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Sample records for who-klassifikation maligner lymphome

  1. Staging and response assessment in malignant lymphoma; Staging und Therapiemonitoring maligner Lymphome

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    Stattaus, Joerg [Bergmannsheil und Kinderklinik Buer GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-06-15

    This review illustrates radiological methods for staging and therapy response assessment of malignant lymphoma. Computed tomography (CT) is the fundamental method for detection of pathological lymph nodes and organ involvement of Hodgkin and Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Size-based response assessment with CT is hampered by non-viable residual masses. Positron emission tomography (PET) can reliably detect viable tumor after chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma. The role of PET in NHL is currently evaluated by clinical studies. This review introduces criteria for response assessment with CT and PET and assesses their value according to meta-analyses. Based on current guidelines, examination methods and their frequency for staging, therapy control and surveillance are recommended. (orig.)

  2. Intraläsionale Therapie niedrig maligner primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome mit Anti-CD20-Antikörper: Nebenwirkungen korrelieren mit gutem klinischen Ansprechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Franziska C; Holstein, Julia; Scheu, Alexander; Fend, Falko; Yazdi, Amir S

    2017-03-01

    Die intraläsionale Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörpern (Rituximab) wurde als effektive Therapieoption für Patienten mit niedrig malignen primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphomen beschrieben. Bis heute wurden allerdings keine Parameter identifiziert, welche reproduzierbar ein gutes klinisches Ansprechen dieser Therapie vorhersagen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, sowohl das klinische Ansprechen und die unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen als auch die Patientenwahrnehmung hinsichtlich intraläsionaler Injektionen von anti-CD20-Antikörpern zur Behandlung indolenter primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien zu evaluieren. Elf Patienten mit einem primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphom, namentlich primär kutanes Keimzentrumslymphom (n = 9) und primär kutanes Marginalzonenlymphom (n = 2), welche mittels intraläsionalem Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv evaluiert hinsichtlich der Ansprechrate und unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen sowie in Bezug auf deren Selbsteinschätzung dieser und anderer Therapien des primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphoms. Patienten, deren primär kutanes B-Zell-Lymphom mittels intraläsionaler Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurde, zeigten ein komplettes oder partielles Ansprechen in 45 % beziehungsweise 27 % aller Patienten. Speziell Patienten mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen nach erfolgter Injektion zeigten ein gutes Ansprechen. Die Mehrheit der Patienten empfand die Therapie mit Rituximab als die beste Therapie im Vergleich zu anderen Therapien wie beispielsweise chirurgische Exzision oder Radiotherapie. Intraläsionales Rituximab ist eine effektive Therapie mit hoher Patientenzufriedenheit. Starke therapiebedingte Nebenwirkungen wie Fieber, Schüttelfrost und Kopfschmerzen nach Gabe von Rituximab könnten als Indikator für gute Wirksamkeit dienen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pneumopathie à éosinophile révélant un lymphome non hodgkinien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Le diagnostic de pneumonie à éosinophile est rare et l'étiologie maligne reste exceptionnelle. Les étiologies sont variables et sont dominées essentiellement par les affections allergiques et les causes médicamenteuses. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien de type B révélé par une pneumonie ...

  4. LYMPHOME T/NK PRIMITIF DU LARYNx : LOCALISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Les néoplasies hématopoïétiques primitifs du larynx sont rares, elles constituent moins de 1% des tumeurs laryn- gées(1). La plupart d'entre elles sont des plasmocytomes extra médullaires, lymphomes diffus à grandes cellules B, des lymphomes de type MALT de la zone marginale, cependant les ...

  5. Pneumopathie à éosinophile révélant un lymphome non hodgkinien de type B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikal, Siham; Sajiai, Hafsa; Serhane, Hind; Aitbatahar, Salma; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Le diagnostic de pneumonie à éosinophile est rare et l'étiologie maligne reste exceptionnelle. Les étiologies sont variables et sont dominées essentiellement par les affections allergiques et les causes médicamenteuses. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien de type B révélé par une pneumonie à éosinophile chez un patient de 61 ans. Le diagnostic de pneumonie à éosinophile a été confirmé par un taux d'éosinophile à 56% au lavage bronchoalvéolaire. L'étude immunohistochimique de la biopsie ostéomédullaire a révélé un lymphome malin non hodgkinien à petites cellules de phénotype B. PMID:28154647

  6. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien primitif bilatéral du sein: à propos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les lymphomes malins non-hodgkiniens (LMNH) primitifs du sein sont des tumeurs rares. Leur symptomatologie clinique est polymorphe. L'imagerie médicale est non-spécifique. Le diagnostic peut être évoqué à l'examen cytologique, sa confirmation est toujours histologique. Il s'agit essentiellement de lymphomes de type ...

  7. Le lymphomes non hodgkinien primitif de la thyroïde: à propos de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le diagnostic histopathologique avec l'immunomarquage après chirurgie a conclu dans tous les cas à un lymphome malin non hodgkinien : 3 patientes avec un lymphome de type MALT, et les 4 autres avec un LMNH à grandes cellules de phénotype B. Une thyroïdite chronique lymphocytaire d'Hashimoto coexistante avec ...

  8. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Le lymphomes non hodgkinien primitif de la thyroïde: à propos de sept cas

    OpenAIRE

    Chenna, Hanane; Berhil, Hanane; Nouni, Karima; Kabbaj, Hanane; Zaidi, Hanane; Toulba, Ahmedou; El Kacemi, Hanan; Hassouni, Khalid; Kebdani, Tayeb; El Gueddari, Brahim Khalil; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    Les lymphomes non hodgkiniens primitifs de la thyroïde sont rares : ils représentent moins de 2 à 5 % des cancers de la thyroïde. L'objectif de ce travail est de revoir les stratégies diagnostiques et thérapeutiques actuelles des lymphomes non hodgkiniens primitifs de la thyroïde tout en présentant notre expérience à l'Institut national d'oncologie. Nous rapportons à travers une étude rétrospective, sept cas des lymphomes non hodgkiniens primitifs de la thyroïde colligés à l'Institut National...

  10. Lymphome B diffus à grandes cellules du sinus éthmoïdal | Lahiani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le lymphome diffus à grandes cellules est un lymphome malin non hodgkinien qui atteint rarement le sinus éthmoïdal. Le pronostic dépend du stade de découverte, de la rapidité du diagnostic et de la prise en charge thérapeutique. Patiente âgée de 64 ans a été admise pour exploration d'une céphalée récente associée à ...

  11. Lymphome de la thyroide : à propos d’un cas et revue de littérature

    OpenAIRE

    L.Taali; T. Baghdadi; M. FASSIH; Abada, A.; Rouadi, S.; Roubal, M.; Mahtar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Les lymphomes thyroïdiens sont rares. Ils peuvent être primitifs, représentant moins de 5% des néoplasies thyroïdiennes et se développant dans la plupart des cas sur une affection thyroïdienne préexistante notamment une thyroïdite d'Hashimoto, ou secondaires constituant une des localisations d'un lymphome disséminé. C’est une pathologie agressive, se présentant sous forme de goitre douloureux, d'installation rapide avec des signes compressifs. La majorité sont des lymphomes non hodgkinien ...

  12. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du sein et VIH: à propos d'un cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le lymphome malin non-hodgkinien (LNH) représente 0,5% de tous les cancers du sein. Son diagnostic est essentiellement histologique. Nous rapportons un cas de LMNH du sein chez une patiente de 42 ans et chez qui la sérologie VIH est positive. L'objectif de cet article est de discuter les aspects cliniques, ...

  13. Lymphome primitif du sein: à propos d'un cas | Njoumi | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le lymphome primitif du sein est une entité histologique très rare du cancer du sein. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne présentent pas de spécificités particulières. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé. Le traitement se base essentiellement sur la chimiothérapie. Le pronostic est globalement péjoratif. Nous rapportons ...

  14. Lymphome et grossesse: le point de vue de l'obstétricien, à propos de 2 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amourak, Sarah; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    L'association lymphome et grossesse est une situation rare, mais non exceptionnelle, relevant de la coïncidence. Le lymphome vient en 4ème position des cancers rencontrés chez la femme enceinte, La clinique est trompeuse et inconstante, le diagnostic reste histologique et on distingue 2 types: lymphome malin hodgkinien (LMH) et le lymphome malin non hodgkinien (LMNH). Malgré le contexte de véritable urgence hématologique, la décision d'initier ou de différer le traitement est délicate, influencée par le type de lymphome, son extension et sa localisation, la répercussion organique, le degré de maturation f'tale, les risques obstétricaux et les valeurs éthiques, culturelles et religieuses de la patiente. Le traitement consiste essentiellement à une chimiothérapie. Le LH durant la grossesse est relativement moins agressif et d’évolution plus favorable que le LMNH. PMID:25883744

  15. Le lymphome primitif de la prostate : à propos d'un cas avec revue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ra

    et de grade G3, traité par résection transurétrale et BCG thérapie. L'examen clinique a révélé une prostate très augmentée de volume, ce qui a été confirmé par les examens d'imagerie. L'analyse anatomo-pathologique des biopsies réalisées par voie transrectale a mis en évidence un lymphome malin non Hodgkinien de ...

  16. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; Lymphomes malins non hodgkiniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, F.; Mahe, M.A. [Service de radiotherapie du centre Rene-Gauducheau, CRLCC Nantes-Atlantique, 44 - Saint-Herblain (France); Cahu, X. [Service d' hematologie clinique CHU de Rennes, hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France); Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, Service de radiotherapie 72 - Le Mans (France)

    2010-07-01

    With approximately 10000 cases per year in France, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) represents the most frequent hematological malignancy, and 5 to 10 % of new cases of cancers. NHLs constitute a heterogeneous group of lympho-proliferative diseases, including entities with very different epidemiological and evolutive characteristics, as well as prognosis and treatments. Several classifications exist, but in practice, we individualize aggressive NHL including Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas (DLBCL) which is the most common lymphoma, and indolent NHL including follicular lymphomas and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. The role of the radiotherapy in the management of NHLs varies according to the specific sub-type of lymphoma, but it has become increasingly limited over time. Overall it finds indications with curative intent only in situations of localized LMNH: either associated with chemotherapy as part of a combined modality therapy as for the treatment of localized DLBCL, or as exclusive treatment specially in the rare situations of localized follicular lymphomas. Moreover, lymphocytes being extremely radiosensitive cells, radiotherapy retains excellent indications with palliative intent for the management of symptomatic bulky tumor masses, and that whatever the sub-type of NHLs may be. It is important to remember that even today the 'Involved Field' irradiation type remains the gold standard for the treatment of nodal NHLs, even if we witness at present the emergence of new types of irradiation, which aim to reduce the amount of irradiated tissues to try to limit the risks of delayed radio-induced complications. The purpose of this article is to clarify the specific aspects (epidemiological, radio-anatomical and prognostic characteristics) of each NHLs'sub-types (except primary central nervous system lymphomas), as well as the practical modalities of the irradiation (illustrated by a clinical case record) when an indication of

  17. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy in patient with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. A differential diagnosis to abdominal lymphoma; Mesenteriale Lymphadenopathie bei Infektion mit Yersinia enterocolitica. Eine Differentialdiagnose zum abdominalen Lymphom

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    Trommer, G.; Koesling, S. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Bewer, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Thorax- und onkologische Chirurgie

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of previously undiagnosed Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a 46-year old woman. She consulted her physician because of continual weight loss and physical lassitude. A leucocytosis was found. Sonography revealed an excessive enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes. A malignant lymphoma was suspected and the patient underwent a staging by CT. There the disease was limited on mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Bone marrow biopsy and CT-guided lymph node biopsy did not confirm a systemic lymphatic disease. The patient did not undergo a special therapy. After six months, CT showed a clear regression of enlarged lymph nodes. Finally, a previous Yersinia enterocolitica infection of immunotype 03 could be proved serologically. At this time, the patient had no complaints. Diagnostic and differential diagnosis of benign abdominal lymph node enlargement are discussed based on literature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird der Fall einer klinisch inapperenten Yersinia-enterocolitica-Infektion bei einer 46jaehrigen Patientin, die aufgrund stetigen Gewichtsverlustes und koerperlicher Abgeschlagenheit den Hausarzt konsultierte. Dieser diagnostizierte eine Leukozytose. Die daraufhin durchgefuehrte Sonographie ergab eine massive abdominale Lymphknotenvergroesserung. Unter dem Verdacht eines malignen Lymphoms erfolgte eine computertomographische Ausbreitungsdiagnostik, die die Erkrankung auf mesenteriale und retroperitoneale Lymphknoten beschraenkt zeigte. Knochenmarkbiopsie und CT-gestuetzte Lymphknotenpunktion ergaben keinen Hinweis auf eine lymphatische Systemerkrankung. Ohne Therapie zeigte eine CT-Kontrolle nach 6 Monaten eine deutliche Regredienz der Lymphknotenschwellung. Bei der Erregersuche konnte serologisch eine zurueckliegende Infektion mit Yersinia enterocolitica, Serotyp 03, nachgewiesen werden. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt war die Patientin beschwerdefrei. Anhand der Literatur werden Diagnostik und Differentialdiagnose benigner abdominaler

  18. Gallium-67 scanning of malignant lymphomas. Apport de la scintigraphie au gallium-67 dans les lymphomes malins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Haguenauer, O.; Brice, P.; Gaci, M.; Le Pailleur, A.; Cheval, E.; Bris, C.; Frija, J.; Gisselbrecht, C.; Rain, J.D.; Najean, Y. (Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-03-01

    The presence of a residual mass is a frequent and difficult problem in the treatment of Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: since it is of major importance to determine whether the lesion is a fibrous mass or a still progressing tumour requiring additional therapy. Gallium-67 scanning, performed in a series of 52 patients, provides an answer to this question since there is an excellent correlation between gallium uptake by the tumoral masses and their progressiveness. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in half of our patients: the finding of a low-intensity signal on T2-weighted sequences proved that the residual mass was fibrous, whereas a high-intensity signal on T2-weighted sequences did not distinguish between fibrous and tumour masses. The priceless information provided by the simple and non invasive method that is gallium scanning is extremely useful to evaluate the extension of lymphomas and to determine whether residual masses are tumoral or fibrous.

  19. Malignant lymphoma: MR tomographic findings of residual mediastinal space-occupying lesions; Malignes Lymphom: Magnetresonanztomographische Befunde bei residuellen supradiaphragmalen raumfordernden Laesionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroszczynski, C.; Hosten, N.; Oellinger, J.; Amthauer, H.; Bittner, R.C.; Hierholzer, J.; Felix, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Spahn, G.; Ludwig, W.D. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet Charite

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of MR imaging in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and high grade non-Hodgkin's-lymphoma and mediastinal residual mass after first line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: MR imaging (1.5 T) was performed in 36 patients (Hodgkin's lymphoma n=26, NHL n=10) after first line chemotherapy. Twenty patients had inactive residual mass, 16 patients had residual lymphoproliferative lesions. T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo images were visually analysed by a score index (range 1-5) as well as quantification of enhancement by signal-intensity-ratios (SI{sub max}/SI{sub plain}). Results: For the differentiation between residual lymphoproliferative activity and inactive residual mass, the highest accuracy was obtained for the signal intensity of residual mass on T{sub 2}-w-SE compared to pectoralis muscle (94% sensitivity, 80% specificity, likelihood ratios: 4.0 [LR+]; 0.3 [LR-]). The cut-off value of the SI ratio was calculated retrospectively at 1.96 (p>0.05). Conclusions: Differentiation between inactive (fibrotic) and lymphoproliferative (active) residual mediastinal mass is possible by MR imaging using as parameter the size reduction after therapy and the signal intensity on T{sub 2}-w-SE in comparison to pectoralis muscle. Thus, study suggests an additional value using the SI ratio for the differentiation. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Evaluation der Moeglichkeiten der MRT zur Aktivitaetsbeurteilung residueller supradiaphragmaler raumfordernder Laesionen bei Patienten mit M. Hodgkin und hochmalignen Non-Hodgkin-Lymphomen (NW) nach primaerer Chemotherapie. Methode: Bei 36 Patienten mit M. Hodgkin (n=26) oder NHL (n=10) wurde nach primaerer Chemotherapie eine MRT 1,5 T durchgefuehrt. Bei 20 Patienten bestanden inaktive Residuen, bei 16 Patienten persistierende Lymphomaktivitaet. Es erfolgte eine visuelle Auswertung der Signalintensitaet (SI) der Residuen in den statischen Aufnahmen T{sub 1}-, T{sub 2}-w-SE sowie eine quantitative Auswertung des Enhancements ueber den Signalintensitaets-Quotienten (SI{sub max}/SI{sub nativ}). Ergebnis: Die SI in den T{sub 2}-w-SE war das Kriterium mit der hoechsten Treffsicherheit hinsichtlich der Differenzierung zwischen persistierender Lymphomaktivitaet und inaktiven Residuen (Sensitivitaet 94%, Spezifitaet 80%, Likelihood-Ratios: 4 [LR+]; 0,3 [LR-]). Der retrospektiv ermittelte Schwellenwert des SI-Quotienten betrug 1,96 (p<0.05). Schlussfolgerung: Kriterien zur Differenzierung zwischen Fibrose und Gewebe mit persistierender lymphoproliferativer Aktivitaet sind die Volumenreduktion des Tumors im Vergleich zum Ausgangsbefund und die SI in den T{sub 2}-w-SE. Es ergaben sich Hinweise auf einen additiven Wert des SI-Quotienten. (orig.)

  20. Pleural malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesothelioma - malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 82. National Cancer Institute. PDQ malignant mesothelioma treatment. Updated August 5, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/mesothelioma/hp/mesothelioma-treatment-pdq#section/29 . Accessed July 8, 2016. National ...

  2. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  3. Genetische Charakterisierung diffuser großzelliger B-Zell Lymphome vom Keimzentrumstyp, vom aktivierten B-Zelltyp und von primär mediastinalen diffusen großzelligen B-Zell Lymphomen

    OpenAIRE

    Jehn, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse großzellige B-Zell Lymphome (DLBCL) gehören zu den häufigsten lymphatischen Tumoren. Die histologische Klassifikation dieser großen Gruppe von Tumoren ist dabei noch immer durch die mangelnde Reproduzierbarkeit in der Diagnostik geprägt. Außerdem verhalten sich DLBCL klinisch ausgesprochen heterogen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden DLBCL mittels komparativer genomischer Hybridisierung (CGH) untersucht. Die DLBCL waren im Vorfeld von uns unabhängig mittels microarray-basierter Genexp...

  4. Castleman`s lymphoma: isolated abdominal localization in a child and 8-years follow-up; Das Castleman-Lymphom: Isolierter abdomineller Befall mit 8jaehrigem Verlauf bei einem Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Gutjahr, P. [Universitaetskinderklinik Mainz (Germany); Textor, J. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    This article describes a child with isolated, abdominally localized Castleman`s disease and 8-years follow-up. Six years after surgical resection of an adrenal tumour, a multifocal disease with liver, spleen and lymph node involvement developed, which has improved for now 2 years after steroid medication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird anhand eines Castleman-Lymphoms bei einem Kind mit isoliertem abdominellen Befall und 8jaehrigem Verlauf auf die lymphoproliferativen Erkrankungen eingegangen. Nach primaerem Befall der Nebenniere zeigte sich im Verlauf ein multifokaler Tumor mit Befall von Leber, Milz und Lymphknoten, der auf Steroide gut ansprach. (orig.)

  5. Hematuria and urologic malignancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2014-01-01

    ...% of total malignancies and 3.7% of malignancy-related mortality. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is the most common presenting sign of urologic malignancies that may lead to early diagnosis and cure of these cancers...

  6. Malignant hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, U; Maruzzo, M; Roma, A; Camozzi, V; Luisetto, G; Lumachi, F

    2011-01-01

    Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia (MAH) is one of the clinical emergencies in medical oncology, arising early or, more often, during the late phases of disease. Prevalence cannot be estimated accurately because previous figures of 5-30% of all cancer patients have progressively reduced thanks to the widespread use of bisphosphonates for the prevention of skeletal events. The classic distinction of humoral vs. osteolytic hypercalcemia is still relevant from an etiological point of view, but should not be considered as a rigid alternative since both mechanisms may be active in the same patients and the activation of the RANKL pathway is a common pathogenetic mechanism. Parathyroid hormone-related protein mimics the effects of PTH on the bone and kidney (tubular calcium resorption) and may represent an attractive druggable target, but additional agents (cytokines or other mediators) as well as ectopic production of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may give an important contribution to humoral hypercalcemia. Conversely, bone invasion by cancer cells determines massive bone reabsorption due to the release of proteolytic enzymes and pro-osteolytic agents with paracrine activity on adjacent bone and stromal cells. When cancer patients develop headache, confusion, de-hydration and tremors hypercalcemia should be suspected although slow rise of calcium levels may produce more indolent symptoms. Bisphosphonates (with or without hydration and diuretics) may efficiently control MAH but only if an active treatment for the underlying cancer is promptly started. The anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody denosumab represents a novel agent able to revert the vicious cycle of bone metastases and data from phase III studies are currently showing promising activity in reverting bone resorption with manageable toxicity.

