This method improved the image quality of lesions in the vicinity of the ureters, main artery, and rectum. The time required and exposure dose were reduced to 50% by this method. (Nakanishi, T.)

  19. Treatment of whole-body radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Rappeport, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how whole-body radiation exposure incidents present a number of unique challenges. The acute, nonstochastic effects of high doses of radiation over 25 rads (0.25 Gy) delivered to humans is generally manifest in rather categorical fashion; depending on the dose, either the patient is largely unharmed functionally or he is seriously injured. Radiation initiates microchemical changes within a nanosecond time frame; there exists no specific therapy to stop or reverse the sequence of events that follow. Thus, the range for effective therapeutic intervention is rather small, between 150 to 1500 rad (1.5 to 15 Gy) for humans. Nevertheless, it is likely that a large uncomplicated exposure to as much as 750 rad (7.5 Gy) might be survivable without dramatic measures such as bone marrow transplantation. Review of the available information about past accidents shows that the majority of radiation accidents are mixed injuries

  20. Biophysical study of mice blood after whole body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad El Din, Alsha A.; Desouky, Omar S.; El Behay, Amin Z.; El Sayed, Anwar A.

    1996-05-01

    The immediate of whole body fractionated doses of 137Cs gamma rays totalling 13 Gy on mice as well as the late effects of accumulative dose of 10 Gy (8 days after exposure) were studied. Changes due to gamma irradiation in hemoglobin conductivity and buffer capacity indicate the appearance of hydrophobic groups and changes in hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio. These changes demonstrate different degrees of unfolding and refolding of the hemoglobin molecule. The viscosity coefficient of hemoglobin is found to increase at fractionated doses of 7 and 13 Gy. Such effect seems to be due to aggregation of the protein part of hemoglobin. The fractionated dose of 13 Gy causes changes in the electronic state of oxyhemoglobin indicated by an increase in methemoglobin which reduces biological activity.

  1. A new crystal whole-body scanner for positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.; Kubesch, R.; Lorenz, W.J.; Woerner, P.

    1980-01-01

    A multicrystal whole body scanner for positron emitters has been constructed. The annihilation quanta are measured in two opposing detector banks. Each detector bank consists of 64 NaI crystals of 1.5'' diameter x 3'' length. Directly opposing single detectors are in coincidence. The patient moves linearly between the stationary transverse detector banks. The scanning area of the system is 64 x 192 cm 2 . The spatial resolution is 2 cm at a sampling distance of 1 cm. The sensitivity is 6400 counts/s for a pure positron flood source with 1 μCi/cm 2 . The system is controlled by a microcomputer (DEC LSI-11). The scintigrams are shown on a display. Absolute activities can be calculated by mathematical comparison of consecutive emission and transmission scans. The design of the positron scanner and its capacibilities are described. Experimental and initial clinical results are presented. (author)

  2. Numerical analysis of whole-body cryotherapy chamber design improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerezhep, D.; Tukmakova, A. S.; Fomin, V. E.; Masalimov, A.; Asach, A. V.; Novotelnova, A. V.; Baranov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    Whole body cryotherapy is a state-of-the-art method that uses cold for treatment and prevention of diseases. The process implies the impact of cryogenic gas on a human body that implements in a special cryochamber. The temperature field in the chamber is of great importance since local integument over-cooling may occur. Numerical simulation of WBC has been carried out. Chamber design modification has been proposed in order to increase the uniformity of the internal temperature field. The results have been compared with the ones obtained for a standard chamber design. The value of temperature gradient formed in the chamber containing curved wall with certain height has been decreased almost twice in comparison with the results obtained for the standard design. The modification proposed may increase both safety and comfort of cryotherapy.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  4. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Abdolali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas.

  5. Investigation of a whole-body DOI-PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, Junichi; Tonami, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we were conducting basic research on a whole-body depth of gamma-ray interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography system which provides spatial resolution that is both high and uniform, and also minimizes costs. The detectors consist of double-layer 9x10 GSO/GSO phoswich crystal blocks, a light guide and two rectangular PMTs. Individual crystal sizes are 2.45x5.1x15 mm 3 , and each layer of crystal blocks has a different decay time. Many of the circuit boards used in our current conventional PET system (SET-3000G SHIMADZU Japan) have been optimized for DOI acquisition. The detectors are arranged to form a 332.5 mm radius detection ring, and spatial resolution is obtained from the center to the edge of the 250 mm radius field of view. The effect of DOI was confirmed using a comparison with the non-DOI systems

  6. Improved rectilinear scanning device for the whole body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A rectilinear scanning device for whole-body counting is described in which the spacial resolution is considerably improved upon by using photomultipliers with spherically curved photocathodes. By this measure, the distinct non-linearity between the output signals of the phototubes and the actual position of the scintillation in the scintillation crystal, as observed in plane photocathodes, is removed. The distances between the photomultipliers and the scintillation crystal can thus be kept very small whereby an improved statistic and lower noise can be obtained. Furthermore, thicker crystals can be used whereby the efficiency in the determination of higher energies is increased. The electronic signal processing to the reproduction of the nuclide distribution in the body is described in detail. (ORU/LH) [de

  7. Recent advances in the physiology of whole body immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, O H

    1975-01-01

    Recent investigations have furnished a complete analysis of the hemodynamic events accompanying whole-body immersion. About 700 ml of blood are translocated into the intrathoracic circulation, and heart volume increases by 180 +/- 62 ml. These changes are followed by an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output of over 30%. At the same time a reflex reduction of total peripheral resistance and venous tone occurs. Renin and aldosterone activity are reduced while the 17-hydroxycorticosteroid is not affected. Treatment of the subject with DOCA attenuates but does not extinguish the excess sodium excretion of immersion. This finding strengthens the arguments in favor of an unknown factor enhancing sodium excretion. Finally, the relative activation of the three factors that serve volume control, the excretory function of the kidney, capillary filtration pressure, and the thirst mechanism, is discussed.

  8. Particular aspects regarding the effects of whole body vibration exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picu Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of whole-body vibrations on human performance; for this it was investigated how a group of men (20-29 years of age and a group of woman (21–31 years of age answered to specific requirements after being subjected to vertical vibrations under controlled laboratory conditions for 10-25 min. The vibrations were generated by a vibrant system with known amplitudes and frequencies. Accelerations were measured with NetdB - complex system for measuring and analysing human vibration and they were found in the range 0.4 - 3.1m/s2. The subjects’ performances were determined for each vibration level using specific tests. It can be concluded that exposure to vibrations higher than those recommended by ISO 2631 significantly disrupts how subjects responded to tests requirements.

  9. Radiological Emergency Preparedness using Old ORTEC Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological emergency (RE) a large number of occupational and public may be exposed externally and to a number of radionuclides internally as a result of inhalation or injection. The radiological effect is directly proportional to the time of exposure and the activity of the contaminant materials. The main task of this paper is to show the emergency preparedness capability of using the old ORTEC whole body counter (WBC). In case of a nuclear accident ORTEC WBC is ready for use to estimate the radioactivity which inhaled or digested with food, as well as in case of medical exposure in general and nuclear medicine in particular. The present study showed that the duration time to make analysis for only one individual is about 25 min. Hence 57 individuals are monitored per day. Consequently, old ORTEC WBC is effective tool in field of research and limited use for radiological and nuclear emergencies

  10. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  11. Whole body MR in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarek, A.; Sosnowski, P.; Nowicki, A.; Komarnicki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells which leads to bone marrow infiltration. Aim: Whole-body MR is the most sensitive imaging method available to detect multiple myeloma lesions. Ma terial and methods: MR scans were performed in 100 patients with multiple myeloma who were receiving treatment in the Haematology Clinic in Poznan in the years 2005 - 2006. Whole-body MR scans were performed with general coil 1.0 T in STIR sequences and T1 sequences, in coronal and sagittal planes with scanning area covering the head, neck, trunk and the limbs (FOV for specific regions was 36 -48 cm). The bone lesions were classified as focal (monofocal/multifocal lesions), infiltrative, mixed and 'salt and pepper' type. Depending on the size of the lesions the patients were included in one of three groups according to Salmon-Durie Plus classification. Results: Four main types of multiple myeloma were distinguished based on MR scans: focal (48 patients; monofocal in 10 patients), infiltrative (17 patients), mixed type (19 patients) and 'salt and pepper' type (4 patients). The remaining 12 patients had no multiple myeloma lesions in the bone marrow. Additionally, in 18% of patients a soft tissue mass could be observed. According to Salmon-Durie Plus categorisation 27 subjects were classified as having stage I, 16 patients stage and 57 patients stage III disease. In 12% of patients MR data changed the disease staging. Conclusions: WB MR is a sensitive and effective diagnostic method with an important impact on staging and further treatment of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  12. Calibration of the whole body counter at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Sabine; Boschung, Markus; Fiechtner, Annette; Habegger, Ruedi; Meier, Kilian; Wernli, Christian

    2008-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), measurements with the whole body counter are routinely carried out for occupationally exposed persons and occasionally for individuals of the population suspected of radioactive intake. In total about 400 measurements are performed per year. The whole body counter is based on a p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector mounted above a canvas chair in a shielded small room. The detector is used to detect the presence of radionuclides that emit photons with energies between 50 keV and 2 MeV. The room itself is made of iron from old railway rails to reduce the natural background radiation to 24 n Sv/h. The present paper describes the calibration of the system with the IGOR phantom. Different body sizes are realized by different standardized configurations of polyethylene bricks, in which small tubes of calibration sources can be introduced. The efficiency of the detector was determined for four phantom geometries (P1, P2, P4 and P6 simulating human bodies in sitting position of 12 kg, 24 kg, 70 kg and 110 kg, respectively. The measurements were performed serially using five different radionuclide sources ( 40 K, 60 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 152 Eu) within the phantom bricks. Based on results of the experiment, an efficiency curve for each configuration and the detection limits for relevant radionuclides were determined. For routine measurements, the efficiency curve obtained with the phantom geometry P4 was chosen. The detection limits range from 40 Bq to 1000 Bq for selected radionuclides applying a measurement time of 7 min. The proper calibration of the system, on one hand, is essential for the routine measurements at PSI. On the other hand, it serves as a benchmark for the already initiated characterisation of the system with Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  13. Development of an Ergonomics Checklist for Investigation of Work-Related Whole-Body Disorders in Farming - AWBA: Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y K; Lee, S J; Lee, K S; Kim, G R; Kim, D M

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have been using various ergonomic tools to study occupational musculoskeletal diseases in industrial contexts. However, in agricultural work, where the work environment is poorer and the socio-psychological stress is high due to the high labor intensities of the industry, current research efforts have been scarce, and the number of available tools is small. In our preliminary studies, which focused on a limited number of body parts and other working elements, we developed separate evaluation tools for the upper and lower extremities. The current study was conducted to develop a whole-body ergonomic assessment tool for agricultural work that integrates the existing assessment tools for lower and upper extremities developed in the preliminary studies and to verify the relevance of the integrated assessment tool. To verify the relevance of the Agricultural Whole-Body Assessment (AWBA) tool, we selected 50 different postures that occur frequently in agricultural work. Our results showed that the AWBA-determined risk levels were similar to the subjective risk levels determined by experts. In addition, as the risk level increased, the average risk level increased to a similar extent. Moreover, the differences in risk levels between the AWBA and expert assessments were mostly smaller than the differences in risk levels between other assessment tools and the expert assessments in this study. In conclusion, the AWBA tool developed in this study was demonstrated to be appropriate for use as a tool for assessing various postures commonly assumed in agricultural work. Moreover, we believe that our verification of the assessment tools will contribute to the enhancement of the quality of activities designed to prevent and control work-related musculoskeletal diseases in other industries.

  14. 7 T body MRI: B1 shimming with simultaneous SAR reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergen, Bob van den; Berg, Cornelis A T van den; Bartels, Lambertus W; Lagendijk, Jan J W

    2007-01-01

    The high frequency of the radiofrequency (RF) fields used in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in electromagnetic field variations that can cause local regions to have a large specific absorption rate (SAR) and/or a low excitation. In this study, we evaluated the use of a B 1 shimming technique which can simultaneously improve the B + 1 homogeneity and reduce the SAR for whole body imaging at 7 T. Optimizations for four individual anatomies showed a reduction up to 74% of the peak SAR values with respect to a quadrature excitation and a simultaneous improvement of the B + 1 homogeneity varying between 39 and 75% for different optimization parameters. The average SAR was reduced with approximately 50% for all optimizations. The optimized phase and amplitude settings from an elliptical phantom model were applied to four realistic human anatomy models to evaluate whether a generic application without prior knowledge of the detailed human anatomy is possible. This resulted in an average improvement of the B + 1 homogeneity of 37% and an average reduction of the maximum and average SAR of 50 and 55%, respectively. It can be concluded that this generic method can be used as a simple method to improve the prospects of 7 T body imaging

  15. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  16. Experimental study of absorption of iron in foods using whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tadamitsu

    1978-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain which showed normal hematological picture were given 59 Fe-labeled foods orally, and the iron absorption rate was determined by an animal whole body counter. When 59 Fe was given in a mixture with each of gruel, spinach, cow's milk, the yolk, and the yolk with orange juice, the iron absorption rates in each food were 9.4%, 8.9%, 6.6%, 10.8% and 7.2% respectively. None of these foods seemed to inhibit the 59 Fe absorption. When 59 Fe was given in a mixture with chicken, the iron absorption rate was 35.8%. This result suggested that the chicken promoted the 59 Fe absorption. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given, the iron absorption rate was 4.9%. If the yolk labeled in vitro was used, the absorption rate was 10.8%. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given with orange juice, the iron absorption rate was 13.3%. If the yolk labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given, the absorption rate was 7.2%. Orange juice had no effect on the iron absorption when the yolk labeled in vitro was used. After chicken eggs labeled in vivo with 59 Fe was given to children, the iron absorption was determined by a whole body counter; the rate averaged 5.4 in the children without anemia and 24.7 in those with anemia. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Acute whole-body vibration increases reciprocal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Krause, Anne; Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2018-06-26

    Based on previous evidence that whole-body vibration (WBV) affects pathways involved in disynaptic reciprocal inhibition (DRI), the present hypothesis-driven experiment aimed to assess the acute effects of WBV on DRI and co-contraction. DRI from ankle dorsiflexors to plantar flexors was investigated during submaximal dorsiflexion before and after 1 min of WBV. With electromyography, musculus soleus (SOL) H-reflex depression following a conditioning stimulation of the peroneal nerve (1.1x motor threshold for the musculus tibialis anterior, TA) was assessed and co-contraction was calculated. After WBV, DRI was significantly increased (+4%, p < 0.05). SOL (-13%, p < 0.05) and TA (-6%, p < 0.05) activities were significantly reduced; co-contraction tended to be diminished (-8%, p = 0.05). Dorsiflexion torque remained unchanged. After WBV, DRI increased during submaximal isometric contraction in healthy subjects. The simultaneous SOL relaxation and TA contraction indicate that a more economic movement execution is of functional significance for WBV application in clinical and athletic treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transient global amnesia following a whole-body cryotherapy session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Justin; Lambert, Anne Chantal; Genné, Daniel

    2017-10-13

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), which consists of a short exposure to very cold and dry air in special 'cryo-chambers', is believed to reduce inflammation and musculoskeletal pain as well as improve athletes' recovery. This is the case of a 63-year-old male, who presented with transient global amnesia (TGA) after undertaking a WBC session. TGA is a clinical syndrome characterised by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia, sometimes coupled with a retrograde component, lasting up to 24 hours without other neurological deficits. Even though the patient completely recovered, as expected, in 24 hours, this case highlights that WBC is potentially not as risk free as thought to be initially. To conclude, before WBC can be medically recommended, well-conducted studies investigating the possible adverse events are required. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.

  20. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  1. Whole-body MRI in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, J.F.; Kramer, U.

    2011-01-01

    The imaging of systemic disorders without radiation exposure by whole-body MRI (wb-MRI) represents a paradigm shift for pediatric radiology. The reduction of multiple regional examinations, if necessary under sedation, results in a faster treatment start. Modern scanner techniques using automatic table movement and allowing the combination of multiple coil elements and synchronized signal recording with numerous independent receiving channels are the basic prerequisite for high-resolution wb-MRI. The main indications are the evaluation of multifocal bone involvement in different disorders, rheumatic disorders including fever of unknown origin or metastatic spread in solid tumors. Based on the research, there is currently no absolute indication. However, wb-MRI has been shown to yield a higher diagnostic performance than bone scintigraphy and comparable results to FDG-PET for the detection of bone metastases. Due to the low number of published studies, it is uncertain for which entity of solid tumors wb-MRI is the modality of choice and for which tumors wb-MRI will play only a complementary role in the diagnostic work-up. Methodical strategies, pitfalls in image analysis, indications and diagnostic accuracy will be discussed based on already published results as well as our own experience from over 400 examinations, thus providing an overview of the recent research as well as supplying relevant aspects of the daily routine in pediatric wb-MRI. (orig.)

  2. Distribution of transglutaminase family members in mouse whole body sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Hideki; Abe, Natsumi; Ohashi, Shintaro; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2015-11-27

    Transglutaminases (TGs) comprise a protein family in which the members catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins. Eight enzymes have been identified and designated as factor XIII (FXIII) and TG1-7. Expression studies of four major members, i.e., FXIII, TG1, TG2, and TG3, have been performed in a relatively large number of mammalian tissues in comparison with those on the other isozymes. The structural and biochemical characteristics of these individual isozymes and expression analyses of TG family in some tissue extracts have been reported, but there have been no simultaneous comparative analyses of both their mRNA and protein expression patterns in tissues distributions. Thus, we developed novel experimental systems for in situ hybridization using cryofilm attached to whole body sections of neonatal mice, thereby obtaining data regarding the tissue distributions of the major TG isozymes. In this study, we performed the first detailed comparative analysis of the mRNA and protein distribution studies of TG family members in a wide range of mouse tissues. These data will be helpful for elucidating the unknown physiological and pathological functions of TGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  4. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  5. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen or cold pack has an effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also acts antiinflammatorily, eases swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control groups. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocarias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zu Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken, Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung, wird unter Ryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus erbit sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  6. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie: Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift, Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen, or cold packs has an analgetic effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also inhibits inflammation, relieves swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control group. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocardias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zur Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken. Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung wird unter Kryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus ergibt sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  7. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  8. Whole body thermal model of man during hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charny, C.K.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A whole body thermal model of man has been developed to predict the changes in regional temperatures and blood flows during hyperthermia treatments with the miniannular phased array (MAPA) and annular phased array (APA) applicators. A model of the thermoregulatory response to regional heating based on the experimental and numerical studies of others has been incorporated into this study. Experimentally obtained energy deposition patterns within a human leg exposed to the MAPA were input into the model and the results were compared to those based upon a theoretical deposition pattern. Exposure of the abdomen to the APA was modeled with and without the aberrant energy deposition that has been described previously. Results of the model reveal that therapeutic heating (>42 0 C) of extremity soft tissue sarcomas is possible without significant systemic heating. Very high bone temperatures (>50 0 C) were obtained when the experimental absorption pattern was used. Calculations show that systemic heating due to APA exposure is reduced via evaporative spray cooling techniques coupled with high-velocity ambient air flow

  9. Intraocular lens dislocation after whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José I; Andreu, David; Díaz-Cascajosa, Jesús; Buil, José A

    2010-10-01

    We present 2 cases of intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation that appeared shortly after the patients exercised on a vibration platform. The first patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with lens subluxation in her right eye and a complete posterior IOL dislocation in her left eye. The second case was a 62-year-old woman who presented with unilateral IOL dislocation within the capsular bag in her right eye. Timing from IOL implantation to dislocation was approximately 6 years and 4 years, respectively. Pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the dislocated IOL was performed in both patients. Whole-body vibration training has become increasingly popular as a form of exercise training. It reportedly may provide benefits in physical function and in some diseases, especially in older people. However, evidence-based protocols ensuring safety and efficacy in this population are lacking. We discuss vibration as a cause of late IOL dislocation. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of syngeneic murine tumour transplantability by whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to test the general validity of the assumption that potentiation of tumour transplantability by sublethal whole body irradiation (WBI) implies some degree of immunological resistance in the intact host. A transplantable carcinoma of spontaneous origin in CBA mice which exhibits a large WBI effect was assayed quantitatively in mice which had been immunologically crippled in terms of allograft acceptance by depletion of thymus derived lymphocytes. The mean number of tumour cells required for 50% successful takes (TD 50 ) in these mice was found to be not significantly different from that in normal controls but highly significantly greater than in WBI mice. On the other hand, in mice which underwent laparotomy immediately before assay, the TD 50 was reduced significantly though not to the same extent as in WBI mice. It was concluded that WBI effect was not due to impaired host immunity but possibly to physiological changes resulting from acute stress. The hypothesis that hyperfibrinogenaemia which occurs after both WBI and laparotomy might increase tumour transplantability was rejected because of the lack of correlation between TD 50 and fibrinogen levels at different times after each procedure. From this and other work it is apparent that TD 50 data, in themselves, give no reliable indication of host immunity. (author)

  11. A whole-body mathematical model for intracranial pressure dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, William D; Stevens, Scott A; Tranmer, Bruce I; Penar, Paul L

    2003-04-01

    Most attempts to study intracranial pressure using lumped-parameter models have adopted the classical "Kellie-Monro Doctrine," which considers the intracranial space to be a closed system that is confined within the nearly-rigid skull, conserves mass, and has equal inflow and outflow. The present work revokes this Doctrine and develops a mathematical model for the dynamics of intracranial pressures, volumes, and flows that embeds the intracranial system in extensive whole-body physiology. The new model consistently introduces compartments representing the tissues and vasculature of the extradural portions of the body, including both the thoracic region and the lower extremities. In addition to vascular connections, a spinal-subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment bridges intracranial and extracranial physiology allowing explict buffering of intracranial pressure fluctuations by the spinal theca. The model contains cerebrovascular autoregulation, regulation of systemic vascular pressures by the sympathetic nervous system, regulation of CSF production in the choroid plexus, a lymphatic system, colloid osmotic pressure effects, and realistic descriptions of cardiac output. To validate the model in situations involving normal physiology, the model's response to a realistic pulsatile cardiac output is examined. A well-known experimentally-derived intracranial pressure-volume relationship is recovered by using the model to simulate CSF infusion tests, and the effect on cerebral blood flow of a change in body position is also examined. Cardiac arrest and hemorrhagic shock are simulated to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model in pathological conditions.

  12. Studies of 51Cr-albumin metabolism by the method of the whole body radiometry in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.I.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bolovin, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of investigation on metabolism of human serum 61 Cr-labelled albumin is reported. The method allows to determine albumin and plasma losses without of collecting excreta. The studies of external losses show that healthy individuals lose about 2% or 2.5 g albumin and 60-70 ml plasma a day on the average. Total plasma albumin, extravascular albumin and total metabolic albumin are calculated by means of whole-body radiometry

  13. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  14. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  15. Reconstruction of a whole-body counter into a process computer-controlled low-level whole-body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the state of the research project to reconstruct our whole-body counter with solid geometries into a scanning type one. The object is to develop a process computer controlled 'adaptive system'. The self-built scan mechanics are explained and the advantages and problems of applying stepping motors are gone into. A stepping motor coordinates control is presented. As the planned scanner and the process computer form a digital controlled system, all theoretical and actual values as well as the control orders from the process computer must be directly controllable. A CAMAC system was not used for economical reasons, the process periphery was made controllable by self building of interfaces to and from the computer. As example, the available multi-channel analyzers were converted to external controlling. The price-moderate and relatively simple self-built set-up are outlined and an example is given of how a TELETYPE version is reconstructed into a fast electronic interface. A BUS-MULTIPLEX system was developed which generates all necessary DI/DO interfaces out of one DI and DO address of the process computer only. The essential part of this system is given. (orig./LH) [de

  16. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  17. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  18. Cerebral autoregulation during whole-body hypothermia and hyperthermia stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, T J; Aaslid, R; Steuernagel, B; Brix, J; Niederstadt, C; Breull, A; Schneider, B; Fischer, G C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study contained herein was to investigate the effects of old traditional physiotherapeutic treatments on cerebral autoregulation. Treatment consisted of complete body immersion in cold or warm water baths. Fifteen volunteers were investigated by means of transcranial Doppler sonography and a servo-controlled noninvasive device for blood pressure measuring. One group of 8 volunteers (mean age, 27.2+/-3.5 yr; gender, 3 females/5 males) was subjected to cold baths of 22 degrees C for 20 min Another group of 7 volunteers (mean age, 52.1+/-8.5 yr; gender, 4 females/3 males) took hyperthermic baths at rising water temperatures from 36 degrees to 42 degrees C, increased by 1 degree C every 5 min. Each volunteer in both groups underwent autoregulation tests two to four times before, during, and after the thermic bath. Dynamic autoregulation was measured by the response of cerebral blood flow velocity to a transient decrease of the mean arterial blood pressure, induced by rapid deflation of thigh cuffs. The autoregulation index, i.e., a measure of the speed of change of cerebral autoregulation, was used to quantify the response. Further parameters were core temperature, blood pressure (mm Hg) and CO2et. During hypothermic baths, core temperature decreased by 0.3 degrees C (P = 0.001), measured between preliminary phase and the end of the bath; the autoregulation index decreased significantly (P whole-body thermostimulus. Application of hyperthermic baths increased the autoregulation index, and hypothermic baths decreased the autoregulation index. Further studies are needed to prove the positive effects of thermo-stimulating water applications on cerebral hemodynamics in patients with cerebral diseases.