  7. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  8. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  9. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  10. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  11. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  12. Malignant vasovagal syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G K; Lee, C; Coatesworth, A P

    2004-01-01

    We present the management of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma with a history of recurrent syncopal attacks diagnosed as malignant vasovagal syndrome. We discuss clinical presentation as well as the resolution of disease symptoms. The importance of metastatic nasopharyngeal malignancy in relation to syncope is discussed.

  13. Intravitreale Chemotherapie bei okulozerebralem Lymphom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, H.; Cerny, Th; de Smet, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    Primary CNS and intraocular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is currently mostly treated with systemic chemotherapy. After initially successful tumor regression, recurrence is common and usually treated with radiotherapy. However, after good primary therapeutic response, new tumor growth is frequently

  14. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  15. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    looking features that can mimic malignancy. ... breast. Due to the fact that there was a positive family history of breast carci- noma and the mass ... Histological diagnosis confirmed a fibroadenoma. ... texture with regular, lobulated or irregular ...

  16. Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  17. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  19. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  20. Malignancy following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arichi, N; Kishikawa, H; Nishimura, K; Mitsui, Y; Namba, Y; Tokugawa, S; Ichikawa, Y

    2008-09-01

    A cohort of 429 patients who received kidney grafts between 1973 and 2007 at our hospital was studied for the incidence and sites of malignancy. Sixty-two malignant diseases developed in 57 of 429 patients (13.3%). The cumulative incidences of malignancy increased markedly in the second and third posttransplantation decades. The overall rates were 1.8% at 5 years, 6.7% at 10 years, 12.5% at 15 years, 17.3% at 20 years, and 25.6% at 25 years. In the second and third posttransplantation decades, patients without malignancy showed significantly superior survival versus than those with cancer (P = .0002). Their survival rates were 83.4% versus 86.9% at 10 years and 63.1% versus 80.3% at 20 years, respectively. Skin cancer, renal cell carcinoma of the native kidney, hepatocellular carcinoma, posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, uterine cancer, and colorectal cancer were common in our series. The 5-year survival rates after the treatment of malignancy were better for skin cancer and renal cell carcinoma of the native kidney. Concerning the effects of immunosuppression, the tacrolimus-based group displayed a higher incidence among 3 groups (P = .0044).

  1. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  2. Rheumatologic Manifestations of Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashefi, Mandana

    2017-02-01

    A variety of conditions mimicking rheumatologic syndromes may be associated with an underlying malignancy. Therefore, distinguishing these syndromes from more common, nonparaneoplastic rheumatologic conditions can be perplexing. Some autoimmune conditions and the medications used for their management can be associated with increased future risk of malignancy. Some cancers can directly involve the musculoskeletal structures, whereas others present with systemic manifestations at sites away from the tumor and its metastases. Better awareness and timely recognition of these associations may lead to earlier cancer detection and hopefully better long-term survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Angiogenesis in malignant lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Angiogenesis-associated parameters are important prognosticators, and tumor blood vessels are an emerging target for therapy. This review addresses the evidence of the

  4. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  5. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  6. [Pregnancy and malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, T; Stoikov, S; Nikolova, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors review on a rare pregnancy accompanying disease--Melanoma malignum. After the definition are presented the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, pathomorphology, clinical forms, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Described are the effects of the pregnancy on this malignant disease and the impact of it during the pregnancy.

  7. Trauma - the malignant epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    life are lost annually from trauma than malignant disease, heart disease, and AIDS combined, and by the ... diffused and rapidly spreading condition affecting many people in anyone region at the same time and tending ... upon inadequate and overcrowded methods of transportation. TABLE I. INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE ...

  8. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A E; Heutte, Natacha; Meijnders, Paul; Abeilard-Lemoisson, Edwige; Spina, Michele; Moser, Elizabeth C; Allgeier, Anouk; Meulemans, Bart; Simons, Arnold H M; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Noordijk, Evert M; Fermé, Christophe; Thomas, José; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Fruchart, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Gaillard, Isabelle; Bologna, Serge; Ong, Francisca; Eghbali, Houchingue; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Morschhauser, Franck; Sebban, Catherine; Roesink, Judith M; Bouteloup, Marie; Van Hoof, Achiel; Raemaekers, John M M; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2012-01-20

    In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and age at treatment. The Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 1,700 women treated in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Étude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte trials between 1964 and 2004. Women treated between ages 15 and 40 years and currently not using hormonal contraceptives (n = 460) were selected to assess occurrence of POF. Cumulative POF risk was estimated using the life-table method. Predictive factors were assessed by Cox regression analysis. Median follow-up was 16 years (range, 5 to 45 years). Cumulative risk of POF after alkylating chemotherapy was 60% (95% CI, 41% to 79%) and only 3% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) after nonalkylating chemotherapy (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine; epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and prednisone). Dose relationship between alkylating chemotherapy and POF occurrence was linear. POF risk increased by 23% per year of age at treatment. In women treated without alkylating chemotherapy at age younger than 32 years and age 32 years or older, cumulative POF risks were 3% (95% CI, 1% to 16%) and 9% (95% CI, 4% to 18%), respectively. If menstruation returned after treatment, cumulative POF risk was independent of age at treatment. Among women who ultimately developed POF, 22% had one or more children after treatment, compared with 41% of women without POF. Nonalkylating chemotherapy carries little to no excess risk of POF. Dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and age at treatment are both linear. Timely family planning is important for women at risk of POF.

  9. Réactivation d'hépatite virale B chez un patient traité pour lymphome non hodgkinien B diffus à grandes cellules par rituximab: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssou, Bienvenu; Massi, Romaric Mahutondji; Camara, Marième; Mifdal, Hassan; Nourichafi, Nadia; Zafad, Saadia; Oukkache, Bouchra

    2015-01-01

    La réactivation du virus de l'hépatite B est secondaire à une diminution de l'immunité de l'hôte et peut être suivie d'une poussée d'hépatite aigue potentiellement mortelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient D.H, 47 ans, sexe masculin, AgHBs négatif, jamais transfusé, jamais vacciné contre l'hépatite B qui avait présenté en mars 2013 un LNH B diffus à grandes cellules stade IV par moelle. Traité par 8 cures R-CHOP, il était en rémission complète clinique et paraclinique. Neuf mois après, il fait une rechute de son lymphome classé stade III, associée à une hépatite virale B en réplication virale (18.000 copies/mL): réactivation virale B chez porteur occulte traité avec entécavir 0.5mg par jour pendant 6 mois, l'ADN du VHB était indétectable en fin de traitement. Il avait reçu deux cures de DHAP puis deux cures R-DHAP avec une rémission complète. Lors du recueil des cellules souches en vue de l'autogreffe, l'AgHBs est à nouveau positif. Il a été greffé le 12/01/2015 et continue son traitement antiviral pour 6 mois encore. PMID:26664523

  10. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that

  11. Malignant mesenchymoma of the scrotum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Brynitz, S

    1991-01-01

    Paratesticular sarcomas are rare, especially the malignant mesenchymoma. To our knowledge only four cases of paratesticular malignant mesenchymoma have been described previously. All were localized to the spermatic cord. We present a case of malignant mesenchymoma in the scrotum free of the sperm...

  12. [Malignant cartilage tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaerdt, M J; Hogendoorn, P C; Taminiau, A H; Bloem, J L

    1998-06-01

    Malignant cartilaginous tumors (chondrosarcomas) are, with a relative frequency of 20%, the second most common malignant tumors of bone after osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma can usually be made confidently based on combination of clinical information, radiographs, Gd-enhanced MR imaging, and histologic examination of a biopsy sample. The combination of these parameters is important because accuracy of histologic diagnosis is adversely affected by unrepresentative sampling of these usually large tumors. The prognosis of patients with chondrosarcoma becomes poorer with more axial location, higher histologic grade, larger tumor size and inadequate resection. By careful analysis of radiographs and Gd-enhanced MR imaging the radiologist has the ability to improve the management of patients with chondrosarcoma.

  13. Telomerase in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruedigam, Claudia; Lane, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    The activation of telomere maintenance pathways has long been regarded as a key hallmark of cancer and this has propelled the development of novel inhibitors of telomerase. In this review, we detail the background biology on telomere maintenance in health and disease, then concentrate on the recent preclinical and clinical development behind targeting telomerase in blood cancers. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that imetelstat, a competitive inhibitor of telomerase, has activity in certain hematologic malignancies, in particular the myeloproliferative neoplasms and acute myeloid leukemia. Telomerase inhibition has shown remarkable efficacy in myeloid malignancies, and current and future preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to comprehensively investigate its underlying mechanism of action. Future work should identify the potential genetic susceptibilities to telomerase inhibition therapy, and evaluate rational combinations of telomerase inhibitors with chemotherapy and other novel agents. Robust preclinical evaluation is essential to best translate these new agents successfully into our clinical treatment algorithm for myeloid and other blood cancers.

  14. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Batiment Babinski, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Mokhtari, K. [Service de Neuropathologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K. [Departement de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  15. Candidiasis in Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Diany N; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani; Atmakusuma, Jumhana; Chen, Khie

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal candidiasis presents with a range of clinical findings and is rarely found among immunocompetent patient without predisposing factors. Between 20-50% of patient may be asymptomatic. One of predisposing factor of candidiasis is immunocompromised condition due to Malignancy. Dysphagia is the most frequently presented feature of esophageal carcinoma. We demonstrated a case of esophageal candidiasis as one of early clinical presentation in patient with esophageal carcinoma.

  16. Lymphoscintigraphy in gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is an easily performed noninvasive procedure that offers the potential to detect small numbers of ascitic tumor cells and early diaphragmatic tumor involvement. Moreover, it can be used to delineate and define abnormalities in lymph nodes that are not routinely visualized by bipedal contrast lymphangiography, ultrasound or computed tomography. Lymphoscintigraphy is recommended as an important investigative and adjunctive procedure in diagnosing gynecologic malignancies; there does not appear to be sufficient sensitivity and specificity to justify its routine clinical use.

  17. Malignant histiocytosis. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Oscar; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, y Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo; QUIÑONES, WILLY; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; MISAD, OSCAR; Laboratorio de Anatomia Patológica “Oscar Misad; DELGADO, CARLOS; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; Ronceros, Sergio; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Marangoni, Manuela; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú; BARDALES, LUZ; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; REYES, RAFAEL; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; CASTILLO, ALFREDO; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; URRUTIA, KATIA; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen year-old male patient referred from Huancayo who presented one month gastric intolerance, jaundice, fever and a lymph proliferative syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia due to phagocytosis. Haematologic and anatomy-pathology diagnosis was human malignant histiocytosis. We present this case due to its low frequency and the emergency character of the disease. Paciente varón de 14 años, procedente de Huancayo, que presenta un mes antes de su hospitalización intoler...

  18. Immunotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G; Vohra, Nasreen A; Ghansah, Tomar; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari A

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most common human tumors encountered worldwide. The majority of GI cancers are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and in the subset of patients undergoing resection, few are cured. There is only a modest improvement in survival with the addition of modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Due to an increasing global cancer burden, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies to improve outcomes. It is well known that cancers possess diverse strategies to evade immune detection and destruction. This has led to the incorporation of various immunotherapeutic strategies, which enable reprogramming of the immune system to allow effective recognition and killing of GI tumors. A review was conducted of the results of published clinical trials employing immunotherapy for esophageal, gastroesophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Monoclonal antibody therapy has come to the forefront in the past decade for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Immunotherapeutic successes in solid cancers such as melanoma and prostate cancer have led to the active investigation of immunotherapy for GI malignancies, with some promising results. To date, monoclonal antibody therapy is the only immunotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for GI cancers. Initial trials validating new immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccination-based and adoptive cell therapy strategies, for GI malignancies have demonstrated safety and the induction of antitumor immune responses. Therefore, immunotherapy is at the forefront of neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies for the treatment and eradication of GI malignancies.

  19. Meningioma maligno Malignant meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvei González Orlandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los meningiomas intracraneales son tumores por lo general benignos, de crecimiento lento, y se originan en la capa de células aracnoideas, especialmente en las granulaciones aracnoideas. Los meningiomas anaplásicos o malignos representen solo el 1-3 %. En ocasiones simulan lesiones tumorales neuroepiteliales malignas, por su crecimiento rápido y la frecuente invasión al tejido cerebral vecino; suelen recidivar con mayor frecuencia y muchas veces requieren terapia coadyuvante. Las imágenes topográficas de este tipo de tumores suelen ser hiperdensas, con muy buena captación del contraste, regulares y bien delimitadas con poco o ningún edema asociado, todo lo contrario a lo visto en el caso que se presenta, en el cual las imágenes parecían corresponder a las de un glioma maligno (glioblastoma multiforme.The intracranial meningiomas are tumors in general of benign type of a slow growth originating in the arachnoid cells layer, especially in arachnoid granulations. The anaplastic or malignant meningiomas accounted for only the 1-3%. Sometimes they simulate malignant neuroepithelial lesions due to its fast growth and the frequent invasion of surrounding cerebral tissue with very frequent relapses and many times they required adjuvant therapy. The topographic images of this type of tumor are hyper-denses with a good contrast capture, regular and well defined with not much or not associated edema, quite the contrary that observed in present case where images seems to correspond with those of a malignant glioma (multiforme glioblastoma.

  20. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  1. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in ...

  2. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been estimated that chronic infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites contribute to 17.8% of the global burden of cancer, although only a relatively small proportion of the infection-related cancers can be attributed to helminth infections. These are important because of the high...... oxidize and damage DNA and lead to genetic instabilities and malignant transformation. Physical damage caused by the parasites, their eggs or secreted products leads to restorative hyperplasia of the damaged tissue. This may promote the propagation of cells, in which genotoxic damage and pre...

  3. Maligne adnekstumorer i huden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment......Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...

  4. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bino Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a life-threatening emergency that is often seen as a complication of antipsychotic agents. It is characterized by a tetrad of motor, behavioral, autonomic, and laboratory abnormalities. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a history of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and behavioral abnormalities who developed NMS after starting on antipsychotic agents. He presented with high temperature, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated blood pressure. After a week of hospital treatment in the general ward of a secondary care unit, he was discharged in a hemodynamically and mentally stable state.

  5. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28 (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005 is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no ­contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be ­considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A ­general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28 is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28 are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical ­studies, dose-dense (7/7, prolonged (21/28, or metronomic (28/28 temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of ­temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these ­combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined.Keywords: glioblastoma

  6. Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

  7. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... lesions like chronic gastritis, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, H. pylori infection play some role in the pathogenesis of gastric malignancies. The aims of this investigation were to study the histological type of gastric malignancies seen in the. Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine,.

  8. Malignant pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro; Pinto, José Antonio de Figueiredo; Marchi, Evaldo

    2006-01-01

    O derrame pleural neoplásico é uma complicação freqüente nos pacientes portadores de tumores avançados. A presença de células malignas no líquido pleural ou na biópsia da pleura é indicativa de disseminação da doença primária, com conseqüente redução da expectativa de vida. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce do derrame pleural maligno são fundamentais para promover uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes portadores de câncer avançado.The malignant pleural effusion is a frequent complicatio...

  9. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  10. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ... people of all age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the ...

  11. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  12. Malignant ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.; Müller, H.

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines malignant ameloblastoma as a lesion exhibiting features of an ameloblastoma in primary and metastatic growths. To cases collected from the literature we have added two of our own cases in which features of an ameloblastoma were coupled with malignant behavior.

  13. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-07-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed.

  14. Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed. The benefit of these agents is twofold, it enhances the ability the body’s own immune system to fight cancer, thus has a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Secondly, a small but substantial number of patients with metastatic disease are cured by immunotherapy or achieve durable responses lasting for a number of years. In this article, we review the FDA-approved immunotherapy agents in the field of genitourinary malignancies. We also summarize new immunotherapy agents being evaluated in clinical studies either as single agents or as a combination.

  15. [Malignant melanoma : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J K; Buder-Bakhaya, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Enk, A; Hassel, J C

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2‑year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial.

  16. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  17. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  18. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  19. Nonurological malignancies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Parida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nonurological malignancies in children include a wide variety of tumors. These tumors include primary tumors of the liver, thyroid, lung, gastrointestinal tract (GIT, and adrenals; soft tissue sarcomas (STSs like rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS and non-RMS; and finally extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT. Aims: This article aims at describing the current thinking in the management of these childhood solid tumors. This is critical in view of the recent advances in the elucidation of the molecular, genetic, and biologic behavior of these tumors and how these factors are getting integrated not only in the staging but also in developing a risk-based approach towards the management of these tumors. Materials and Methods: Reference was made to recently published literature from the leading pediatric cancer centers of the world to make a sense of things of the most current thinking in this rapidly expanding field. This will provide surgeons and physicians taking care of these children with a working knowledge in this somewhat challenging field. Conclusions: Treatment results vary from center to center depending on access to resources and following different management protocols. Results have improved for these tumors with the advent of newer chemotherapeutic agents, novel delivery methods of radiation therapy (RT, and improvement in surgical technique. Due to the limited number of patients presenting with these tumors, national and international collaboration of data is critical for all and beneficial to individual treatment centers. This has resulted in better results in the past and will definitely result in still better results in the future.

  20. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  1. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Urologic malignancies in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura A; Sawinski, Deirdre; Guzzo, Thomas; Locke, Jayme E

    2018-01-01

    With advances in immunosuppression, graft and patient outcomes after kidney transplantation have improved considerably. As a result, long-term complications of transplantation, such as urologic malignancies, have become increasingly important. Kidney transplant recipients, for example, have a 7-fold risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 3-fold risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) compared with the general population. While extrapolation of data from the general population suggest that routine cancer screening in transplant recipients would allow for earlier diagnosis and management of these potentially lethal malignancies, currently there is no consensus for posttransplantation RCC or UC screening as supporting data are limited. Further understanding of risk factors, presentation, optimal management of, and screening for urologic malignancies in kidney transplant patients is warranted, and as such, this review will focus on the incidence, surveillance, and treatment of urologic malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Multiple Cutaneous (pre)-Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. van der Leest (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most common cutaneous malignancies are derived from melanocytes and keratinocytes (ordered in decreasing aggressiveness): melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). This thesis focuses only on these three types of cancer and

  4. General Information about Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Malignant Mesothelioma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  6. Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignant mesothelioma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ... and decortication , with or without radiation therapy , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . ...

  7. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Svabo Rasmussen, Per Joen; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A c....... A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months....

  8. Les tumeurs malignes primitives de l’intestin grèle: Aspects cliniques et thérapeutiques de 27 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abahssain Halima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Les tumeurs malignes de l'intestin grèle (TMPIG sont des tumeurs rares. Elles représentent 1 à 5% de toutes les tumeurs du tube digestif. Elles sont caractérisées par une hétérogénéité anatomopathologique et une symptomatologie pauvre et non spécifique entrainant ainsi un retard diagnostic, des difficultés Thérapeutiques et donc un mauvais pronostic. Nous rapportant les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques ainsi que la survie des patients atteints des TMIG au sein de l’institut national d’oncologie de Rabat. Il s’agit d’une analyse rétrospective des dossiers cliniques des 27 patients ayant le diagnostic de tumeurs malignes de l’intestin grèle admis dans notre institut entre 1998 et 2002. L’âge médian était de 46 ans (15-70 ans. Le délai médian de diagnostic était de 6 mois (0-96 mois. La douleur abdominale était le symptôme le plus fréquent (77.8%. L’étude anatomopathologique a montré 63% de lymphome non Hodgkinie, 14.8% d’adénocarcinome, 7.4% de tumeur stromale, 7.4% de carcinome neuroendocrine et 7.4% de sarcome intestinal. Vingt patients (76. 9% ont eu une résection chirurgicale et 14 patients (53. 8% ont eu une chimiothérapie en fonction du stade de la maladie et du type histologique. Après un recul médian de 11.6 mois, la survie globale après 12 mois était de 44.4% et la médiane de survie était de 11.6 mois. Les tumeurs malignes de l’intestin grèle sont rares. Leur diagnostic est tardif limitant ainsi la prise en charge thérapeutique curative. Les cliniciens doivent ètre avertis des symptômes gastro-intestinaux non spécifiques

  9. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathanson, L. (Health Sciences Center, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  10. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, H; Maegaki, Y; Takeshita, K

    1998-10-01

    A 1-year-old female presented with neuroleptic malignant syndrome probably caused by methylphenidate. She had defects in the supratentorial brain including the basal ganglia and the striatum (multicystic encephalomalacia) due to severe perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which was considered to be a possible predisposing factor causing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. A dopaminergic blockade mechanism generally is accepted as the pathogenesis of this syndrome. However, methylphenidate is a dopamine agonist via the inhibition of uptake of dopamine, and therefore dopaminergic systems in the brainstem (mainly the midbrain) and the spinal cord were unlikely to participate in the onset of this syndrome. A relative gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic deficiency might occur because diazepam, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-mimetic agent, was strikingly effective. This is the first reported patient with neuroleptic malignant syndrome probably caused by methylphenidate.

  12. aspect echographique du lymphome primitif du testicule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tête de I'épididyme était mal visible, re- 'nt93tma'e' foulée par la masse testiculaire. Il n'y avait pas d'hydrocèle. Au total, il s'agissait d'un En novembre 1995, il a été revu aux ur- volumineux testicule droit d'écho structure très gences médicales pour épistaxis, altération de hétérogène avec notamment de multiples l'état ...

  13. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  14. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  15. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  16. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and two (95.33%) cases of gastric malignancies were in the pyloric antrum, 3 (2.80%) were in the gastric cardia, and 1 case each (0.93%) in the corpus and fundus. Sixty-four (60%) of cases showed moderate to numerous Helicobacter pylori. Mild chronic gastritis was seen in 11 (10%) cases, moderate chronic ...

  17. Malignant and pre-malignant oesophageal pathology in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: South Africa (SA) has one of the highest global incidences of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (SCC). A decreasing incidence of oesophageal SCC in SA has been suggested. The study aimed to assess whether the incidence of these malignant histopathological subtypes has changed in this ...

  18. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  19. CT triage for lung malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Martin Weber; Karstoft, Jens; Mussmann, Bo

    2015-01-01

    : To assess detection performance using only coronal multiplanar reformations (MPR) when triaging patients for lung malignancies with CT compared to images in three orthogonal planes, and to evaluate performance comparison of novice and experienced readers. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of 63...

  20. Management of malignant pleural effusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on IPCs (indwelling pleural catheters) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) management. In an invited review, the (dis)advantages and prejudices of IPCs are described (Chapter1.1). Since costs and reimbursement issues are the main reasons in the Netherlands to

  1. Radioguided surgery in urological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Weckermann

    2008-01-01

    In all urological malignancies the SLN concept is only a staging procedure. When the sentinel node(s is (are negative, the other lymph nodes are negative, too. Since there are no randomized prospective trials comparing the results of sentinel lymphadenectomy with other techniques of lymph node dissection, it is not clear whether sentinel lymph node dissection also has a prognostic impact.

  2. Cutaneous malignancies of the perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David; Pootrakul, Llana; Harmon, Jenna; Trotter, Shannon

    2015-03-01

    This review discusses multiple cutaneous malignancies that can present on the perineum. Although all of these neoplasms are uncommon, a focus will be on the more common neoplasms including extramammary Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Other more rare entities discussed are superficial leiomyosarcoma, giant solitary trichoepithelioma, and cutaneous endometriosis.

  3. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  4. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip

    2007-06-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. Five-year survival ranges from 20% to 95% depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent malignant melanoma? Is there an optimal surgical margin for the primary excision of melanoma? What are the effects of elective lymph node dissection in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? What are the effects of sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? What are the effects of adjuvant treatment for malignant melanoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adjuvant vaccines; elective lymph node dissection; low-, intermediate-, and high-dose adjuvant interferon alfa; sentinel lymph node biopsy; suncreens; surveillance for early recurrence; and wide excisions.

  5. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Wendy B. C.; Netea, Mihai G.; Kater, Arnon P.; van der Velden, Walter J. F. M.

    2016-01-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric

  6. Leukoplakia: A short review on malignant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. K. Masthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral leukoplakia is one of the most common potentially malignant disorders. Right diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders may help to prevent these lesions from malignant transformation. Proper understanding, recognizing, identification and differentiating these lesions from normal mucosa are necessary for proper treatment.

  7. Paediatric Malignancies | Joseph | African Journal of Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignancies. Other common malignancies included sarcomas 10(14.71%), neurofibromatosis 9(13.24%), nephroblastoma 8(11.77%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 5(7.35%) and retinoblastoma 4(5.88%). The less common paediatric malignancies were melanoma, invasive lobular breast carcinoma and squamous cell ...

  8. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  9. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANCIES

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    D.Yu. Kachanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Children suffering from oncological diseases fall into the group of immunocompromised patients. They are more at risk of severe children’s banal infections. Development of safe and efficient methods for immunological prevention of preventable infections diseases in this group of children is one of priorities for modern medicine. It is also important to properly organise the process of vaccinating the persons surrounding the patient to eliminate the risk of postvaccinal complications in the sick (non-vaccinated child. The article provides a detailed overview of the global experience in vaccinating children with malignant neoplasms. It describes modern principles of immunological prevention in children both being administered the standard anticancer therapy and those have undergone transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells. Key words: children, malignancy, vaccination.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:28-34

  10. Overview of hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimando, D A

    2001-11-15

    The etiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of hypercalcemia associated with malignant diseases are discussed. In humans, calcium is controlled by three mechanisms: parathyroid hormone, which regulates bone resorption and renal reabsorption of calcium; calcitonin, an antagonist of parathyroid hormone; and cholecalciferol, which regulates calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) results primarily from increased bone resorption by osteoclasts and, to a lesser extent, from increased renal tubular reabsorption. In most tumors, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the primary mediator of calcium. PTHrP stimulates increased bone resorption by osteoclasts. This stimulation also activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which stimulates tumor cells, thus perpetuating the cycle. Hypercalcemia is usually defined as a serum calcium concentration greater than 12 mg/dL, corrected for the serum albumin concentration. In diagnosing HCM, it is important to rule out other causes of hypercalcemia, such as primary hyperparathyroidism.

  11. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  12. Hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J.C.; Isslet, J.W. van; Buul, M.M.C. van; Oei, H.Y.; Rijk, P.P. van

    1987-07-01

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols.

  13. Malignant melanoma in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarić M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca

    2002-01-01

    A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clin...

  14. [Chemotherapy of malignant bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, K; Seeber, S; Gallmeier, W M; Bruntsch, U; Hossfeld, D K; Schmidt, C G

    1977-04-01

    In several primary malignant tumors significant improvement of formely bad prognosis has been achieved by the introduction of new cytostatic compounds and the study of new cytostatic combination regimens. Adjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma led to remarkable increase in survival rates. Leaning on natural history and on remission rates reached by cytostatic treatment in metastasizing stages of disease, proposals for adjuvant chemotherapy are made and chemotherapy regimen appliable on out-patient basis is described.

  15. Malignant endobronchial lesions of adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, R.D. (Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Mahboubi, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Berdon, W.E. (Dept. of Radiology, Babies Hospital/Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Rare primary endobronchial malignancies were diagnosed in four adolescents: atypical bronchial carcinoid, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, bronchogenic (squamous cell) carcinoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Metastatic disease was evident in each case. Three of the four patients died within one year of diagnosis. This paper describes each of these entities, illustrates their plain film and CT abnormalities (bronchial 'cut-off', hilar mass, local congestive edema, lobar collapse, hyperinflation), and discusses the utility of CT in their diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Malignant transformation in chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous degeneration is a rare and late complication developing decades after the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To present the results from a retrospective study of six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: Six cases of chronic osteomyelitis related to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The cause and characteristics of the osteomyelitis were analyzed, as well as time up to malignancy, the suspicion signs for malignancy, the localization and histological type of the cancer, and the type and result of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean time between osteomyelitis onset and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 49.17 years (range: 32-65. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in five cases and from femur osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination indicated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. All the patients were staged as N0M0, except for one, whose lomboaortic lymph nodes were affected. The treatment consisted of amputation proximal to the tumor in all patients. No patient presented signs of local recurrence and only one had carcinoma metastasis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and proximal amputation are essential for prognosis and final results in carcinomatous degeneration secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  17. Epigenetic alterations in hematopoietic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young Rock; Schatoff, Emma; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2012-10-01

    Gene discovery efforts in patients with hematopoietic malignancies have brought to the forefront a series of mutations in genes thought to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. These mutations occur in genes known, or suspected, to play a role in modifying cytosine nucleotides on DNA and/or altering the state of histone modifications. Genes such as ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, MLL1, and TET2 all have been shown to be mutated and/or translocated in patients with myeloid malignancies. Intriguingly, many of the alterations affecting DNA cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies (mutations in DNMT3A, IDH1/2, and TET2) have also been found in patients with T-cell lymphomas, and EZH2 mutations appear to be critical in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development as well. In addition, the discovery of frequent mutations in CREBBP, EP300, EZH2, and MLL2 in B-cell lymphomas suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in lymphomagenesis. The purpose of this review is to present functional evidence of how alterations in these epigenetic modifiers promote hematopoietic transformation. The conclusions drawn from these data are valuable in understanding biological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

  18. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Korgali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma.

  19. Malignant mandibular tumors: two case reports of rare mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular lesions can be benign or malignant, malignant being less common. The most common malignant tumor of mandible is squamous cell carcinoma. Others are ameloblastic carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and metastasis. Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor.

  20. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidenreich Axel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a

  1. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  2. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. Five year survival ranges from 20% to 95% depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi.Prognosis depends on depth of tumour, ulceration, and number of lymph nodes involved. Survival may be better in women compared with men, and for lesions on the limbs compared with the trunk.Lesions can recu...

  3. Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurum, Mehmet Çağrı; Pekcan, Zeynep; Özmen, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Melanomlar melanosit ve melanoblastların benign veya malign tümörleridir. Malign melanom kedilerde oldukça nadir gözlenen bir tümördür. Bu vaka takdiminde 16 yaşlı bir kedide kutanöz malign melonoma’nın klinik ve histopatolojik bulguları bildirilmiştir. Bu, aynı zamanda, Türkiye’de bir kedide bildirilen ilk kutanöz malign melanoma vakasıdır. Melanomas are neoplasia of melanocytes and melanoblasts which may in benign or malign character. Malign melanoma is typically considered as a rare neo...

  4. Malignant small round cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Srinivas, Radhika; Upasana, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection. PMID:21938141

  5. Stents for malignant ureteral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ureteral obstruction can result in renal dysfunction or urosepsis and can limit the physician's ability to treat the underlying cancer. There are multiple methods to deal with ureteral obstruction including regular polymeric double J stents (DJS, tandem DJS, nephrostomy tubes, and then more specialized products such as solid metal stents (e.g., Resonance Stent, Cook Medical and polyurethane stents reinforced with nickel-titanium (e.g., UVENTA stents, TaeWoong Medical. In patients who require long-term stenting, a nephrostomy tube could be transformed subcutaneously into an extra-anatomic stent that is then inserted into the bladder subcutaneously. We outline the most recent developments published since 2012 and report on identifiable risk factors that predict for failure of urinary drainage. These failures are typically a sign of cancer progression and the natural history of the disease rather than the individual type of drainage device. Factors that were identified to predict drainage failure included low serum albumin, bilateral hydronephrosis, elevated C-reactive protein, and the presence of pleural effusion. Head-to-head studies show that metal stents are superior to polymeric DJS in terms of maintaining patency. Discussions with the patient should take into consideration the frequency that exchanges will be needed, the need for externalized hardware (with nephrostomy tubes, or severe urinary symptoms in the case of internal DJS. This review will highlight the current state of diversions in the setting of malignant ureteral obstruction.

  6. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM, and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic.

  7. Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

  8. Malignant acanthosis nigricans with occult primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Moly

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A case of generalized malignant acanthosis nigricans of 2 years duration is reported. In spite of the long duration of this cutaneous marker of internal malignancy, the patient was completely asymptamatic and extensive investigations revealed the presence of widespread metastasis of mucin secreting signet cell adenocarcinoma from an unknown primary site. In addition the patient also had acquired hypertrichosis lanuginose and florid cutaneous papillomatosis which are also markers of internal malignancy.

  9. Hypercalcemia and electrolyte disturbances in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barri, Y M; Knochel, J P

    1996-08-01

    Hypercalcemia and electrolyte abnormalities are common problems in patients with malignancy. In this article we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of hypercalcemia, which is the most common metabolic abnormality. We also analyze the electrolyte disturbances that occur in association with malignancy, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Recognition and treatment of these disturbances are important parts of the management of patients with malignant disease.

  10. [Acute surgical treatment of malignant stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Eskesen, Vagn; Hansen, Klaus; Kondziella, Daniel; Kelsen, Jesper

    2016-10-24

    Malignant stroke is an intracranial herniation syndrome caused by cerebral oedema after a large hemispheric or cerebellar stroke. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a devastating disease with a mortality around 80% despite intensive medical treatment. Decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality and improves functional outcome - especially in younger patients (age ≤ 60 years). Decompression of the posterior fossa is a life-saving procedure in patients with malignant cerebellar infarctions and often leads to good neurological outcome.

  11. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  12. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  13. Zgodnje odkrivanje maligne alteracije pigmentnih znamenj: Early detection of pigmented nevi malignant alteration:

    OpenAIRE

    Golmajer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly malignant tumor, and its response to treatment is poor. Its incidence is on an increase world-wide. Amplified surface microscopy is a riew non-invasive diagnostic method enabling the detection of atypical (dysplastic) nevi, which are frequent precursors of malignant melanoma, as well as of signs that indicate the initial symptoms of malignant afteration much earlier than it used to be possible by a standard clinical examination. Therefore, our study was aimed at...

  14. Malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm in long-term childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; Overbeek, Annelies; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Annette Y. N.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A.

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review provides information on malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm (SMN) after childhood cancer and evaluates its risk factors. Study reports describing incidences of SMN and malignant melanoma as SMN in a population of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were included. Of

  15. The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in differentiation between malignant and non malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Atef

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Pleural fluid level of TNF-α can be used in differentiating malignant from non malignant effusion. Also levels of TNF-α in the serum and pleural fluid could be useful as a complementary marker in the differential diagnosis of two most common types of exudates (tuberculous and malignant.

  16. Nivolumab: Immunotherapy in Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Heather; Schneider, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Although patients diagnosed with melanoma that is confined to the skin have a five-year survival rate of 98%, this number drops to 16% with widely metastatic disease. Melanoma rates have been steadily increasing since the 1970s, but cytotoxic chemotherapy generally prolongs survival by about four months. Nivolumab is an effective immunotherapy agent. This article discusses the use of nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. Clinical trial and early postmarketing data were reviewed. In clinical trials, patients with advanced melanoma experienced partial sustained responses to nivolumab, a new targeted immunotherapy agent, for more than one year. Nivolumab helps the immune system mobilize lymphocytes that have been inactivated by melanoma cells, enhancing the body's ability to recognize the cancer as abnormal. Compared to conventional chemotherapy, nivolumab has been shown to greatly improve survival in widespread, inoperable malignant melanoma. Oncology nurses will administer, monitor, and educate patients about nivolumab.

  17. Malignant mesothelioma: development to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce K; Westbom, Catherine M; Shukla, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelium caused by asbestos. Asbestos use has been reduced but not completely stopped. In addition, natural or man-made disasters will continue to dislodge asbestos from old buildings into the atmosphere and as long as respirable asbestos is available, MM will continue to be a threat. Due to the long latency period of MM development, it would still take decades to eradicate this disease if asbestos was completely removed from our lives today. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and clinicians to work together to understand this deadly disease and find a solution for early diagnosis and treatment. This article focuses on developmental mechanisms as well as current therapies available for MM. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thigmotropism of Malignant Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Quatresooz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During malignant melanoma (MM progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape. These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called “accretive” growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread.

  19. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Malignant occlusion of the coeliac axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Wattsgaard, C.; Genell, S. (Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1982-01-01

    Occlusion or extensive stenosis of the coeliac trunk due to malignant tumor are described in three patients. If, at angiography of a patient with a malignant tumor, occlusion of the coeliac trunk is found, tumor or lymph node metastases causing the occlusion must be considered; this may be of importance when intra-arterial chemotherapy of the tumor is planned.

  1. Primary malignant lymphoma of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakata, K.; Nakata, H.; Nakayama, T.; Kajiwara, Y.; Kuroda, Y.

    1989-07-01

    A rare case of a primary malignant lymphoma of the rectum in a 7 year old girl is presented. Although rectal polyps in children are usually benign juvenile polyps, a rare possibility of malignancy should be kept in mind. An adequate histological examination is essential. (orig.).

  2. MULTIPLE PRIMARY MALIGNANCIES IN PATIENTS.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Two patients had cancers of the colon followed by ovarian malignancy in one and a rectal malignancy in the other. Of the other patients, one had cancer of the cervix and later she developed None Hodgkin's lymphoma. ..... primary cancer after treatment of the first with radiotherapy or chemotherapy is well documented.

  3. Type B lactic acidosis in solid malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Sprenger, R.A.; Imholz, A.L.; Gerding, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type B lactic acidosis is thought to be a rare complication of malignancy. It was first described in patients with acute leukaemia by Field et al. in 1963. Since then, it has been observed more often, in particular in haematological malignancies and rarely in solid tumours. METHODS:

  4. Dermatological malignancies in Kano, Northern Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Malignant skin tumours comprised 12.7% of all histologically diagnosed cancers. As in other Negroid populations, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common constituting 40%, followed by melanomas comprising 34%. Cutaneous malignancies were most prevalent in the 6th and 7th decades of life and males ...

  5. Secondary ovarian malignancies: frequency, origin, and characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, Y.R. de; Thomas, C.M.G.; Oei, A.L.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of metastatic tumors among malignant ovarian neoplasms, the site distribution of the primary malignancies that give rise to ovarian metastasis and the clinicopathologic features of metastatic tumors. METHODS: We analyzed a total number of 116 patients diagnosed

  6. Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade...

  7. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic metastatic tumors are uncommon and account for less than 2% of all pancreatic carcinomas.[1] Renal-cell cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and sarcoma are the most common sites of primary malignancy.[1] Around one-third of patients with malignant melanoma develop metastases.[2] Metastatic melanoma ...

  8. Metastatic malignant melanoma affecting stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Eivazi-Ziaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma has been reported to affect all organs of the human body with the metastasis. Stomach metastases are quite rare in cases of the most commonly reported primaries including, melanoma and breast, and lung carcinomas. This report involves, a 56-year-old man suffering from melanoma of the lower extremity that developed into gastric, pulmonary, and brain metastases. The patient who experienced epigastric pain with suspicious melanoma was referred to undergo endoscopy. A black and white ulcer with dimensions of 1 × 1.5 cm and a mass of 1 × 2 cm mass were found at D1 and lesser curvature. Physical examination revealed a 2 × 3 cm black lesion at his right heel. Pathologic examination provided multiple pieces of creamy soft-tissue measuring 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.1 cm showing pigmented tumor cells in lamina propria. Staining biopsy samples with anti-HMB-45 and Fontana demonstrated a higher degree of positivity in tumor cells. The patient was admitted to the hospital, but unfortunately his general conditions were deteriorated and he developed convulsion and deceased four days after admission.

  9. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  10. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  11. Malignant tumors of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, Bartosz; Miszalski-Jamka, Karol; Glowacki, Jan; Lekston, Andrzej; Gierlotka, Marek; Zembala, Marian; Polonski, Lech; Gasior, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare, and mostly manifest as sarcomas in various types. As non-invasive diagnostic modalities, e.g. echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, have become more sensitive, there is a marked increase in the number of patients diagnosed. Nevertheless, most patients die within one year of initial diagnosis, either because of the often asymptomatic presentation of cardiac tumors until advanced disease, or a low index of suspicion on the part of the physician. The presenting symptoms, treatment options and, indeed, prognosis are largely controlled by the tumor's anatomic location. Cardiac sarcomas may present with a variety of symptoms and are known to be great mimickers. A quick diagnosis facilitates the initiation of a proper treatment (surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy), which may in turn improve the prognosis. Metastases to the heart are far more common, unfortunately, clinical manifestations are mainly dominated by generalized tumor spread. The article summarizes epidemiology, symptoms, diagnostic modalities, and possible treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Update in Treatment of Malignant Eyelid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin A. Katırcıoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of malignant eyelid tumors have different properties according to histological diagnosis, assessment of tumor margins and local or systemic spread. Chances of success in the treatment of malignant tumors of the eyelids are high only when the right procedures through which all tumor cells are eradicated with the condition that the role of protecton of ocular surface of the eyelids are functional. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the current treatment of malignant eyelid tumors. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 55-60

  15. A case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sarrami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of intracranial malignant fibrous histiocytoma which had infiltrated pons, cerebellum and basal surface of left temporal lobe without any visible mass. The patient presented with a sudden loss of consciousness and vomiting. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, imaging and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid tended to establish the diagnosis of an infectious condition than a malignancy. Without any response to the antibiotics and with a progressive deterioration of neurologic and mental condition, the patient died after 20 days. In the autopsy, histological and immunohistochemical study of the brain revealed the diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH.