  19. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  20. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  1. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Monitoring of the general population with an installed whole body counter at West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.; Francis, R.A.; Fenwick, J.D.; McKenzie, A.L.

    1989-03-01

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 395 volunteers in the Whitehaven area, using a whole-body monitor at West Cumberland Hospital. Between October 1986 and October 1987, estimates of total body radiocaesium in 240 volunteers ranged from below detection level to 1844 Bq with a mean of 415 Bq. From October 1987 until May 1988, a further 155 volunteers were monitored, and radiation levels ranged from 34 Bq to 685 Bq, with a mean of 257 Bq. In all volunteers, the ratio of body radiocaesium to body potassium, was well below unity. The average ratio of caesium-137 to caesium-134 from October 1987 to May 1988 was 3.28, corresponding to a ratio of 1.99 at the date of Chernobyl accident. This is consistent with a Chernobyl origin as the primary source for the radiocaesium. There were discernible, but not marked, trends of increasing body radiocaesium with milk and meat/fish consumption. (author)

  3. Iodine metabolism in leprosy patients (examination with a method of whole-body radiometry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balybin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of whole-body radiometry was used to study iodine metabolism in 47 patients with lepromatous leprosy. Disorders were found in 1/3 of the cases. The level of organic iodine in the body was the most informative of all iodine metabolism indices. In the active stage of leprosy it was twice as low, on an average, as the normal one, in the stage of incomplete and stable regression it rose not reaching, however, the values of healthy persons. The content of iodine in the thyroid of leprosy patients showed a tendency to a rise starting from the active stage, however it was only in the stages of incomplete and stable regression that it significantly exceeded the normal level. The data obtained should be considered during therapy of lepers to predict and control an unfavorable complication like specific polyneuritis

  4. Image fusion between whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images using a full-automatic mutual information-based multimodality image registration software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Yoshitada; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Isobe, Tomoko; Kazama, Toshiki; Ito, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    We attempted image fusion between whole body PET and whole body MRI of thirty patients using a full-automatic mutual information (MI) -based multimodality image registration software and evaluated accuracy of this method and impact of the coregistrated imaging on diagnostic accuracy. For 25 of 30 fused images in body area, translating gaps were within 6 mm in all axes and rotating gaps were within 2 degrees around all axes. In head and neck area, considerably much gaps caused by difference of head inclination at imaging occurred in 16 patients, however these gaps were able to decrease by fused separately. In 6 patients, diagnostic accuracy using PET/MRI fused images was superior compared by PET image alone. This work shows that whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images can be automatically fused using MI-based multimodality image registration software accurately and this technique can add useful information when evaluating FDG PET images. (author)

  5. The public whole body counting program following the Three Mile Island accident. Technical report, April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.; Bores, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    In early April, 1979 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory instituted a program to determine whether any radioactivity released as a result of the March 28, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Unit-2 was accumulating in members of the general public living near Unit-2. The program used a device called a whole body counter which has the capability of measuring very small quantities of radioactivity in people. There were 753 men, women and children successfully counted; nine of these people were counted a second time, leading to a total of 762 whole body counts. There was no radioactivity identified in any member of the public which could have originated from the radioactive materials released following the accident. Several people with higher than average levels of naturally occurring radioactivity were identified. The counting systems used are briefly described. Technical problems encountered, results and conclusions are discussed

  6. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max/mean ) of normal organs and SUV max of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUV mean r 2 : 0.88, P<0.0001) and very highly for FDG-avid lesions (SUV max r 2 : 0.94, P=0.0002). PET/MRI demonstrated an average percent radiation exposure reduction of 39% ± 13% compared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children. (orig.)

  8. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  9. 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Danilova, I.O.; Wallstroem, E.; Alpsten, M.; Thornberg, C.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Six western districts of the Bryansk region, Russia, were heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Annually, between 1991 and 1994, inhabitants of four settlements were studied. Whole-body 134+137 Cs contents were measured in about 500 inhabitants. No correlation between Cs whole-body content and Cs soil contamination was found; Cs accumulation in a body depends greatly on natural factors such as type of soil, on social factors such as food habits including consumption of forest products, and on countermeasures to reduce internal exposure. During 1991-1994 average whole-body content of 134+137 Cs in adult inhabitants was about 3-60 kBq, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.1-2.4 mSv.y -1 . Cs whole-body content increases equally for girls and boys up to adult age. Cs content in adults does not depend significantly on age and is usually 1.2-2 times higher in men than in women. The average annual internal effective dose varies with age significantly less than 134+137 Cs whole-body content. In children (0-5 years) the mean absorbed dose is usually 1.2-1.5 times less than in adults. (author)

  10. The establishment of bed type germanium-based whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Sun, C.L.; Yeh, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial germanium detector was installed in a shadow-shield counter for the in-vivo measurement of γ emitters in the body. It is divided into two subparts, automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and the Ge-based counting system. The automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and a complete gamma spectroscopy software package were manufactured by EG and G ORTEC company. Some experiments were finished to get the optimum three setting parameters for how to operate the auto liquid nitrogen transfer system in good conditions. The filling interval should be setting at eight hours, the filling time should be setting at ten minutes, and the pressure of dewar should operate in a range from 14 to 26 PSI. The RMC-II phantom that is designed by Canberra company is used as standard man for all kinds of calibrations. The detector has resolutions that are less than 2.5 keV with an average of 1.87 keV for the 60 Co 1.33-MeV γ-ray peak. The efficiency value of thyroid geometry for four different organs is highest in the phantom. The resolution of the Germanium detector for measuring radioactivity in the body that is better than the sodium iodide detector is used to measure the internal depositions of radionuclide mixtures. So, the advantage of the germanium counter can just compensate the disadvantage of the NaI(TI) detector. The qualitative and quantitative analysis for whole body counting can keep in the best conditions if both whole body counters are operated at the same time for routine measurement purpose in the laboratory

  11. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligouri, Gianna C; Shoepe, Todd C; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18-22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. -0.015 g/cm(2)). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women.

  12. Made-to-measure pattern development based on 3D whole body scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.; Hong, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - New techniques are required to link 3D whole body scans to manufacturing techniques to allow for the mass-customization of clothes. This study aims to compare two methods of producing skirts based on 3D whole body scans. Design/methodology/approach - Three females participated in the

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results

  14. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  15. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H.C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality,

  16. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput,

  17. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generating statements at whole-body imaging with a workflow-optimized software tool - first experiences with multireader analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Horvat, C.; Plathow, C.; Ludescher, B.; Lichy, M.P.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Canda, V.; Zindel, C.; Hahn, H.K.; Peitgen, H.O.; Kuhnigk, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to technical innovations in sectional diagram methods, whole-body imaging has increased in importance for clinical radiology, particularly for the diagnosis of systemic tumor disease. Large numbers of images have to be evaluated in increasingly shorter time periods. The aim was to create and evaluate a new software tool to assist and automate the process of diagnosing whole-body datasets. Material and Methods: Thirteen whole-body datasets were evaluated by 3 readers using the conventional system and the new software tool. The times for loading the datasets, examining 5 different regions (head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/skeletal system) and retrieving a relevant finding for demonstration were acquired. Additionally a Student T-Test was performed. For qualitative analysis the 3 readers used a scale from 0 - 4 (0 = bad, 4 = very good) to assess dataset loading convenience, lesion location assistance, and ease of use. Additionally a kappa value was calculated. Results: The average loading time was 39.7 s (± 5.5) with the conventional system and 6.5 s (± 1.4) (p 0.9). The qualitative analysis showed a significant advantage with respect to convenience (p 0.9). (orig.)

  19. Estimation of whole-body radiation exposure from brachytherapy for oral cancer using a Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Kaida, A.; Miura, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Toda, K.; Yoshimura, R.; Sumi, Y.; Kurabayashi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Early stage oral cancer can be cured with oral brachytherapy, but whole-body radiation exposure status has not been previously studied. Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee (ICRP) recommended the use of ICRP phantoms to estimate radiation exposure from external and internal radiation sources. In this study, we used a Monte Carlo simulation with ICRP phantoms to estimate whole-body exposure from oral brachytherapy. We used a Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) to model oral brachytherapy with 192 Ir hairpins and 198 Au grains and to perform a Monte Carlo simulation on the ICRP adult reference computational phantoms. To confirm the simulations, we also computed local dose distributions from these small sources, and compared them with the results from Oncentra manual Low Dose Rate Treatment Planning (mLDR) software which is used in day-to-day clinical practice. We successfully obtained data on absorbed dose for each organ in males and females. Sex-averaged equivalent doses were 0.547 and 0.710 Sv with 192 Ir hairpins and 198 Au grains, respectively. Simulation with PHITS was reliable when compared with an alternative computational technique using mLDR software. We concluded that the absorbed dose for each organ and whole-body exposure from oral brachytherapy can be estimated with Monte Carlo simulation using PHITS on ICRP reference phantoms. Effective doses for patients with oral cancer were obtained.

  20. Cardiac function and oxygen saturation during maximal breath-holding in air and during whole-body surface immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Piaggi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Passera, Mirko; Benassi, Antonio; Bedini, Remo; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The magnitude of the oxygen-sparing effect induced by the diving response in humans is still under debate. We wished to compare cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding (BH) in air and during whole-body immersion at the surface in a group of BH divers. Twenty-one divers performed a maximal static apnea in air or during whole-body immersion. Dopplerechocardiography, arterial blood pressure and haemoglobin saturation (SaO₂) were obtained at the beginning of, and at 1/3, 2/3 and maximal BH time. BH time was on the average 3.6 ± 0.4 min, with no differences between the two conditions. SaO₂ significantly decreased during BH in both conditions, but was significantly higher during immersion as compared to the dry (P = 0.04). In both conditions, BH induced a significant linear increase in right ventricular diameter (P whole-body immersion, associated with reduced LV ejection fraction and progressive hindrance to diastolic filling. For a similar apnea duration, SaO₂ decreased less during immersed BH, indicating an O₂-sparing effect of diving, suggesting that interruption of apnea was not triggered by a threshold critical value of blood O₂ desaturation.

  1. Relationship between the 137Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km -2 137 Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), who had whole-body 137 Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body 137 Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10 -9 ). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body 137 Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174)

  2. Application of semiquantitative analysis of whole body bone imaging on distal femoral metaphysis osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Wang Huixiang; Zhou Tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of semiquantitative analysis of whole body bone imaging on distal femoral metaphysis osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with confirmed neuroblastoma by pathological reports were divided into group of metastasis and group of no metastasis by bone marrow slides, X-ray, CT, MRI or clinical follow-up. Whole body bone imaging was performed pre-or postoperation. All cases were analysed by two methods: (1) Semi-quantitative analysis: Regions of interest on bilateral distal femoral metaphysic and middle of femoral were drawn, and their average counts were measured. The ratio of radioactivity of distal femoral metaphysic to middle of femoral was calculated; (2) Visual analysis:Bilateral distal femoral metaphysic metastasis were diagnosed by visual analysis according to whole body bone imaging. The differences between this two methods were compared. Results: There were differences of the ratio of radioactivity of distal femoral metaphysic to middle of femoral between group of metastasis and group of no metastasis (t =8.334, P<0.01), and there was no significant difference between t the two methods (χ 2 =0.68, P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of semiquantitative analysis in detecting osseous metastasis were 90.5% , 95.7% , 94.4% , 86.4% and 97.1% , while visual analysis were 81% , 100% , 95.6% , 100% and 94.5% . Conclusions: Radionuclide whole body bone imaging was of great importance in diagnosis of osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma. The diagnostic accuracy was improved by combination of visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis. (authors)

  3. Study on the usefulness of whole body SPECT coronal image, MIP image in 67Ga scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the usefulness of whole body coronal images and whole body cine display MIP images (CMIP) upon which image processing was carried out after whole body SPECT in comparison to the usefulness of whole body images (WB/SC) compensated by scattered radiation in tumor/inflammation scintigraphy with 67 Ga-citrate ( 67 Ga). Image interpretation was performed for the 120 patients with confirmed diagnoses, and the accuracy of their diagnoses was studied by three nuclear medical physicians and two clinical radiological technologists by means of sensitivity, specificity and ROC analysis. The resultant data show that sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve Az in the WB/SC were approximately 65%, 86%, 74% and 0.724, respectively, whereas sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az of the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method were approximately 93%, 95%, 94% and 0.860, respectively. Furthermore, coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method tended to be superior to those produced by the FBP method in both diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. In conclusion, the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method was shown to be superior in diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. Our data suggest that whole body SPECT is an excellent technique as an alternative to WB/SC. (author)

  4. Conjugate whole-body scanning system for quantitative measurement of organ distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Chen, C.T.; Yasillo, N.J.; Ortega, C.J.; Charleston, D.B.; Lathrop, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of accurate, quantitative, biokinetic distribution of an internally dispersed radionuclide in humans is important in making realistic radiation absorbed dose estimates, studying biochemical transformations in health and disease, and developing clinical procedures indicative of abnormal functions. In order to collect these data, a whole-body imaging system is required which provides both adequate spatial resolution and some means of absolute quantitation. Based on these considerations, a new whole-body scanning system has been designed and constructed that employs the conjugate counting technique. The conjugate whole-body scanning system provides an efficient and accurate means of collecting absolute quantitative organ distribution data of radioactivity in vivo

  5. A simple calibration of a whole-body counter for the measurement of total body potassium in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; El-Fiki, S.A.; El-Enany, N.; Youssef, S.K.; Aly, A.M.; Abbas, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple calibration procedure for the Inshas whole body counter for evaluating total body potassium has been adopted. More than 120 Egyptian employees in the Nuclear Research Center (N.R.C.) were studied for their total body potassium (TBK). The potassium values were found to have an average of 2.85±0.57 g K kg -1 body weight for males and 2.62±0.52 g K kg -1 for females, which are higher than the recommended value given for reference man by ICRP. The TBK varied directly with body build index and is slightly sex dependent (Author)

  6. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenzalida, M.; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  7. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  8. Various performance-enhancing effects from the same intensity of whole-body vibration training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paohung Chung

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: All frequency and amplitude settings in the 8-week whole-body vibration training increased muscle strength, but different settings resulted in various neuromuscular adaptations despite the same intensity.

  9. Improvement of measuring techniques with whole-body and partial-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical simulation methods have been applied for optimizing and standardizing the calibration of whole-body and partial-body counters for any nuclide accumulation in the human body. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  11. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  12. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenzalida, M. [Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Programa de Magister en Fisica Medica; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C., E-mail: fisicamedica@incancer.c [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Unidad de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  13. Whole body monitoring of the population of Cambridgeshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, P.P.; Hayball, M.P.; Lyttle, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    1220 volunteers were monitored using the Addenbrookes wholebody counter and their spectra and results were stored and analysed. Detailed statistical analyses have been made for 1032 volunteers who were Cambridgeshire residents. After tracking the decline of radiocaesium following Chernobyl, figures were established for the maximum likely average level of body contamination of radiocaesium and the practical level of detectability of radioiodine. Other radionuclides were occasionally detected in volunteers but the reason could be readily determined and activities were always low. Results are available in a conveniently recoverable form and the spectra can be examined for the presence of other radionuclides if necessary. (author)

  14. [Application of GVF snake model in segmentation of whole body bone SPECT image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-02-01

    Limited by the imaging principle of whole body bone SPECT image, the gray value of bladder area is quite high, which affects the image's brightness, contrast and readability. In the meantime, the similarity between bladder area and focus makes it difficult for some images to be segmented automatically. In this paper, an improved Snake model, GVF Snake, is adopted to automatically segment bladder area, preparing for further processing of whole body bone SPECT images.

  15. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  16. Experience with a mobile whole body counting screening program at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A whole-body counting program using a trailer-mounted counter has been in service in Ontario Hydro since 1972 to monitor routinely internal uptakes of radionuclides by nuclear station employees. The philosophy and objectives of the program are discussed; equipment and calibration procedures are described, and experience over the past two and a half years is reviewed. The procedures to minimize the effects of external contamination, a problem commonly encountered in whole-body counting, are described. (auth)

  17. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein ...... as splanchnic oxygen uptake. The splanchnic reduction in oxygen consumption can explain almost the entire reduction in whole body oxygen consumption....

  18. Whole-body irradiation in case of malignant lymphomas of low malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labedzki, L; Schmidt, R E; Hartlapp, J H; Illiger, H J; Frommhold, H; Boldt, I

    1982-04-01

    27 consecutive patients with malignant lymphomas were submittet to whole-body irradiations with doses of 0.5 to 3 Gy. Among these patients ten had been treated before. There were two complete and 16 partial remissions. The condition of five patients could not be considerably improved. Four patients showed a tumor progression during the time of bone marrow depression. The remission period was 11.5 (3 to 22 +) months. The hematologic side effects were considerable; in ten cases, the whole-body irradiation could not be continued because of a thrombocytopenia or an aplastic syndrome. A remarkable fact was the appearance of symptoms similar to that of lupus erythematodes in two patients. An inefficacy of whole-body irradiation did not exclude a response to subsequent chemotherapy. Our own experiences allow to make the following conclusion: in most of all patients with malignant lymphomas of low malignancy a measurable tumor reduction is achieved by whole-body irradiation. Because of the hematologic side effects a whole-body irradiation should be applied only in cases of malignant lymphomas of low malignancy the slow growth of which is proved by observation and which have not been treated before. The thrombocyte numbers should be above 100 000/..mu..l before therapy. Otherwise, the whole-body irradiation has to be stopped before the intended effective dose is reached because of an inevitably developing thrombocytopenia. A whole-body irradiation in case of a malignant lymphoma of low grade malignancy necessitates strict follow-up examinations conducted at regular intervals for a period of at least six weeks after the irradiation. The whole-body irradiation should never be applied as ultima ratio.

  19. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that ‘wrap around’ glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient’s skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the H p (10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the H p (3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. (paper)

  20. The influence of single whole body cryostimulation treatment on the dynamics and the level of maximal anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Andrzej T; Lubkowska, Anna; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Frączek, Barbara; Chudecka, Monika

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the dynamics of maximal anaerobic power (MAP) of the lower limbs, following a single whole body cryostimulation treatment (WBC), in relation to the temperature of thigh muscles. The subjects included 15 men and 15 women with an average age (± SD) of 21.6 ± 1.2 years. To evaluate the level of anaerobic power, the Wingate test was applied. The subjects were submitted to 6 WBC treatments at -130°C once a day. After each session they performed a single Wingate test in the 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90th min after leaving the cryogenic chamber. The order of the test was randomized. All Wingate tests were preceded by an evaluation of thigh surface temperature with the use of a thermovisual camera. The average thigh surface temperature (T(av)) in both men and women dropped significantly after the whole body cryostimulation treatment, and next increased gradually. In women T(av) remained decreased for 75 min, whereas in men it did not return to the basal level until 90th min. A statistically insignificant decrease in MAP was observed in women after WBC. On the contrary, a non-significant increase in MAP was observed in men. The course of changes in MAP following the treatment was similar in both sexes to the changes in thigh surface temperature, with the exception of the period between 15th and 30th min. The shorter time to obtain MAP was observed in women till 90th min and in men till 45 min after WBC compared to the initial level. A single whole body cryostimulation may have a minor influence on short-term physical performance of supramaximal intensity, but it leads to improvement of velocity during the start as evidenced by shorter time required to obtain MAP.

  1. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Comparison of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging and skeletal scintigraphy in detecting bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xian; Ma Lin; Zhang Jinshan; Cai Youquan; Cheng Liuquan; Guo Xinggao; Xu Baixuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of bone metastasis using skeletal scintigraphy as the reference. Methods: Forty-two healthy volunteers and 38 patients with malignant tumors were enrolled in our study. All the patients received MR examination and skeletal scintigraphy within one week. MR examination was performed on GE signa 3.0T MR scanner using a build-in body coil. The skeletal system was divided into eight regions and the images of the whole body MR DWI and skeletal scintigraphy were reviewed to compare the two modalities patient by patient and region by region. The images were reviewed separately by two radiologists and two nuclear medicine physicians, who were blinded to the results of another imaging modality. Results: A total of 169 metastatic lesions in 69 regions of 30 patients were detected by whole body MR DWI while 156 lesions in 68 regions of 29 patients were identified by skeletal scintigraphy. There were two cases negative in scintigraphy but positive in whole body MR DWI and one case positive in scintigraphy only. There were eight lesions negative in scintigraphy but positive in whole body MR DWI, mainly located in the spine, pelvis and femur. Seven lesions were only detected by scintigraphy, mainly located in the skull, sternum, clavicle and scapula. Conclusion: The whole body MR DWI reveals excellent consistency with skeletal scintigraphy regarding bone metastasis, and the two modalities are complementary for each other. (authors)

  3. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  4. Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Woledge, Roger C; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2012-02-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested to elicit reflex muscle contractions but this has never been verified. We recorded from 32 single motor units (MU) in the vastus lateralis of 7 healthy subjects (34 ± 15.4 yr) during five 1-min bouts of WBV (30 Hz, 3 mm peak to peak), and the vibration waveform was also recorded. Recruitment thresholds were recorded from 38 MUs before and after WBV. The phase angle distribution of all MUs during WBV was nonuniform (P recruitment threshold after WBV and average recruitment threshold; the lowest threshold MUs increased recruitment threshold (P = 0.008) while reductions were observed in the higher threshold units (P = 0.031). We investigated one possible cause of changed thresholds. Presynaptic inhibition in the soleus was measured in 8 healthy subjects (29 ± 4.6 yr). A total of 30 H-reflexes (stimulation intensity 30% Mmax) were recorded before and after WBV: 15 conditioned by prior stimulation (60 ms) of the antagonist and 15 unconditioned. There were no significant changes in the relationship between the conditioned and unconditioned responses. The consistent phase angle at which each MU fired during WBV indicates the presence of reflex muscle activity similar to the tonic vibration reflex. The varying response in high- and low-threshold MUs may be due to the different contributions of the mono- and polysynaptic pathways but not presynaptic inhibition.

  5. Assessing internal exposures and the efficacy of countermeasures from whole body measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Gluvchinsky, R.; Perevoznikov, O.; Morrey, M.; Prosser, S.L.; Jacob, P.; Prohl, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Skryabin, A.M.; Colgen, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional procedures for modelling the ingestion dose pathway combine environmental transfer models with human metabolic models in order to assess the doses received. In general, these models have been developed for specific ecological and socio-economic circumstances, rather than for globally-averaged conditions. Experiences which occurred following the Chernobyl accident have demonstrated that in the event of a large scale radiation accident it will be virtually impossible to monitor adequately all the radiologically significant components of human diet which may have become contaminated with radionuclides. This paper describes an internal dosimetry model based on the most widely available measurements following an accident: radiocesium measurements in soil and milk, and whole body measurements in humans. One application of the model to estimate ingestion doses received by inhabitants of the northern region of the Rovno Region in Ukraine is also described. In addition, this model enables the effectiveness of food Countermeasures to be estimated. This study formed part of Joint Study Programme 5 (JSP5) on pathway analysis and dose distributions and was jointly funded by the European Commission (EC) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

  6. Constrained non-rigid registration for whole body image registration: method and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Peterson, Todd E.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2007-03-01

    3D intra- and inter-subject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include measurements and quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, deriving population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. A number of methods have been proposed to tackle this problem but few of them have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the vast majority of registration algorithms have been applied. To solve this problem, we have previously proposed an approach, which initializes an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm with a point based registration technique [1, 2]. In this paper, we introduce new constraints into our non-rigid registration algorithm to prevent the bones from being deformed inaccurately. Results we have obtained show that the new constrained algorithm leads to better registration results than the previous one.

  7. Optimization of monoclonal antibody production in mouse ascites by single whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S.; Ziegler, B.; Kloeting, I.; Ziegler, M.; Nadrowitz, R.; Schmidt, W.