  16. Differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies with CT spectral imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu [Peking University Third Hospital, No.49 North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare, CT imaging Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. This study was institutional review board-approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-seven patients were examined by DESCT during venous phase. Twenty patients had malignant vertebral tumours, 17 had non-malignant vertebral tumours. The iodine/water densities for the lesion, the lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio for iodine density measurements were calculated and compared between the two groups with the two-tailed Student t test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. The iodine density, lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio of the iodine density measurement for malignant vertebral tumours were significantly different from the respective values for non-malignancies (all p < 0.05). Using 0.52 as the threshold value for the lesion-to-artery iodine density ratio, one could obtain sensitivity of 85 % and specificity of 100 % for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies, significantly higher than the qualitative diagnosis. DESCT imaging enables analysis of a number of additional quantitative CT parameters to improve the accuracy for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. (orig.)

  17. Malignant melanoma. Current status; Malignes Melanom. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.K.; Buder-Bakhaya, K.; Enk, A.; Hassel, J.C. [Universitaetshautklinik, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2-year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial. (orig.) [German] Die Inzidenz des Melanoms steigt stetig an. Die Prognose bei metastasierter Erkrankung ist weiterhin limitiert. Bis vor wenigen Jahren war eine palliative Chemotherapie mit begrenzten Ansprechraten Standardtherapie des metastasierten Melanoms. Immuntherapie und zielgerichtete Therapien stellen neue Behandlungsoptionen dar. Insbesondere Immuncheckpointinhibitoren haben die Prognose verbessert. Routinemaessig werden die

  18. Early stage malignant phyllodes tumor case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Thao; Leigh, Emilia C N; Barry, Rahman; Traylor, Jack R; Legenza, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is an extremely rare entity usually presenting with similar clinical features with those of benign fibroadenoma. Due to its scarcity and clinical presentation, it is quite difficult for clinicians to suspect and diagnose the disease at its early stage. There is currently no consensus regarding adjunctive radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy recommended for malignant phyllodes tumors. This report presents a case of early-stage malignant phyllodes tumor treated by lumpectomy only without adjunctive chemoradiation therapy, but with an excellent outcome. Early diagnosis and staging with high suspicion are crucial in malignant phyllodes tumor patients since they do not only improve the overall outcome of the disease after lumpectomy only but they also decrease morbidity and mortality with adjunctive chemoradiation therapy. This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016 [1]). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult high-grade malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fable Zustovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS malignant gliomas are relatively rare diseases. Prognosis is poor but has improved over recent years due to the improvement in the multi-disciplinary treatment: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy...

  20. Malignant duodenocolic fistula. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, F; Arzillo, G; Lodo, N; Falchero, F; Gramegna, A

    1986-01-01

    Malignant duodenocolic fistula is a rare condition in which radical surgical treatment is seldom possible. A personal case treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy is presented with a review of the literature.

  1. clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTOPATHOLOGIC TYPES OF MAXILLOFACIAL MALIGNANCIES WITH EMPHASIS ON SARCOMAS: A 10-YEAR REVIEW. M. W. Kamau, BDS, M. L. Chindia, BDS, MSc, FFDRCSI, E. A. O. Dimba, BDS, PHD, D. Awange, BDS, MSc. Department of.

  2. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  3. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin excision should reduce recurrence rate. Further characterization of these tumours is desirable in our setting. Keywords: Skin Appendage, Malignant, Eccrine Sweat gland. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol.

  4. Pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Petra; Viehmann, Anja; Arendt, Marina; Eisele, Lewin; Spix, Claudia; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Lohmann, Dietmar R

    2015-10-01

    Children with retinoblastoma carry a high risk to develop second primary malignancies in childhood and adolescence. This study characterizes the type of pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment and investigates the impact of different treatment strategies and prognostic factors at presentation. All national patients treated for retinoblastoma at the German referral center with a current age of 6-27 years were invited to participate in a study to characterize late effects. Data on pediatric second primary malignancies were recorded from 488 patients. Ten developed a malignancy before the age of 18 years. For children with heterozygous oncogenic RB1 alteration (heritable retinoblastoma), the cumulative incidence to develop a second malignancy at the age of 10 years was 5.2% (95% CI 1.7; 8.7%). This results in an elevated risk for sarcoma (n = 4) (SIR 147.98; 95% CI 39.81; 378.87) and leukemia (n = 4) (SIR 41.38; 95% CI 11.13; 105.95). Neither the functional type of the RB1 alteration nor its origin showed a significant impact. Treatment modality influenced incidence, latency, and type of malignancy. Previous radiotherapy increased the risk for solid tumors and 3 of 91 children developed acute leukemia after chemotherapy. However, 2 of 10 malignancies were diagnosed in patients with heritable retinoblastoma but without previous chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Screening for second primary malignancy is an important part of pediatric oncological follow-up in patients with heritable retinoblastoma. For patients with sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma, genetic information influences treatment decisions and allows tailoring of follow-up schedules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising on chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, C; Giannelli, G; Berloco, A; Mascolo, V; Ingravallo, G; Giardina, C

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the skin (MFH) arising on chronic osteomyelitis in a 67-year-old woman. Although this condition seems to be a predisposing factor for the onset of the malignancy, MFH complicating chronic osteomyelitis is generally localized at the level of the bone tissue. In the case we report the neoplasm was primitively localized at the dermal and subcutaneous level and presented as a rapidly growing mass.

  6. Needle phobia and malignant vasovagal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P S; Yanny, W

    1998-10-01

    A case is reported in which suspicion of malignant vasovagal syndrome was aroused by a history of faints and needle phobia. The vasovagal response was successfully avoided using a gaseous induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane. Intravenous access was achieved under general anaesthesia. The diagnosis of malignant vasovagal syndrome was confirmed postoperatively using a head-up tilt table test. An outline of the pathophysiology of the syndrome gives some indication for suitable anaesthetic management strategies in similar cases.

  7. PRIMARY RENAL MASSES IN CHILDREN IN CAMEROON: A PLEA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sur le plan histologique, il y avait 21 (72,4%) néphroblastomes, 4 (13,8%) lymphomes, 2 (6,9%) adénocarcinomes, 1 (3,4%) mésen-chymome et 1 (3,4%) angiomyolipome. Les données sur la survie étaient disponibles chez 18 patients seulement sur les 27 qui avaient des tumeurs malignes. Deux patients avec lymphomes ...

  8. [Three cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, M; Onuki, T; Mae, M; Yoshida, T; Nitta, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma is a rare disease that is thought to belong to a category of malignant lymphomas arising from mucosa- or bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT or BALT). We encountered 3 cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma, Case 1: In a 51-year-old male, an abnormal shadow was detected in chest radiography in the right S9 after an operation for thyroid carcinoma. A right lower lobectomy was performed. The diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma). Immunohistochemical staining for IgM gave a positive result. Case 2: Multiple nodular shadows were noted in both lungs of a 55-year-old man after a bout of pneumonia. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma). Gene analysis revealed rearrangement of a heavy chain gene. Case 3: An abnormal shadow was seen in the chest radiograph of a 60-year-old man. He was treated by right upper and middle lobectomy. The diagnosis was Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosing type. Chemotherapy was given after surgery and the patient is now alive without recurrence. As the pulmonary malignant lymphoma was difficult to diagnosepreoperatively, it was necessary to resect the mass for diagnostic purposes. The prognosis of a resected solitary lesion in the lobe was good. Therefore lobectomy was performed as the treatment of choice. Systemic chemotherapy is performed for the diffuse type of pulmonary lymphoma.

  9. Malignancy-Induced Hypercalcemia—Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hoyoux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia in children is a rare metabolic finding. The clinical picture is usually non-specific, and the etiology includes several entities (metabolic, nutritional, drug-induced, inflammatory, cancer-associated, or genetic depending on the age at presentation, but severe hypercalcemia is associated mainly with malignancy in childhood and sepsis in neonates. Severe parathyroid hormone (PTH-suppressed hypercalcemia is challenging and requires multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to (i confirm or rule out a malignant cause, (ii treat it and its potentially dangerous complications. We report a case of severe and complicated PTH-independent hypercalcemia in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy. His age, severity of hypercalcemia and its complicated course, and the first imaging reports were suggestive of malignancy. The first bone and kidney biopsies and bone marrow aspiration were normal. The definitive diagnosis was a malignant-induced hypercalcemia, and we needed 4 weeks to assess other differential diagnoses and to confirm, on histopathological and immunochemical base, the malignant origin of hypercalcemia. Using this case as an illustrative example, we suggest a diagnostic approach that underlines the importance of repeated histology if the clinical suspicion is malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. Effective treatment is required acutely to restore calcium levels and to avoid complications.

  10. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  11. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy B C; Netea, Mihai G; Kater, Arnon P; van der Velden, Walter J F M

    2016-12-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed 'trained immunity'. In this review the concept of 'trained immunity' is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, P M; Rüffert, H; Snoeck, M M

    2015-01-01

    It is 30 yr since the British Journal of Anaesthesia published the first consensus protocol for the laboratory diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. This has subsequently been used in more than 10 000 individuals worldwide to inform use...... of anaesthetic drugs in these patients with increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia during general anaesthesia, representing an early and successful example of stratified medicine. In 2001, our group also published a guideline for the use of DNA-based screening of malignant hyperthermia...

  13. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  14. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  15. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  16. The case of malignancy mimicking legionella pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karakuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium, which can grow inwater pipe networks and climate systems. Contaminationoccurs by aspiration of infected water or aerosol inhalation.It is usually presented with fever, bradycardia, andchange in mental status, hyponatremia, elevation of liverenzymes and deterioration of renal function. The definitediagnosis is established by detection of the antigens andcultivating in the culture medium. Also, malign lung tumorscan encounter with the same clinical findings, so lungcancer should be remembered in differential diagnosis.The patient hospitalized for the Legionella pneumophiladue to the physical examination and laboratory findingsduring the first evaluation in the emergency department.However, further examinations pointed to the cancer. Weaimed to emphasize the probability of malignant tumorsin terms of hyponatremia, increase in the liver enzymes,and failure in the renal functions, which were usually experiencedin emergency unit. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4(3: 390-392Key words: Legionella pneumophila, pneumonia, lung malignancy

  17. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  18. Permanent pacing for cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. E.; Chamberlain-Webber, R.; Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Ingram, A.; Williams, T.; Sutton, R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effect of permanent pacing in cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS--37 patients with permanent pacemakers for cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome. All presented with syncope (median six episodes, median frequency two episodes a year) and after conventional investigation and invasive electrophysiological assessment they remained undiagnosed, and without a generally accepted indication for pacemaker implantation. In all vasovagal syncope with cardioinhibition (heart rate at syncope vasovagal syndrome. Improved acquisition of tilt test data may enable better selection of patients who are suitable for permanent pacing. A randomised prospective study to compare permanent pacing with no treatment or with medical treatment in cardioinhibitory malignant vasovagal syndrome is indicated. PMID:8142198

  19. [Molecular classification and markers of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, József; Hársing, Judit; Somlai, Beáta

    2013-06-01

    Pathological classification of malignant melanoma did not change in the past decade, it was just completed with UV-induced skin alterations. A new feature, however, is the establishment of molecular classification of melanoma indicating that beside the most frequent genetic alterations (BRAF, NRAS, CKIT mutations) there is a wide variety of rare molecular subclasses. Unfortunately, none of these genetic alterations can be used to discriminate benign lesions from malignant ones. The frequently used "melanoma" markers are mostly melanosomal markers, therefore they are not helpful for this diagnostic purpose either. More recently, novel FISH kits have been developed analyzing characteristic copy number alterations specific for malignant melanoma. Though melanosomal markers are helpful in differencial diagnostics, the presence of normal melanocytes in various tissues (lymph nodes, intestine or brain) requires application of molecular techniques when melanoma metastasis is in question.

  20. Malignant Melanoma of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma (OMM accounts for 5% of all oral malignancies. It is a rare aggressive neoplasm usually found on the hard palate and gingiva. The etiology is unknown, but tobacco and chronic irritation are suggested as probable causative factors.Over 30% of the cases have been reported to arise from pre-existing pigmented lesions.A biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis and the treatment of choice is surgery which may be affected by several factors such as size of the lesion and anatomic location. Despite aggressive resection and adjuvant treatments such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the five-year survival rate of this malignancy is poor.

  1. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Bajaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality.

  2. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  3. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, D.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  4. MALIGNANCIES IN CHILDHOOD: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Chinnappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Barring malnutrition and infection, cancer is the most common cause of death in children below the age of 14 years of age. Malignancies are coming into greater focus because of the preventive measures being taken for the former. In general, the features of malignancy in children differ greatly from neoplasm in adults. Tissues which are developing and growing are more likely to undergo neoplastic transformation. Hence, high incidence of embryonic cancers in children. Today, the diagnosis of cancer particularly in children is still regarded as in some circles as death sentences for the malignant disease is second only to trauma and infectious diseases as a killer in children above the age of one year. Hence, early diagnosis and confirmation by haematological and histopathological methods are crucial in early diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and morphological features of malignant neoplasm occurring in children. The present study is a retrospective study undertaken in the Department of Pathology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, over a period of three years, i.e., March 1994-February 1997. The material was obtained from paediatric patients aged from 0-14 years admitted to Chigateri General Hospital, Bapuji Child Health Institute attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere, and Hospitals and nursing homes in and around Davangere. RESULTS 1. This study presents an observation on the paediatric malignancies in relation to age, sex and incidence and in the clinical and morphological findings. 2. The malignant tumours in paediatric age group are less common and they form about 10.90% of malignant tumours occurring at all ages. 3. These tumours show a slight male preponderance compared to females in the ratio of 1.2:1. 4. 38.75% of the tumours were encountered in children below the age of 5 years. Most of the tumours (61.25% occurred between 6-14 years indicating a higher

  5. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  6. [Acute catatonic syndrome after neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, G; Jehel, L; Abgrall, G; Pelissolo, A; Allilaire, Jf

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who deve-loped catatonic syndrome a few days after neuroleptic mali-gnant syndrome (NMS), arising the problem of the chronology of both affections. A 20-year old woman with an history of bipolar disorder, experienced an acute manic syndrome that made hospitalization necessary. Fourteen days after loxa-pine prescription, the patient developed a NMS (DSM IV criteria) dyskinesia, dysphagia, fever and alteration of cons-ciousness. Hepatic transaminases and muscular enzymes increased. Neuroleptic was immediately interrupted and benzodiazepines (Lorazepam) was started. Biological parameters were normalized after 7 days, hyperpyrexia decreased and extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared but manic symptoms persisted. Two weeks later, the patient presented nega-tivism, rigidity of the four limb, catalepsia and hyperpyrexia. She also had been anxious for death and presented auditory hallucinations. Bacteriological samples and computed tomography were normal. This catatonic symptoms did not decreased and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was necessary. After six ECT, she started standing up, walking, taking food and speaking. After 12 ECT, the clinical state was the same as it was before the acute episod. The patient was then treated with valproate and lorazepam for anxiety symptoms. Acute catatonie, a rare and life-threatening acute syndrome was described in psychosis before the advent of neuroleptic drugs. It's characterized by hyperexia, stupor alternated with exctement, rigidity. Many etiolologic factors have been reported for this affection: psychogenic, organic or toxic. Neuroletic malignant syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of neuroleptic treatment occuring in about 1% of patients treated with neuroleptic. This syndrome is characterised by consciousness alteration, extrapyramidal symptoms, autonomic and thermic disorders. Similar clinical and biological features in catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) suggest a

  7. Effect of microbial siderophores on mammalian non-malignant and malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokarn, Karuna; Sarangdhar, Vishwas; Pal, Ramprasad B

    2017-03-09

    Iron is a vital nutrient for all cells, and malignant cells have a higher requirement for the metal due to their rapid multiplication. Bacterial siderophores can be used to reduce free ferric ion concentration from the cellular environment. In the present study, we have evaluated effect of three siderophores - exochelin-MS, mycobactin S and deferoxamine B on the proliferation of mammalian cell lines using MTT assay. These siderophores caused a significant decrease in the viability of malignant cells, without significantly affecting non-malignant cells. Based on these results, we suggest that iron-chelation therapy could be explored as an adjunctive therapeutic option against cancer along with other therapies.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement.

  9. Schistosomiasis and malignancy | Lemmer | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that schistosomiasis, if not causative, is at least associated with malignancy. In this review, the epidemiology of schistosomiasis and bladder carcinoma, as well as the role of chronic bladder infection, are discussed together with known carcinogenic factors, possible abnormal vitamin metabolism ...

  10. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  11. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  12. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  13. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  14. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years.

  15. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years. Majority of ...

  16. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Persistent peripheral lymphadenopathy (PL) not associated with malignancy or a focal lesion can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This study reports the pathological findings in the lymph nodes of 225 patients who presented with PL at the University Hospital, lle-Ife, Nigeria within a period of ten years.

  17. Malignant pirates of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Lixin; Schmitz, Roland; Ceribelli, Michele; Staudt, Louis M

    2011-09-20

    At great human cost, cancer is the largest genetic experiment ever conducted. This review highlights how lymphoid malignancies have genetically perverted normal immune signaling and regulatory mechanisms for their selfish oncogenic goals of unlimited proliferation, perpetual survival and evasion of the immune response.

  18. Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenbeek, Anton; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Dreyling, Martin; Kluin, Philip; Engert, Andreas; Salles, Gilles

    Approximately 100 hematologists and pathologists from Europe, the United States, and Canada participated in the workshop Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas, held in Mandelieu, France,April 11-13, 2008, under the leadership of Anton Hagenbeek, Randy Gascoyne, and Gilles Salles.

  19. Primary Oral Malignancy Imitating Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Vadim; Abu-El Naaj, Immad; Shlomi, Benjamin; Fliss, Dan M; Kaplan, Ilana

    2016-07-01

    To describe new cases of primary malignancy arising around dental implants. Three patients presented with asymptomatic lesions around longstanding dental implants that resembled peri-implantitis. One case was primary large B-cell lymphoma and the remaining cases were primary squamous cell carcinoma in patients with oral lichen planus. The literature was reviewed for cases mimicking peri-implantitis. Of 42 implant-associated malignancies reported from 2000 through 2014, 85.7% were squamous cell carcinoma (69% primary and 9.4% metastatic). Most patients presented with pre-existing risk factors for oral cancer. Lymphoma was not associated with dental implants. Primary and metastatic malignancies can occur in peri-implant mucosa, often with clinical and radiographic features resembling peri-implantitis. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for changes in peri-implant mucosa in patients with existing risk factors; however, rare cases such as lymphoma might present outside this risk population. Histopathologic analysis should be included in the management of selected peri-implant lesions to avoid delayed diagnosis of malignancy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delirium followed by neuroleptic malignant syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are two uncommon syndromes that are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by the primary physicians as functional psychiatric disorders. The infrequency and the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, progression and outcome with which those diagnoses are ...

  1. Metastatic malignant melanoma. Successfull treatment with ipilimumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.J.G.; Bruch-Gerharz, D.; Reifenberger, J.; Schulte, K.W.

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old man, in whom 26 years ago a malignant melanoma with cervical lymph node metastases of the right retroauricular region was diagnosed, developed BRAF V600E-negative distant metastases, which progressed during both monochemotherapy and polychemotherapy. Therefore he was started on

  2. Correlating haematological malignancies with radio-diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the radiological diagnostic findings in patients with haematological malignancies and its relative function in total patient management in an African setting. Materials: A prospective study correlating radiographic and ultrasound image findings in adult patients with confirmed haematological ...

  3. clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. M. W. Kamau, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Pathology and Medicine,. School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. CLINICO-HISTOPATHOLOGIC TYPES OF MAXILLOFACIAL MALIGNANCIES. WITH EMPHASIS ...

  4. Infarcted Tarsal Pyogenic Granuloma Simulating Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Norman C; Kahn, Jonathan B

    The authors describe a rapidly enlarging, pedunculated brown tarsal lesion in a 34-year-old man with a history of chalazia. Following excision, histopathologic analysis showed the features of a necrotic pyogenic granuloma. This unique case expands the differential diagnosis of conjunctival malignant melanoma.