    1987-01-01

    Hybridoma cells injected intraperitoneally into mice induce formation of ascites tumors producing ascites fluid with high levels of monoclonal antibodies. Several parameters affect the growth of the immunoglobulin-producing tumors in vivo. In 10 different hybridomas the average ascites tumor formation rate could be increased from 32% (n = 338 mice) to 77% (n = 112 mice) by only one whole-body irradiation of paraffin-pretreated Balb/c mice. Production of monoclonal antibodies was better in males because of the significantly (p < 0.01) increased volume of ascites fluid. From the increased tumor formation rate in irradiated mice it is suggested that in non-irradiated recipients the tumor growth rate was lowered by immunological reactions against hybridoma cells provoked by cell surface neoantigens revealed by cell fusion and/or tumor-associated antigens of the myeloma parent cells as well as by altered antigen pattern caused by possible mutations in the myeloma cell line and/or Balb/c/K strain. (author)

  8. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.A.; Ashour, A.M.; El-Bassiouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 10 8 and 2.54 X 10 8 n/cm 2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  10. Multiple whole body hyperthermia treatments on normal beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, B.J.; Gillette, E.L.; Tucker, A.; Robertshaw, D.; Benjamin, S.A.; Macy, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve young adult male castrated beagles were randomized into either a treatment or a control group. The treatment group received 4 consecutive treatments at 1 week intertreatment intervals. A temperature and humidity controlled chamber was used to raise the core temperature to 42 0 C. Time required to raise the core temperature from 38 0 C to 42 0 C was approximately 70 minutes. Dogs were maintained at 42 0 C breathing halothane, 35% O/sub 2/ and 65 0 N/sub 2/ for 2 hours, followed by a 30 minute cool down period during which a shunt determination using 100% O/sub 2/ was done. No significant changes in temperature adjusted blood oxygen tension were noted during hyperthermia. Mean arterial blood pressure dropped an average of 15mm Hg during the 2 hour plateau. Cardiac rhythms remained stable and rates did not exceed 180 beats per minute. Central venous pressure remained stable and within normal range without treatment, 1.0 - 2.5 mm Hg. Dogs regained alertness and ambulation within 3 hours post treatment. No diarrhea was noted. The most significant acute changes appeared to be liver enzyme elevation, total protein decrement and transient changes in platelet and white blood cell counts

  11. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  12. Detection of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Comparison of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, D.; Roethke, M.; Aschoff, P.; Lichy, M.P.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Merseburger, A.S.; Reimold, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: prostate cancer continues to be the third leading cancer-related mortality of western men. Early diagnosis of bone metastasis is important for the therapy regime and for assessing the prognosis. The standard method is bone scintigraphy. Whole-body MRI proved to be more sensitive for early detection of skeletal metastasis. However, studies of homogenous tumor entities are not available. The aim of the study was to compare bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI regarding the detection of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: 14 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and a bone scintigraphy as well as whole-body MRI within one month were included. The mean age was 68 years. Scintigraphy was performed using the planar whole-body technique (ventral and dorsal projections). Suspect areas were enlarged. Whole-body MRI was conducted using native T1w and STIR sequences in the coronary plane of the whole body, sagittal imaging of spine and breath-hold STIR and T1w-Flash-2D sequences of ribs and chest. Bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI were evaluated retrospectively by experienced radiologists in a consensus reading on a lesion-based level. Results: whole-body MRI detected significantly more bone metastasis (p = 0.024). 96.4% of the demonstrated skeletal metastases in bone scintigraphy were founded in whole-body MRI while only 58.6% of the depicted metastases in MRI were able to be located in scintigraphy. There was no significant difference regarding bone metastasis greater than one centimeter (p = 0.082) in contrast to metastasis less than one centimeter (p = 0.035). Small osteoblastic metastases showed a considerably higher contrast in T1w sequences than in STIR imaging. Further advantages of whole-body MRI were additional information about extra-osseous tumor infiltration and their complications, for example stenosis of spinal canal or vertebral body fractures, found in 42.9% of patients. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of 137Cs exposure in Marshallese populations based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    137 Cs has been measured in the Marshallese using a shadow shield whole-body counting system. One of the important techniques employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides for the Marshallese is whole-body counting. Data from the period of 1989 to 1995 have been analyzed in an attempt to assess current and potential future exposure to 137 Cs. During this period, 3,764 measurements were made at Encwetak, Rongelap, and Utirik. The cesium body burdens were assumed to be the result of a series of chronic intakes. It was also assumed that the measured cesium activity is maintained in the body over a 365-d interval. Committed effective dose to age 70 y, and the annual effective dose rate for each population, were estimated based on the approach recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publications 56 and 67. The average 137 Cs dose rates vary from one population to another; it was found to be correlated with the cesium concentration in the soil. The analysis indicates that, based on limited data, there is no statistical support for seasonal effect on 137 Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is shown to be the male adult. Within the 6-y monitoring period, all exposures to 137 Cs were less than 0.2 mSv y -1 . A persistent average exposure of 2 μSv y -1 was determined for the Majuro residents

  14. Fractional intestinal absorption and retention of calcium measured by whole-body counting. Application of a power function model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pors Nielsen, S.; Baerenholdt, O.; Munck, O.

    1975-01-01

    By application of a power function model, fractional intestinal calcium absorption was investigated with a new technique involving whole-body counting after successive oral and intravenous administration of standard doses of 47 Ca. The fractional calcium retention 7 days after the oral load of 47 Ca was also measured. Fractional calcium retention averaged 30.3% in normal subjects and 11.5% in 11 patients with intestinal malabsorption. In the same groups fractional calcium absorption averaged 46.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Fractional calcium retention and intestinal calcium absorption were significantly correlated to body surface area, and there was a well-defined relation between fractional retention and absorption of calcium. These studies demonstrate that measurements of fractional retention and fractional intestinal absorption of calcium can be combined by the use of a whole-body counter, that fractional retention and intestinal absorption are proportional to total body surface area and therefore probably also to the total bone mass, and that fractional retention and absorption are so closely interrelated that frational absorption can be estimated from fractional retention with reasonable accuracy in normal subjects. (auth.)

  15. Non-trauma-associated additional findings in whole-body CT examinations in patients with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Herold, T.; Daneschnejad, M.; Zorger, N.; Jung, E.M.; Feuerbach, S.; Schreyer, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: whole-body CT scans for patients with multiple trauma represent an increasingly accepted first diagnostic tool. The multidetector approach in particular provides appropriate diagnostic algorithms for detecting nearly all relevant traumatic findings in a short time with a high grade of sensitivity and specificity. Non-trauma-associated additional findings are commonly depicted based on these CT examinations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number and quality of these additional findings in consecutive patients with multiple trauma. Materials and methods: between 3/04 and 8/06 we scanned 304 patients according to our dedicated multiple trauma protocol. The examination protocol includes a head scan without intravenous contrast followed by a whole-body scan including the neck, thorax and abdomen acquired by a 16-row CT Scanner (Siemens, Sensation 16). The CT scans were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists with respect to non-trauma-associated findings. Lesions were assessed according to their clinical relevance (highly relevant, moderately relevant, not relevant). For patients with highly relevant findings, additional follow-up research was performed. Results: The average age was 43 years (range 3 - 92). 236 of the patients were male (77.6%), 68 female (22.4%). 153 patients (50.3%) had additional non-trauma-associated findings. In 20 cases (6.6%) lesions with high clinical relevance were detected (e.g. carcinoma of the kidney or the ovary). In 71 patients (23.4%) findings with moderate relevance were described. In 63 patients (20.7%) additional findings without major relevance were diagnosed. Conclusion: Whole-body CT scans of patients randomized by a trauma show a considerable number of non-trauma-associated additional findings. In about 30% of cases, these findings are clinically relevant because further diagnostic workup or treatment in the short or medium-term is needed. The results of these analyses emphasize the diagnostic value of CT

  16. In vivo quantification of {sup 177}Lu with planar whole-body and SPECT/CT gamma camera imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Dale L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Cumberland, NSW (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hennessy, Thomas M.; Willowson, Kathy P.; Henry, E. Courtney [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Chan, David L.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); NETwork, Sydney Vital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Aslani, Alireza [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Roach, Paul J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    2015-09-17

    Advances in gamma camera technology and the emergence of a number of new theranostic radiopharmaceutical pairings have re-awakened interest in in vivo quantification with single-photon-emitting radionuclides. We have implemented and validated methodology to provide quantitative imaging of {sup 177}Lu for 2D whole-body planar studies and for 3D tomographic imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. Whole-body planar scans were performed on subjects to whom a known amount of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate had been administered for therapy. The total radioactivity estimated from the images was compared with the known amount of the radionuclide therapy administered. In separate studies, venous blood samples were withdrawn from subjects after administration of [{sup 177}Lu]-DOTA-octreotate while a SPECT acquisition was in progress and the concentration of the radionuclide in the venous blood sample compared with that estimated from large blood pool structures in the SPECT reconstruction. The total radioactivity contained within an internal SPECT calibration standard was also assessed. In the whole-body planar scans (n = 28), the estimated total body radioactivity was accurate to within +4.6 ± 5.9 % (range −17.1 to +11.2 %) of the correct value. In the SPECT reconstructions (n = 12), the radioactivity concentration in the cardiac blood pool was accurate to within −4.0 ± 7.8 % (range −16.1 to +7.5 %) of the true value and the internal standard measurements (n = 89) were within 2.0 ± 8.5 % (range −16.3 to +24.2 %) of the known amount of radioactivity contained. In our hands, state-of-the-art hybrid SPECT/CT gamma cameras were able to provide accurate estimates of in vivo radioactivity to better than, on average, ±10 % for use in biodistribution and radionuclide dosimetry calculations.

  17. Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Deborah J; Bennett, Suzanne; Samaratunga, Chandrasiri; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Jeffrey P; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lisco, Steven J

    2013-11-01

    Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging. Patients admitted into 15 predesignated SICU beds in a level I trauma center during a 30-day consecutive period were prospectively observed. Effective dose was determined using Huda's method for all radiography, CT imaging, and fluoroscopic examinations. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the relationships between observed values and outcomes. Five of 74 patients (6.8%) exceeded exposures of 50 mSv. Univariate analysis showed trauma designation, length of stay, number of CT scans, fluoroscopy minutes, and number of general radiographs were all associated with increased doses, leading to exceeding occupational exposure limits. In a multivariable analysis, only the number of CT scans and fluoroscopy minutes remained significantly associated with increased whole-body radiation dose. Radiation levels frequently exceeded occupational exposure standards. CT imaging contributed the most exposure. Health-care providers must practice efficient stewardship of radiologic imaging in all critically ill and injured patients. Diagnostic benefit must always be weighed against the risk of cumulative radiation dose.

  18. Whole-body retention studies of /sup 169/Yb-citrate. Estimation of radiation dose to humans from /sup 169/Yb-citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Mori, H; Ando, I; Hisada, K

    1977-09-01

    For purpose of the estimation of the radiation dose to humans from /sup 169/Yb-citrate, the whole-body retention studies using five rats were carried out. Following intravenous administration of /sup 169/Yb-citrate, the whole-body activity was monitored for 40 days by the animal counter. The whole-body retention curve consisted of three components: the first with a 3.6 hours effective half-time, the second with an 154 hours effective half-time and the third with a 29.9 days effective half-time. Therefore it was assumed that 32% of the administered /sup 169/Yb-citrate clears from the kidney with a short biologic half-time (3.6 hours), 18% remains in the liver and other soft tissues with a relatively long biologic half-time (194 hours) and 50% remains in the bone with a long biologic half-time (850 days). Based on these biological data and the MIRD Committee method, the average dose to the bone and whole-body were 20.8 rads/mCi and 4.5 rads/mCi respectively.

  19. Whole-body retention studies of /sup 167/Tm--citrate. Estimation of radiation dose to humans from /sup 167/Tm--citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, T; Ando, A [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Mori, H; Ando, I; Sakamoto, K

    1978-02-01

    For the purpose of calculating absorbed dose to humans from /sup 167/Tm-citrate, the whole-body retention studies using 5 rats were carried out. Up to 40 days following intravenous injection of /sup 167/Tm-citrate, the whole-body counts were monitored with an animal counter. The whole-body retention curve was obtained with three exponential components. Namely, the 26% of the injected /sup 167/Tm-citrate had a biological half-time of 3.4 hours, 12.5% had a biological half-time of 99 hours and 61.5% had a biological half-time of 106 days. These results indicate, that three components consist of the rapid clearance from the kidneys, the retention in the liver and other soft tissues with relatively long half-time and the retention in the bones with long half-time. Based on these biological data and the MIRD Committee method, the average dose estimates to the bone and whole-body from intravenous administration of 1 mCi /sup 167/Tm-citrate were 7.08 rads and 1.28 rads, respectively.

  20. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  1. Acute volume expansion preserves orthostatic tolerance during whole-body heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David M; Low, David A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Brothers, R Matthew; Hastings, Jeff; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-03-01

    Whole-body heat stress reduces orthostatic tolerance via a yet to be identified mechanism(s). The reduction in central blood volume that accompanies heat stress may contribute to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute volume expansion prior to the application of an orthostatic challenge attenuates heat stress-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance. In seven normotensive subjects (age, 40 +/- 10 years: mean +/- S.D.), orthostatic tolerance was assessed using graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of symptoms associated with ensuing syncope. Orthostatic tolerance (expressed in cumulative stress index units, CSI) was determined on each of 3 days, with each day having a unique experimental condition: normothermia, whole-body heating, and whole-body heating + acute volume expansion. For the whole-body heating + acute volume expansion experimental day, dextran 40 was rapidly infused prior to LBNP sufficient to return central venous pressure to pre-heat stress values. Whole-body heat stress alone reduced orthostatic tolerance by approximately 80% compared to normothermia (938 +/- 152 versus 182 +/- 57 CSI; mean +/- S.E.M., P body heating completely ameliorated the heat stress-induced reduction in orthostatic tolerance (1110 +/- 69 CSI, P stress results in many cardiovascular and neural responses that directionally challenge blood pressure regulation, reduced central blood volume appears to be an underlying mechanism responsible for impaired orthostatic tolerance in the heat-stressed human.

  2. Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Timm; Nell, Christoph; Koepke, Janine; Fechtel, Juliane; Franke, Maja; Schmeck, Bernd; Haid, Daniel; Apelt, Sandra; Filipovic, Silke; Kenn, Klaus; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2014-04-11

    Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge - day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55 ± 76.29 m vs. 6.13 ± 81.65 m; p = 0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43 ± 14.25 vs. 5.59 ± 19.15, p = 0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-α and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014.

  3. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study

  4. Retrospective Evaluation of Whole Body Computed Tomography for Tumor Staging in Dogs with Primary Appendicular Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Jessica L; Boston, Sarah E; Milner, Rowan J; Lejeune, Amandine; Souza, Carlos H de M; Kow, Kelvin; Bacon, Nicholas J; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whole body computed tomography (CT) for staging canine appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma (n=39). Medical records for client-owned dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma from August 2008 to July 2014 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they had a confirmed diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma and were staged using whole body CT. Data collected included signalment, body weight, primary tumor location, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, findings on 3-view thoracic radiographs, cytologic or histologic results, and findings on CT. Thirty-nine dogs (median age 8.5 years; median body weight 37 kg) had osteosarcoma of the distal radius (n=17), proximal humerus (11) and other sites. Serum ALP activity was elevated in 14 dogs. Bone metastasis was not detected in any dog on whole body CT. Pulmonary metastasis was considered definitive on CT based on board certified radiologist assessment in 2/39 dogs (5%). Two additional dogs (2/39, 5%) had soft tissue masses diagnosed on CT, consistent with concurrent, non-metastatic malignancies. Bone metastases were not identified in any dog with whole body CT. Thoracic and abdominal CT detected lung lesions and concurrent neoplasia in dogs with primary appendicular osteosarcoma. Whole body CT may be a useful adjunct to other screening tests for disseminated malignancy. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates.

  6. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm 2 ). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  7. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced...... the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics...

  8. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  9. Determination of calibration factors for whole body counting of members of public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayagopal, P.; Joyeeta, M.; Garg, S.P.; Vidhani, J.M.; Pendharkar, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    A Mobile Radiological Laboratory (MRL) was recently developed by Internal Dosimetry Division in BARC. In the event of an accident involving release of radioactive substances into the environment, there will be a need to measure both the external and the internal exposure of the population. MRL has been equipped with a variety of radiation detectors, radiation survey meters and a whole body monitor for this purpose. For whole body monitoring of members of public, detector systems are required to be calibrated with the age dependent phantoms of appropriate size for both male and female subjects. In this paper we present the results of the calibration studies carried out with shielded chair whole body counter of MRL using five different age dependent male phantoms representing the age groups of 1,5,10 and 15 year old children and 20 year old adult. Calibration work has been carried out using standard sources of 137 Cs, 133 Ba and 60 Co. (author)

  10. Application of Whole Body Counter to Neutron Dose Assessment in Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, O.; Tsujimura, N.; Takasaki, K.; Momose, T.; Maruo, Y. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai (Japan)

    2001-09-15

    Neutron dose assessment in criticality accidents using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was proved to be an effective method as rapid neutron dose estimation at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. The 1.36MeV gamma-ray of {sup 24}Na in a body can be detected easily by a germanium detector. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of {sup 24}Na is approximately 50Bq for 10minute measurement by the germanium-type whole body counter at JNC Tokai Works. Neutron energy spectra at the typical shielding conditions in criticality accidents were calculated and the conversion factor, whole body activity-to-organ mass weighted neutron absorbed dose, corresponding to each condition were determined. The conversion factor for uncollied fission spectrum is 7.7 [(Bq{sup 24}Na/g{sup 23}Na)/mGy].

  11. Calibration of Single High Purity Germanium Detector for Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Morsi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new Accuscan II single germanium detector for whole body counter was installed in NRC (Egypt). The current paper concerned on calibration of single high purity germanium detector for whole body counter. Physical parameters affecting on performance of whole body counter such as linearity, minimum detectable activity and source detector distance, SDD were investigated. Counting efficiencies for the detector have been investigated in rear wall, fixed diagnostic position in air. Counting efficiencies for organ compartments such as thyroid, lung, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract have been investigated using transfer phantom in fixed diagnostic and screening positions respectively. The organ compartment efficiencies in screening geometry were higher than that value of diagnostic geometry by a factor of three. The committed dose equivalents of I-131 in thyroid were ranged from 0.073 ± 0.004 to 1.73±0.09 mSv and in lung was 0.02±0.001 mSv

  12. Analysis of whole-body vibration on rheological models for tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, A.; Simoiu, D.; Nyaguly, E.; Crastiu, I.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibrations have become a very popular method in recent years, both in physical therapy and in sports. This popularity is due to the fact that, as a result of analyzing the groups of subjects, the effects of small amplitude vibration and low frequency vibration, it was found an increase in the force developed by the feet, a hardening of bone strength or an increase in bone density. In this paper we propose to give a possible explanation of the stress relieving in muscle and/or bone after whole body vibration treatment. To do this we consider some rheological models which after whole body vibrations and after the analysis of their response lead to various experiments.

  13. Simplified calibration and evaluation procedures for improvised whole body gamma spectrometry in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Bucina, I.; Drabova, D.; Cespirova, I.

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor gamma spectrometer could be used for the rapid estimation of internal contamination of the people in cases of accidents even when no special calibration for whole body counting is prepared. Generic transfer factors for calculation of the whole body detection efficiency from the 25 cm distant point source detection efficiency are presented. Generic dependence of parameters of power function describing the detector efficiency for point source in 25 cm on the detector relative efficiency given by producer was derived from calibration of 18 detectors with relative efficiency from 1.4% to 62%. Minimum detectable activity for various backgrounds and the uncertainty of the estimate of whole body retention are presented, too. (author)

  14. Whole body measurements of sodium turnover in offspring of patients with sustained essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningsen, N.C.; Ohlsson, O.; Mattson, S.; Nosslin, B.; Lund Univ.; Lund Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The elimination rate (percent per day) of injected 22 Na using a whole body measurement technique was significantly lower (26%, 5.8 +- 1.5) in normotensive of borderline hypertensive offspring of essential hypertensive patients than in 15 age- and sex-matched, normotensive controls (7.3 +- 1.0). There were no significant differences in exchangeable sodium, whole body potassium or in the urinary exeretion of sodium, potassium and creatinine. The basis for the difference in turnover rate during weck 1 is probably an alteration in the cellular handling of sodium (i.e. increased intracellular sodium) in the still normotensive offspring of patients with essential hypertension. The long-term (more than 100 days) whole body retention of 22 Na was found to be only 0.1% of that injected, which justifies the use of the method on larger population groups. (orig.)

  15. Normal iron absorption determined by means of whole body counting and red cell incorporation of 59Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, L.; Milman, N.

    1977-01-01

    Gastrointestinal iron absorption was measured in 27 normal subjects (19 females and 8 males) by means of whole body counting. Whole body retention 14 days after oral administration of 10μCi 59 Fe together with a carrier dose of 9.9 mg Fe 2+ (as sulphate), was used as an expression of absorption. The percentage incorporation in the total erythrocyte mass of administered 59 Fe (erythrocyte incorporation) and of absorbed 59 Fe (red cell utilization) was also estimated. Geometric mean iron absorption was 8.3+-2.1 (SD% in females, 9.1+-2.2 % in males and 8.5+-2.1 % in the entire series. The difference between males and females was not significant. Erythrocyte incorporation was 7.7+-2.2 (SD) % (geometric mean) in the entire series and the correlation between iron absorption and erythrocyte incorporation was highly significant (r = 0.96,P < 0.001). Red cell utilization averaged 92.9 +- 4.0 (SEM)% (arithmetic mean) in the entire series. (author)

  16. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)], E-mail: ahirata@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg{sup -1}, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  17. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 degrees C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg(-1), which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  18. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg -1 , which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of calibration of shadow shield scanning bed whole body monitor using different size BOMAB phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, S.; Patni, H.K.; Singh, I.S.; Garg, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    A shadow shield scanning bed whole body monitor incorporating a (102 mm dia x 76 mm thick) NaI(Tl) detector, is employed for assessment of high-energy photon emitters at BARC. The monitor is calibrated using a Reference BOMAB phantom representative of an average Indian radiation worker. However to account for the size variation in the physique of workers, it is required to calibrate the system with different size BOMAB phantoms which is both difficult and expensive. Therefore, a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo techniques has been employed to calibrate the system with BOMAB phantoms of different sizes for several radionuclides of interest. A computer program developed for this purpose, simulates the scanning geometry of the whole body monitor and computes detection efficiencies for the BARC Reference phantom (63 kg/168 cm), ICRP Reference phantom (70 kg/170 cm) and several of its scaled versions covering a wide range of body builds. The detection efficiencies computed for different photon energies for BARC Reference phantom were found to be in very good agreement with experimental data, thus validating the Monte Carlo scheme used in the computer code. The results from this study could be used for assessment of internal contamination due to high-energy photon emitters for radiation workers of different physiques. (author)

  20. An estimation of whole body doses due to routine operation of the first Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palattao, M.V.B.; Azanon, E.M.; Paz, L.R. de la

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion calculation of the routine releases of the Triga-converted Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) was carried out using the computer model developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). It calculates average relative effluent concentration (X/Q) and average relative deposition values (D/Q) for twenty-two (22) specific distances up to 80 km from the area of concern for each sixteen compass directions. This model is based on the theory that material released to the atmosphere will be normally distributed (Gaussiah) about the plume center-line. Surface meteorological data based on a five-year monitoring period at the PAGASA Science Garden station proximate to the site were utilized in the assessment. From the result of X/Q values, annual whole body in mSv y -1 with impact to 41 Ar was evaluated. (Auth.). 9 refs.; 8 tabs.; 6 figs

  1. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  2. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  3. Whole-Body Vibration Does Not Seem to Affect Postural Control in Healthy Active Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. C. Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the acute residual effects induced by different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV on postural control of elderly women. Design. Thirty physically active elderly women (67±5 years were randomly divided into three groups: two experimental groups (high WBV frequency: 45 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10; low WBV frequency: 30 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10 and one control group (n=10, with no treatment. The participants were first subjected to stabilometry tests and were then guided through three sets of isometric partial squats for 60 s while the WBV stimulation was applied. The control group was subjected to the same conditions but without the WBV stimulation. The participants were again subjected to body balance tests immediately following the end of the intervention period and again at 8, 16, and 24 min. To measure body sway control, three 60 s tests were performed at 10 s intervals for each of the following experimental conditions: (1 eyes opened and (2 eyes closed. The following variables were investigated: the average velocity of the displacement of the centre of pressure in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes as well as in the elliptical area. Results. A 3 (condition × 5 (test two-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not identify significant differences in the stabilometric variables, regardless of group, time, or experimental condition. Conclusions. The effect of WBV, regardless of the stimulation frequency, did not have a significant effect immediately after or up to 24 minutes after vibration cessation, on the variables involved in the control of postural stability in physically active elderly women.