  5. Secondary chondrosarcoma: Malignant transformation of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant hyaline cartilage tumour originating from a cartilaginous precursor, either osteochondroma or enchondroma. We contrast two different cases of biopsy-proven secondary chondrosarcomas resulting from benign, pre-existing cartilaginous lesions – our aim is to contrast and ...

  6. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Hovgaard, D

    1988-01-01

    The microorganisms isolated in 1981-1985 from 171 cases of septicemia in patients with hematological malignancies were on the whole the same as those found in 1970-1972. The distribution between species was also quite similar for the two periods except within staphylococci, where the isolation ra...

  8. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran...

  9. Intraoral malignant melanoma | Babburi | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm and accounts for only 0.2‑8% of all reported melanomas. It is a malignant neoplasm of melanocytes that may arise from a benign melanocytic lesion or de novo from melanocytes within normal skin or mucosa. It is considered to be the most deadly and ...

  10. Tattoo pigment mimicking metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L L; Cardone, J S; McCollough, M L; Grabski, W J

    1996-01-01

    The benefits of elective lymph node dissection (ELND) in the treatment of melanoma remain controversial, however, it may be beneficial in some patients. Tattoo pigment from decorative tattoos may migrate to the regional lymph nodes. In patients who develop malignant melanoma and who have been tattooed, this pigment may clinically mimic metastatic disease. We wish to alert clinicians that pigment from tattoos may migrate to the regional lymph nodes. In the unusual instance of a tattooed patient who develops malignant melanoma, when undergoing ELND, surgeons should rely on histologic confirmation of metastatic disease before altering operative plans. ELND for malignant melanoma, in a patient with a history of decorative tattoos that had been removed by dermabrasion, was performed. Black lymph nodes that clinically resembled metastatic disease were identified. Subsequent histologic examination revealed normal lymph node architecture with a heavy collection of black pigment. Mass spectrophotometry showed this pigment to be consistent with tattoo dye. A patient who had undergone dermabrasion for removal of decorative tattoos developed malignant melanoma in the same extremity. Clinically suspicious black lymph nodes were identified during ELND. Histologic examination did not reveal metastatic disease. Additional therapy was not considered intra- or postoperatively even though the clinical suspicion of metastatic disease was high. The patient was not subjected to any unnecessary emotional or physical distress pending histologic confirmation. Tattoo pigment in the lymph nodes may clinically mimic metastatic melanoma. Histologic confirmation of metastatic disease should always be obtained before additional therapy is considered.

  11. Angiogenic and Metastatic Determinants of Malignant Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mooppilmadham Das (Asha)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractCutaneous melanoma or malignant melanoma of the skin is a highly metastatic disease, with an increasing rate of incidence, poor prognosis and high resistance to therapeutic intervention. Although early diagnosis and surgical resection of the primary lesion could significantly improve

  12. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma in the Infratemporal Fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in late adult life, but its incidence in oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We report a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which occurred in the infratemporal fossa. Conventional radiograph of this case showed an ill-defined radiolucent lesion in the alveolar bone of the right maxillary first molar area, the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, and the ascending ramus of mandible. MRI demonstrated well defined mass of intermediate signal intensity in T1 weighted images but T2 weighted images showed two distinctive regions of different characteristics. Infratemporal portion of the lesion was of hyperintense signal but under that region, the signal intensity decreased clearly, which might mean this case composed of two different subtypes, though it couldn't be confirmed by histopathological examination. Biopsy was taken in the only soft tissue of the maxillary posterior alveolar region and confirmed the lesion as the storiform-pleomorphic type of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Histopathological subtype was well consistent with the relatively aggressive imaging findings of that region. We expect more detailed analysis of the nature of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with improvement of the imaging modality and the identification of the relationship between diagnostic imaging and histopathologic findings.

  13. Massive exophytic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Khorsand, MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a solitary neurofibroma involving the right posterior shoulder of a 69-year-old man with degeneration into a massive, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor measuring more than 3 times the average reported size. The radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomographic features are compared with the gross appearance and pathology.

  14. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Benign Breast Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Lund-Iversen; Olav Inge Håskjold; Hiep Phuc Dong; Aasmund Berner

    2011-01-01

    Benign cysts are one of the most common mass-occupying lesions of the breast and are often investigated with triple diagnostic trial (clinical examination, radiology, and cytology). Malignant melanoma is one of medicine's imitators, and metastatic disease can mimic cysts. Thorough investigation of any breast mass is essential to clarify its nature.

  15. Oesphageal Stenting for palliation of malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamim Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyspahgia in patients with malignant mesothelioma is usually due to direct infiltration of the eosophagus by the tumour. It can be distressing for the patient and challenging for the physician to treat. We describe three cases in which this condition has been successfully palliated with self expanding esophageal stents.

  16. A conditional mouse model for malignant mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Johan; van Montfort, Erwin; Vooijs, Marc; Zevenhoven, John; Krimpenfort, Paul; van der Valk, Martin; van de Vijver, Marc; Berns, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a devastating disease that has been associated with loss of Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and genetic lesions affecting RB and P53 pathways. We introduced similar lesions in the mesothelial lining of the thoracic cavity of mice. Mesothelioma developed at high incidence in

  17. PRIMARY MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... This can be helpful in development of effective adjuvant immunotherapy for the treatment of melano- mas.1,3. Patients with primary malignant melanoma of the lar- ynx usually present with complaints of hoarseness of voice and sore throat. If the size of tumor increases and obstructs the lumen of larynx, ...

  18. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V.; Chittimilla, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  19. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated pancreatic metastasis from malignant melanoma (IPMMM) is rare because most melanoma patients already have a widespread disease at diagnosis. No adjuvant systemic treatment is known to be effi cient in this setting. Experience with pancreatic resection for IPMMM is limited and controversial. We report here ...

  20. Malignancy risk models for oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Ana-María; Brezzo, María-Magdalena; Secchi, Dante-Gustavo; Barra, José-Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) oral potentially malignant disorders group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP3 mutations. Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate.

  1. IMPAIRED NEOVASCULARIZATION AND REDUCED CAPILLARY SUPPLY IN THE MALIGNANT VERSUS NON-MALIGNANT COURSE OF EXPERIMENTAL RENOVASCULAR HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hartner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hypertension develops in some cases of hypertension but not in others. We hypothesized that an impaired neovascularization and a reduced capillary supply characterizes the malignant course of experimental hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension was induced in rats; controls (sham were sham operated. To distinguish malignant hypertension from non-malignant hypertension, we considered two factors: weight loss, and the number of typical vascular lesions (onion skin lesions and fibrinoid necroses per kidney section of the nonclipped kidney. Animals in the upper half for both criteria were defined as malignant hypertensives. After 5 weeks, mean arterial blood pressure was elevated to the same degree in malignant hypertension and non-malignant hypertension whereas plasma renin and aldosterone were significantly higher in malignant hypertensives. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was elevated (up to 14-fold in non-malignant but significantly more increased (up to 36-fold in malignant hypertensive rats, compared to sham. As a bioassay for neovascularization, the area of granulation tissue ingrowth in polyvinyl discs (implanted subcutaneously was reduced in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension and sham, while there was no difference between non-malignant hypertension and sham. The number of renal and left ventricular capillaries was significantly lower in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension, as was the number of proliferating endothelial cells. We conclude that an impaired neovascularization and capillarization occurs in malignant renovascular hypertension but not in the non-malignant course of the disease despite comparable blood pressure levels. This might contribute to the unique vascular lesions and progressive target organ damage observed in malignant hypertension.

  2. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions.

  3. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  4. Microangiopathic hemolysis and renal failure in malignant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Bert Jan H.; Honnebier, Uwkje P. F.; Koopmans, Richard P.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant hypertension. Microangiopathic hemolysis (MAHA) related to malignant hypertension may cause renal insufficiency by obstruction of interlobular arteries. We hypothesized that the presence of MAHA is an

  5. Abdominal tuberculosis mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies. We present the report of a patient with suspected abdominal malignancy diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis. Methods: The case ...

  6. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula

    1999-01-01

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  7. Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rank, A.; Liebhardt, S.; Zwirner, J.; Burges, A.; Nieuwland, R.; Toth, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Microparticles are known to be increased in various malignancies. In this prospective study, microparticle levels were evaluated in patients with benign and malignant ovarian lesions. Patients and Methods: Microparticles from platelets/megakaryocytes, activated platelets and endothelial

  8. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Baas, Paul; van 't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these

  9. Oral non-squamous malignant tumors; diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Rutger; van der Waal, Isaäc

    2007-11-01

    Some 90% of oral cancers consist of squamous cell carcinomas that arise from the oral mucosa. The remaining 10% of malignancies consist of malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the intraoral salivary glands, sarcomas of the soft tissues and the bones, malignant odontogenic tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and metastases from primary tumors located elsewhere in the body. These malignancies will be briefly reviewed and discussed. The emphasis is on diagnosis and management.

  10. Hypercalcemia of malignancy and new treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlicht H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hillel Sternlicht,1 Ilya G Glezerman1,2 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Renal Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hypercalcemia of malignancy affects up to one in five cancer patients during the course of their disease. It is associated with both liquid malignancies, commonly multiple myeloma, leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and solid cancers, particularly breast and renal carcinomas as well as squamous cell carcinomas of any organ. The clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia are generally constitutional in nature and not specific to the inciting malignancy. Such physical manifestations can range from malaise to lethargy and confusion. Constipation and anorexia are common. Acute kidney injury is likely the most frequently encountered manifestation of end organ damage. Symptomatology is closely linked to both the absolute elevation of serum calcium levels and the rapidity of calcium rise. The majority of cases are humoral in etiology and related to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP. Approximately 20% of cases are the result of direct bone metastasis with extra-renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol and ectopic parathyroid hormone production likely accounting for less than 1% of cases. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia of malignancy is confirmed either by an elevated PTHrP or by an evidence of bone metastasis in the appropriate clinical setting. Treatment is predicated on the patient’s symptoms and absolute serum calcium level. Interventions are aimed at lowering the serum calcium concentration by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing urinary calcium excretion, the former accomplished via bisphosphonate therapy and the latter with aggressive hydration. Novel therapies for refractory disease include denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, and the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Finally, anti

  11. Approach to Malign Melanoma in Anorectal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Pulat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anorectal malign melanoma comprise 0.2-1 % of all malign melanoma. They are extremely aggressive. Most patients are lost beacuse of incurable systemic illness. In our study, we aim to evaluate the results of surgical and oncological follow-up of our patients that we operated because of anorectal malign melanoma. Material and Method: Our 4 patients operated because of anorectal malign melanoma between October 2008 and April 2013 were analysed. The patients were analysed in terms of demographic datas, complaint and its time, physical examination and imaging findings, treatment procedure, local recurrence or presence of metastasis and follow-up results.Results: Our study group comprised 4 people (2 men and 2 women with the mean age of 64,2 years. The main complaint was rectal bleeding. The avarage complaint duration was 7.5 months. In all patients, anorectal mass was detected after physical examination and imaging studies. Biopsies of the mass were reported to be consistent with malign melanoma. With the further studies, one patient was detected to have metastasis in liver. Abdominoperineal resection was applied to one patient after wide local excision and to three patients during the first aplication. The avarage follow-up time was 19,25 months. The avarage diameter of tumor was 3,9 cm. One patient was applied lymph node dissection because of recurrence in iliac region. The avarage stay time at hospital of the patients who had no postoperative problems was 9,7 days. During follow-up time, three of the patients died because of common metastasis. A patient followed regularly is still continuing his life without illness in his postoperative 22nd month. Discussion: Anorectal malign melanoma is a rare, with a bad prognosis and a late diagnosed entity as it has a similarity with benign illnesses which are mostly seen in anorectal area in terms of clinical symptoma. To correct the prognosis of the illness, the suitable surgery and adjuvant treatment

  12. Malignant tumors mimicking fingertip infections: Report of two consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Aksam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors in fingertips have similar findings with fingertip infections. Malignancies should be considered in patients with consistent swelling and erythema of the fingertip, and who exhibit resistance to infection treatments. In this study, two patients with malign fingertip tumors, who were treated under the misdiagnosis of fingertip infections, are presented. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(3.000: 80-82

  13. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria | Oseni | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion: skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be ...

  14. HIV-1 Infection in adults with haematological malignancies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although B-lineage-derived malignancies are more often associated with the HIV infection, other malignant proliferations of the haematopoietic system may not be coincidental. Résumé Pour determiner l'association entre les maladies hématologiques malignes et le VIH-1 à Yaoundé, Cameroun, les adultes ages de plus de ...

  15. Primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic fold | Chhabra | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary malignant melanoma rarely arises from noncutaneous tissues that contain melanocytes. Head and neck mucosal melanomas account for 0.7% to 3.8% of all melanomas. Here we report a case of primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic fold. Result: Here we reported a case of primary malignant ...

  16. Retroperitoneal extension via the retrocrural space of malignant thymoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Retrospective evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawara, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Makoto; Mizutani, Yoshihide; Ohsawa, Tadashi; Fujii, Takeshi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 31 patients with malignant thymoma and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma in our institution. Transdiaphragmatic extension into the retroperitoneum via the retrocrural space was observed in 10% of malignant thymomas. In the same way, this spread from chest to abdomen was demonstrated in the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma. CT is especially useful in assessing extent of these tumors and determining the optimal treatment plan. (author).

  17. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A. Sahasrabuddhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications.

  18. [Malignant insulinoma: recommendations for workup and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Eric; Caron, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Tabarin, Antoine; Mitry, Emmanuel; Reznick, Yves; Taieb, David; Pattou, François; Goudet, Pierre; Vezzosi, Delphine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Cadiot, Guillaume; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Do Cao, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Insulinoma are malignant in 4 to 14 % of cases. Their rarity and the sparse data available in the literature have limited publication of specific guidelines for their management. The following review aim to provide up-to-date recommendations on initial evaluation including pathologic grading, measures to control hypoglycemia, antitumor strategies and long term follow-up. Will be discussed in detail respective indications of surgery, diazoxide, somatostatin analogs, everolimus, sunitinib, liver directed treatments including arterial embolization, chemotherapy and radiometabolic therapy. A Medline search using terms "insulinoma", "neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors", "islet cell carcinoma", "malignant insulinoma" was performed limiting the selection to English language articles and adult age cases, along with cross referencing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigenetic modifiers in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Jessica N; Yamauchi, Taylor; Neff, Tobias; Bernt, Kathrin M

    2015-01-01

    Genome scale sequencing in patients with cancer has revealed a lower frequency of genetic aberrations in hematologic disorders compared with most other malignancies, suggesting a prominent role for epigenetic mechanisms. In parallel, epigenetic modifiers that are altered in cancer play critical roles in normal hematopoietic development, influencing both self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and differentiation into the different lineages. In this review, we aim to compare the role of several key DNA or histone modifying enzymes and complexes in normal development and hematopoietic malignancies, including DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, IDH2, MLL1, MLL4, DOT1L, PRC1/2 and WSHC1/NSD2/MMSET. Insights into their biological mechanisms led to the development of therapies designed to target mutant IDH1 and IDH2, DOT1L in MLL-rearranged leukemias and EZH2 in several cancer types including lymphomas. Inhibitors for these enzymes are currently in clinical trials.

  20. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Brendan Scharf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is an aggressive malignancy that occurs extremely rarely in the pediatric population. It carries a dismal prognosis. Adult studies are often used to guide therapy in the pediatric population, as a limited number of case reports form the body of pediatric literature. Herein, we document the course and treatment of an 8-year old male diagnosed with MPM. The diagnosis came after he presented to his family physician with dyspnea and was found to have a large right-sided chest mass on subsequent imaging. Through an initial right pneumonectomy and subsequent chest wall excision, followed by chemotherapy with Pemetrexed and Cisplatin he remains virtually disease free today, almost 2 years following surgery.

  1. Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubbu, Darshini A; Smith, Valerie; Hayden, Fiona; Cronin, Patricia

    2017-08-24

    Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration. In malignant wounds, with tissue degradation and death, there is proliferation of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The aim of antibiotic therapy is to successfully eliminate these bacteria, reduce associated symptoms, such as odour, and promote wound healing. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. We searched the following electronic databases on 8 March 2017: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched the clinical trial registries of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (apps.who.int/trialsearch) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 20 March 2017; and OpenSIGLE (to identify grey literature) and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (to retrieve dissertation theses related to our topic of interest) on 13 March 2017. Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of any systemic antibiotics on malignant wounds were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted study data. A third reviewer checked extracted data for accuracy prior to analysis. We identified only one study for inclusion in this review. This study was a prospective, double-blind cross

  2. Candida in potentially malignant oral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leena Sankari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oro-pharyngeal cancer is a significant component in the global burden of cancer. A considerable proportion of oral squamous carcinomas develop from preexsiting potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. The term potentially malignant oral disorders (PMD were proposed for the precancerous lesions and conditions by World Health Organization in 2007. PMD are considered an in-between clinical state, which showed increased risk for cancer development. Etiology of PMD is multifactorial. Tobacco and alcohol are the major risk factors. In recent years, role of candidal infection is recognized as a significant factor in the development of PMD. There is an enduring discussion whether Candida infection can be a cause of PMD or a superimposed infection in a preexisting lesion. This article highlights the association between Candida and PMD.

  3. Role of Bronchoscopy in Malignant Pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathi. R. G.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of Bronchoscopy in plural effusion in cancer condition. Pleural effusion is one of the commonest problems with which patients present to the hospital. Around a million patients worldwide develop pleural effusion each year. This is a Prospective and Observational Study. All patients diagnosed to have pleural effusion by xray, clinical examination and ultrasound examination of pleura if needed will undergo informed. All 32 patients underwent bronchoscopy procedure, 30 patients had endobronchial mass and biopsy was done which was positive for malignancy and 2 patients had bronchial wash cytology positive for malignancy We conclude that bronchoscopy has a definite role in the etiological diagnosis of pleural effusion.

  4. LES TUMEURS MALIGNES DE LA PAROTIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires constituent une entité relativement rare. La majorité de ces tumeurs touchent la parotide (1). Elles suscitent un grand intérêt par leurs variétés de présentation clinique, de leurs carac- téristiques histologiques et évolutives à l'origine de diffi-.

  5. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited.

  6. Ocular metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Tehseena; Gurwood, Andrew S; Myers, Marc D

    2009-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma to the eye and orbit are rare. Patients at greatest risk often have disseminated metastases in the setting of advanced disease. Because the prognosis for orbital metastatic disease is poor, emphasis must be placed on early detection and prevention. Although cutaneous malignancies include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma, the majority of cases that result in metastasis, ocular morbidity, and mortality are from sebaceous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. A 72-year-old white woman presented emergently with a chief complaint of sudden, painless vision loss in her left eye of 2 weeks' duration. Her best-corrected visual acuities measured 20/30 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye with no improvement on refraction. Her systemic medical history was significant for the diagnosis of a cutaneous malignant melanoma. Examination of the left eye found grade II disc edema with all other posterior pole and peripheral structures intact and unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic lesions involving structures of the left orbit ultimately causing reduced visual ability. The patient opted to avoid aggressive care and "hope for the best." Denying significant medical intervention, the woman lived in hospice where she died 6 months later. The primary care optometric setting, by the way a patient's visual symptoms present or the appearance of fundus abnormalities, can offer the capability of first detection and referral for the discovery of metastatic lesions. Although orbital metastasis is considered a terminal finding in these cases, timely diagnosis enables, while limited, the best options for management.

  7. [Malignant melanoma (review of 68 cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, J A; Valente, N Y; Stevale, J N

    1986-01-01

    A clinica pathologic revision was performed about 68 patients with malignant melanoma of the Hospital dos Servidores Publicos do Estado de São Paulo. The authors had checked the data concerning to color, age and sex of the patients, localisation, clinical aspect of the lesions and clinical evolution of the cases. They made comments on the histopathology related to Clark's levels, the depth of tumors (Breslow), solar elastosis and inflammatory infiltrate, in relation with the clinical evolution of the cases.

  8. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman eAleem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia, and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219, pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638 as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  9. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the abdominal wall

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Aslaner; Burhan Mayir; Tuğrul Çakır; Umut Rıza Gündüz; Nurullah Bülbüller

    2015-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a type of malignt neoplasm that arises from any soft tissue and bone involving extremities, abdomen and retroperitoneum. MFH of the external oblique abdominis muscle is rare. Surgical resection of the mass is the treatment of choice depending on the stage of the disease and the invasion depth of the tumor. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are the other treatment methods. We present a case of a 71-year ...