  4. Performance evaluation of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, L.E.; Zaers, J.; Ostertag, H.; Trojan, H.

    1996-01-01

    The performance parameters of the whole-body PET scanner ECAT EXACT HR + were determined following the standard proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The tests were expanded by some measurements concerning the accuracy of the correction algorithms and the geometric fidelity of the reconstructed images. The scanner consists of 32 rings, each with 576 BGO detectors (4.05 x 4.39 x 30 mm 3 ) covering an axial field-of-view of 15.5 cm and a patient port of 56.2 cm. The transaxial resolution in the 2D (3D) mode is 4.5 (4.3) mm at the center. It increases to 8.9 (8.3) mm radially and to 5.8 (5.2) mm tangentially at a radial distance of r = 20 cm. The average axial resolution varies between 4.9 (4.1) mm FWHM at the center and 8.8 (8.1) mm at r = 20 cm. The system sensitivity for true events is 5.85 (26.4) cps/Bq/ml (measured with a 20 cm cylinder phantom). The 50% dead-time losses where reached for a true event count rate of 286 (500) kcps at an activity concentration of 74 (25) kBq/ml. The system scatter fraction is 0.24 (0.35). The correction algorithms work reliable, except for the 3D attenuation correction. The ECAT EXACT HR + has a good and nearly isotropic spatial resolution. Due to the small detector elements, however, it has a low slice sensitivity which is a limiting factor for image quality

  5. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan Stefan; Noël, Peter Benjamin; Vollhardt, Christiane; Much, Daniela; Degirmenci, Saliha; Brunner, Stefanie; Rummeny, Ernst Josef; Hauner, Hans

    2015-01-01

    MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo. MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE) sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days). This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence. In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility. With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  6. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  7. In vivo organ mass of Korean adults obtained from whole-body magnetic resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, J. I.; Lee, Y. J.; Lim, Y. K.; Kim, C. S.; Lee, C.

    2006-01-01

    In vivo organ mass of the Korean adult, male and female were presented for the purpose of radiation protection. A total of 121 healthy volunteers (66 males and 55 females), whose body dimensions were close to that of average Korean adults, were recruited for this study. Whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained, and contours of 15 organs (brain, eye, gall bladder, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, stomach, spleen, testes, thymus, thyroid, urinary bladder and uterus) and 9 bones (femur, tibia + fibula, humerus, radius + ulna, pelvis, cervical spine, thoracic and lumber spine, skull and clavicle) were segmented for organ volume rendering by anatomists using commercial software. Organ and bone masses were calculated by multiplying the Asian reference densities of the corresponding organs and bones by the measured volumes. The resulting organ and bone masses were compared with those of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Asian reference data. Significantly large standard deviation was shown in the moving organs of the respiratory and circulatory systems and in the alimentary and urogenital organs that are variable in volume in a single person. Gall bladder and pancreas showed unique Korean organ masses compared with those of ICRP and the Asian reference adults. Different from anatomical data based on autopsy, the in vivo volume and mass in this study can more exactly describe the organ volume of a living human subject for radiation protection. A larger sample size would be required for obtaining statistically more reliable results. It is also needed to establish the reference organ mass of younger age groups for which it is difficult to recruit volunteers and to immobilise the subjects for long-time MR scanning. At present, the data from this study will contribute to the establishment of a Korean reference database. (authors)

  8. Hematological Analysis of the Ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) During Whole-Body Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, Simon; Zondag, Lisa; Lamare, Miles D; Wilson, Megan J

    2017-06-01

    Whole-body regeneration (WBR)-the formation of an entire adult from only a small fragment of its own tissue-is extremely rare among chordates. Exceptionally, in the colonial ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) a fully functional adult is formed from their common vascular system after ablation of all adults from the colony in just 10 d, thanks to their high blastogenetic potential. While previous studies have identified key genetic markers and morphological changes, no study has yet focused on the hematological aspects of regeneration despite the major involvement of the remaining vascular system and the contained hemocytes in this process. To dissect this process, we analyzed colony blood flow patterns using time-lapse microscopy to obtain a quantitative description of the velocity, reversal pattern, and average distance traveled by hemocytes. We also observed that flows present during regeneration are powered by temporally and spatially synchronized contractions of the terminal ampullae. In addition, we revised previous studies of B. leachii hematology as well as asexual development using histological sectioning and compared the role played by hemocytes during WBR. We found that regeneration starts with a rapid healing response characterized by hemocyte aggregation and infiltration of immunocytes, followed by increased activity of hemoblasts, recruitment of macrophage-like cells for clearing the tissues of debris, and their subsequent disappearance from the circulation concomitant with the maturation of a single regenerated adult. Overall, we provide a detailed account of the hematological properties of regenerating B. leachii colonies, providing novel lines of inquiry toward the decipherment of regeneration in chordates.

  9. A conserved role for syndecan family members in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Luca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Syndecans are a family of type-I transmembrane proteins that are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, migration, neuronal development, and inflammation. Previous quantitative genetic studies pinpointed Drosophila Syndecan (dSdc as a positional candidate gene affecting variation in fat storage between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we first used quantitative complementation tests with dSdc mutants to confirm that natural variation in this gene affects variability in Drosophila fat storage. Next, we examined the effects of a viable dSdc mutant on Drosophila whole-body energy metabolism and associated traits. We observed that young flies homozygous for the dSdc mutation had reduced fat storage and slept longer than homozygous wild-type flies. They also displayed significantly reduced metabolic rate, lower expression of spargel (the Drosophila homologue of PGC-1, and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Compared to control flies, dSdc mutants had lower expression of brain insulin-like peptides, were less fecund, more sensitive to starvation, and had reduced life span. Finally, we tested for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human SDC4 gene and variation in body composition, metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep traits in a cohort of healthy early pubertal children. We found that SNP rs4599 was significantly associated with resting energy expenditure (P = 0.001 after Bonferroni correction and nominally associated with fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01 and sleep duration (P = 0.044. On average, children homozygous for the minor allele had lower levels of glucose, higher resting energy expenditure, and slept shorter than children homozygous for the common allele. We also observed that SNP rs1981429 was nominally associated with lean tissue mass (P = 0.035 and intra-abdominal fat (P = 0.049, and SNP rs2267871 with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.037. Collectively, our results in Drosophila and humans argue that

  10. Whole body clearance of norepinephrine. The significance of arterial sampling and of surgical stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the ......The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively...

  11. A preliminary study of iron absorption by whole body counting and correlation with DFO excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.M.; Bhattacharyya, L.; Gupta, N.K.; Bhola, G.C.; Nagaratnam, A.; Manchanda, R.; Bhargva, M.; Kumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study of iron absorption by oral administration of 59 Fe and whole body counting was carried on a group of 16 women. The cases included 8 patients suffering from iron deficiency anaemia and various infections as well as 8 healthy controls. High iron absorption is associated with iron deficiency, these changes being more marked in iron deficient controls than in those with infection or malignancy. In iron deficient controls results of whole body counting correlate very well with other haematological investigations. (orig.) [de

  12. Synthesis of dendrimer-based biotin radiopharmaceuticals to enhance whole-body clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Noriko; Park, Chang W.; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Han, Eui-Sik; Wong, Karen J.; Paik, Ronald S.; Park, Luke S.; Yao Zhengsheng; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H.

    2003-01-01

    To synthesize a biotin radiopharmaceutical that clears rapidly, dendrimer was used as a carrier and conjugated with succinimidyl 3-[ 125 I]iodobenzoate and tetrafluorophenyl norbiotinamidosuccinate. Then, succinic anhydride was used to reduce its pI. In mice, the non-succinylated product showed high liver (67% ID/g) and kidney (44% ID/g) uptakes and whole-body retention (94% ID) at 20 min that persisted for 12 hr. The corresponding organ uptakes (22% and 11% ID/g) and the whole-body retention (47% ID) were drastically reduced by succinylation (p<0.0001). Lysine co-injection further lowered renal uptake

  13. Whole body computed tomographic findings of each one case with primary aldosteronism and Cushing syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Shuji; Kawamura, Koro; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    1980-01-01

    We here report each one case with primary aldosteronism (male, 28 years old) and Cushing syndrome (female, 37 years old). Both of the cases showed characteristic clinical signs of hypertension and typical laboratory findings of adreno-hormonal assays. In performance of whole body computed tomography, clear pictures of tumorous adenomas in both cases were taken and the sizes of adenomas in picture were completely same as the masses obtained by the lateral adrenectomies. As a result, the whole body computed tomography is very useful to diagnose the diseases of adrenal adenoma and hyperplasia. (author)

  14. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  15. Development of a modified cortisol extraction procedure for intermediately sized fish not amenable to whole-body or plasma extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Taylor W; Blaylock, Reginald B; Evans, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    The corticosteroid hormone cortisol is the central mediator of the teleost stress response. Therefore, the accurate quantification of cortisol in teleost fishes is a vital tool for addressing fundamental questions about an animal's physiological response to environmental stressors. Conventional steroid extraction methods using plasma or whole-body homogenates, however, are inefficient within an intermediate size range of fish that are too small for phlebotomy and too large for whole-body steroid extractions. To assess the potential effects of hatchery-induced stress on survival of fingerling hatchery-reared Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), we developed a novel extraction procedure for measuring cortisol in intermediately sized fish (50-100 mm in length) that are not amenable to standard cortisol extraction methods. By excising a standardized portion of the caudal peduncle, this tissue extraction procedure allows for a small portion of a larger fish to be sampled for cortisol, while minimizing the potential interference from lipids that may be extracted using whole-body homogenization procedures. Assay precision was comparable to published plasma and whole-body extraction procedures, and cortisol quantification over a wide range of sample dilutions displayed parallelism versus assay standards. Intra-assay %CV was 8.54%, and average recovery of spiked samples was 102%. Also, tissue cortisol levels quantified using this method increase 30 min after handling stress and are significantly correlated with blood values. We conclude that this modified cortisol extraction procedure provides an excellent alternative to plasma and whole-body extraction procedures for intermediately sized fish, and will facilitate the efficient assessment of cortisol in a variety of situations ranging from basic laboratory research to industrial and field-based environmental health applications.

  16. SAR and temperature distribution in the rat head model exposed to electromagnetic field radiation by 900 MHz dipole antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wu, Shuicai; Zhong, Rugang; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Rats are often used in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure experiments. In the study for the effect of 900 MHz EMF exposure on learning and memory in SD rats, the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the temperature rise in the rat head are numerically evaluated. The digital anatomical model of a SD rat is reconstructed with the MRI images. Numerical method as finite difference time domain has been applied to assess the SAR and the temperature rise during the exposure. Measurements and simulations are conducted to characterize the net radiated power of the dipole to provide a precise dosimetric result. The whole-body average SAR and the localized SAR averaging over 1, 0.5 and 0.05 g mass for different organs/tissues are given. It reveals that during the given exposure experiment setup, no significant temperature rise occurs. The reconstructed anatomical rat model could be used in the EMF simulation and the dosimetric result provides useful information for the biological effect studies.

  17. SU-F-I-27: Measurement of SAR and Temperature Elevation During MRI Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The poor reliability and repeatability of the manufacturer-reported SAR values on clinical MRI systems have been acknowledged. The purpose of this study is to not only measure SAR values, but also RF-induced temperature elevation at 1.5 and 3T MRI systems. Methods: SAR measurement experiment was performed at 1.5 and 3T. Three MRI RF sequences (T1w TSE, T1w inversion recovery, and T2w TSE) with imaging parameters were selected. A hydroxyl-ethylcelluose (HEC) gelled saline phantom mimicking human body tissue was made. Human torso phantom were constructed, based on Korean adult standard anthropometric reference data (Fig.1). FDTD method was utilized to calculate the SAR distribution using Sim4Life software. Based on the results of the simulation, 4 electrical field (E-field) sensors were located inside the phantom. 55 Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensors (27 sensors in upper and lower cover lids, and one sensor located in the center as a reference) were located inside the phantom to measure temperature change during MRI scan (Fig.2). Results: Simulation shows that SAR value is 0.4 W/kg in the periphery and 0.001 W/kg in the center (Fig.2). One 1.5T and one of two 3T MRI systems represent that the measured SAR values were lower than MRI scanner-reported SAR values. However, the other 3T MRI scanner shows that the averaged SAR values measured by probe 2, 3, and 4 are 6.83, 7.59, and 6.01 W/kg, compared to MRI scanner-reported whole body SAR value (<1.5 W/kg) for T2w TSE (Table 1). The temperature elevation measured by FBG sensors is 5.2°C in the lateral shoulder, 5.1°C in the underarm, 4.7°C in the anterior axilla, 4.8°C in the posterior axilla, and 4.8°C in the lateral waist for T2w TSE (Fig.3). Conclusion: It is essential to assess the safety of MRI system for patient by measuring accurate SAR deposited in the body during clinical MRI.

  18. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, M.-H.; Touchard, Francoise; Court, Louis

    1981-01-01

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised Rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures [fr

  19. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  20. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  1. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) amongst groups, while the area remained constant. No significant differences were detected among times of assessments, or in the interaction group × time. No impairments in static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  2. Whole body dosimetry for treatment individualized neuroblastoma with 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer Gracia, C.; Luquero Llopis, N.; Sanchez Munoz, F.; Plaza Aparicio, R.; Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-01-01

    It according to in this study, that in therapy with 1 31I-MIBG for the treatment of neuroblastoma, it can prescribe and manage dose whole body accurately, allowing individualized treatments and major activities that in the treatments based on a fixed activity according to weight management. (Author)

  3. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin (k1-3) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; van Veen-Hof, Ingrid; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Proost, Johannes; de Leij, Lou F.M.H.; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we determined short-term pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin [angiostatin((k1-3))] in rats after i.v. injection of radiolabelled protein. Since In gamma-camera studies, no tumor specific angiostatin((k1-3)) accumulation was observed,

  5. Changes in plasma (hydrocortisone) levels after whole-body irradiation with ultraviolet rays of defined wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    One hour after whole-body irradiation with a radiation source having its maximum of emission in the UVB range, at a radiation dose of 0.44 J/cm 2 , a significant fall in the mean values of the blood plasma hydrocortisone level (p [de

  6. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to review the effects of the WBVE on blood flow kinetics and its feasibility in different populations. Material and Methods: The level of evidence (LE) of selected ...

  7. A statistical observation on some subjects in the whole body computed tomographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shigekazu; Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Mitsuo; Nakai, Toshio

    1983-01-01

    Since the whole body CT (computed tomography) unit (GE, CT/T) was installed in our hospital in April, 1982, a total of 2884 cases have been examined by this whole body scanner for one year from April, 1982 to March, 1983. An analysis of the relationship between the situations of the subjects in and the results of whole body CT examination disclosed some very interesting facts. Up to the present time such a study has scarcely made. That is why we wanted to make this report. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Whole body CT examinations were performed on the patients of advanced age more frequently than on those of young age and performed most frequently on the group in the sixties. 2. The number of CT examinations performed on head and abdomen of the patients was 86.7% of a total of 2884 cases. 3. Enhanced CT examinations were perfomed on 26.1% of 2884 cases and most frequently on the group in the teens. 4. The percentage of the abnormal findings found in 2884 cases was 61.5% and this rate was higher than that shown in the reports made by us in 1980 and 1982, respectively. (author)

  8. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Lammers, Nicolette M.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Fliers, Eric; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. Objective: The objective was

  9. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  10. Back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Hulshof, C. T.; KOEMEESTER, A. P.

    1988-01-01

    In The Netherlands so far little research has been carried out to investigate the health effects of exposure to whole-body vibration at work. In a retrospective (10-year) follow-up study, the incidence of permanent work disabilities in crane operators exposed to vibration was compared to that of a

  11. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  12. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  13. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  14. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

  15. Whole body and muscle energy metabolism in preruminant calves: effects of nutrient synchrony and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hocquette, J.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of asynchronous availability of amino acids and glucose on muscle composition and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle were studied in preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that decreased oxidative enzyme activities in muscle would explain a decreased whole body heat production with

  16. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  17. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present

  18. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  19. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat-Verboom, L.; Spruit, M.A.; van den Borne, B.E.; Smeenk, F.W.; Wouters, E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the

  20. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Teruo; Onoue, Masaharu; Mutai, Masahiko

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. The control of equilibrium in bimanual, whole-body lifting tasks : a biomechanical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.A.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The issues addressed in this thesis concern the control of equilibrium in a bimanual, wholebody lifting task. This task comprises the forward bending of the trunk and the lowering of the whole body to grasp an object with two hands, followed by the lifting of the object to waist or chest level.

  2. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H C; Snipes, M B; Eidson, A F; Hobbs, C H

    1988-12-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)0.

  3. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Snipes, M.B.; Eidson, A.F.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)

  4. Whole body effective dose measurements in a fan beam bone mineral densitometer, Lunar expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiakumar, C.; Griffiths, M.; Cross, P.; Pocock, N.; Freund, J. [St Vincents Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia) Department of Nuclear Medicine; Kron, T.; Duggan, L. [Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology; Holley, L. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Health Services

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The most recent generation of DXA machines employ a fan beam geometry and high resolution imaging detector, resulting in decreased scanning time and increased image resolution compared to previous rectilinear scanners, but with higher radiation burden to the patient because of an increasing number of bone mineral density scans, it was felt that independent evaluation of the radiation dose was necessary. The whole body effective dose for an AP lumbar spine scan and femur scan using the EXPERT bone densitometer was calculated for the fast and turbo scanning modes, using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). A method was developed to determine the absorbed dose of the irradiated volume of an organ by summing the dose for each of the coronal areas, which results in a volume dose. The Whole Body Effective dose for AP lumbar spine fast scanning mode is 84.1 {mu}Sv and turbo scanning mode is 56.4 {mu}Sv. The Whole Body Effective dose for femur fast scanning mode is 6.6 {mu}Sv and turbo scanning mode is 4.2 {mu}Sv, with no ovary exposure. A theoretical method has been developed to calculate the organ dose from which whole body effective dose was calculated

  5. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; Scholte, A; Rijssenbeek, LHM; vanderBaan, S; Bogaard, JM; deMonchy, JGR

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  6. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%. One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

  7. Trial making of a positive drawing phantom and its application to whole-body imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Nakata, Tsuneo; Toyama, Haruo; Shiina, Isamu.

    1980-01-01

    In whole-body RI imaging, there are more instances of the positive pictures detecting the radioisotopes accumulating in morbid positions, such as Tc-99m bone scanning. The phantoms used to mutually compare RI imaging devices and to test their performance employ negative drawing targets embedded rather than positive ones. A simple positive drawing phantom has been made for trial, and applying this to whole-body scanning devices, the performance and the target drawing ability under different scanning conditions were comparatively examined. Though similar to Rollo's phantom, the phantom made for positive drawing uses acryl plate for its outer structure and target portions. The positive targets are cylindrical, and the diameters are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20 mm, and the subject contrasts are 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2. The aqueous solution of Tc-99m of about 2 mCi was injected into the phantom, and this was scanned with a whole-body camera and a multi-detector type whole-body scanner. With the phantom pictures close to actual clinical condition, the positive drawing phantom is conveniently capable of comparing the respective imaging devices for intended purposes. (J.P.N.)

  8. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  9. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body protein turnover rate was investigated in lambs. The metabolism of lysine and leucine is reported elsewhere (Cronje et aI., 1992); in this paper methionine metabolism is discussed, and ...

  10. Relevance of whole body vibration exercise in sport: a short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, ...

  11. Comparison of the effects of whole-body cooling during fatiguing exercise in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Pukėnas, Kazimieras; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-08-01

    The effects of cold stress on exercise performance and fatigue have been thoroughly investigated only in males, and thus the general understanding of these effects relates only to males. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body cooling has different effects on performance during fatiguing exercise in males and females. Thirty-two subjects (18 males and 14 females) were exposed to acute cold stress by intermittent immersion in 14°C water until their rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or for a maximum of 170 min. Thermal responses and motor performance were monitored before and after whole-body cooling. Whole-body cooling decreased rectal, muscle and mean skin temperatures in all subjects (pCold stress decreased the fatigue index (FI) of a sustained 2-min maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) only in males (pbody cooling-induced decrease in the FI of a sustained MVC in males but not in females) supports the view of sex effects on performance during fatiguing exercise after whole-body cooling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  13. Circumference estimation using 3D-whole body scanners and shadow scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Clothing designers and manufacturers use traditional body dimensions as their basis. When 3D-whole body scanners are introduced to determine the body dimensions, a conversion has to be made, since scan determined circumference measures are slightly larger than the traditional values. This pilot

  14. Aspects of the engineering design of whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.; Collins, A.G.; Hall, A.S.; Harman, R.R.; Butson, P.C.; Gilderdale, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance machines reviews the basic physics very briefly, then examines the design requirements and engineering constraints for the major components of such a system. The paper concludes with a brief resume of the techniques used, and a short presentation of the type of results that are achieved. (author)

  15. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, J. T.; Donnelly, A. E.; Karki, A.; Selfe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of −110°C whole body cryotherapy and 8°C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (

  16. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  17. Imaging technique of whole-body scintigram in the event of breakdown of the photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru; Kuranishi, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    When the PMT and preamplifier are out of order, it is impossible to make a correct diagnosis because of defects on the scintigram. However, repair of the equipment may take a long time. In order to perform emergent whole-body scintigrams in the event of such breakdowns, we have developed a new approach named the lead-shield method. The major principles of this method involve placing a lead shield on the gamma camera such that it corresponds to the area of the abnormal PMT and making use of the normal area of the detector. The lead shield, 2 mm thick and 1.5 times as wide as the defect on a planar image, was situated perpendicular to the scan plane of the whole-body scintigram. The results showed that whole-body scintigrams obtained by the lead-shield method had the same quality as those obtained by the conventional method, and the spatial resolution and uniformity showed nearly no change despite some disadvantages such as lower sensitivity and shorter scan length. The lead-shield method can be a useful tool for the performance of whole-body scintigrams in cases of emergency when the PMT and preamplifier are out of order. (author)

  18. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with 99m Tc, 131 I and 42 K is used. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Weller, F. R.; Scholte, A.; Rijssenbeek, L. H.; van der Baan, S.; Bogaard, J. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  1. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  2. Imaging technique of whole-body scintigram in the event of breakdown of the photomultiplier tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru; Kuranishi, Makoto [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1997-10-01

    When the PMT and preamplifier are out of order, it is impossible to make a correct diagnosis because of defects on the scintigram. However, repair of the equipment may take a long time. In order to perform emergent whole-body scintigrams in the event of such breakdowns, we have developed a new approach named the lead-shield method. The major principles of this method involve placing a lead shield on the gamma camera such that it corresponds to the area of the abnormal PMT and making use of the normal area of the detector. The lead shield, 2 mm thick and 1.5 times as wide as the defect on a planar image, was situated perpendicular to the scan plane of the whole-body scintigram. The results showed that whole-body scintigrams obtained by the lead-shield method had the same quality as those obtained by the conventional method, and the spatial resolution and uniformity showed nearly no change despite some disadvantages such as lower sensitivity and shorter scan length. The lead-shield method can be a useful tool for the performance of whole-body scintigrams in cases of emergency when the PMT and preamplifier are out of order. (author)

  3. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M T

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  4. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  5. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake,

  6. Whole-body γ-irradiation effects on catecholamine concentration in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makashev, Zh.K.; Uteshev, T.A.; Abylaev, Zh. A.; Zhurnist, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    On the whole-body gamma-radiation activity in the exchanges of catecholamines (adrenalin and non-adrenalin) and their predecessors (dopamine and DOPA) in the rats tissue organism, indicate the infringement of irradiated animals in different links of biological synthesis the bio-gen amines in different phases of the radiation: DOPA→dopamine, dopamine→adrenalin, adrenalin→non-adrenalin. (author)

  7. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC

  8. Whole-Body MR Imaging Including Angiography: Predicting Recurrent Events in Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Robert C; Bamberg, Fabian; Lochner, Elena; Findeisen, Hannes M; Parhofer, Klaus G; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L

    2016-05-01

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30%) developed one, 8 (13%) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75%, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63%, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63%, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88%, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. • Patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus are at high risk for recurrent events. • Whole-body MRI predicts occurrence of recurrent events independently of clinical characteristics. • The vessel score derived from whole-body angiography is a good general risk-marker. • Whole-body MRI may also provide organ-specific risk assessment. • Current findings may indicate benefits of

  9. Whole-body counting and dietary surveys in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Berteig, L.; Berthelsen, T.; Strand, T.; Boee, E.; Trygg, K.

    1989-01-01

    Doses to the Norwegian population from radiocaesium in food are estimated from whole-body counting and dietary surveys. The average effective dose equivalent during the first year after the Chernobyl accident is estimated to be between 0.12-0.25 mSv. One quarter of the dose is due to consumption of milk. For those of the population specially vulnerable (Lapps excluded), the dose is estimated to be about 1 mSv in the first year. Almost 90% of the dose is due to consumption of reindeer meat, freshwater fish and milk. The corresponding effective dose equivalent for Lapps was estimated to be between 1-3 mSv in the first year. More than 90% of the dose is due to consumption of reindeer meat. Without dietary changes the Lapps would probably have received doses 7-10 times higher. (author)

  10. EURADOS intercomparisons in external radiation dosimetry: similarities and differences among exercises for whole-body photon, whole-body neutron, extremity, eye-lens and passive area dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Ana M.; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Figel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. (authors)

  11. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137 Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137 Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137 Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y -1 . Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 μSv y -1 was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  13. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: an assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L C; Clinton, J H; Kaplan, E; Meinhold, C B

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 137Cs, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis, though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137Cs were less than 0.2 mSv y(-1). Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 microSv y(-1) was determined for Majuro residents.

  14. Whole-body counting of Fukushima residents after the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Takumaro; Takada, Chie; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Katsuta; Kurihara, Osamu; Tsujimura, Norio; Furuta, Sadaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohi, Yoshihiro; Murayama, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Uezu, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukushima Environmental Safety Center, Fukushima, Fukushima (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    At the request of the Fukushima government, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) started whole-body counting of residents on July 11, 2011, to assess radiation exposure after the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. JAEA has examined residents in Iitate, Kawamata, Namie, and eight other local communities. The measurement capacity of the whole-body counting device is approximately 100 persons per day, and the total number of people to measure reached 9,927 by the end of January 2012. Two types of whole-body counter (WBC), each of which has two large-sized NaI(Tl) detectors, were used to perform the measurements. Physical phantoms (a Canberra RMC-II transfer phantom or a water-filled block phantom developed by JAEA) were used to perform the efficiency calibration of the WBCs, and results of this calibration were verified by comparing them with different-sized BOttle Mannequin ABsorber (BOMAB) phantoms imitating an adult male, a 10-year-old child, and a 4-year-old child. Short half-life radionuclides (e.g., {sup 131}I) originating from the accident were not detected in the present work, because the measurements were made starting four months after the accident. These measurements showed that about 80% of the residents were below a minimum detectable amount (MDA) of the measured radionuclides in the whole-body content. No artificial nuclides other than {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the present whole-body counting. The maximum whole-body content of radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in total) was 2.7 kBq for children (< 8 years old) and 14 kBq for adults. The radioactivity ratio ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 134}Cs) was estimated to be from 1.12 to 1.26. An acute intake scenario via inhalation of radiocesium was assumed in the present dose estimation for all the residents who were measured by the end of January 2012. The committed effective dose (CED) to 99.8% of the residents was found to be below 1 mSv. There were only 25 subjects with a

  15. A prototype PET/SPECT/X-rays scanner dedicated for whole body small animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchota, Maritina; Georgiou, Maria; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Mikropoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Kagadis, George; Loudos, George

    2017-01-01

    To present a prototype tri-modal imaging system, consisting of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPET), a positron emission tomography (PET), and a computed tomography (CT) subsystem, evaluated in planar mode. The subsystems are mounted on a rotating gantry, so as to be able to allow tomographic imaging in the future. The system, designed and constructed by our group, allows whole body mouse imaging of competent performance and is currently, to the best of our knowledge, unequaled in a national and regional level. The SPET camera is based on two Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT), coupled to a pixilated Sodium Iodide activated with Thallium (NaI(Tl)) scintillator, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The dual head PET camera is also based on two pairs of PSPMT, coupled to pixelated berillium germanium oxide (BGO) scintillators, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The X-rays system consists of a micro focus X-rays tube and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detector, having an active area of 12x12cm 2 . The scintigraphic mode has a spatial resolution of 1.88mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and a sensitivity of 107.5cpm/0.037MBq at the collimator surface. The coincidence PET mode has an average spatial resolution of 3.5mm (FWHM) and a peak sensitivity of 29.9cpm/0.037MBq. The X-rays spatial resolution is 3.5lp/mm and the contrast discrimination function value is lower than 2%. A compact tri-modal system was successfully built and evaluated for planar mode operation. The system has an efficient performance, allowing accurate and informative anatomical and functional imaging, as well as semi-quantitative results. Compared to other available systems, it provides a moderate but comparable performance, at a fraction of the cost and complexity. It is fully open, scalable and its main purpose is to support groups on a national and regional level and provide an open technological platform to study different detector components and

  16. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  17. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  18. Conversion of a whole-body counter into a low-level whole-body scanning system controlled by a process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The report outlines the status of a research project in which a whole body counter with fixed geometries is converted into a scanning type system. The purpose of the project is the development of an adaptive system controlled by a process computer. The home-made scanning mechanics is explained, and a description is given of the advantages and the problems inherent in the application of step motors. For economic reasons no CAMAC system was purchased; instead, interfaces from and to the computer were designed which allowed the process periphery to be connected and operated. The inexpensive and relatively simple home-made designs are outlined; the example quoted refers to the conversion of a teletype output into a fast electronic data interface. (orig./ORU) [de

  19. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  20. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  1. Development of personnel dose control system and whole body counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooki, Yasushi; Harato, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    We delivered Personnel Dose Control System to Higashidohri nuclear plant of Tohoku Electric Power Company, in November 2004. In this system development, we automated the registration of radiation worker with close link between this system and Whole Body Counter System. In addition, this system enables the user to reduce workload for accumulation and notification of personal exposure data, because we adopted the system to extract the data effectively operating the terminal PC which the associate company gets ready in their office. We also delivered Whole body Counter System in December 2004, which was developed to measure internal exposure without feeling of oppression in chair-style device for the first time in Japan. This system enables non-operator system for measurement allowing workers to operate by themselves. (author)

  2. Measurement of whole-body human centers of gravity and moments of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, C B; Schultz, R B; Bjorn, V S

    1998-06-01

    With the inclusion of women in combat aircraft, the question of safe ejection seat operation has been raised. The potential expanded population of combat pilots would include both smaller and larger ejection seat occupants, which could significantly affect seat performance. The method developed to measure human whole-body CG and MOI used a scale, a knife edge balance, and an inverted torsional pendulum. Subjects' moments of inertia were measured along six different axes. The inertia tensor was calculated from these values, and principal moments of inertia were then derived. Thirty-eight antropometric measurements were also taken for each subject to provide a means for direct correlation of inertial properties to body dimensions and for modeling purposes. Data collected in this study has been used to validate whole-body mass properties predictions. In addition, data will be used to improve Air Force and Navy ejection seat trajectory models for the expanded population.

  3. Determination of iron absorption and excretion by whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollard, D.; Benabid, Y.; Berard, M.; Bonnin, J.; Darnault, J.; Millet, M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a whole-body counter, the authors have studied 59 Fe absorption and loss in 8 normal subjects and in 30 iron deficient patients. Results showed that whole-body counting provided an excellent and simple method for iron retention measurements, obviating many inaccuracies of previous technic. Normal absorption of radio iron with this procedure has ranged from 9 per cent to 20 per cent of the administered tracer in normal subjects, with a mean of 15 per cent. A significant increase in 59 Fe absorption was noted in 21 iron-deficient patients in whom the retention ranged from 40 to 100 per cent. However, 3 iron-deficient patients were found to have low absorption, and their severe iron deficiency could be correlated with this defect in absorption. This method permits also the determination of the rate of iron excretion during the following months and therefore the study of the mechanism of some pathological loss. (authors) [fr

  4. A review of whole-body counting techniques appropriate to the study of gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1976-01-01

    The wide range of whole-body counters in use for, or applicable to, the study of gastrointestinal absorption is reviewed. Shielded-room or high-sensitivity shadow-shield counters will generally be required only when there is a separate need to measure total body potassium or in studies involving pregnancy or children. For measuring gastrointestinal absorption per se, it is concluded that very simple whole-body counters of the shadow-shield or partial-shield type are usually satisfactory. These systems are of lower cost, and an economic justification for their use is derived by comparing their costs with those of hospitalizing patients for alternative investigations of gastrointestinal absorption. A resume of the general methodology is presented and some operational features and precautions are described. (author)

  5. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  6. Whole-body kinetics and dosimetry of cis-4-[18F]fluoro-l-proline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, Anne R.; Langen, Karl-J.; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Mueller-Mattheis, Volker; Schmitz, Thomas; Ackermann, Rolf; Coenen, Heinz H.

    2001-01-01

    The whole-body distribution of 4-cis[ 18 F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-FPro) was studied in six patients with urological tumors by PET. Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired at 1 and 3-5 h after i.v. injection of 400 MBq cis-FPro. Cis-FPro showed high retention in the renal cortex and a slight uptake in liver and pancreas. Urinary excretion ranged from 12 to 19% at 5 h p.i. Highest absorbed doses were found for the urinary bladder wall and the kidneys (44.1/44.0 μGy/MBq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 15.1 μSv/MBq for adults. This leads to an effective dose of 6.0 mSv in a PET study using 400 MBq cis-FPro

  7. Whole-body kinetics and dosimetry of cis-4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-proline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, Anne R.; Langen, Karl-J. E-mail: k.j.langen@fz-juelich.de; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Mueller-Mattheis, Volker; Schmitz, Thomas; Ackermann, Rolf; Coenen, Heinz H

    2001-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of 4-cis[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-FPro) was studied in six patients with urological tumors by PET. Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired at 1 and 3-5 h after i.v. injection of 400 MBq cis-FPro. Cis-FPro showed high retention in the renal cortex and a slight uptake in liver and pancreas. Urinary excretion ranged from 12 to 19% at 5 h p.i. Highest absorbed doses were found for the urinary bladder wall and the kidneys (44.1/44.0 {mu}Gy/MBq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 15.1 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults. This leads to an effective dose of 6.0 mSv in a PET study using 400 MBq cis-FPro.

  8. Whole-body kinetics and dosimetry of cis-4-[(18)F]fluoro-L-proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, A R; Langen, K J; Herzog, H; Hamacher, K; Müller-Mattheis, V; Schmitz, T; Ackermann, R; Coenen, H H

    2001-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of 4-cis[(18)F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-FPro) was studied in six patients with urological tumors by PET. Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired at 1 and 3-5 h after i.v. injection of 400 MBq cis-FPro. Cis-FPro showed high retention in the renal cortex and a slight uptake in liver and pancreas. Urinary excretion ranged from 12 to 19% at 5 h p.i. Highest absorbed doses were found for the urinary bladder wall and the kidneys (44.1/44.0 microGy/mbq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 15.1 microSv/mbq for adults. This leads to an effective dose of 6.0 mSv in a PET study using 400 MBq cis-FPro.

  9. Chemical radioprotection to bone marrow stem cells after whole body gamma irradiation to mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, J.; Dey, T.B.; Ganguly, S.K.; Nagpal, K.K.; Ghose, A.

    1988-11-01

    Protection to mice bone marrow stem cells has been noted as early as two days after whole body gamma ray exposure by prior treatment with combination of hydroxytryptophan (HT) and one of the two thiol drugs viz., aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) (20 mg/kg body weight) and B-mercaptopropionylglicine (MPG). The levels of protection to bone marrow stem cells thus obtained have been compared to that obtained by treating with the optimum radioprotecting dose of AET (200 mg/kg body weight). The study reports the bone marrow stem cells status after two days of 3 Gy, 5 Gy and 10 Gy whole body gamma irradiation in relation to the mentioned radioprotecting treatments as studied by spleen colony forming method.

  10. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60 Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60 Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60 CoCl 2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60 Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60 CoCl 2 . This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  11. Impact of whole-body rehabilitation in patients receiving chronic mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ubaldo J; Hincapie, Luis; Nimchuk, Mark; Gaughan, John; Criner, Gerard J

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of weakness in patients receiving chronic mechanical ventilation and the impact of providing aggressive whole-body rehabilitation on conventional weaning variables, muscle strength, and overall functional status. Retrospective analysis of 49 consecutive patients. Multidisciplinary ventilatory rehabilitation unit in an academic medical center. Forty-nine consecutive chronic ventilator-dependent patients referred to a tertiary care hospital ventilator rehabilitation unit. None. Patients were 58 +/- 7 yrs old with multiple etiologies for respiratory failure. On admission, all patients were bedridden and had severe weakness of upper and lower extremities measured by a 5-point muscle strength score and a 7-point Functional Independence Measurement. Postrehabilitation, patients had increases in upper and lower extremity strength (p respiratory muscle training with an improvement in strength, weaning outcome, and functional status. Whole-body rehabilitation should be considered a significant component of their therapy.

  12. Effects of whole body UV-irradiation on oxygen delivery from the erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humpeler, E.; Mairbaeurl, H.; Hoenigsmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 16 healthy caucasian volunteers (mean age: 22.2 years) the influence of whole body UV-irradiation on the oxygen transport properties of erythrocytes was investigated. Four hours after irradiation with UV (using the minimal erythema dose, MED) no variation of haemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, pH or standard bicarbonate could be found, whereas inorganic plasma phosphate (Psub(i)), calcium, the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the activity of erythrocytic phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvatekinase (PK) increased significantly. The half saturation tension of oxygen (P 50 -value) tended to increase. The increase of Psub(i) causes - via a stimulation of the glycolytic pathway - an increase in 2,3-DPG concentration and thus results in a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. It is therefore possible to enhance tissue oxygenation by whole body UV-irradiation. (orig.)

  13. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  14. Bases for calibration of whole body counters using anthropomorphic physical simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao

    1998-01-01

    The quantification of radionuclides in the human body can be carried out through in vivo measurements performed in facilities generically called whole body counters. The calibration of such units is usually done by using physical anthropomorphic phantoms, which can be defined as artificial structures with geometrical characteristics and attenuation properties similar to the living tissues. This work presents the development of the phantoms necessary to the monitoring of the internal contamination by the radionuclides manipulated in Brazil. It also presents the procedures for the calibration of the detectors used for the in vivo measurements. The developed phantoms are applied in the determination of radionuclides deposited in specific organs, such as Th-232 and Am-241 in the lungs and skull, isotopes of iodine in the thyroid and photon emitters in the energy range from 100 to 3000 keV in the whole body. (author)

  15. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  16. [Modeling of processes of heat transfer in whole-body hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsht, D N

    2006-01-01

    The method of whole-body hyperthermia in which the body temperature for a short time reaches values up to 43-44 degrees C holds currently much promise. However, at body temperatures above 42 degrees C, the risks associated with the hemodynamic instability and the appearance of arrhythmia in the patient increase. A model of heat transfer has been created to increase the efficiency and safety of the immersion-convectional method of whole-body hyperthermia. This model takes into account changes in the skin blood flow and the dynamics of pulse rate depending on body temperature. The model of heat transfer adequately reflects processes of heating of the organism and can form a basis for the calculation of distribution of heat inside the organism.

  17. Effect of whole body irradiation on O2- production in polymorphonuclear leukocyte of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiya, Harutaka

    1987-01-01

    The capacity of superoxide anion production of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) has been determined after whole body irradiation. A diminished capacity of superoxide anion production in the presence of opsonized zymosan was found in PMNL taken from guinea pigs irradiated in vivo with 5, 10, and 20 Gy. However, no such diminution was found after a dose of 2 Gy. On the other hand, levels of superoxide anion production stimulated by myristate, N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (FMLP), and Concanavalin A remained unchanged compared to the control. PMNL irradiated in vitro with 20 Gy had a capacity of superoxide anion production similar to that of the control samples in the presence of either opsonized zymosan or FMLP and myristate. These results suggest that the capacity of superoxide anion production stimulated by zymosan is damaged by whole body irradiation. (author)

  18. Improved quality of image got through whole-body CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    The quality of brain images taken with a whole-body CT scanner has so far been generally inferior in quality to those got through a CT scanner exclusively used for brains. In order to improve the whole-body CT scanner so as to get better brain image, its detection system has been made multichannel; the capacity of its X-ray tube, increased; and its software, innovated. As a result, the spatial resolution has been improved from 5.51 p/cm to 9.01 p/cm, the contrast resolution has been improved from 3.2 mm% to 1.5 mm%, with the noise maintained at 0.5%. In clinical examination, the image quality has been improved equally well for brains, abdomens and lungs. Especially high appreciation is given to the diagnosis information got through this new scanner. (author)

  19. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chongguo; Wu Dake

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  20. Whole body bone scintigraphy in tenofovir-related osteomalacia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Biagio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread® is the only nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of HIV. It is frequently prescribed not only for its efficacy but also for its decreased side effect profile compared with other nucleotide analogs. In addition, it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of acquired Fanconi's syndrome in individuals with HIV. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman infected with HIV, with chronic renal insufficiency, who developed Fanconi's syndrome after inclusion of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in her antiretroviral therapy. A whole body bone scintigraphy was performed, revealing an abnormal distribution of radiotracer uptake, with characteristic changes compatible with osteomalacia. All symptoms disappeared after tenofovir discontinuation and mineral supplementation. No other explanation for the sudden and complete resolution of the bone disease was found. Conclusion The case highlights the role of whole body bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tenofovir-related osteomalacia.

  1. SARS - Diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  2. Monitoring scanner calibration using the image-derived arterial blood SUV in whole-body FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Apostolova, Ivayla; Kreissl, Michael C; Kotzerke, Jörg; van den Hoff, Jörg

    2018-05-15

    The current de facto standard for quantification of tumor metabolism in oncological whole-body PET is the standardized uptake value (SUV) approach. SUV determination requires accurate scanner calibration. Residual inaccuracies of the calibration lead to biased SUV values. Especially, this can adversely affect multicenter trials where it is difficult to ensure reliable cross-calibration across participating sites. The goal of the present work was the evaluation of a new method for monitoring scanner calibration utilizing the image-derived arterial blood SUV (BSUV) averaged over a sufficiently large number of whole-body FDG-PET investigations. Data of 681 patients from three sites which underwent routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT or PET/MR were retrospectively analyzed. BSUV was determined in the descending aorta using a three-dimensional ROI concentric to the aorta's centerline. The ROI was delineated in the CT or MRI images and transferred to the PET images. A minimum ROI volume of 5 mL and a concentric safety margin to the aortic wall was observed. Mean BSUV, standard deviation (SD), and standard error of the mean (SE) were computed for three groups of patients at each site, investigated 2 years apart, respectively, with group sizes between 53 and 100 patients. Differences of mean BSUV between the individual groups and sites were determined. SD (SE) of BSUV in the different groups ranged from 14.3 to 20.7% (1.7 to 2.8%). Differences of mean BSUV between intra-site groups were small (1.1-6.3%). Only one out of nine of these differences reached statistical significance. Inter-site differences were distinctly larger (12.6-25.1%) and highly significant (PPET investigations is a viable approach for ensuring consistent scanner calibration over time and across different sites. We propose this approach as a quality control and cross-calibration tool augmenting established phantom-based procedures.

  3. Combined effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Shoja, Esmaeil; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Shoja, Mohsen; Gharaee, Masoumeh; Asgari, Amin

    2018-03-12

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting, as well as their combined effect on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time in laboratory conditions. 44 men were recruited with an average age of 25.4 ± 1.9 years. Each participant was subjected to 12 experimental steps, each step lasting five minutes for four different vibration accelerations in X, Y, and Z axes at a fixed frequency; three different lighting intensities of 50, 500, and 1000 lx were also considered. At each step, a visual computerized reaction test was taken from subjects and their heart rate recorded by pulse oximeter. In addition, the discomfort rate of subjects was measured using Borg scale. Increasing vibration acceleration significantly increased the discomfort rate and heart beat but not the reaction time. Lack of lighting caused more discomfort in the subjects, but there was no significant correlation between lighting intensity with heart rate and reaction time. The results also showed that the combined effect of vibration and lighting had no significant effect on any of the discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time variables. Whole-body vibration is an important factor in the development of human subjective and physiological reactions compared to lighting. Therefore, consideration of the level of vibration to which an individual is exposed in workplaces subject to vibration plays an important role in reducing the level of human discomfort, but its interaction with ambient lighting does not have a significant effect on human subjective and physiological responses.

  4. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  5. Quantitative in vivo micro-computed tomography for assessment of age-dependent changes in murine whole-body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Beaucage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is used routinely to quantify skeletal tissue mass in small animal models. Our goal was to evaluate repeated in vivo micro-CT imaging for monitoring whole-body composition in studies of growth and aging in mice. Male mice from 2 to 52 weeks of age were anesthetized and imaged using an eXplore Locus Ultra and/or eXplore speCZT scanner. Images were reconstructed into 3D volumes, signal-intensity thresholds were used to classify each voxel as adipose, lean or skeletal tissue, and tissue masses were calculated from known density values. Images revealed specific changes in tissue distribution with growth and aging. Quantification showed biphasic increases in total CT-derived body mass, lean and skeletal tissue masses, consisting of rapid increases to 8 weeks of age, followed by slow linear increases to 52 weeks. In contrast, bone mineral density increased rapidly to a stable plateau at ~14 weeks of age. On the other hand, adipose tissue mass increased continuously with age. A micro-CT-derived total mass was calculated for each mouse and compared with gravimetrically measured mass, which differed on average by <3%. Parameters were highly reproducible for mice of the same age, but variability increased slightly with age. There was also good agreement in parameters for the same group of mice scanned on the eXplore Locus Ultra and eXplore speCZT systems. This study provides reference values for normative comparisons; as well, it demonstrates the usefulness of in vivo single-energy micro-CT scans to quantify whole-body composition in high-throughput studies of growth and aging in mice. Keywords: Adipose tissue, Bone mineral content, Bone mineral density, Growth, Lean tissue, Skeletal tissue

  6. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Ballongue, P

    2000-07-01

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10{sup -2} seems possible in the near future. (author)

  7. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Ballongue, P.

    2000-01-01

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10 -2 seems possible in the near future. (author)

  8. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  9. Effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on oxygen transport by rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriot, Christian; Kergonou, J.F.; Rocquet, Guy; Allary, Michel; Saint-Blancard, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) upon oxygen transport by erythrocytes, through the erythrocyte count and related parameters, and through the factors affecting the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is increased from day D + 5 after irradiation, and a severe erythropenia develops from day D + 8. These modifications probably result in tissue hypoxia via diminished oxygen transport from lungs to tissues, and decreased oxygen release from oxyhemoglobin in tissues

  10. Whole body perfusion in patients undergoing frozen elephant trunk for type A acute aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Roscitano, Claudio; Bichi, Samuele; Cricco, Antonio; Parrinello, Matteo; Beghi, Cesare; Albano, Giovanni; Esposito, Giampiero

    2017-03-01

    The Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) can be adopted in selected type A acute aortic dissections (TAAAD). During FET, a prolonged distal circulatory arrest exposes the spine and visceral organs to potential ischemic injuries. Antegrade distal aortic perfusion (ADAP) could minimize this risk: we describe the technical aspects of the simultaneous use of antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and ADAP achieving a "Whole Body Perfusion" (WBP) during FET.

  11. Command Recognition of Robot with Low Dimension Whole-Body Haptic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshiaki

    The authors have developed “haptic armor”, a whole-body haptic sensor that has an ability to estimate contact position. Although it is developed for safety assurance of robots in human environment, it can also be used as an interface. This paper proposes a command recognition method based on finger trace information. This paper also discusses some technical issues for improving recognition accuracy of this system.

  12. Beneficial effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on sport haemolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Melegati, Gianluca; Barassi, Alessandra; Melzi d'Eril, Gianvico

    2009-01-01

    Background. Sport's anemia is a common risk for athletes. The principal source of an accelerated turnover of the erythrocytes in sportsmen is the intravascular hemolysis. This phenomenon is induced by mechanical breakage for impact of feet and muscular contractions, but also by osmotic changes causing membrane fragility, typically evident after exercise, when free radicals are increased. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) covers a wide range of therapeutic applications and consists of briefly expos...

  13. Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model as Whole-Body CT Image Registration Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and moveme...