  10. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Razpotnik; Neža Novak; Vladka Čurin Šerbec; Uros Rajcevic

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain deli...

  11. Malignant Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma with Villaret Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Hanchanale; Varghese, Joy; Harika, Kavya; Vij, Mukul; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare, vascular tumor of the liver with peak incidence in the middle age with a female preponderance and of unknown etiology. Majority of the tumors are asymptomatic. The gold standard for diagnosis of the tumor is liver histology showing presence of epithelioid tumor cells on a background of a hyaline stroma. Immunohistochemical positivity for CD31, CD34, Factor VIII, and Podoplanin (D2-40) is confirmatory. The treatment of choice is liver transplantation.

  12. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking an Adnexal Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular hemangiomas were defined as vascular malformations according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA classification. Aggressive appearance on radiologic images but nonaggressive course of these lesions results in diagnostic challenge for the clinicians that are unfamiliar with these lesions. Here, we present a 49-year-old woman as a rare case of mixed type intramuscular hemangioma originating from pelvic floor muscles, mimicking a malignant adnexal mass.

  13. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking an Adnexal Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Selen Dogan

    2013-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangiomas were defined as vascular malformations according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. Aggressive appearance on radiologic images but nonaggressive course of these lesions results in diagnostic challenge for the clinicians that are unfamiliar with these lesions. Here, we present a 49-year-old woman as a rare case of mixed type intramuscular hemangioma originating from pelvic floor muscles, mimicking a malignant adnex...

  14. Malignant Melanoma and Melanocortin 1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, A. A.; Slastnikova, T. A.; Durymanov, M. O.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma still remains poorly efficient in most cases. Thus the use of specific features of these tumors for development of new therapeutic modalities is highly needed. Melanocortin receptor-1 (MC1R) overexpression on the cell surface of the vast majority of human melanomas, making MC1R a valuable marker of these tumors, is one of these features. Naturally, MC1R plays a key role in skin protection against damaging ultraviolet radiation ...

  15. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kelly V; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Arora, Amindra S

    2006-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common malignancies to metastasize to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Metastases to the GI tract can present at the time of primary diagnosis or decades later as the first sign of recurrence. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, dysphagia, small bowel obstruction, hematemesis, and melena. We report 2 cases of malignant melanoma metastatic to the GI tract, followed by a review of the literature. The first case is a 72-year-old man who underwent resection of superficial spreading melanoma on his back 13 years previously who presented with dysphagia. A biopsy specimen of a mucosal fold in a gastric fundus noted during endoscopy was taken and revealed metastatic malignant melanoma, which was resected 1 month later. Three weeks later, the patient was found to have an ulcerated jejunal metastatic melanoma mass, which was also resected. The second case is a 63-year-old man with an ocular melanoma involving the chorold of the left eye that had been diagnosed 4 years previously, which had been excised several times, who presented with anorexia, dizziness, and fatigue. He was found to have cerebellar and stomach metastases. He underwent adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical resection of the gastric melanoma metastasis. In patients with a history of melanoma, a high index of suspicion for metastasis must be maintained if they present with seemingly unrelated symptoms. Diagnosis requires careful inspection of the mucosa for metastatic lesions and biopsy with special immunohistochemical stains. Management may include surgical resection, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, observation, or enrollment in clinical trials. Prognosis is poor, with a median survival of 4 to 6 months.

  16. Malignant seminoma in two unilaterally cryptorchid stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, V; Chiers, K; Lefère, L; Cools, M; Ververs, C; Govaere, J

    2015-06-01

    Two unilateral cryptorchid stallions were referred to the clinic because of chronic debilitating condition with emaciation. Rectal examination, and ultrasound and gross examination revealed in both animals an abdominal mass, caudally of the kidney, and multiple nodules spread over the abdomen. Histologic analysis revealed an intra-abdominal malignant seminoma with intraperitoneal and renal metastasis. Interestingly, a seminoma was also present in the descended testis of the draught horse. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  18. Oral microflora in children with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Vecherkovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal was a comprehensive study of oral microflora in healthy children and those with hematologic malignancies, based on the analysis of mixed microbial biofilms composition, isolation and identification of new previously unknown microorganisms. The material was obtained in children with hematological diseases in remission, 2–10 years aged, and for the control group from St. Petersburg schoolchildren and in kindergartens. We used microbiological, biochemical and molecular genetic methods, including electron microscopy, proteomic analysis, sequencing and complete genome annotation. Microorganisms of 23 genera isolated as pure cultures and identified by biochemical activity from mixed microbial biofilm derived from saliva of healthy and sick children. In microflora of children with hematologic malignancies a previously unknown type of streptococci with a large number of antibiotic resistance genes was revealed. Differences in oral microbiota composition of healthy children and children with hematological diseases in remission were revealed. The microbiota of children with hematologic malignancies contains more genes controlling antibiotic resistance. Also, it was observed previously unknown bacterium of the genus Streptococcus.

  19. INFLAMMATORY ORBITAL PSEUDOTUMOR WITH A MALIGNANT COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Štabuc-Šilih

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammatory pseudotumor or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a benign, tumor forming proliferation of myofibroblasts with a potential for recurrence and persistent local growth, in some respects similar to fibromatosis. The lesion does not metastasize except exceedingly rarely. Though inflammatory pseudotumor is not a malignant lesion, it may occasionally behave aggressively, like fibromatosis or fibrosarcoma, and threatens patient’s life.Patients and methods. Patient D. E., born in 1974, in the second month of pregnancy, was admitted to our Clinic in 1996 because of the protrusion of the left eye. She has often had evening headaches for the last 5 years. She has previously been treated for epistaxis. CT showed a tumorous formation in the ethmoidal labyrinth, which grew into adjacent structures, destroyed the neighboring bones and extended into extradural space of cranial cavity.The patient was operated upon at the ENT clinic where a tumor of a »woman’s fist« size was excised. It showed expansive, non-infiltrative growth. Microscopically, it was an inflammatory pseudotumor. For one year after the operation the patient was in good health, without protrusion. After that period, she had repeated recurrences, reoperations, she was irradiated and received chemotherapy. In spite of all treatment, the tumor locally progressed and the patient died in December 2000. Conclusions. Although repeated histopathologic examinations showed a benign inflammatory pseudotumor, because of the proximity of vital structures the course of disease was malignant just like in a malignant neoplasm.

  20. Percutaneous cryotherapy for inoperable lung malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Hae; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous cryotherapy for inoperable patients with malignant pulmonary nodules. We enrolled 14 patients (7 males, 7 females, average age 68.8 years) who had inoperable lung malignancy in this study from August 2006 through July 2009. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of cryotherapy for complete or incomplete ablation by follow up chest CT. Using Kaplan Meier statistical methods, we estimated the survival of patients who had undergone cryotherapy and we investigated post cryotherapy complications. Five of the 14 patients underwent complete ablation (35.7%), while 9 of 14 patients underwent incomplete ablation (64.3%). The change in mean size before procedure and at last follow up CT in the complete and incomplete ablation were as follows: 13.2 {+-} 7.6 mm {yields} 3.8 {+-} 2.7 mm, and 18.1 {+-} 6.2 mm {yields} 33.7 {+-} 17.9 mm, respectively. The median survival of patients in the complete and the incomplete groups were 51.5 months and 24 months, respectively. One patient developed a small pneumothorax, which resolved spontaneously. Two patients developed hemoptysis after the procedure, which was controlled within a day. Percutaneous cryotherapy may be an effective and safe therapeutic method for inoperable patients with malignant pulmonary nodules.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Tremelimumab for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Alice; Hussain, Michelle; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Mutti, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Tremelimumab demonstrated therapeutic activity in different malignancies, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); however, continued research could improve the therapeutic index of this agent. This review describes tremelimumab's clinical efficacy, administration and safety in patients affected with MPM and reports the state of the art clinical trials of tremelimumab. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted using the search terms tremelimumab, MPM, current therapy, immune checkpoint blockage and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Data was also obtained from meeting abstracts and clinical trial registries. The use of immunotherapy has been extended from melanoma to thoracic malignancies or lung cancer and MPM. The first clinical trials for MPM with drugs modulating immune checkpoints have been tested or are currently being tested with the first results now under critical consideration. Among these drugs, tremelimumab has been attracting attention as a potential new treatment for MPM. Nevertheless, even though clinical efficacy has been preliminarily demonstrated, the cost/benefit ratio of this drug for this neoplasm is yet to be ascertained.

  3. Malignant mental nerve neuropathy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Gil, Sónnica; Peñarrocha Diago, Maria; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Malignant mental neuropathy (MMN) is a neurological manifestation of cancer, characterized by the presence of hypoesthesia or anesthesia restricted to the territory of the mental branch of the mandibular nerve. A systematic review of the literature has been made on MMN, analyzing the etiology, pathogeny, clinical characteristics, complementary tests and the prognosis. Sixteen studies, providing 136 cases were selected. Breast cancer and lymphomas were the most frequently associated malignant diseases. The most frequent pathogenic mechanisms producing neurological involvement were: peripherally, mandibular lesions; and centrally, tumors at the base of the cranium. Regarding clinical characteristics, manifestation of MMN was the primary symptom of malignant disease in 27.7% of cases, and a first symptom of recurrence in 37.7%. The group of selected studies included 50 orthopantomographs, 9 mandibular computed tomographies and 50 radiographic examinations of the cranial region. The most affected region was the mandible. The appearance of MMN is an ominous prognosis for the progression of the disease, with a mortality of 78.5% within a mean of 6.9 months.

  4. Radiologic findings of malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Cha, Jang Gyu; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Gui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis. Post-contrast CT (n=9) and urographic (n=7) findings of nine patients with malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Primary tumors were found to be advanced gastric cancer (n=6), early gastric cancer (n=1), breast cancer (n=1), and cervical cancer (n=1). We analyzed CT findings with regard to the site of soft tissue lesion, ureteral involvement, the presence or absence of hydronephrosis, and distant metastasis. The level and length of ureteral involvement, presence or absence of ureteral stenosis, and ureteral displacement as seen on urography, were analyzed. On CT scans, enhanced soft tissue lesions (mass, 5 cases ; plaque, 4 cases) encircling the abdominal aorta and IVC were noted in all cases. Thickening of the ureteral wall (n=8), hydronephrosis (n=9), and enlarged lymph node (n=5) were also seen. On urography, irregular stenosis and medial displacement of ureters from level L2 to S2 were noted in all cases. The length of ureteral involvement was 4 - 6.5cm. The common CT findings of malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis were enhanced soft tissue lesion encircling the abdominal aorta and IVC, hydronephrosis, and thickening of the ureteral wall. On urography, ureteral stenosis and medial displacement were seen.

  5. CURRENT APPROACHES TO CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Choinzonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade malignant gliomas (WHO grade G III–IV account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive treatment, survival rates are still very low with a median reported survival of no more than 1.5 years.Radiation therapy is an integral part of the combined treatment, but often does not influence lethally on resistant tumor cells. Thereby, in recent decades there has been an active search for novel approaches to the treatment of malignant gliomas (chemotherapeutic drugs, biological modifiers, local hyperthermia. Experimental data showed that the effect of high temperatures has both a direct damaging effect on tumor cells and a sensitizing effect. Significant advantages are achieved when the complex treatment of different malignant tumorsincludes local hyperthermia. However data on the treatment of patients with primary and recurrent gliomas G III–IV using local hyperthermia are scarce.The literature review is given in the article provides an overview of the existing treatment methods for brain tumors.

  6. Progress in surgical palliative treatment for malignant obstructive jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive jaundice, also known as surgical jaundice, is divided into benign and malignant types. Most of the patients newly diagnosed with malignant obstructive jaundice have lost the opportunity of receiving radical surgery due to its insidious onset, so surgical palliative treatment is very important for patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice. This paper elaborates on various current modalities of surgical palliative treatment for malignant obstructive jaundice. Appropriate modality of surgical palliative treatment is of great significance for patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice.

  7. Micronucleus Assay for Evaluation of Genotoxicity in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a common malignancy, ranking first among all cancers in Western and Asian countries. It is preceded by some benign lesions or conditions, which are termed precancerous. Only one-third of people at the precancerous stage of disease succumb to cancer, it would be of practical importance to identify individuals at risk among them. Biomarkers, instruments of individual tumor prevention, help to detect high-risk patents. The induction of micronucleus is considered to bean effective biomarker of diseases- In the recent past, a great deal of enthusiasm was raised by application of the micronucleus test to assess DNA damage in human population. The present study is aimed at the evaluation of frequency of micronuclei in smears of oral exfoliated cells. A total of 33 patients with potentially malignant (leukoplakia, OSMF, lichen planus and malignant oral epithelial diseases from the department of oral medicine and radiology were considered as study group and compared with 33 age and sex matched healthy controls. Micronucleus frequencies were found higher in diseased patients than in control subjects- Hence, concluded that the micronucleus assay can be used as a prognostic indicator in potentially malignant and malignant disorders.

  8. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  9. MFH Mimic in Breast: A High-Grade Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Hemalatha, A. L.; Sindhuram, V. Sumana; Asha, U.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is usually diagnosed by the presence of benign duct-like epithelium and malignant mesenchymal tissue. In addition to the usual fibrosarcomatous features, the mesenchymal component may show areas resembling osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant mesenchymoma, and, very rarely, malignant fibrous histiocytoma. We present one such rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor with malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like stromal ...

  10. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ching-Heng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  11. Cause-specific mortality due to malignant and non-malignant disease in Korean foundry workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. METHODS: This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. RESULTS: Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41-11.06 and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01-4.30, compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.14, respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52-21.42 for uncategorized production worker, and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22-4.24 systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52-3.66 including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32-10.01. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work.

  12. A panel of markers for identification of malignant and non-malignant cells in culture from effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada; Pittella-Silva, Fabio; Carneiro, Marcos de Vasconcelos; Takano, Gustavo Henrique Soares; Vianna, Leonora Maciel de Sousa; De Andrade, Luciano Barbosa; De Castro, Tercia Maria Mendes Lousa; Peres, Isabela; Dos Santos Borges, Tatiana Karla; Ferreira, Vânia Moraes; Motoyama, Andrea Barretto

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify cell types in primary culture from malignant and non-malignant effusions. Effusion samples were subjected to cytology and culture. Immunocytochemistry was performed in cytological slides to evaluate malignancy (positivity for malignancy markers) and in culture slides for identification of cell types in growth. A total of 143 effusion samples (pleural n=76; peritoneal n=37; pericardial n=4; and peritoneal lavage n=26) were analyzed. Cell growth was observed in 34.9% of all samples and immunocytochemistry for identification of cell types in culture slides was conclusive in 90% of them. In non-malignant samples (n=28), growth of mesothelial cells, macrophages and of both cell types was identified in 82.14, 10.71 and 7.14%, respectively. In malignant samples (n=17, all carcinomas), growth of malignant epithelial cells and of both malignant epithelial and mesothelial cells was identified in 41.17 and 23.52%, respectively. In the remaining 35.29% of malignant samples, the only cells in growth were mesothelial and/or macrophages instead of malignant epithelial cells. In conclusion, in culture of malignant effusions, mesothelial cells may be simultaneously identified with malignant epithelial cells. Besides, mesothelial cells and macrophages may be the only cells identified in malignant effusion culture. Therefore, a broad panel of cell markers should be used for unmistakable identification of cells in studies of effusion primary culture. The ideal malignant effusion sample to obtain culture of neoplastic cells should be that without the presence of mesothelial cells and macrophages.

  13. Lymphomes malins non-hodgkiniens primitifs des amygdales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The most predominant localization for extranodal non-hodgkinien lymphoma (NHL) in the head and neck region is the tonsil. The vast majority of NHL at this site is B-cell lymphomas. Materials and methods: The authors presented three cases of primary Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the tonsil, treated between ...

  14. Compression medullaire lente secondaire a un lymphome de Burkitt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    faciale à la fin du 1er mois et une récupération neurologique au bout d'un an. La localisation secondaire intra rachidienne d'un LB bien que rare doit être présente à l'esprit surtout en face d'une compression médullaire lente survenue dans un ...

  15. Clustered microcalcifications without mass on mammography : benignancy vs. malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yoon Hee; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Kim, Ki Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil [Korean Cancer Center Hostpital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Jae [Chung Dam Radiologic Clinics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heon [Chungang Gil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yeun Hyeun; Han, Boo Kyung [Sam Sung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Mi [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant clustered microcalcifications without mass on mammogram. Fourty six mammograms of 44 patients showing clustered microcalcifications without mass were interpreted blindly by five independent observers majoring in breast imaging from different institutions. Twenty two were malignant (10 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 12 intraductal carcinomas) and 24 were benign (all fibrocystic disease). The observers judge benignancy or malignancy of microcalcifications. The authors assess the accuracy of differential diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications. Of 24 cases proved benign microcalcifications, five radiologists correctly interpreted 20 on average as benign and of malignant 22 cases, 16 on average were correctly interpreted as malignant. The diagnostic accuracy of malignant microcalcifications was 71.8% on average(63.6%{approx}81.8%) and the diagnostic accuracy for benign microcalcifications was 83% on average(71%{approx}92%). It was 9 among total 46 cases that were misinterpreted by more than three radiologists. Among these 9 cases, malignant microcalcifications that had been misinterpreted as benign were seven, benign microcalcifications misinterpreted as malignant were two. The diagnostic accuracy of clustered malignant microcalcifications(71.8%) without mass on mammogram was lower than that of benign microcalcifications(83.3%). So, in case of suspected malignant microcalcification on mammogram, it is preferable that along with magnification view, histopathologic confirmation by core biopsy must be obtained.

  16. [Primary Malignant Cardiac Tumors: Surgical results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Joana; Antunes, Pedro Engrácia; Carvalho, Lina; Antunes, Manuel Jesus

    2016-04-01

    To characterize primary malignant cardiac tumors operated on in our center and to analyze patient survival. Between January 1994 and August 2014, 123 patients with cardiac tumors underwent surgery, of which 12 (9.8%) were primary malignant tumors - eight sarcomas (67%), three B-cell lymphomas (25%) and one epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (8.3%). The tumor affected the left atrium in five cases (42%), the right atrium in four (33%), the right ventricle in two (17%) and the pulmonary valve in one (8%). Patients' mean age was 55.4 ± 16.9 years, 67% were female and 75% presented in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Resection was complete (negative margins) in five cases and partial in seven (five sarcomas and two lymphomas), and 11 patients needed adjuvant therapy, surgery alone being curative in only one (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma). Mean follow-up was 41.7 ± 61.3 months: 24.8 ± 30.0 months (3.8-95.7) for sarcomas, 70.1 ± 118.0 months (1-206.3) for lymphomas and 91.9 months for the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. During follow-up, 10 patients died (83%) and two were alive (17%). Overall survival at 30 days, six months, one year and two years was 91.7%, 66.7%, 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. In the sarcoma group, 1-year and 2-year survival were 62.5% and 37.5%, respectively. Resection of primary malignant cardiac tumors, even partial, is safe, provides relief of obstructive symptoms and improves quality of life, but is rarely curative and has a low survival rate. Due to the rarity of such tumors, a multicenter database could improve knowledge and help clarify the indications for cardiac surgery as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  18. Metastatic lung malignancy to mandibular gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharil Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of oral cavity are uncommon and may occur in oral soft tissues or jaw bones. Because of their rarity, metastasis to oral cavity are challenging to diagnose and difficult to treat. They often have vague symptoms that mimic dental infections. These lesions generally show poorly differentiated histopathologic picture and have poor prognosis. We reported a case of a 40-year-old male patient of metastatic lesion to the oral cavity and brain with primary tumor, diagnosed as an undifferentiated epithelial malignancy of lung.