  14. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  15. Neurogenic Effects of Low-Dose Whole-Body HZE (Fe) Ion and Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tara B; Hurley, Sean D; Wu, Michael D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs. gamma-radiation exposure, C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 1 GeV/n Fe ions or a static 137 Cs source (0.662 MeV) at doses ranging from 0 to 300 cGy. The neurogenesis was analyzed at 48 h and one month postirradiation. These experiments revealed that whole-body exposure to either Fe ions or gamma radiation leads to: 1. An acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, detected at doses as low as 30 and 100 cGy for Fe ions and gamma radiation, respectively; and 2. A reduction in newly differentiated neurons (DCX immunoreactivity) at one month postirradiation, with significant decreases detected at doses as low as 100 cGy for both Fe ions and gamma rays. The data presented here contribute to our understanding of brain responses to whole-body Fe ions and gamma rays and may help inform health-risk evaluations related to systemic exposure during a medical or radiologic/nuclear event or as a result of prolonged space travel.

  16. Late biochemical changes in the rat lung after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancewicz, A.M.; Kubicka, T.

    1976-01-01

    Young Wistar rats were exposed to 650 R of whole body X-rays then sacrificed at different times after exposure up to one year, and various biochemical parameters in lung tissue were determined. Decrease in protein and elastin content and elevation in fibrinolytic and catheptic activity lasted during the whole observation period. In other parameters a fluctuation, mostly decrease followed by an increase, was seen only during the acute phase of radiation disease. (author)

  17. Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

  18. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  19. Cardiopulmonary response during whole-body vibration training in patients with severe COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Gloeckl; Petra Richter; Sandra Winterkamp; Michael Pfeifer; Christoph Nell; Jeffrey W. Christle; Klaus Kenn

    2017-01-01

    Several studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has beneficial effects on exercise capacity. However, the acute cardiopulmonary demand during WBVT remains unknown and was therefore investigated in this study. Ten patients with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1?s: 38?8% predicted) were examined on two consecutive days. On day one, symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a cycle...

  20. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Fonda, Borut; Šarabon, Nejc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted ...

  1. Whole-Body Vibrations Associated With Alpine Skiing: A Risk Factor for Low Back Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing, both recreational and competitive, is associated with high rates of injury. Numerous studies have shown that occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations is strongly related to lower back pain and some suggest that, in particular, vibrations of lower frequencies could lead to overuse injuries of the back in connection with alpine ski racing. However, it is not yet known which forms of skiing involve stronger vibrations and whether these exceed safety thresholds set by existing standards and directives. Therefore, this study was designed to examine whole-body vibrations connected with different types of skiing and the associated potential risk of developing low back pain. Eight highly skilled ski instructors, all former competitive ski racers and equipped with five accelerometers and a Global Satellite Navigation System to measure vibrations and speed, respectively, performed six different forms of skiing: straight running, plowing, snow-plow swinging, basic swinging, short swinging, and carved turns. To estimate exposure to periodic, random and transient vibrations the power spectrum density (PSD and standard ISO 2631-1:1997 parameters [i.e., the weighted root-mean-square acceleration (RMS, crest factor, maximum transient vibration value and the fourth-power vibration dose value (VDV] were calculated. Ground reaction forces were estimated from data provided by accelerometers attached to the pelvis. The major novel findings were that all of the forms of skiing tested produced whole-body vibrations, with highest PSD values of 1.5–8 Hz. Intensified PSD between 8.5 and 35 Hz was observed only when skidding was involved. The RMS values for 10 min of short swinging or carved turns, as well as all 10-min equivalent VDV values exceeded the limits set by European Directive 2002/44/EC for health and safety. Thus, whole-body vibrations, particularly in connection with high ground reaction forces, contribute to a high risk for low back

  2. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the ...

  3. A critical evalution of 24 hours whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Bessent, R.G.; Scullion, J.E.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In previous studies we have found that 24 hour whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate is a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r = 0.998, p < 0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. The net whole-body count of a phantom representing the 24 hour whole-body distribution of tracer was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects, counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. For eleven subjects with traumatic fractures it was found that 9 had normal values for WBR, while 2 had minimally elevated results. For twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease a significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r = 0.72, p<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/l. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is highly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is in the normal range then an elevated WBR result can be assumed to reflect increased skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (Author)

  4. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Szczepaniak; Wojciech Tanaś; Jacek Kromulski

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primari...

  5. Autoradiographic changes in the kidney of the whole-body sublethally x-ray irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinic, A; Uray, Z

    1977-01-01

    203Hg-hydroxymersalyl uptake/gram of kidney (HU), renal autoradiographic and histologic aspect after 800 R x-ray whole-body rat irradiation was studied. Twenty-four to seventy-two hours after irradiation, HU increased, while tubular autoradiographic granularity decreased. Their return to the control levels occurred gradually within two weeks. The relations of these findings to the early circulatory and dystrophic changes, as well as to the subsequent postirradiation restoring renal process are discussed.

  6. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technology in the application of PET/CT whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jun; Zhao Zhoushe; Li Hong; Lu Zhe; Wu Wenkai; Guo Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve image quality of low dose CT in whole body PET/CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technology. Methods: Twice CT scans were performed with GE water model,scan parameters were: 120 kV, 120 and 300 mA respectively. In addition, 30 subjects treated with PET/CT were selected randomly, whole body PET/CT were performed after 18 F-FDG injection of 3.70 MBq/kg, Sharp IR+time of flight + VUE Point HD technology were used for 1.5 min/bed in PET; CT of spiral scan was performed under 120 kV using automatic exposure control technology (30-210 mA, noise index 25). Model and patients whole body CT images were reconstructed with conventional and 40% ASiR methods respectively, and the CT attenuation value and noise index were measured. Results: Research of model and clinical showed that standard deviation of ASiR method in model CT was 33.0% lower than the conventional CT reconstruction method (t =27.76, P<0.01), standard deviation of CT in normal tissues (brain, lung, mediastinum, liver and vertebral body) and lesions (brain, lung, mediastinum, liver and vertebral body) reduced by 21.08% (t =23.35, P<0.01) and 24.43% (t =16.15, P<0.01) respectively, especially for normal liver tissue and liver lesions, standard deviations of CT were reduced by 51.33% (t=34.21, P<0.0) and 49.54% (t=15.21, P<0.01) respectively. Conclusion: ASiR reconstruction method was significantly reduced the noise of low dose CT image and improved the quality of CT image in whole body PET/CT, which seems more suitable for quantitative analysis and clinical applications. (authors)

  7. A shielding chamber for the Rossendorf whole-body counter; Eine Abschirmkammer fuer den Rossendorfer Ganzkoerperzaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Stephan; Loehnert, Daniela [VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik und Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany).; Schreiber, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbedarf G. Schoene und W. Schreiber GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    A large part of radionuclides to be evaluated in the frame of incorporation monitoring are gamma emitter that can be directly measured (in vivo). In order to reach the required detection limits for the relevant radionuclides in the short measuring time high effort is necessary for the shielding of natural radioactivity. The contribution describes planning, construction and installation of the shielding chamber for the new in vivo whole body counter in Rossendorf. First experiences and preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  9. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J.

    2013-01-01

    and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain...

  10. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1...

  11. Clinical evaluation of exercise thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kenzo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate whole body distribution and kinetics of Thallium-201 at exercise and redistribution, whole body scintigraphy (WB-S) was performed on 12 normal subjects (N), 19 patients with angina pectoris (AP) and 18 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI). WB-S was obtained using a gamma camera OMEGA 500 and analized by ADAC System IV. We estimated the following parameters from WB-S; 1) %Distribution (%D): the ratio of whole body counts to organ counts 2) washout rate (WR) in each organ. %D of the heart in N, AP and MI was similar at rest and exercise. At exercise, %D of the lung and the liver decreased and %D of thighs increased remarkably than at rest. At supine exercise, the lung indicated high %D and thinghs indicated low %D compared with at upright exercise. WR of the heart in AP and MI was significantly lower than in N (p<0.005, p<0.01) and further decreased proportionally to the number of stenotic coronary arteries and related to the ischemic ST depression of exercise ECG. WR of the heart was not correlation with pressure rate product and this finding suggested that WR of the heart was not prescribed by the tolerance of exercise but related to coronary flow at exercise a certain degree. WR of the lung in MI was significantly higher (p<0.025) and WR of thighs in AP and MI was significantly lower (p<0.025, p<0.05) compared with N. (author)

  12. Effect of alcohol consumption on whole-body protein turnover in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Krentz, Helga; Bruns, Gerrit

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the whole-body protein turnover, either before or after continuous, moderate ethanol-induced oxidative stress by red wine consumption over a relatively short period in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy adults received an individual regular diet over 20 days. After 10 days, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol kg(-1) day(-1) as red wine together with dinner over a 10-day period. After 8 and 18 days, respectively, a (15)N-labelled yeast protein was administered in a dosage of 4.2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Urine and faeces were collected over 48 h, respectively. The (15)N-enrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the protein flux rates were calculated by a three-compartment model. The whole-body protein turnover without/with red wine consumption amounted to 3.73±0.6 and 3.49±0.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) (not significant), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes in the whole-body protein turnover of healthy adults.

  13. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  14. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  15. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  16. In-vivo assessment of whole-body radioisotope burdens at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilik, D.G.; Aikin, I.C.

    1983-08-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory program for in-vivo measurements includes the capability for the whole-body assessment of body burdens for x-ray or gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes. This capability is an important part of the health and safety program at Los Alamos where a wide variety of radioisotopes are utilized. This report addresses the whole body portion of our in-vivo measurement capabilities. Whole-body measurements at Los Alamos make use of a hyperpure germanium (HpGe) detector and a lithium-drifted germanium [Ge(Li)] detector for identification and quantification of radioisotopes. Analysis results are interpreted in terms of two basic statistical measures of detection limits. One measure is called the minimum significant measured activity (MSMA), which is interpreted as meaning that there is some activity in the body. The second measure is called the minimum detectable true activity (MDTA), which is defined as the smallest amount of activity required to be in the body in order that a measurement of an individual can be expected to imply correctly the presence of activity with a predetermined degree of confidence. 7 references, 8 figures

  17. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Floeth, Frank; Herzog, Hans; Tellmann, Lutz; Langen, Karl-J.; Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H.; Mueller, Hans-W.

    2003-01-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV ≤1.6) which remained constant between early and late PET scans. No increased uptake was seen in the bone, the biliary tract or the pancreas. Twenty-two percent of the injected activity was excreted 5 h p.i. (approx. 5.3% ID/h). The highest absorbed dose was found for the urinary bladder wall. The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 16.5 μSv/MBq for adults, which would lead to an effective dose of 6.1 mSv in a PET study using 370 MBq FET. (orig.)

  18. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauleit, Dirk [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Research Center Juelich, P.O. Box 1913, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Floeth, Frank [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Herzog, Hans; Tellmann, Lutz; Langen, Karl-J. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Mueller, Hans-W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV {<=}1.6) which remained constant between early and late PET scans. No increased uptake was seen in the bone, the biliary tract or the pancreas. Twenty-two percent of the injected activity was excreted 5 h p.i. (approx. 5.3% ID/h). The highest absorbed dose was found for the urinary bladder wall. The effective dose according to ICRP 60 was 16.5 {mu}Sv/MBq for adults, which would lead to an effective dose of 6.1 mSv in a PET study using 370 MBq FET. (orig.)

  19. Whole-body distribution and dosimetry of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Floeth, Frank; Herzog, Hans; Hamacher, Kurt; Tellmann, Lutz; Müller, Hans-W; Coenen, Heinz H; Langen, Karl-J

    2003-04-01

    The whole-body distribution of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)- l-tyrosine (FET) was studied in seven patients with brain tumours by positron emission tomography (PET). Based on the IMEDOSE and MIRDOSE procedures, radiation absorbed doses were estimated from whole-body PET scans acquired approximately 70 and 200 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq FET. After injection of FET, the peak of radioactivity in the blood was observed after 1.5 min, and a plateau of nearly constant radioactivity was reached at 20 min. The whole-body distribution of FET showed the highest activities in the urinary tract. All other organs exhibited only moderate FET uptake (SUV

  20. Whole-body muscle MRI in 20 patients suffering from late onset Pompe disease: Involvement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Robert-Yves; Laforet, Pascal; Wary, Claire; Mompoint, Dominique; Laloui, Kenza; Pellegrini, Nadine; Annane, Djillali; Carlier, Pierre G; Orlikowski, David

    2011-11-01

    To describe muscle involvement on whole-body MRI scans in adult patients at different stages of late-onset Pompe disease. Twenty patients aged 37 to 75 were examined. Five were bedridden and required ventilatory support. Axial and coronal T1 turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on 1.5T or 3T systems. MRI was scored for 47 muscles using Mercuri's classification. Whole-body scans were obtained with a mean in-room time of 29 min. Muscle changes consisted of internal bright signals of fatty replacement without severe retraction of the muscles' corpus. Findings were consistent with previous descriptions of spine extensors and pelvic girdle, but also provided new information on recurrent muscle changes particularly in the tongue and subscapularis muscle. Moreover thigh involvement was more heterogeneous than previously described, in terms of distribution across muscles as well as with respect to the overall clinical presentation. Whole-body MRI provides a very evocative description of muscle involvement in Pompe disease in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of whole-body irradiation on neonatally thymectomized mice. Incidence of benign and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of neonatal thymectomy and whole-body irradiation on the prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in germ-free female mice of the Charles Rivers line were studied to determine if a portion of the tumorigenic effects of irradiation can be attributed to injury of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response. Neonatal thymectomy increased (a) the incidence of benign and malignant tumors and (b) the prevalence of multiple primary neoplasms in an individual mouse. Whole-body exposure to 700 rad at 6 weeks of age further increased the incidence of tumors, but the relative magnitude of this increase was less pronounced than in sham-operated controls. Thus, the cumulative effects of thymectomy plus irradiation are less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. One of several possible explanations for this observation is that a portion of the carcinogenic effects of whole-body irradiation is mediated by suppression of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response

  2. [Muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A G; Tabiev, V I; Rassulova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy. The study included 55 patients randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of the patients treated with the use of the common mineral baths, physiotherapy, therapeutic physical exercises, spinal massage, and whole body air-cryotherapy. Group 2 contained the patients who were treated in a similar way with the exception of whole body cryotherapy; they served as controls. Muscular disorders were diagnosed by means of functional muscular testing. The study has demonstrated the high prevalence of muscular disorders in the patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, it revealed the profile of such disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and showed significant correlation between the results of functional muscular testing, BASMI and BASFI indices as well as characteristics of chest excursions (pcryotherapy in comparison with the alternative therapeutic modalities employed in the present study. This therapeutic modality ensured the statistically more pronounced improvement of functional muscular testing parameters (pcryotherapy accounting for its corrective influence on the muscular disorders in the patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that the proposed approach can be recommended for the introduction in the combined therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

  3. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I.; Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of γ-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. 241 Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy γ-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for 241 Am administered via injection and less than 10% for 241 Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  4. Estimation of whole body dose in an unusual event: spillage of radioactive material on the chair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adtani, M.M.; Biju, K.; Deshpande, M.D.; Shivde, R.K.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The personnel monitoring in India is done using thermoluminescence dosimeters worn at chest level. In research institutions and in nuclear facilities where radiation sources are processed in dispersible forms, a remote possibility exists that radiation source entering in the area where installed monitor does not exist and the source may get spilled on chair and causing exposure to persons sitting on the chair. In such case TLD may not give the correct exposure as there is shielding of individuals body. An attempt is made to find out a factor for estimating the whole body dose by knowing the TLD badge dose or by measuring the gonad dose. Experiments are performed using TLDs and also measurement by teletector. Monte Carlo simulations are also done. It is observed that a factor of 8 to TLD Badge dose will give whole body dose if worker has received dose only on said chair or by applying a factor of 0.23 to dose measured at gonad level will give whole body dose. (author)

  5. Importance of Intercomparison Exercises in Assessment of Internal Exposure by Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic requirement for any kind of measurement is to check and prove the reliability and correctness of the measured results. Quality assurance programmes require several activities among which the participation in intercomparison exercises plays an important role. Since the determination of radioactive materials in the human body by whole-body counting technique implies many sources of uncertainties the reliability of calibration data and consequently the measured results have to be checked by participation in intercomparison quality control programmes. In these programmes mostly different kinds of phantoms simulating the human body are circulated among the participating laboratories, however sometimes contaminated persons are also subjects of intercomparison measurements. There are guidelines in several countries laid down concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the relative bias, precision and minimum detectable amounts are formulated. These quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute participated in intercomparison exercises several times in the last few years. The lessons learned during these activities helped in checking the capabilities of applied methods and measuring geometry as well as contributed in improving the accuracy of the measured results. A short overview on the previous international intercomparison exercises their main characteristics the results obtained and conclusions drawn are discussed in the paper with special attention to those in which also our laboratory participated. (author)

  6. Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Hara, Takamitsu; Nanbu, Takeyuki; Suenaga, Hiroki; Sugawara, Shigeyasu; Kuroiwa, Daichi; Sekino, Hirofumi; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy. Although there have been several reports that adding diffusion weighted image (DWI) to PET/MRI protocol has had no effect on tumor detection to date, in cases of liver, kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer, the use of DWI may be beneficial in detecting lesions. Another possible option is to scan each region with different MRI sequences instead of scanning the whole body using one sequence continuously. We herein report a workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI using an integrated system in the clinical routine, designed for the detection, for example by cancer screening, of metastatic lesions, in order to help future users optimize their workflow and imaging protocols.

  7. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  8. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del; Halldorsson, O.; Holm, S.; Huikari, J.; Isaksson, M.; Lind, B.; Roed, H.

    2011-02-01

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  9. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  10. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmo@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  11. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  12. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future.

  13. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  14. Assessment of workers' exposure to hand-arm and whole body vibration in one of the furniture industries in east of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers in wood industry are exposed to vibration and its damages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure to hand-arm and whole body vibration in the wood industry. In this study, the parameters of whole body and hand-arm vibrations such as effective acceleration, overall equivalent acceleration, Vibration Dose Value and crest factor were studied on two Thicknessing planes, two sliding panel saw machines, two orbital sander, and three operators of perforate procedure. Assessments were done by the use of an oscillator and an analyzer of Svantak Co. Evaluating Hand-arm and whole body vibrations were conducted based on ISO 5349-1, ISO 5349-2 and ISO 2631-1 standards, respectively, and the findings/ the evaluated data were analyzed. The mean amount of daily exposure to hand-arm vibration (RMS in Thicknessing plane, Orbital Sander and Sliding panel saw machine operators are respectively 5.56, 5.49 and 3.37 m/s2 . In addition, the average crest factor of the 3 jobs is higher than 6. Mean of daily Exposure to whole body vibration in 3 machine operators of Thicknessing plane, perforate procedure and Sliding panel saw is respectively, 0.28, 0.24 and 0.17 meters per square second. The crest factor for all the exposures was to be less than 6 and the mean of the calculated daily vibration dose equaled 5.83 with the standard deviation of 0.87( m⁄s^1.75 . In further measured situations, exposure to hand-arm vibration is more than the standard level, so engineering and management measures are required to reduce the amount of exposure and support the health of the operators and the equipment.

  15. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  17. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

  18. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  19. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  20. Estimation of absorbed dose for 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d- glucose using whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloar, H.M.; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Shidahara, Miho; Nakamura, Takashi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Yuichiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the cumulated activity and absorbed dose in organs after i.v. administration of 18 F-FDG using whole-body PET and MRI. Whole-body dynamic emission scans for 18 F-FDG were performed in six normal volunteers after transmission scans. The total activity of a source organ was obtained from the activity concentration of the organ measured by whole-body PET and the volume of that organ measured by whole-body T1-weighted MRI. The cumulated activity of each source organ was calculated from the time-activity curve. Absorbed doses to the individuals were estimated by the MIRD (medical internal radiation dosimetry) method. Another calculation of cumulated activities and absorbed doses was performed using the organ volumes from the MIRD phantom and the ''Japanese reference man'' to investigate the discrepancy of actual individual results against the phantom results. The cumulated activities of 18 source organs were calculated, and absorbed doses of 27 target organs estimated. Among the target organs, bladder wall, brain and kidney received the highest doses for the above three sets of organ volumes. Using measured individual organ volumes, the average absorbed doses for those organs were found to be 3.1 x 10 -1 , 3.7 x 10 -2 and 2.8 x 10 -2 mGy/MBq, respectively. The mean effective doses in this study for individuals of average body weight (64.5 kg) and the MIRD phantom of 70 kg were the same, i.e. 2.9 x 10 -2 mSv/MBq, while for the Japanese reference man of 60 kg the effective dose was 2.1 x 10 -2 mSv/MBq. The results for measured organ volumes derived from MRI were comparable to those obtained for organ volumes from the MIRD phantom. Although this study considered 18 F-FDG, combined use of whole-body PET and MRI might be quite effective for improving the accuracy of estimations of the cumulated activity and absorbed dose of positron-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.(orig./MG) (orig.)

  1. An assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in Ireland (1996-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P. A.; Currivan, L.; Fenton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Whole-body occupational exposure to artificial radiation sources in Ireland for the years 1996-2005 has been reviewed. Dose data have been extracted from the database of the Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland, which contains data on >95% of monitored workers. The data have been divided into three sectors: medical, industrial and education/ research. Data on exposure to radon in underground mines and show caves for the years 2001-05 are also presented. There has been a continuous increase in the number of exposed workers from 5980 in 1996 to 9892 in 2005. Over the same time period, the number of exposed workers receiving measurable doses has decreased from 676 in 1996 to 189 in 2005 and the collective dose has also decreased from 227.1 to 110.3 man milli-sievert (man mSv). The collective dose to workers in the medical sector has consistently declined over the 10-y period of the study while that attributable to the industrial sector has remained reasonably static. In the education/research sector, the collective dose typically represents 5% or less of the total collective dose from all practices. Over the 10 y of the study, a total of 77914 annual dose records have been accumulated, but only 4040 ( 1 mSv and 21 of these exceeded 5 mSv. Most of the doses >1 mSv were received by individuals working in diagnostic radiology (which also includes interventional radiology) in hospitals and site industrial radiography. There has been only one instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Evaluating the data for the period 2001-05 separately, the average annual collective dose from the medical, industrial and educational/research sectors are ∼60, 70 and 2 man mSv with the average dose per exposed worker who received a measurable dose being 0.32, 0.79 and 0.24 mSv, respectively. Diagnostic radiology and site industrial radiography each represents >60% of the collective dose in their respective sectors. Available data on radon exposure in one underground

  2. Whole-body PET acceptance test in 2D and 3D using NEMA NU 2-2001 protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shamurailatpam Dayananda; Deshpande, D.; Prasad, R.; Shetye, Bina; Rangarajan, V.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated PET/CT has emerged as an integral component of oncology management because of its unique potential of providing both functional and morphological images in a single imaging session. In this work, performance of the 'bismuth germinate (BGO) crystal'-based PET of a newly installed Discovery ST PET/CT was evaluated in 2D and 3D mode for whole-body scanning using National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2001 protocol and the recommended phantoms. During the entire measurements, the system operates with an energy window of 375-650 keV and 11.7 ns coincidence time window. The set of tests performed were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction (SF) and counting rate performance. The average transaxial and axial spatial resolution measured as full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function at 1 cm (and 10 cm) off-axis was 0.632 (0.691) and 0.491 (0.653) cm in 2D and 0.646 (0.682) and 0.54 (0.601) cm in 3D respectively. The average sensitivity for the two radial positions (R = 0 cm and R = 10 cm) was 2.56 (2.63) cps/kBq in 2D and 11.85 (12.14) cps/kBq in 3D. The average scatter fraction was 19.79% in 2D and 46.19% in 3D. The peak noise equivalent counting rate (NECR) evaluated with single random subtraction was 89.41 kcps at 49 kBq/cc in 2D and 60 kcps at 12 kBq/cc in 3D acquisition mode. The NECR with delayed random subtraction was 61.47 kcps at 40.67 kBq/cc in 2D and 45.57 kcps at 16.45 kBq/cc in 3D. The performance of the PET scanner was satisfactory within the manufacturer-specified limits. The test result of PET shows excellent system sensitivity with relatively uniform resolution throughout the FOV, making this scanner highly suitable for whole-body studies. (author)

  3. 24 hr Whole-Body Retension of 99mTc-Methylene Diphosphonate and Osteocalcin in patients with Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoum, Kwang Seop; Lee, Jin Oh; Kang, Tae Woong; Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Sung Woon