  19. [Severe lactic acidosis revealing hematologic malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchikhe, A; Le Bivic, J-L; Longuet, O; Maindivide, J; Vincent, J-F

    2014-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman is hospitalised for sepsis. The diagnosis of cholecystitis is made and an antibiotic therapy is debuted. The clinical worsening leads to realise an urgent cholecystectomy. A sepsis like shock persisted. The antibiotherapy was changed and a second abdominal look made. A severe lactic acidosis persisted since the cholecystectomy despite a continuous hemofiltration. The diagnosis of type B lactic acidosis secondary to malignancy was suspected. An osteomedullar biopsy revelled B-cell lymphoma EBV induced. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Are All Highly Malignant Cancer Cells Identical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    ADA3665 ARE AL HIGHL MAGNANTCANCER CELLS DENOIALU) PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA DEPT OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY G NIGET AL 199 N00014-ACA026 UNCLASFE...embryo cells or even the original fertilized ovum . If this speculation has validity, the carcinogenesis and differentiation have the same destinies but...F/G /5 N 1111 2Z111117 1 125iiI 1 1. 1111_L6. -11 O=M 1 MrCROCOP RErSOLUTICN TEST CHART N, APoP SN A’ ,- ARE ALL HIGHLY MALIGNANT CANCER CELLS

  1. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  2. Ovarian tuberculosis mimicking a malignant tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Yebouet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been reported increased incidence of ovarian tuberculosis in the tropics since the advent of HIV/AIDS disease. We report a case of bilateral ovarian tuberculosis associated with a single right kidney of uncertain origin in an immunocompetent 15-year-old generally healthy-looking girl. Abdominopelvic scan was equivocal about the diagnosis of the lesion as it failed to differentiate it from malignancy. Tuberculin and histopathology were necessary to confirm the diagnosis of ovarian tuberculosis. Antituberculous medical therapy successfully resolved the disease.

  3. Toward automated detection of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Billy; Gareau, Daniel S.

    2009-02-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy shows promise for the early detection of malignant melanoma (MM). Two hallmarks of MM have been identified: the presence of pagetoid melanocytes in the epidermis and the breakdown of the dermal papillae. For detection of MM, these features must be identified qualitatively by the clinician and qualitatively through automated pattern recognition. A machine vision algorithm was developed for automated detection. The algorithm detected pagetoid melanocytes and breakdown of the dermal/epidermal junction in a pre-selected set of five MMs and five benign nevi for correct diagnosis.

  4. Personalized Clinical Decision Making in Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    and initial stages. This article outlines the potential use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in clinical decision making with special regard to preoperative evaluation and response assessment in gastric cancer (including the gastroesophageal junction), pancreatic cancer (excluding neuroendocrine tumors......Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that include both common and rare diseases with very different presentations and prognoses. The mainstay of treatment is surgery in combination with preoperative and adjuvant chemotherapy depending on clinical presentation......), colorectal cancer, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors....

  5. Pigmented Pre-malignant and Malignant Lesions of Skin with Special Reference to Atypical Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Nadia; Jindal, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Harsh, Meena; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous melanocytic proliferations are diverse both morphologically as well as in their behavioural patterns. Both dermatologists and pathologists regularly encounter diagnostic dilemmas while interpreting such lesions. To study all cutaneous premalignant and malignant lesions with respect to their clinical features and histopathological findings. A retrospective study was done in the Department of Pathology over a period of 10 years (2004-14) on all the clinically pigmented lesions that were biopsied or excised. Out of these only premalignant and malignant melanocytic lesions were analysed with respect to their important clinical and histologic features. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using HMB-45 and S-100 where indicated. A total of 338 skin cancers were reported, out of these 27, 7.9% were cutaneous malignant melanoma. Premalignant lesions were 33. The mean age for premalignant lesions and melanomas was 43 years and 50.7 years respectively with a male predominance in both groups. The sole of foot/ankle was the most common site of involvement by melanoma (n=8,29.6%) while sun exposed sites like face and scalp were common sites for development of premalignant lesions like dysplastic nevi, lentigo simplex, pigmented seborrheic keratosis and Bowens disease. One case presented as post-traumatic scar tissue which turned out to be desmoplastic melanoma. One case of amelanotic melanoma presented as recurrent painful penile ulcers. Both cases were confirmed on Immunohistochemistry. All pigmented lesions should be regarded as tumours of uncertain malignant potential and treated with complete excision if possible with long term follow up.

  6. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Halsall, P J

    2010-01-01

    , the cornerstone of successful MH treatment, is unavailable in large areas around the world thereby increasing the risk of MH fatalities in these areas. The European Malignant Hyperthermia Group collected and reviewed all guidelines available from the various MH centres in order to provide a consensus document...

  7. A Case of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor with Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation: Malignant Triton Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Mae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST constitute a rare variety of soft tissue sarcomas thought to originate from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of the neural crest. Malignant triton tumor (MTT, a very rare, highly aggressive soft tissue tumor, is a subgroup of MPNST and is comprised of malignant Schwann cells coexisting with malignant rhabdomyoblasts. We herein report the case of a 24-year-old man who presented a subcutaneous mass in his right thigh. The mass was removed surgically in its entirety and radiation therapy was applied locally to prevent tumor regrowth. Nonetheless, the patient died 10 months after surgery from metastases to the lung and brain. He presented neither cafe-au-lait spots nor cutaneous neurofibromas. The histopathology showed a transition from a neurofibroma to an MTT, making this the second report of an MTT arising from a neurofibroma without neurofibromatosis type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder with which 50-70% of tumors reported in previous studies were associated. A histopathological examination using immunostaining with desmin confirmed this diagnosis. MTT has a poorer prognosis than MPNST and should therefore be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.

  8. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update on investigation, diagnosis and treatment

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    Anna C. Bibby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural surface, predominantly caused by prior asbestos exposure. There is a global epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma underway, and incidence rates are predicted to peak in the next few years. This article summarises the epidemiology and pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, before describing some key factors in the patient experience and outlining common symptoms. Diagnostic approaches are reviewed, including imaging techniques and the role of various biomarkers. Treatment options are summarised, including the importance of palliative care and methods of controlling pleural effusions. The evidence for chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery is reviewed, both in the palliative setting and in the context of trimodality treatment. An algorithm for managing malignant pleural effusion in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients is presented. Finally new treatment developments and novel therapeutic approaches are summarised.

  9. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update on investigation, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Anna C; Tsim, Selina; Kanellakis, Nikolaos; Ball, Hannah; Talbot, Denis C; Blyth, Kevin G; Maskell, Nick A; Psallidas, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural surface, predominantly caused by prior asbestos exposure. There is a global epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma underway, and incidence rates are predicted to peak in the next few years.This article summarises the epidemiology and pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, before describing some key factors in the patient experience and outlining common symptoms. Diagnostic approaches are reviewed, including imaging techniques and the role of various biomarkers. Treatment options are summarised, including the importance of palliative care and methods of controlling pleural effusions. The evidence for chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery is reviewed, both in the palliative setting and in the context of trimodality treatment. An algorithm for managing malignant pleural effusion in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients is presented. Finally new treatment developments and novel therapeutic approaches are summarised. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  10. Malignant otitis externa: An Australian case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish a clinicopathological profile of malignant otitis externa (MOE) in an Australian tertiary referral institution. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort outcomes study. METHODS: 24 patients were identified with MOE between January 1998 and July 2007. Patients were classified into Radiological Grades I-IV. Laboratory investigations Including C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and average glucose level over admission were recorded. RESULTS: Radiological Grade was significantly associated with duration of therapy (rank correlation 0.57, p = 0.004). CRP was a useful indicator confirming disease resolution. Diabetics with MOE had elevated average blood sugar levels during their Hospital admission (p < 0.001) and had poor overall glycaemic control represented by Elevated HBA1c scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant otitis externa is a rare disease, which is best managed in a multidisciplinary team setting. This practical grading system can be used to predict the duration of therapy at time of diagnosis, which enables the efficient utilisation of Hospital resources. Poorly controlled diabetics are more susceptible to developing. MOE than diabetics with satisfactory glycaemic control and may represent a subgroup of more brittle diabetics. CRP combined with appropriate clinical and radiological investigations is useful in assessing disease resolution.

  11. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancies

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    Kamila Kosior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently novel treatment modalities has focused on targeted therapies. Tyrosine kinases represent a good target for cancer treatment since they are involved in transferring phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues in specific substrate proteins transducing intracellular signals engaged in the many mechanisms, playing an important role in the modulation of growth factors signaling that are strongly related to carcinogenesis. Deregulation of tyrosine kinases activity was also found in hematological malignancies, particularly overexpression of tyrosine kinases was observed in chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Herein we show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized hematology malignancies therapy in a very short period of time and they still remain one of the most interesting anticancer compounds that could give a hope for cure and not only long-lasting complete remission. This manuscript summarizes current view on the first generation tyrosine kinase inhibititor – imatinib, second generation – dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutnib as well as new generation tyrosine kinase inhibititors – ponatinib and danusertib in hematooncology.

  12. [Malignant change of laryngeal papilloma in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiying; Teng, Qingxiao; Yao, Changyou; Zheng, Zhenyu

    2004-06-01

    To explore the canceration of laryngeal papilloma in adults, especially its pathological figures, clinical characters and long-term therapeutic efficacy. Among 17 cases of laryngeal papilloma with malignant changes, total laryngectomy and single functional neck dissection were performed for 4 cases (glottis type T3 N1 M0 1, Supraglottic type T4 N0 M0 1, Subglottis type T4 N1 M0 2), partial laryngectomy were performed for other 13 cases. All patients received appropriate radiotherapy whose dose is 45-55 Gy. Tracheal cannulas of all patients (17 cases) were pull out one year after operation. The rate of extubation is 100%. All patient were follow-up more than 5 years. Among 4 cases of total laryngectomy, one patient died from tumor recurrence 2 years after operation, one patient died from distant metastasis 3 years and 4 months after operation, two patients still alive without tumor 8 years after operation and voicing by using esophagus. Among 13 cases of partial laryngectomy, 12 patients still alive and 1 patient loss follow-up 3 years after operation; 11 patients still alive and 1 patient died from distant metastasis 5 years after operation. It is important that repeatedly biopsies to avoid fail to report the malignant change of laryngeal papilloma. The key to cure is complete resection of tumor.

  13. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  14. [Selected immunologic indicators in malignant bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleová, A; Huraj, E; Jahnová, E; Janota, S; Nyulassy, S

    1990-02-01

    In patients with the malignant tumor of bone (17 osteosarcomas, 8 Ewing tumors) longterm observations were made, and namely at the beginning of the disease, after the surgical removal of the tumor, during chemotherapy and in the terminal phase of the disease. The observations concentrated on the following selected immunology parameters: active lymphocytes T, lymphocytes T, lymphocytes B, large granular lymphocytes, IgG, IgA, IgM and circulating immune complexes. In non-treated patients prior to diagnosing the disease, reduction of active lymphocytes T was found out while the total lymphocytes T remained unchanged. However, no significant differences were found out between benign and malignant tumors. The surgical removal of the tumor results in the change in imunologic indicators, the increase of active lyphocytes T, lymphocytes T and the decrease in the circulating immune complexes. The change is of temporary nature, the subsequent deterioration is caused by both the progression of the disease and chemotherapy. The values of immunoglobulins and lymphocytes B fluctuated during the whole course of the disease in physiological levels. The observation of active lymphocytes T and lymphocytes T can be used for monitoring of the immunosuppression in cytostatic treatment. The levl of IgG is differentially diagnostically used to distinguish between the tumor and inflammatory processes.

  15. Gynaecological malignancies from palliative care perspective

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    Kamlesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10-15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50-60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3 rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management.

  16. Oral malignant melanoma: A silent killer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Ashvini; D’souza, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are extremely rare lesions and occur commonly in the maxillary gingiva more frequently on the palate with fewer incidences in the mandibular gingiva. Though these lesions are biologically aggressive, they often go unnoticed since they are clinically asymptomatic in the early stages and usually present merely as a hyperpigmented patch on the gingival surface. These lesions if diagnosed at an early in situ stage are potentially curable and definitely have a better prognosis, but unfortunately as they are clinically asymptomatic, it results in delayed diagnosis thus making the prognosis extremely poor. This paper presents the case of a patient who visited our department with the complaint of darkened patches on the gums and his concern was purely aesthetic. There were no symptoms associated with the hyperpigmented lesions and hence the patient did not approach us earlier. When the lesions grew larger and were unsightly, the patient has seeked dental advice. Histopathologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis as ‘Oral Malignant Melanoma’. Though aggressive therapy was instilled immediately, unfortunately, the patient succumbed to death within a few months after diagnosis as the lesion was highly invasive. Due to the biologically aggressive but clinically silent nature of progression of the lesion, the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and early detection and diagnosis for any pigmented gingival lesions cannot be overemphasised. Diagnosis must be based on thorough detailed history and valid histologic evidence. PMID:22368374

  17. Imaging Findings of Primary Tubal Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sang Been; Park, Jun Young; Park, Dong Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoung Sik [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    To describe the radiologic findings of primary tubal malignancy. This study described the imaging findings of 27 patients with 28 cases of primary tubal malignancy. Of the 27 patients examined, 23 underwent CT, 3 underwent MRI and 4 underwent ultrasonography. Image findings were analyzed according to size, proportion of cyst, shape, and associated findings of tumor. The mean tumor diameter was 5.3 cm (range 2.0-13.1 cm). According to proportion of cyst within the tumor, each case was categorized in one of the four types: 10 cases (35.7%) of type I ({>=} 75 of cystic portion), 2 cases (7.1%) of type II (50-75%), 3 cases (10.7%) of type III (25-50%) and 13 cases (46.4%) of type IV ({<=} 25%). According to the shape of the tumor, 7 cases (25%) were round, 12 cases (42.9%) were lobular, and 9 cases (32.1%) were tubular. Moreover, septa were observed in 8 cases (28.6%), wall thickening was observed in 13 cases (46.4%), and hydrosalpinx was observed in 11 cases (39.3%). The imaging findings of tubal cancer manifests from a solid to a cystic mass. It is a challenge to differentiate primary tubal cancer from ovarian cancer, but when it is associated with hydrosalpinx or the shape of the tumor is lobular or tubular, primary tubal cancer can be suggested as part of the differential diagnosis.

  18. EZH2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K; Adams, P D; Copland, M

    2014-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2), a component of the polycomb group complex, is vital for stem cell development, including hematopoiesis. Its primary function, to deposit the histone mark H3K27me3, promotes transcriptional repression. The activity of EZH2 influences cell fate regulation, namely the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The contribution of aberrant EZH2 expression to tumorigenesis by directing cells toward a cancer stem cell (CSC) state is increasingly recognized. However, its role in hematological malignancies is complex. Point mutations, resulting in gain-of-function, and inactivating mutations, reported in lymphoma and leukemia, respectively, suggest that EZH2 may serve a dual purpose as an oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene. The reduction of CSC self-renewal via EZH2 inhibition offers a potentially attractive therapeutic approach to counter the aberrant activation found in lymphoma and leukemia. The discovery of small molecules that specifically inhibit EZH2 raises the exciting possibility of exploiting the oncogenic addiction of tumor cells toward this protein. However, interference with the tumor-suppressor role of wild-type EZH2 must be avoided. This review examines the role of EZH2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and recent developments in harnessing the therapeutic potential of EZH2 inhibition.

  19. Myeloid malignancies: mutations, models and management

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    Murati Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myeloid malignant diseases comprise chronic (including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute (acute myeloid leukemia stages. They are clonal diseases arising in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Mutations responsible for these diseases occur in several genes whose encoded proteins belong principally to five classes: signaling pathways proteins (e.g. CBL, FLT3, JAK2, RAS, transcription factors (e.g. CEBPA, ETV6, RUNX1, epigenetic regulators (e.g. ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1, IDH2, SUZ12, TET2, UTX, tumor suppressors (e.g. TP53, and components of the spliceosome (e.g. SF3B1, SRSF2. Large-scale sequencing efforts will soon lead to the establishment of a comprehensive repertoire of these mutations, allowing for a better definition and classification of myeloid malignancies, the identification of new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, and the development of novel therapies. Given the importance of epigenetic deregulation in myeloid diseases, the use of drugs targeting epigenetic regulators appears as a most promising therapeutic approach.

  20. Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

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    Chenyang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a common clinical problem caused by cancers. Pleural effusion can be the first sign of cancer in more than 25% of patients. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common cancers that metastasize to the pleura in men and women, respectively. Other cancers, including, but not limited to, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and several unknown primary cancers can also lead to MPE. Dyspnea and chest pain are the most common symptoms of MPE along with other symptoms such as a cough, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and weakness. Aggravation of these symptoms is closely related to the rate of accumulation of pleural effusion. Treatment options to MPE are determined by the type and extent of the underlying malignancy. The major goals of the treatment are to relieve symptoms, restore functions, improve the quality of life, and minimize the duration of hospital stay and costs. Although some patients can be treated with systemic therapies, most of these treatments are temporary, and MPE would recur soon. Hence, further palliative treatments to effectively control pleural effusions and relieve symptoms are necessary. This review addresses the pathophysiology of MPE and the treatment options for patients with MPE.

  1. Meditation for adults with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, Ines; Will, Andrea; Monsef, Ina; Skoetz, Nicole

    2016-02-03

    Malignant neoplasms of the lymphoid or myeloid cell lines including lymphoma, leukaemia and myeloma are referred to as haematological malignancies. Complementary and alternative treatment options such as meditation practice or yoga are becoming popular by treating all aspects of the disease including physical and psychological symptoms. However, there is still unclear evidence about meditation's effectiveness, and how its practice affects the lives of haematologically-diseased patients. This review aims to assess the benefits and harms of meditation practice as an additional treatment to standard care for adults with haematological malignancies. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2015), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2015), databases of ongoing trials, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/), conference proceedings of annual meetings of: the American Society of Hematology; American Society of Clinical Oncology; European Hematology Association; European Congress for Integrative Medicine; and Global Advances in Health and Medicine (2010 to 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using meditation practice for adult patients with haematological malignancies. Two review authors independently extracted data from eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias according to predefined criteria. We evaluated quality of life and depression. The other outcomes of overall survival, anxiety, fatigue, quality of sleep and adverse events could not be evaluated, because they were not assessed in the included trial. We included only one small trial published as an abstract article. The included study investigated the effects of meditation practice on patients newly hospitalised with acute leukaemia. Ninety-one participants enrolled in the study, but only 42 participants remained in the trial throughout the six-month follow-up period and were eligible for analysis. There was no

  2. Malignant melanoma clinically masquerading vascular tumor: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Pradhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is an invasive neoplasm of the skin, whose incidence is reported to be rising among Indians. We hereby present a unique case of unilateral, multiple, asymptomatic, pigmented, nodular lesions over the lower limb; resembling vascular tumor, revealing itself as malignant melanoma only on histopathology. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique presentation of malignant melanoma has not yet been reported from the Indian subcontinent.

  3. A catalogue of treatment and technologies for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunselaar, Laurel M; Quispel-Janssen, Josine M M F; Neefjes, Jacques J C; Baas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive fatal malignancy with a prognosis that has not significantly improved in the last decades. This review summarizes the current state of treatment and the various attempts that are made to improve overall survival for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. It also discusses technologies and protocols to test new and hopefully more effective compounds in a more individualized manner. These developments are expected to improve the prognosis for this group of patients.

  4. Malignant Narcissism: from fairy tales to harsh reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner-Vukov, Mila; Moore, Laurie Jo

    2010-09-01

    Malignant Narcissism has been recognized as a serious condition but it has been largely ignored in psychiatric literature and research. In order to bring this subject to the attention of mental health professionals, this paper presents a contemporary synthesis of the biopsychosocial dynamics and recommendations for treatment of Malignant Narcissism. We reviewed the literature on Malignant Narcissism which was sparse. It was first described in psychiatry by Otto Kernberg in 1984. There have been few contributions to the literature since that time. We discovered that the syndrome of Malignant Narcissism was expressed in fairy tales as a part of the collective unconscious long before it was recognized by psychiatry. We searched for prominent malignant narcissists in recent history. We reviewed the literature on treatment and developed categories for family assessment. Malignant Narcissism is described as a core Narcissistic personality disorder, antisocial behavior, ego-syntonic sadism, and a paranoid orientation. There is no structured interview or self-report measure that identifies Malignant Narcissism and this interferes with research, clinical diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about Malignant Narcissism and proposes a foundation for treatment. Malignant Narcissism is a severe personality disorder that has devastating consequences for the family and society. It requires attention within the discipline of psychiatry and the social science community. We recommend treatment in a therapeutic community and a program of prevention that is focused on psychoeducation, not only in mental health professionals, but in the wider social community.

  5. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

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    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  6. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  7. Rare malignancies in Eastern India, socio-economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Senapati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  8. Malignant hyperthermia resolving with discontinuation of sevoflurane alone

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    Abdullah Abolkhair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An otherwise healthy 13 year old developed hypercarbia and increased temperature during anesthesia with sevoflurane. Discontinuation of sevoflurane, surface cooling, and hyperventilation resulted in prompt resolution. However, hyperkalemia continued to raise the suspicion for malignant hyperthermia, which was ultimately confirmed by ryanodine receptor gene sequencing. The case underlines the importance of intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2 and temperature and the potential benefits of early discontinuation of inhalational anesthetics in the presence of signs and symptoms suspicious for malignant hyperthermia. The severe hyperkalemia suggests that standard guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia, including dantrolene treatment, should be followed whenever malignant hyperthermia is suspected.