    1990-01-01

    The development of histomorphometric and histodynamic investigations has permitted the description of a specific and complex osteopathy in hyperthyroidism. The increased bone turnover rate in hyperthyroid patients may be accompanied by a considerable bone loss. These features are associated with both increased osteoclastic bone resorption and increased osteoclastic bone formation, with an accelerated calcification rate. Conventional biochemical markers of bone metabolism, i.e. serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline and calcium are normal in most patients with hyperthyroidism. However, the correlation between serum BGP and serum concentration of thyroid hormon suggests that serum BGP may be a sensitive marker of increased bone formation due to the hypersecretion of thyroid hormones. Any increase in bone turnover, whether focal or diffuse, will result in an increase in 99m Tc-methylenediphosphonate uptake (MDP). The measurement of this uptake in hyperthyroid patients by bone provides a sensitive and objective means of quantifying skeletal metabolism. Using a standard shadow-shield whole-body monitor and radioimmunoassay kit, we have measured whole-body retention of 99m Tc-MDP up to 24 hr and concentration of serum Osteocalcin in 20 patients with hyperthyroidism and in 42 normals. The results were as follows; 1) The average of serum Osteocalcin level in 42 patients with normals was 9.90 ± 4.87(ng/ml) and in 20 patients with hyperthyroidism was 19.54 ± 5.7(ng/ml). Both the averages of serum Osteocalcin and 24 hr 99m Tc-MDP uptakes in hyperthyroid patients were higher than those in normals. 2) 99m Tc-MDP uptakes in skeletal system increased in proportion to normal ageing after 40 yrs old in 42 patients with normals. The average of 99m Tc-MDP uptakes in hyperthyroid patients were higher than those in normals without related ageing. 3) A significant relationships between the 99m Tc-MDP uptakes and serum Osteocalcin level were performed (r=0

  4. 24 hr Whole-Body Retension of {sup 99m}Tc-Methylene Diphosphonate and Osteocalcin in patients with Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoum, Kwang Seop; Lee, Jin Oh; Kang, Tae Woong; Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Sung Woon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The development of histomorphometric and histodynamic investigations has permitted the description of a specific and complex osteopathy in hyperthyroidism. The increased bone turnover rate in hyperthyroid patients may be accompanied by a considerable bone loss. These features are associated with both increased osteoclastic bone resorption and increased osteoclastic bone formation, with an accelerated calcification rate. Conventional biochemical markers of bone metabolism, i.e. serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline and calcium are normal in most patients with hyperthyroidism. However, the correlation between serum BGP and serum concentration of thyroid hormon suggests that serum BGP may be a sensitive marker of increased bone formation due to the hypersecretion of thyroid hormones. Any increase in bone turnover, whether focal or diffuse, will result in an increase in {sup 99m}Tc-methylenediphosphonate uptake (MDP). The measurement of this uptake in hyperthyroid patients by bone provides a sensitive and objective means of quantifying skeletal metabolism. Using a standard shadow-shield whole-body monitor and radioimmunoassay kit, we have measured whole-body retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP up to 24 hr and concentration of serum Osteocalcin in 20 patients with hyperthyroidism and in 42 normals. The results were as follows; 1) The average of serum Osteocalcin level in 42 patients with normals was 9.90 +- 4.87(ng/ml) and in 20 patients with hyperthyroidism was 19.54 +- 5.7(ng/ml). Both the averages of serum Osteocalcin and 24 hr {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptakes in hyperthyroid patients were higher than those in normals. 2) {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptakes in skeletal system increased in proportion to normal ageing after 40 yrs old in 42 patients with normals. The average of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptakes in hyperthyroid patients were higher than those in normals without related ageing. 3) A significant relationships between the {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptakes and serum

  5. Effect of whole body cryotherapy interventions on health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenet, M; Tubez, F; Marreiro, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Legrand, F; Boyer, F C

    2018-02-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (SFM) affects 2-4 percent of adults, research has not identified a preferred therapeutic option for patients worldwide yet. Based on recent findings, it can be expected that whole body cryotherapy can improve health-reported quality of life by alleviating the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Our aim was to determine whether whole body cryotherapy only can result in improved perceived health and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. 24 patients with fibromyalgia diagnosis were randomized into 2 groups (n=11 in the whole body cryotherapy group, n=13 in the control group). In the whole body cryotherapy group, 10 sessions of whole body cryotherapy were performed (in addition to usual care) in a standard cryotherapy room over a duration of 8days. Subjects in the control group did not change anything in their everyday activities. Quality of life was assessed just before and one month after treatment. Compared with the control group, patients in the whole body cryotherapy group reported significantly improved for health-reported quality of life. These effects lasted for at least one month following intervention. Based on these findings, whole body cryotherapy can be recommended as an effective clinically adjuvant approach in the improvement of health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on the usefulness of whole body SPECT coronal image, MIP image in {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Seiji [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kurata, Seiji; Morita, Seiichirou; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Fukushima, Shigehiro [Kyushu Inst. of Design, Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Auditory and Visual Communication Sciences; Umezaki, Noriyoshi [Daiichi Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    In this study, we examined the usefulness of whole body coronal images and whole body cine display MIP images (CMIP) upon which image processing was carried out after whole body SPECT in comparison to the usefulness of whole body images (WB/SC) compensated by scattered radiation in tumor/inflammation scintigraphy with {sup 67}Ga-citrate ({sup 67}Ga). Image interpretation was performed for the 120 patients with confirmed diagnoses, and the accuracy of their diagnoses was studied by three nuclear medical physicians and two clinical radiological technologists by means of sensitivity, specificity and ROC analysis. The resultant data show that sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve Az in the WB/SC were approximately 65%, 86%, 74% and 0.724, respectively, whereas sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az of the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method were approximately 93%, 95%, 94% and 0.860, respectively. Furthermore, coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method tended to be superior to those produced by the FBP method in both diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. In conclusion, the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method was shown to be superior in diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. Our data suggest that whole body SPECT is an excellent technique as an alternative to WB/SC. (author)

  7. Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, 60 Co and 131 I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and open-quotes countedclose quotes. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed

  8. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  9. Comparison of a new whole-body continuous-table-movement protocol versus a standard whole-body MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, S.; Michaely, H.J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Dinter, D.J.; Stemmer, A.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a whole body (WB) continuous-table-movement (CTM) MR protocol for the assessment of multiple myeloma (MM) in comparison to a step-by-step WB protocol. Eighteen patients with MM were examined at 1.5T using a WB CTM protocol (axial T2-w fs BLADE, T1-w GRE sequence) and a step-by-step WB protocol including coronal/sagittal T1-w SE and STIR sequences as reference. Protocol time was assessed. Image quality, artefacts, liver/spleen assessability, and the ability to depict bone marrow lesions less than or greater than 1 cm as well as diffuse infiltration and soft tissue lesions were rated. Potential changes in the Durie and Salmon Plus stage and the detectability of complications were assessed. Mean protocol time was 6:38 min (CTM) compared to 24:32 min (standard). Image quality was comparable. Artefacts were more prominent using the CTM protocol (P = 0.0039). Organ assessability was better using the CTM protocol (P < 0.001). Depiction of bone marrow and soft tissue lesions was identical without a staging shift. Vertebral fractures were not detected using the CTM protocol. The new protocol allows a higher patient throughput and facilitates the depiction of extramedullary lesions. However, as long as vertebral fractures are not detectable, the protocol cannot be safely used for clinical routine without the acquisition of an additional sagittal sequence. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Hippophae leaves on neurotransmitters and hematological parameters in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vanita; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Till date no approved radio-protective agent is available world over. WR-2721 had severe side effects and was behaviourally toxic even at sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known for its nutraceutical and therapeutic values. Our studies demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides rendered > 90% whole body radioprotection in 60 Co-g-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population in comparison to 100% death in non-Hippophae treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. Our studies also demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides prevented conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in irradiated (2 Gy) Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Hippophae leaves on changes in levels of neurotransmitters ((acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA)) in plasma and brain, haematological parameters in blood/plasma; and brain histology in Sprague-Dawley rats showing CTA after 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy). The results showed that whole body 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy) (i) increased the levels of Ach, Eepinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE); oxidative stress (MDA and NO), and (ii) decreased the levels of DA; WBC counts and RBC counts and antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to untreated control. Treatment with 12 mg/kg b.w. drug concentration, prior to irradiation significantly (p<0.05) (i) decreased the levels of AChE, E and NE, and MDA and NO levels in plasma and brain, and (ii) increased the WBC counts; RBC counts and levels of antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to radiation control group. Histological changes in brain were also recorded. The results demonstrated that Hippophae leaves extract had neuro-protective and reduced oxidative stress in brain of whole body irradiated mice and could be, thereby contributing to behavioural protection. (author)

  11. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  12. Distribution of plutonium and americium in whole bodies donated to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Kathren, R.L.; Swint, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis of whole body donations from six former nuclear industry workers 30 or more years post-exposure revealed about 45% of the total body deposition of 239 Pu and 35% of the 241 Am in the respiratory tract of the four cases with inhalation exposure. These proportions are greater than predicted by the current ICRP lung model. Exclusive of the respiratory tract, the mean fractional systemic deposition of 239 Pu in the tissues of five whole bodies was: liver 35.4% ± 12.5%; skeleton 53.7% ± 12.5%; striated muscle 6.5% ± 1.8% and all other organs and tissues 4.4% ± 1.7%. For 241 Am, the comparable values in four cases were liver 6.5% ± 4.8%; skeleton 73.5% ± 12.4%; muscle 14.3% ± 7.6%; and all other tissues and organs 6.65% ± 4.2%. The systemic distribution of 239 Pu was generally consistent with ICRP Publication 30. A significant fraction of both nuclides was retained in the muscle and other soft tissues which serve as long-term storage depots. Initial fractionation of 241 Am between skeleton and liver is consistent with the 50:30 ratio proposed in ICRP Publication 48 assuming an effective clearance half-time from the liver of about 2 y. Estimates of 239 Pu deposition made on the basis of urinalysis results in vivo were typically greater than the observed deposition measured in the tissues of the whole body after death. (author)

  13. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-01-01

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO 2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O 2 /kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15 N in urea after oral 15 N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  14. Retrospective analysis of whole-body multislice computed tomography findings taken in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bingol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Using whole-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT excessively or with irrelevant indications can be seen in many centers. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the MSCT findings in trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. Methods: Records of the patients who have applied to the emergency department due to blunt trauma in a 12 month period and whose whole body MSCT images have been taken, were evaluated using the “Nucleus Medical Information System”. Results: The most frequent type of trauma was traffic accidents in 61.4%, falling down from the height in 22.4%, and motorcycle accidents in 11.4% of patients. Of the patients, 25.2% were discharged from the emergency, while 73.8% were hospitalized. At least one CT findings associated with trauma was present in 61.4% of our patients. Pathological findings in MSCT were most frequently detected in the head and face (35.3% and thoracic (28.6% regions, respectively. The most common finding in the head and face region was fractures. The most common pathological findings in the thoracic region were pulmonary contusion and rib fractures. A significant relationship was detected between trauma type and spinal MSCT result (p < 0.001. In a large percentage of the patients, MSCT findings were normal in the abdominal region and genitourinary system. Vertebral fractures were most frequently detected in the thoracolumbar region. Conclusions: In our study, our rate of negative CT was found to be 38.6%, which is a higher ratio compared to other studies conducte on this topic. Keywords: Emergency, Trauma, Whole-body multislice computed tomography

  15. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  16. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Ziemann, Ewa; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery) is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

  17. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  19. Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Solecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipment. The review of literature showed that the highest values of equivalent exposure to noise (EA, T or noise doses (d were noted during the summer-autumn season and in spring. Mean noise levels for the entire year (of over 90 dB-A, considerably exceeded permissible values.The primary sources of the whole body vibration are agricultural vehicles including agricultural tractors of various types and self-propelled agricultural vehicles. In these vehicles vibration transmitted from the seat to the whole body is of basic importance. The measurements of vibration acceleration indicated that mechanical vibration on seats was produced while performing following activities: hay tedding and raking, sowing of fertilizers, aggregation of soil, grass mowing and cultivation. All of them may create a considerable health risk. These work activities are performed at elevated working speeds of tractors, most often along with hardened or uneven surfaces. In relation to the standard values (A(840.8 m/s2, the mean daily vibration acceleration values remain below the permissible levels during all months of the year. However, considering the occurrence of mechanical shocks of high values (above the Maximum Acceptable Intensity on agricultural vehicles there is a high risk for the spine problems among operators of agricultural vehicles.

  20. Can segmental model reductions quantify whole-body balance accurately during dynamic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkrajang, Parunchaya; Robinson, Mark A; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat; Vanrenterghem, Jos

    2017-07-01

    When investigating whole-body balance in dynamic tasks, adequately tracking the whole-body centre of mass (CoM) or derivatives such as the extrapolated centre of mass (XCoM) can be crucial but add considerable measurement efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduced kinematic models can still provide adequate CoM and XCoM representations during dynamic sporting tasks. Seventeen healthy recreationally active subjects (14 males and 3 females; age, 24.9±3.2years; height, 177.3±6.9cm; body mass 72.6±7.0kg) participated in this study. Participants completed three dynamic movements, jumping, kicking, and overarm throwing. Marker-based kinematic data were collected with 10 optoelectronic cameras at 250Hz (Oqus Qualisys, Gothenburg, Sweden). The differences between (X)CoM from a full-body model (gold standard) and (X)CoM representations based on six selected model reductions were evaluated using a Bland-Altman approach. A threshold difference was set at ±2cm to help the reader interpret which model can still provide an acceptable (X)CoM representation. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement profiles of the CoM representation based on lower limbs, trunk and upper limbs showed strong agreement, slightly reduced for lower limbs and trunk only. Representations based on lower limbs only showed less strong agreement, particularly for XCoM in kicking. Overall, our results provide justification of the use of certain model reductions for specific needs, saving measurement effort whilst limiting the error of tracking (X)CoM trajectories in the context of whole-body balance investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  2. Calibration of the LDI/CDTN Whole Body Counter using three physical phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, F.G.; Fonseca, T.C.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Nuclear; Mendes, B.M.; Silva, T.A. da; Lacerda, M.A.S.; Pinto, J.R.; Prates, S.; Filho, N.N.A., E-mail: fgpaiva92@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil); Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (LDI/CDTN) is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs) at the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals (UPPR/CDTN), the Research Reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1/CDTN and other workplaces of the institute where there is a risk of accidental intakes. Additionally, LDI supports the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) to attend radiological emergencies. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides in the human body requires the use of calibration techniques in different counting geometries for converting the count rates into activity in organs and tissues. This paper presents and discusses the calibration of the LDI/CDTN Whole Body Counter (WBC) using a standard BOMAB phantom (Bottle Mannequin Absorber) compared to a home-made phantom produced with Polyethylene Terephthalate bottles (PET). Initially, the BOMAB was filled with a cocktail containing {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba. The phantom was counted at the LDI whole body counter and an Efficiency x Energy curve was obtained. Subsequently the PET-BOMAB was filled with the same standard source and a second curve was determined. The efficiency values in each region of interest as well as the shape of both curves were found to be equivalent. The results validate the use of the PET-BOMAB for the calibration of whole body geometry applied to the measurement of high energy photon emitting radionuclides in the energy region evaluated in this work. (author)

  3. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, A; Gutierrez, D; Baskin, A; Ay, M R; Ahmadian, A; Riahi Alam, N; Lövblad, K O; Zaidi, H

    2013-07-08

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based on B-spline transformation was performed using optimized parameters of the elastix package based on the Insight Toolkit (ITK) framework. Twenty-eight (17 male and 11 female) clinical studies were used in this work. The registration was evaluated using anatomical landmarks and segmented organs. In addition to 16 anatomical landmarks, three key organs (brain, lungs, and kidneys) and the entire body volume were segmented for evaluation. Several parameters--such as the Euclidean distance between anatomical landmarks, target overlap, Dice and Jaccard coefficients, false positives and false negatives, volume similarity, distance error, and Hausdorff distance--were calculated to quantify the quality of the registration algorithm. Dice coefficients for the majority of patients (> 75%) were in the 0.8-1 range for the whole body, brain, and lungs, which satisfies the criteria to achieve excellent alignment. On the other hand, for kidneys, Dice coefficients for volumes of 25% of the patients meet excellent volume agreement requirement, while the majority of patients satisfy good agreement criteria (> 0.6). For all patients, the distance error was in 0-10 mm range for all segmented organs. In summary, we optimized and evaluated the accuracy of an MR to CT deformable registration algorithm. The registered images constitute a useful 3D whole-body MR-CT atlas suitable for the development and evaluation of novel MR-guided attenuation correction procedures on hybrid PET-MR systems.

  4. Accuracy of 24-h whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Scullion, J.E.; Bessent, R.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The 24-h whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate was a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r=0.998, R<0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. A phantom was used to assess the possible error introduced by redistribution of tracer. The net whole-body count of the phantom representing the 24-h distribution was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects were counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning, and showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. Eleven subjects with traumatic fractures were studied to assess the possible contribution of focal lesions to WBR. It was found that nine subjects had normal values for WBR, while two had minimally elevated results. Twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease were also studied to assess the possible contribution of soft-tissue retention to WBR. A significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r=0.72, P<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/1. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is hgihly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is the normal range then WBR can be assumed to reflect skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (orig.)

  5. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  6. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L.; Bamberg, Fabian; Lochner, Elena; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2016-01-01

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  7. Land-based whole-body counting on Enewetak Island in the Marshall Islands for 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barss, N.M.; Bell, R.T.; Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contracts Brookhaven National Laboratory- (BNL) scientists to perform a whole-body counting (WBC) program of the people living at Enewetak Island since 1980. Goals of the program are to monitor the intake of fission products and to assure the radiation safety of the residing population. Under the current direction of the DOE Office of International Health Programs, a WBC unit has been transported and installed at the Enewetak Field Station during a mission from 27 November to 11 December 1995. Previous WBC missions had been conducted aboard a vessel provided by DOE. The main objective of this land-based approach is to provide a self-monitoring capability for the Enewetakese in any season at any time. The purposes of this paper are to (1) describe the technical basis for this land-based WBC operation, (2) report current monitoring results, and (3) compare the average cesium dose rates from this mission with previous WBC results. The minimum detectable amount (MDA) of the WBC system is about 60 Bq in a 900 s interval. Due to local life style in a tropical environment, about 20 counting measurements can be made per day. The average cesium body content measured during this mission is 307±218 Bq for male adults, which is the lowest value since 1980. Assuming a continuous steady state intake of cesium, the corresponding effective dose rate from 137 Cs is about 11 μSv y -1

  8. System for whole body imaging and count profiling with a scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Cooke, M.B.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of and apparatus for the radionuclide imaging of the whole body of a patient using an unmodified scintillation camera which permits a patient to be continuously moved under or over the stationary camera face along one axis at a time, parallel passes being made to increase the dimension of the other axis. The system includes a unique electrical circuit which makes it possible to digitally generate new matrix coordinates by summing the coordinates of a first fixed reference frame and the coordinates of a second moving reference frame. 19 claims, 7 figures

  9. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  10. Theoretical assessment of whole body counting performances using numerical phantoms of different gender and sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, O; Breustedt, B; Mostacci, D; Zankl, M; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    A goal of whole body counting (WBC) is the estimation of the total body burden of radionuclides disregarding the actual position within the body. To achieve the goal, the detectors need to be placed in regions where the photon flux is as independent as possible from the distribution of the source. At the same time, the detectors need high photon fluxes in order to achieve better efficiency and lower minimum detectable activities. This work presents a method able to define the layout of new WBC systems and to study the behaviour of existing ones using both detection efficiency and its dependence on the position of the source within the body of computational phantoms.

  11. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  12. Response of peripheral leucocytes to whole body irradiation and vitamin E treatment in white leghorn chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in peripheral blood leucocytes in 1 day old male white leghorn chicks were studied after whole body exposure to 2.25 Gy dose of gamma radiation at the rate of 0.50 Gy/sec with and without vitamin E. The changes in total leucocyte counts, lymphocytes and heterophils were observed at 1,3,5,7,14 and 28 days postirradiation. A pronounced leucocytopenia was noted in the initial post-irradiation period. The lymphocytes and heterophils showed a reciprocal relationship after radiation. With vitamin E treatment, considerable and faster recovery was noticed in the leucocytes after irradiation. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  13. [Segmentation of whole body bone SPECT image based on BP neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; He, Yuanlie; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, BP neural network is used to segment whole body bone SPECT image so that the lesion area can be recognized automatically. For the uncertain characteristics of SPECT images, it is hard to achieve good segmentation result if only the BP neural network is employed. Therefore, the segmentation process is divided into three steps: first, the optimal gray threshold segmentation method is employed for preprocessing, then BP neural network is used to roughly identify the lesions, and finally template match method and symmetry-removing program are adopted to delete the wrongly recognized areas.

  14. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...... irreversible removal of NE, is smaller than previously estimated due to recycling through the plasma space. Attention has been drawn to limitations of [3H]NE kinetics....

  15. Principle and preliminary results of the whole-body scintigraphic unit Omniview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlin, G.; Jung, G.M.; Gerard, G.

    The Picker Company has recently launched a system adapted to its Dynacamera for the production of whole-body scintigraphs. For the last few months the radioisotopes service of the Strasbourg Anti-Cancer Centre has been in possession of such a system, intended mainly for systematic research on metastases, especially of the bone, and on the degree of extension of tumours. On the basis of the short experience so far acquired the report is limited to an outline of the working principle of this device, the presentation of preliminary documents and a few critical remarks summing up first impressions [fr

  16. Hypodontia in the beagle after perinatal whole-body 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a long-term study to evaluate health effects of pre- and postnatal irradiation, dental development was examined. Beagles were irradiated in utero at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus or postnatally at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum. Whole-body 60 Co gamma radiation doses ranged from 0 to 3.8 Gy. There was an age-dependent dose-related increase in premolar hypodontia for animals irradiated at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum with doses of 0.83 Gy or higher and for those irradiated at 28 days postcoitus with 1.2 Gy or higher

  17. Semi-portable whole body counter deployable during post-radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.G.; Bansode, P.Y.; Vinod, M.; Sarade, Bhagyashree; Jain, R.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    A versatile whole body counter with the state of art electronics has been indigenously designed and developed which can be readily deployed for use during nuclear emergency. This instrument is designed to quickly identify and quantify the activity of high energy photon emitters accumulated particularly in vital organs like thyroid, lungs besides the body of the victims of the radiological incident or accident. Special features of the instruments are swivel type detectors assembly mountable on a wall or table top and detachable collimator configurable to assess the internal contamination selectively to meet protective measures of the radiological accidents, mechanically rugged and functionally reliable to perform in contaminated environmental field conditions. (author)

  18. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations

  19. Quantification of whole-body bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease participants using multiple inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memar, Sara; Delrobaei, Mehdi; Pieterman, Marcus; McIsaac, Kenneth; Jog, Mandar

    2018-04-15

    Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) is a common motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can severely affect quality of life for those living with the disease. Assessment and treatment of PD motor symptoms largely depends on clinical scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). However, such clinical scales rely on the visual assessment by a human observer, naturally resulting in inter-rater variability. Although previous studies have developed objective means for measuring bradykinesia in PD patients, their evaluation was restricted by the type of movement and number of joints assessed. These studies failed to provide a more comprehensive, whole-body evaluation capable of measuring multiple joints simultaneously. This study utilizes wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) to quantify whole-body movements, providing novel bradykinesia indices for walking (WBI) and standing up from a chair (sit-to-stand; SBI). The proposed bradykinesia indices include the joint angles at both upper and lower limbs and trunk motion to compute a complete, objective score for whole body bradykinesia. Thirty PD and 11 age-matched healthy control participants were recruited for the study. The participants performed two standard walking tasks that involved multiple body joints in the upper and lower limbs. The WBI and SBI successfully identified differences between control and PD participants. The indices also effectively identified differences within the PD population, distinguishing participants assessed with (ON) and without (OFF) levodopa; the gold-standard of treatment for PD. The goal of this study is to provide health professionals with an objective score for whole body bradykinesia by simultaneously measuring the upper and lower extremities along with truncal movement. This method demonstrates potential to be used in conjunction with current clinical standards for motor symptom assessment, and may also be promising for the remote assessment of PD

  20. Whole-body protein turnover of a carnivore, Felis silvestris catus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K; Lobley, G E; Millward, D J

    2003-01-01

    The cat (Felis silvestris catus) has a higher dietary protein requirement than omnivores and herbivores, thought to be due to metabolic inflexibility. An aspect of metabolic flexibility was examined with studies of whole-body protein turnover at two levels of dietary protein energy, moderate protein (MP; 20 %) and high protein (HP; 70 %), in five adult cats in a crossover design. Following a 14 d pre-feed period, a single intravenous dose of [15N]glycine was administered and cumulative excretion of the isotope in urine and faeces determined over 48 h. N flux increased (Pwork is required to determine exactly why cats have such a high protein requirement.

  1. Caffeine-induced hematological changes after whole-body irradiation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Recent research indicated dietary antioxidants were useful radioprotectors to protect organisms against radiation-induced tissue lethality and other deleterious effects. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the previous studies indicated that caffeine had been shown to potently act the radioprotector in irradiated mice. However it is not clear exactly about effects of caffeine treatments chronically after irradiation. So the present studies were designed to identify the hematological effect of caffeine treatments chronically one month after whole-body gamma irradiation.

  2. Variation in thickness of the large cryosections cut for whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsunao; Brill, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method to assess variation in thickness of the large cryosections for whole-body autoradiography (WBARG) was described, and the degree of intraslice and interslice variations were determined for our cryomicrotome system (LKB PMV-2250). Intraslice variation in thickness of the 180 x 80 mm cryosection was 0.72-0.92 μm within the range of section thickness for WBARG (15-50 μm), and interslice variation was 0.89-1.21 μm. These potential variations in section thickness should be kept in mind whenever working with quantitative WBARG. (author)

  3. A 2-Tesla active shield magnet for whole body imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, F.J.; Elliott, R.T.; Hawksworth, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a 2T superconducting Active Shield magnet, with a 0.99m diameter warm bore for whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The magnet and cryostat were designed to meet the same performance standards as existing MRI magnets, but with the volume of the stray field region reduced to less than 4% of that for an unshielded magnet. The 0.5 mT stray field contour is within 5m axially and 3m radially of the magnet center. The system weight is only 14 tonnes

  4. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  5. Emergency treatment of exertional heatstroke and comparison of whole body cooling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrini, A

    1990-02-01

    This manuscript compares the whole body cooling techniques in the emergency treatment of heatstroke. Historically, the use of cold water immersion with skin massage has been quite successful in rapidly lowering body temperature and in avoiding severe complications or death. Recent studies have suggested alternative therapies, including the use of a warm air spray, the use of helicopter downdraft, and pharmacological agents. While evidence exists to support these methods, they have not been shown to reduce fatalities as effectively as ice water immersion. Although several cooling methods may have clinical use, all techniques rely on the prompt recognition of symptoms and immediate action in the field.

  6. Acid-base status after whole-body irradiation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.; Koch, F.; Dyrba, W.; Kirbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation using 9 MeV X-rays of a linear accelerator of 10 clinically healthy lactating cows aged between 3.5 and 8 years produced an acute radiation syndrome in the LD 100/30 range. Blood analysis 1 day after irradiation showed a compensated metabolic acidosis with a low renal net acid-base excretion and hyerphosphaturia. Later the acid-base status indicated a differently marked metabolic alkalosis. In the main reaction period acidotic disturbances occurred, which partially were camouflaged by respiratory alkalosis. (author)

  7. Dry coupling for whole-body small-animal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Xia, Jun; Li, Chiye; Chen, Wanyi; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-04-01

    We have enhanced photoacoustic computed tomography with dry acoustic coupling that eliminates water immersion anxiety and wrinkling of the animal and facilitates incorporating complementary modalities and procedures. The dry acoustic coupler is made of a tubular elastic membrane enclosed by a closed transparent water tank. The tubular membrane ensures water-free contact with the animal, and the closed water tank allows pressurization for animal stabilization. The dry coupler was tested using a whole-body small-animal ring-shaped photoacoustic computed tomography system. Dry coupling was found to provide image quality comparable to that of conventional water coupling.

  8. Development of 'Enhance reconstruction package' software for whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Tetsuro; Imanishi, Tatsuru; Ishikawa, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    We have developed 'Enhance Reconstruction Package' Software for our whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) Eminence series. This package improves image quality and streamlines the workflow in clinical PET and PET/CT studies. The present paper describes an outline of the applications for data collection, normalization, etc. and also reports some PET images obtained by the software. The signal to noise ratio was optimized in the phantom study, leading to the improvement in image quality. The real time display tool and the remote control tool would make a contribution to enhancement in operability in the routine workflow. (author)

  9. Effect of whole-body irradiation on skeletal growth in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, P.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Late effects of single whole-body doses of 400 to 500 and 750 to 900 rads on skeletal growth in 32 rhesus monkeys were studied. Findings indicated growth inhibition strongly related to dose and age at irradiation. Doses of 750 to 900 rads before the age of 40 months resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition (11%) than doses given during or shortly after adolescence (p < 0.005). Doses of less than 750 rads were not significant. In view of the close similarity between monkeys and man, irradiation of children at doses greater than 750 rads may carry a strong risk of subsequent growth retardation

  10. Computer generated multi-color graphics in whole body gamma spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.G.; Curtis, S.P.; Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV)

    1984-01-01

    A medium resolution color graphics terminal (512 x 512 pixels) was appended to a computerized gamma spectrometer for the display of whole body counting data. The color display enhances the ability of a spectroscopist to identify at a glance multicolored spectral regions of interest immediate qualitative interpretation. Spectral data from subjects containing low concentrations of gamma emitters obtained by both NaI(T1) and phoswich detectors are viewed by the method. In addition, software generates a multispectral display by which the gross, background, and net spectra are displayed in color simultaneously on a single screen

  11. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  12. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  13. Spontaneous and evoked cerebral activity modifications on whole-body γ irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Dufour, R.; Bassant, M.H.; Fatome, M.

    1976-01-01

    Whole-body γ-exposure from 150 to 850 rads (dose-rate: 14 rads.min -1 ) delivered to adult rabbits chronically implanted with electrodes resulted in prompt and delayed changes of behavior, arousal and spontaneous and evoked electrical activities. Electrophysiological techniques of polygraphic recording and signal processing showed that the alterations were related to the absorbed dose. The threshold dose accompanied with transient changes of arousal should be in the range of 50-100 rads; below this range, to the exclusion of some possible behavior changes, exposure should act as a stimulation that would become nociceptive at higher doses only [fr

  14. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R.

    2001-01-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  15. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  16. 24-hour whole-body retention of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is described for the examination of bone tissue metabolism; a 24-hour retention of diphosphonate labelled with radioactive sup(99m)Tc (assessed using a whole-body counter or by estimation of the amount of labelled substance excreted in the course of 24 hours via the urine). The values are elevated in primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, generalized Paget's disease, multiple bone metastases; the values are not uniform in osteoporosis. The method is simple, sensitive and reliable (provided renal function is normal), suited for screening, as part of specialized osteological diagnosis as well as for repeated longitudinal investigations. (author)

  17. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  18. Comparison of computational models for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131 - Comparison of rainbow trout phantoms for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose rates from uptake of iodine-131 in freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Nicole E. [Department of Environmental and Engineering Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 (United States); Johnson, Thomas E.; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Pinder, John E. III [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    . Organs were modeled using detailed tissue composition data for rainbow trout acquired by ICP-MS. We consider the dose rates to the thyroid, GI-tract, and liver of rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131, where the concentrations of {sup 131}I in these organs have been determined for the first 32 days following an {sup 131}I release into the freshwater system. The largest average organ dose rates were for the thyroid, which ranged up to 0.6 mGy d{sup -1}. Preliminary results suggest significant differences between the phantom types for both whole body and organ dose rates, and agree well with previous work which has proposed 104 as the maximum deviation between whole body and organ dose rates. (authors)

  19. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography of patients using a standard clinical scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Tomas; Wikstroem, Johan; Eriksson, Mats-Ola; Lundberg, Anders; Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Lars [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ljungman, Christer [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Uppsala (Sweden); Hoogeven, Romhild [Philips Medical Systems, MR Clinical Science, Best (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with a standard clinical scanner. Thirty-three patients referred for stenoses, occlusions, aneurysms, assessment of patency of vascular grafts, vasculitis and vascular aplasia were examined in a 1.5-T scanner using its standard body coil. Three-dimensional sequences were acquired in four stations after administration of one intravenous injection of 40 ml conventional gadolinium contrast agent. Different vessel segments were evaluated as either diagnostic or nondiagnostic and regarding the presence of stenoses with more than 50% diameter reduction, occlusions or aneurysms. Of 923 vessel segments, 67 were not evaluable because of poor contrast filling (n=31), motion artefacts (n=20), venous overlap (n=12) and other reasons (n=4). Stenoses of more than 50%, occlusions or aneurysms were observed in 26 patients (129 segments). In nine patients additional unsuspected pathology was found. In 10 out of 14 patients (71/79 segments) there was conformity between MRA and digital subtraction angiography regarding the grade of stenosis. This study shows that whole-body MRA with a standard clinical scanner is feasible. Motion artefacts and the timing of the contrast agent through the different segments are still problems to be solved. (orig.)

  20. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  1. Estimation of throium deposited in thorotrast patients by whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo; Takao, Hideaki; Norimura, Toshiyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Thorotrast, a colloidal solution of thorium dioxide was injected to wounded soldiers, for angiography from 1930 to 1945. The patients who received Thorotrast are interesting objects for finding a biological effect due to the internal irradiation by 232 Th. To determine a distribution and body burden of 232 Th, forty-one Thorotrast patients were measured their gamma-rays with a pair of NaI(T1) scintillation detectors coaxially positioned above and below the coach in the whole body counter of Nagasaki University. The comparison between the usual method using constant values and the method using individual values depend on the organ positions determined with CT (Computed Tomography) scanner for patients was performed to estimate the errors due to the individual differences in the detection efficiency of 232 Th. From the results, the estimates by the whole body counter of the amounts of 232 Th deposits in abdominal region were obtained within the uncertainties of 16 %. And the absorbed dose in the liver and the spleen was also estimated from the amounts of 232 Th. (author)

  2. Usefulness of Ga-67 citrate whole body imaging, chest spot imaging, and chest SPECT in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kyoichi; Nishi, Koichi; Namura, Masanobu; Kawashima, Yoshio; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, and the relative role of Ga-67 whole body, chest spot imaging, and chest SPECT, we retrospectively studied 34 cases of sarcoidosis (24 biopsy proven, 10 clinically diagnosed) with Ga-67 (111 MBq), and compared the results of lung (25 cases), muscle (25 cases), skin (3 cases), and myocardial (2 cases) biopsies. Ga-67 chest SPECT (single photon emission CT) were done in 17 cases with Siemens MultiSPECT3. Ga-67 planar imaging visualized only 2 of 12 (16.7%) lung biopsy-positive cases, 5 of 12 (41.6%) muscle biopsy-positive cases, 2 of 3 (66.7%) skin biopsy-positive cases. However, Ga-67 imaging revealed the lesions in 1 of 9 (11.1%) of muscle biopsy-negative cases, in 2 of 3 (66.7%) of skin biopsy-negative cases, and in 1 of 2 myocardial biopsy-negative cases. Ga-67 chest SPECT visualized 14 hilar lymphadenopathy (LN), 3 supraclavicular LN, and 1 myocardial sarcoidosis. Although both SPECT, and planar spot imaging detected the lesions equally, the former showed them more clearly. Compared with various biopsies, the sensitivity of Ga-67 imaging was not so high. However, Ga-67 imaging is non-invasive, easy to perform the whole body imaging, and can detect the activity of the lesions. Ga-67 SPECT showed clear imaging of the hilar, mediastinal LN, and potentially fatal myocardial sarcoidosis. (author)

  3. Detection of Recurrent Cervical Cancer by Whole-body FDG PET Scans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxin Yang; Jinhui Wang; Zhaohui Zhu; Keng Shen; Bocheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of whole-body {18F} fluro-2-dexoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the detection of recurrent cervical cancer.METHODS Between June, 2000 and January, 2006, 25 patients had undergone a PET scan at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital to evaluate possible recurrent cervical cancer. All the PET findings were reviewed and compared to available clinical data to classify each PET scan result as a true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative.RESULTS A total of 38 PET scans were conducted on the 25patients whose median age was 46 years. The Stage distributions were IA (n = 1), IB (n = 11), IIA (n = 5), IIB (n = 4), IIIB (n = 2), WB (n= 1), and unknown Stage (n = 1). There were 22 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma resulting in 9 true positive PET scans, 27 true negatives, 2 false positives and no false negatives. The sensitivity of the FDG PET scans for detecting recurrent cervical cancer was 100%, specificity 93.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, and negative predictive value 100%.CONCLUSION The whole body FDG PET scans are a sensitive and specific imaging modality for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. However the cost of PET scans is too high at this time. A large prospective study will determine whether this modality should be used routinely and take the place of other imaging methods in the early detection of recurrent cervical carcinoma

  4. Lightweight Vehicle and Driver’s Whole-Body Models for Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MdSah, Jamali; Taha, Zahari; Azwan Ismail, Khairul

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle vibration is a main factor for driving fatigue, discomfort and health problems. The ability to simulate the vibration characteristics in the vehicle and its effects on driver’s whole-body vibration will give significant advantages to designers especially on the vehicle development time and cost. However, it is difficult to achieve optimal condition of ride comfort and handling when using passive suspension system. This paper presents mathematical equations that can be used to describe the vibration characteristics of a lightweight electric vehicle that had been developed. The vehicle’s model was combined with the lumped-parameter model of driver to determine the whole-body vibration level when the vehicle is passing over a road hump using Matlab Simulink. The models were simulated at a constant speed and the results were compared with the experimental data. The simulated vibration level at the vehicle floor and seat were almost similar to the experimental vibration results. The suspension systems that are being used for the solar vehicle are able to reduce the vibration level due to the road hump. The models can be used to simulate and choose the optimal parameters for the suspensions.

  5. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, B.

    1979-11-01

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47 Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD 3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  6. Whole-body vibration versus proprioceptive training on postural control in post-menopausal osteopenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nils; Belavý, Daniel L; Rawer, Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    To prevent falls in the elderly, especially those with low bone density, is it necessary to maintain muscle coordination and balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of classical balance training (BAL) and whole-body vibration training (VIB) on postural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. Sixty-eight subjects began the study and 57 completed the nine-month intervention program. All subjects performed resistive exercise and were randomized to either the BAL- (N=31) or VIB-group (N=26). The BAL-group performed progressive balance and coordination training and the VIB-group underwent, in total, four minutes of vibration (depending on exercise; 24-26Hz and 4-8mm range) on the Galileo Fitness. Every month, the performance of a single leg stance task on a standard unstable surface (Posturomed) was tested. At baseline and end of the study only, single leg stance, Romberg-stance, semi-tandem-stance and tandem-stance were tested on a ground reaction force platform (Leonardo). The velocity of movement on the Posturomed improved by 28.3 (36.1%) (ppostural control in post-menopausal women with low bone density. The current study could not provide evidence for a significantly different impact of whole-body vibration or balance training on postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole body bone scintigram with sup(99m)Tc-phosphate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru; Orii, Hirotake; Tabei, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroyoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Among the compounds of four different types, which are sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate suppled by A Company, sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate by B Company, and sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate of electrolysis method and sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate by C Company, sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate showed the most favorable result with a constantly good scintigram quality. The remaining three compounds were found also favorable for clinical application. Besides these are undesirable accumulations, rather low energy of sup(99m)Tc-causes different pictures upon the anterior and the posterior views, and previously irradiated area shows a decreased uptake of these compounds. The usefulness of whole body scintigrams in the detection of metastatic bone tumors was also discussed. There was a definite superiority with this technique over the conventional X-ray study. Especially, in thoracic vertebrae, pelvic bone, and ribs, far many diseased areas were detected on the scintigrams than the areas which the physicians noticed or suspected the metastases. As a conclusion, although there are some problems on the scintigrams, it can be said that sup(99m)Tc-phosphate compounds are very useful in detection of metastatic bone tumors, especially with the help of whole body scanner. (JPN)

  8. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  9. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kubo, Atsushi; Yasuda, Seiei; Ide, Michiru; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  10. Whole-body vibration improves cognitive functions of an adult with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van den Bos, Meinris; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zeinstra, Edzard B; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a variety of cognitive impairments, which were shown to affect academic achievement and quality of life. Current treatment strategies, such as stimulant drug treatment, were demonstrated to effectively improve cognitive functions of patients with ADHD. However, most treatment strategies are associated with a number of disadvantages in a considerable proportion of patients, such as unsatisfactory effects, adverse clinical side effects or high financial costs. In order to address limitations of current treatment strategies, whole-body vibration (WBV) might represent a novel approach to treat cognitive dysfunctions of patients with ADHD. WBV refers to the exposure of the whole body of an individual to vibration and was found to affect physiology and cognition. In the present study, WBV was applied on 10 consecutive days to an adult diagnosed with ADHD. Neuropsychological assessments were performed repeatedly at three different times, i.e., the day before the start of the treatment, on the day following completion of treatment and 14 days after the treatment have been completed (follow-up). An improved neuropsychological test performance following WBV treatment points to the high clinical value of WBV in treating patients with neuropsychological impairments such as ADHD.

  11. Distribution of /sup 63/Ni in mice by means of whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry

    1974-11-01

    The uptake of Ni which was known to be contained in the dental alloy to the mammalian tissue was studied. /sup 63/Ni was injected intravenously to mice, and its distribution in their body was observed by counting radioactivity using whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counter from 30 minutes after the injection to 3 weeks later. Whole body autography revealed high uptake in the kidney, lung, incisor, intervertebral disc, epidermis cuticle, hair follicle, and liver during 30 minutes later to 8 hours period, and in the lung, renal cortex, central nerve, epidermis cuticle, and hair follicle during 2 days to 3 weeks period. /sup 63/Ni taken up in the tissue or organs rapidly disappeared by 8 hours period, and the rank of high uptake tissues slightly changed during 30 minutes later to 8 hours period. /sup 63/Ni administered in the body was considered to be excreted through the kidney, however, /sup 63/Ni taken up in the central nerve showed remarkably delayed excretion.

  12. Kidney, lower limb and whole-body uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1988-01-01

    Regional (kidney, lower limb) and whole-body kinetics of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) and tritium-labelled L-noradrenaline (3H-NA) were determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease (one alcoholic hepatitis, 12 cirrhosis) and in control subjects (n = 6) in order to get information...... (0.69 vs. 0.45 pmol/min.g per pmol/min.g in controls, P less than 0.005) but not in the lower limb (0.23 vs. 0.49 in controls, P less than 0.01). In patients with ascites the spillover rate of NA from the kidney into plasma (1.9 pmol/min.g) was significantly increased (P less than 0.02) compared...... to controls and non-ascitic patients (1.2 and 1.0 pmol/min.g, respectively. Patients and control kidneys and limbs extracted almost the same fraction of 3H-NA (0.34 vs. 0.32 NS and 0.34 vs. 0.37 NS, respectively). Whole-body clearance of 3H-NA was not significantly different in cirrhotics and controls (median...

  13. Muscle MRI / whole-body MRI in diagnosis and dynamic evaluation of neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carlier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of MRI in myopathies dates back to more than 20 years. The first investigations were slow and only allowed segmental and limited studies. Whole-body MRI has emerged over the past twelve years and became a useful diagnostic tool in the etiological diagnosis of myopathies and muscular dystrophies. This study must always be confronted with clinical and whichever other paraclinical data without being able to replace them. Indications to perform such an investigation are getting better and better defined and the diagnostic efficacy has progressed with the increasing number of cases, communications, publications and discussions within multidisciplinary working groups. Its noninvasive nature, the radiation-free exposure and its reasonable cost also enable this technique to be easily accepted by the patient. It also provides a valuable tool for monitoring the natural disease progression or the effectiveness of therapies. The radiology team must be acquainted with the management of neuromuscular patients. Interpreting muscle whole-body MRI requires an excellent knowledge of muscle anatomy whichever body part is examined. The radiologist performing these studies is ideally a specialist of musculoskeletal disorders or a neuroradiologist well trained in muscle anatomy.

  14. Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (−110°C to −140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  15. Whole-body Cryotherapy as a Recovery Technique after Exercise: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Catriona; Edwards, Kate M; Siegler, Jason; Graham, Kenneth; Caillaud, Corinne

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effect of whole body cryotherapy on recovery after exercise. A systematic search was conducted to investigate the effect of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, exposure to temperatures between -110 to -190°C) on markers of recovery after damaging exercise in healthy, physically active subjects. Of the 16 eligible articles extracted, ten induced muscle damage using controlled exercise in a laboratory setting, while six induced damage during sport-specific training. Results indicated that muscle pain was reduced in 80% of studies following WBC. Two applied studies found recovery of athletic capacity and performance with WBC improved, variables of this nature were also improved in 71% of studies using controlled exercise. Further benefits of WBC treatment included reduction of systemic inflammation and lower concentrations of markers for muscle cell damage. These results suggest that WBC may improve recovery from muscle damage, with multiple exposures more consistently exhibiting improvements in recovery from pain, loss of muscle function, and markers of inflammation and damage. The diversity in muscle damage protocols, exposure timing with regards to exercise, as well as temperatures, duration and frequencies of exposure, make specific recommendations preliminary at present. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroy, R.; Boisgard, R.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F.; Trebossen, R.; Tavitian, B.; Frouin, V.; Cathier, P.; Duchesnay, E.; D; Nielsen, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together with physiological movements (heart beating, breathing, and bladder filling). The method was resistant to spillover and physiological movements, while other methods failed to obtain a correct segmentation. The radioactivity concentrations calculated with this method also showed an excellent correlation with the manual delineation of organs in a large set of preclinical images. In addition, it was faster, detected more organs, and extracted organs' mean time activity curves with a better confidence on the measure than manual delineation. (authors)

  17. Development of fibrosis in dogs as a late consequence of whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Steinbach, I.; Alcober, V.; Nothdurft, W.; Fache, I.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs wre whole-body irradiated with a single mid-line dose of 1200 R at 300 kV. This high dose will kill non-treated animals within a few days. To save these animals, leukocytes were previously collected during a four-hour leukapheresis using a continuous-flow centrifuge and were stored under liquid nitrogen. Shortly after the whole-body irradiation each dog received its own cryopreserved cells thawed immediately beforehand. The dogs received between 0.32x10 9 and 1.63x10 9 mononuclear blood cells per kilogram of body weight. The number of colony-forming cells contained in the transfusate ranged between 0.19x10 5 and 1.38x10 5 per kilogram of body weight. This blood stem transfusion, together with general supportive therapy, enabled the dogs to overcome the acute radiation syndrome and to recover. The dogs were subsequently sacrificed in two groups after observation for about 260 days or 700-898 days respectively. Pathological findings are described. A particular situation existed in the marrow, whre non-irradiated stem cells had colonized bone cavities containing irradiated stroma. Progressive fibrosis developed in the endosteal areas of the bone cavities in most of the animals. (author)

  18. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  19. Computational modeling of blast induced whole-body injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Callaway, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). However, very few attempts have been made so far to study the effect of blasts on the various other parts of the body such as the sensory organs (eyes and ears), nervous system, thorax, extremities, internal organs (such as the lungs) and the skeletal system. While an experimental evaluation of blast effects on such physiological systems is difficult, developing finite element (FE) models could allow the recreation of realistic blast scenarios on full scale human models and simulate the effects. The current article reviews the state-of-the-art in computational research in blast induced whole-body injury modelling, which would not only help in identifying the areas in which further research is required, but would also be indispensable for understanding body location specific armour design criteria for improved blast injury mitigation.

  20. Whole body and forearm substrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism: evidence of increased basal muscle protein breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anne Lene Dalkjaer; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Gjedde, Signe; Nørrelund, Helene; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Nair, K S; Ivarsen, Per; Weeke, Jørgen; Møller, Niels

    2005-06-01

    Thyroid hormones have significant metabolic effects, and muscle wasting and weakness are prominent clinical features of chronic hyperthyroidism. To assess the underlying mechanisms, we examined seven hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease before (Ht) and after (Eut) medical treatment and seven control subjects (Ctr). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. After regional catheterization, protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by amino acid tracer dilution technique using [15N]phenylalanine and [2H4]tyrosine. Before treatment, triiodothyronine was elevated (6.6 nmol/l) and whole body protein breakdown was increased 40%. The net forearm release of phenylalanine was increased in hyperthyroidism (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): -7.0 +/- 1.2 Ht vs. -3.8 +/- 0.8 Eut (P = 0.04), -4.2 +/- 0.3 Ctr (P = 0.048). Muscle protein breakdown, assessed by phenylalanine rate of appearance, was increased (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): 15.5 +/- 2.0 Ht vs. 9.6 +/- 1.4 Eut (P = 0.03), 9.9 +/- 0.6 Ctr (P = 0.02). Muscle protein synthesis rate did not differ significantly. Muscle mass and muscle function were decreased 10-20% before treatment. All abnormalities were normalized after therapy. In conclusion, our results show that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased muscle amino acid release resulting from increased muscle protein breakdown. These abnormalities can explain the clinical manifestations of sarcopenia and myopathy.