  9. BALKAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY AND MALIGNANT UROTHELIAL TUMORS

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    Vidojko Djordjevic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of Balcan endemic nephropathy (BEN is higher frequency of urothelium malignant tumors, primarily of pyelon (Mtp and urether (Mtu. Jablanica region is known for the presence of endemic, hypoendemic and non-endemic areas with BEN. The aim of our research was to analyze the appearance of MTUi n endemic settlements of Jablanica region with BEN and to see what the relation of tumor frequency between endemic and non-endemic settlements is. The appearance of MTU was analyzed on the basis of operative protocol data of Urology department, The Health Center in Leskovac and Urology Clinic of The Clinical Center in Nis for the period from 1978 to 2002. We collected data about our patiens regarding their sex, age, the place of living and the place of birth. In order to make classification of settlements we used data of the Institute for Nephrology and hemodialysis (INH in Nis. Data on total number of population living in these settlements were obtained from the official registration data published in 1981 and 1991. The incidence rate was calculated in the sample of 100,000 people.The average annual incidence rate (AAIR of MTU in endemic settlements for the considered period is 37.82 (tumors of urether and pyelon - 17.56; malignant tumors of urinary bladder (MTUB 20.26; in hypoendemic settlements the rate is 13.28 (MTp and Mtu - 5.06; MTUB - 8.22; and in non-endemic urban settlements it is 7.35 (Mtu and MTp - 1.04, MTUB - 6.31.AAIR of MTU in endemic areas is 2.85 times higher when compared to hypoendemic areas; it is 6.75 times higher than in non-endemic urban areas, and 5.15 times higher than the rate of non-endemic rural areas. Mtu and MTp are 18.68 times more frequent in endemic settlements than in non-endemic urban areas and 3.47 times more frequent when compared to hypoendemic settlements. The linear trend of the diseased from MTp and MTu in endemic areas of Jablanica region for 25-year period was slowly decreasing according to

  10. Malignant Triton Tumor of the Sciatic Nerve as a Secondary Malignancy after Extended Field Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy of Hodgkin's Disease

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    Mirko Nitsche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Late effects of therapy for Hodgkin's disease include secondary malignancies like leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumors developing after long periods of latency. Ionizing radiation often causes the last group. The highest risks have been described for induced breast and lung cancers. We are the first to report a malignant triton tumor (MTT as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. MTT is a very rare subtype of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and an aggressive course of disease.

  11. Features of proteasome functioning in malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Choinzonov, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    Proteasome ubiquitin system is the important system of intracellular proteolysis. The activity of the proteasomes may undergo changes during cancer development. We studied the chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes, their subunit composition, and their association with tumor stage in breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. The increase in chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes and decrease in total proteasome pool compared with adjacent tissues were shown in all malignant tumors excluding kidney cancer. The increase in chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes was found in primary tumors with all types of metastasis: lymphogenous of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, intraperitoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer, hematogenous metastasis colorectal cancer. The exception was kidney cancer, in which there was a decrease in chymotrypsin-like activity with distant metastasis.

  12. Malignant eccrine poroma Poroma ecrino maligno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter León

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available

    We report on the case of a 47 year-old man with the diagnosis of malignant eccrine poroma, located on the right foot; he died from metastatic lesions affecting inguinal region, lungs, liver and central nervous system. Clinical and histopathologic findings are discussed .A review Is Included on sweat gland carcinomas.

    Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 47 años a quien se le diagnosticó un poroma ecrlno maligno localizado en el dorso del pie derecho, con metástasis a región inguinal, pulmón, hígado y sistema nervioso central, que le produjeron la muerte. Se discuten los hallazgos clínicos e histopatológicos.

  13. Interventional radiological treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Hiroya; Sakurai, Yasuo; Takamura, Akio [Asahikawa Kosei General Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Metallic stents have been widely used relieve biliary obstructions as an alternative to plastic endoprostheses. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the metallic stents in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. If cancerous tissue was present in the bile duct, the stents embedded in the tumor and caliber of the bile duct was smaller than that of the stents. Metallic stents are indicated in case with less tumor in the bile duct. If bulky tumor exists in the bile duct, adequate combination therapy to reduce the volume of the tumor should be required. In the case of inefficient therapy, plastic endoprosthesis or covered stents should be chosen for long-term patency. (author)

  14. Primary Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Katsourakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of the small intestine is an extremely rare condition. It occurs most commonly in the extremities and the trunk. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who admitted with fever, myalgia, and altered status. After thorough investigation, a tumor of the jejunum was found. The patient underwent complete surgical removal of the tumor. A diagnosis of MFN (undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma was made. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with Gemcitabine. Two years after the operation, the patient died due to recurrence of the disease. MFH of the small intestine is an extremely rare neoplasm with an aggressive biological behaviour. In this paper, pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment are reviewed.

  15. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  16. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated with coxofemoral arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Michanié, Ernesto; Oivi, Liliana; Santini-Araujo, Eduardo; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of biomaterials led to their use in the manufacture of implants for biomedical applications. In vivo, no metal or alloy is completely inert. The potential toxicity of some of the metals most frequently employed in the manufacture of orthopedic implants has been reported. Their carcinogenic potential has been evaluated in experimental animal models. However, few reports have discussed the potential development of malignant tumors associated with prosthetic structures in humans. The present study documents a case of intraosseous sarcoma that developed in the vicinity of a metallic prosthesis 43 months after a coxofemoral arthrodesis with metallic pins and screws. With this report the authors seek to contribute to the understanding of the potential toxicity and risks of using metallic implants. Since metallic implants employed in the rehabilitation of osteo-muscular-articular disorders usually remain in the organism for long periods of time, the need to monitor the metallic structures and the adjacent tissues is extremely relevant.

  17. Adult Ocular Toxocariasis Mimicking Ciliary Body Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass.

  18. Complete regression of primary malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O; Mannion, Meghan; Phelps, Robert G

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, histopathologic studies to determine the nature and significance of regression in malignant melanoma have yielded different results. At least in part, this most likely reflects differences in the definition of what constitutes regression. Although partial regression is relatively common, complete regression is rare. It has been said that complete regression of a primary lesion is associated with metastatic disease, but the evidence for this is largely anecdotal-the literature contains only case reports and small series. We found 2 cases of complete regression in our dermatopathology database. Metastatic disease was identified in both cases; in 1 case, the suspicion of melanoma was raised on the initial biopsy and subsequent workup revealed lymph node metastasis. These cases illustrate the histologic features of a completely regressed primary melanoma and add credence to the theory that completely regressed melanoma is associated with a poor outcome.

  19. Hedgehog Signaling in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Felley-Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a cancer associated with exposure to asbestos fibers, which accumulate in the pleural space, damage tissue and stimulate regeneration. Hedgehog signaling is a pathway important during embryonic mesothelium development and is inactivated in adult mesothelium. The pathway is reactivated in some MPM patients with poor clinical outcome, mainly mediated by the expression of the ligands. Nevertheless, mutations in components of the pathway have been observed in a few cases. Data from different MPM animal models and primary culture suggest that both autocrine and paracrine Hedgehog signaling are important to maintain tumor growth. Drugs inhibiting the pathway at the level of the smoothened receptor (Smo or glioma-associated protein transcription factors (Gli have been used mostly in experimental models. For clinical development, biomarkers are necessary for the selection of patients who can benefit from Hedgehog signaling inhibition.

  20. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  1. Epigenetic aberrations in myeloid malignancies (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro

    2013-09-01

    The development of novel technologies, such as massively parallel DNA sequencing, has led to the identification of several novel recurrent gene mutations, such as DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)3a, ten-eleven-translocation oncogene family member 2 (TET2), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1/2, additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1), enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat X chromosome (UTX) mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other myeloid malignancies. These findings strongly suggest a link between recurrent genetic alterations and aberrant epigenetic regulations, resulting from an abnormal DNA methylation and histone modification status. This review focuses on the current findings of aberrant epigenetic signatures by these newly described genetic alterations. Moreover, epigenetic aberrations resulting from transcription factor aberrations, such as mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) rearrangement, ecotropic viral integration site 1 (Evi1) overexpression, chromosomal translocations and the downregulation of PU.1 are also described.

  2. ESMO Consensus Conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buske, C; Hutchings, M; Ladetto, M

    2018-01-01

    into three working groups; each group focused on one of these areas in order to address clinically-relevant questions relating to that topic. All relevant scientific literature, as identified by the experts, was reviewed in advance. During the consensus conference, each working group developed...... of the three key areas identified. This manuscript presents the consensus recommendations regarding the clinical management of elderly patients diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Four clinically-relevant topics identified by the panel were: 1) how to define patient fitness, 2) assessing quality of life, 3......) diagnostic work-up and 4) clinical management of elderly patients with lymphoma. Each of these key topics is addressed in the context of five different lymphoma entities, namely: CLL, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Results, including...

  3. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  4. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  5. [Case report of synchronous manifestation of two malignant tumors--cervical cancer and malignant lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    According the morphological classification of tumors as metahronnic are defined tumors with more than two histological types in one anatomic region (one body), and as synchronous--these with two histological types in one anatomic area. Affected lymph nodes in cervical cancer is different and depends on the stage and histological type of tumor (squamous and adenocarcinoma) and is an important prognostic factor. Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma populations (NHL) originale from the lymph organs and from their populations downstream lymphoid Stem cell to mature lymphocytes that have opportunities for transformation and proliferation. Recognition of different types of NHL is a complex diagnostic process, in which besides routine cytological and histological methods is requiring the use of immunohistological, imaging and invasive methods. We present the random case developed cervical cancer and malignant lymphoma.

  6. Local treatment of solitary intrapulmonary, malignant nodules; Lokaltherapie solitaerer intrapulmonaler maligner Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, J. op den; Eichhorn, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Thoraxchirurgie, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Rieken, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Dienemann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Thoraxchirurgie, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); TLRC-H - Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Intrapulmonary nodules generally represent an incidental finding in the roentgenogram or computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. They are defined as single, well-circumscribed, radiographic opaque lesions that measures up to 3 cm in diameter and are surrounded completely by aerated lung. The probability of malignancy directly correlates with increasing diameter. Lesions that have a diameter of 1 cm or larger require direct evaluation. Surgery is the first option for patients with a malignant lesion, given an acceptable perioperative risk; for high-risk patients either radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) should be offered. In these cases the malignant histology has to be established beforehand or verified by radiologic proven growth. Complete surgical resection is superior to RFA and SBRT with respect to local tumor control. (orig.) [German] Intrapulmonale Rundherde stellen in der Regel einen Zufallsbefund im Roentgenbild oder Computertomogramm des Thorax dar. Sie sind definiert als relativ gut abgegrenzte Laesionen von bis zu 3 cm Durchmesser, die allseits von Lungengewebe umgeben sind. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit fuer das Vorliegen eines malignen Tumors steigt mit ihrer Groesse. Rundherde ab 1 cm Durchmesser beduerfen der aktiven Abklaerung. Zur Behandlung solitaerer maligner Tumoren steht fuer Patienten ohne nennenswert erhoehtes Operations- und Narkoserisiko der chirurgische Eingriff an erster Stelle. Patienten, die aus funktionellen Gruenden fuer einen solchen nicht geeignet sind, koennen mit Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) oder Einzeitbestrahlung (SBRT) behandelt werden. In diesen Faellen muessen vor Therapiebeginn die Malignitaet nachgewiesen oder zumindest ueber einen begrenzten Zeitraum eine Groessenzunahme der Laesion dokumentiert worden sein. In Bezug auf die lokale Tumorfreiheit ist die Operation unter den Voraussetzungen einer R0-Resektion den anderen Verfahren ueberlegen. (orig.)

  7. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F.R.; Halsall, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis...

  8. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mills, Anne M; Showalter, Shayna L

    2014-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, fast-growing tumors that can be difficult to diagnose. A case study is featured about a young adult patient who lacked insurance and received a delayed diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. This article includes pertinent clinical and age-specific considerations for comprehensive management.

  9. Gastrointestinal malignancies at five regional referral hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: There is a paucity of published data regarding the trend and distribution of gastrointestinal malignancies in. Uganda. Objectives: To study the trend and distribution of gastrointestinal malignancies over a 10 year period at five regional referral hospitals in Uganda. Methods: Patient's charts with ...

  10. Primary malignant skin tumours in Ghanaians: a prospective study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    squamous cell carcinoma one (3%) had basal cell carcinoma and four (13%) had sarcomas comprising two cases of Kaposi sarcoma, one synovial sarcoma, and another of unknown origin. Patients with malignant melanoma had a mean age of 73.4 years while those with non-melanoma malignancies had a mean age of ...

  11. Dermatological malignancies at a University teaching Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant melanoma was the most common dermatological malignancy (67.5%) followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (10.4%), Squamous cell carcinoma (8.4%) and Basal cell carcinoma(7.8%). The lower limbs were the most frequent site accounting for 55.8%. Wide local excision was the most common surgical procedure ...

  12. Spinal cord disease in children with malignancies: Clinical cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal cord disease in children with known or suspected malignancy is an oncological emergency because it commonly implies malignant spinal cord compression (SCC). Since the outcome of SCC is primarily determined by the patient's neurological status at treatment initiation, the goal must be to establish the underlying ...

  13. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma Arising From a Vitiligo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin cancer is rare in people of African origin while vitiligo occurs worldwide. The occurrence of primary malignant melanoma and vitiligo together is very rare. We present a rare case of primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a depigmented patch of a patient with vitiligo. It was completely excised and followed ...

  14. Acute leukaemia following malignant ependymoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, M.R.; Advani, S.H.; Gopal, R.; Nair, C.N.; Saikia, T.; Kamat, D.M.

    1985-05-01

    Though an increasing number of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related leukaemias are being reported, acute promyelocytic leukaemia developing as a therapy-related second malignancy is still uncommon. Here the authors report a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, microgranular variant, developing in a case of intracranial malignant ependymoma, 1.5 years following treatment with craniospinal radiotherapy.

  15. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... thyroid malignancies were the second primary cancers, they usually follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region for treatment of the first primary tumor and tend to be of aggressive histologic types than the ... Key words: Radiation, radiotherapy, second malignancies, thyroid cancer ...

  16. A histopathological analysis of cutaneous malignancies in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To establish the prevalence of cutaneous malignancies in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Method: This is a histopathological analysis of three hundred and eighty two cases of cutaneous malignancies seen and diagnosed in the department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria from January 1991 to ...

  17. Positive malignant margins in clinically diagnosed and excised be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at utilizing retrospective descriptive data to evaluate the percentage of clini-cally benign breast lumps that turned out to be histologically malignant and the prevalence of posi-tive tumour margins among the malignant cases. A total of 2,917 registered cases of excised breast lump at the Department of ...

  18. Primary oral malignant melanoma - A case report | Kumar | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a case of a 42year old woman with primary malignant melanoma at a rare site, the left retromolar region involving the left side of the mandible, up to level IV ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes. The patient was treated ... should be biopsied. Keywords: Malignant melanoma, palate, maxilla, gingiva, oral cavity ...

  19. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... to institutional protocols. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid ... leukemia (CML), about 16.7% of malignancies occurred in the region of the head and neck, specifically one each for ... tumors and that the risk of leukemia following radiation is considerably smaller than after chemotherapy.

  20. Cutaneous manifestations of malignant disease: A review | Legbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal malignancies can produce a wide range of cutaneous manifestations that are often neglected by clinicians. This review aims to increase the awareness of clinicians by highlighting the various cutaneous manifestations of common internal malignancies. Method: A review composed via Medline Internet search, ...

  1. Seven-Year Histopathological Review of Malignant Ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ovarian malignancies are important causes of morbidity and mortality and understanding their pathology go a long way in proffering adequate clinical management. Objective: To determine the pattern, frequency and age distribution of malignant ovarian tumours received in the Pathology department of Aminu ...

  2. Malignant Gastrointestinal Tumours in South Western Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal tract are not as rare as previous studies suggest. Recent studies have indicated increasing incidence. OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern, age and sex distribution as well as histopathology characteristics of malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal system in ...

  3. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malignant renal tumour is the third commonest urological tumour after prostate and bladder cancer. It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in ...

  4. [Marjolin ulcer; malignant degeneration in a chronic wound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, W.C.C. de; Walbeehm, E.T.; Wagner, T.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A chronic ulcerating wound may turn malignant. The term 'Marjolin ulcer' is used to describe any skin malignancy which develops in an area of chronic ulceration, irritation or inflammation. It is generally a squamous cell carcinoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old woman was admitted

  5. Geometric cutaneous melanoma: a helpful clinical sign of malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Andrew D; Gee, Bruce C; Millard, Leslie G

    2003-08-01

    Malignant melanomas change shape in a random pattern, with ovoid, crescentic, or nodular shapes seen most frequently. We have observed a number of malignant melanomas that have presented with a geometric, angular shape and have noted that pigmented lesions with this configuration are often found to be malignant. We present 20 patients with malignant melanoma whose lesion displayed a geometric, angular shape. Before excision for formal histopathology, all lesions were scored using the seven-point checklist and ABCDE systems and were divided into low-risk or significant risk of melanoma. Five different geometric shapes were observed. Depending on the scoring system employed, 20% to 40% of the geometric melanomas were considered to be of low risk of malignancy. The development of geometrical angular patterns in a malignant melanoma may represent a morphologic growth pattern that can be used as a clinical risk sign. Even apparently benign low-risk lesions with a geometric shape may pose a significant risk of malignant melanoma. By definition, the majority of lesions that are morphologically geometric are symmetrical in shape, which is more in favor of a benign diagnosis. This may increase the likelihood that early cutaneous melanomas with a geometric shape may be missed. Any pigmented lesion with a geometric configuration should raise the clinician's suspicion of malignancy even if considered otherwise to be of low risk by the standard melanoma checklists.

  6. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  7. Oral malignant melanoma: a rare case with unusual clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary Oral malignant melanoma is a rare tumor with an indigent prognosis. This is a case report of 47-year-old Sudanese female diagnosed as Oral malignant melanoma of the mandible with an unusual pattern of growth and clinical presentation. Furthermore, a possibility of intraosseous origin is suggested. Pan African ...

  8. EBV-Related Malignancies, Outcomes and Novel Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoya, Oluwatobi Ohiole; Sokol, Lubomir; Dalia, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a common gamma herpes virus with a high prevalence in adults worldwide. Infection is mostly latent in affected individuals. EBV has been linked mostly with lymphoid malignancies but its association with epithelial and other non-lymphoid malignancies has also been described. Using MEDLINE, the terms "Epstein Barr Virus AND Malignancy"; "EBV mechanisms"; EBV treatment AND outcomes"; and "EBV prevention" were combined to find articles pertinent to this review. The search was limited to more recent publications between January 1, 2000 and August 1, 2015. In this review, we describe current knowledge about the pathogenesis of EBV-related malignancies and evaluate their therapeutic options and outcomes. Current and prospective novel preventive options are also critically reviewed. EBV infection is a very common viral infection worldwide and has been implicated in various malignancies including lymphomas, gastric cancer, and nasopharangeal cancer. Patients with EBV positive PTLD and NK/T-cell lymphoma tend to have a better prognosis than EBV negative patients. On the other hand, patients with EBV positive HL or DLBCL tend to have a poorer prognosis especially in elderly patients. Further research is needed to better understand if EBV status is a true prognostic indicator in most malignancies. Treatment approaches remain similar for EBV positive and EBV negative malignancies while the use of novel agents remain under investigation. EBV vaccination trials are underway and these remain a potentially effective strategy to prevent EBV-related malignancies and the associated sequela.

  9. Primary malignant bone tumour in a tropical African University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteogenic sarcoma was the most common primary malignant bone tumour while the mandible was the most commonly affected bone. In contrast to previous studies, Burkitt's lymphoma affected the mandible more commonly than the maxilla. The relative frequency of primary malignant bone tumours is low in our ...

  10. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [4] Cervical cancer. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract. Malignancies at the University of Nigeria Teaching. Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Okeke TC, Onah ... of cancer of cervix, it remained the most common female genital tract malignancy in Enugu, .... sizes of most families as pregnancy and breast feeding are.

  11. 'Maligne peritoneaal mesothelioom': een moeilijk te stellen diagnose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Fleurtje M.; van Leeuwen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive neoplasm, which arises from serous membranes, such as the pleura and the peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is relatively rare, but the incidence is increasing worldwide because of intensive asbestos use during the 20th century. A 60-year-old man

  12. Malignant squamous cells: A panoramic view | Emmanuel | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The squamous epithelium is the most widely distributed epithelium in the human body. Malignant transformation does occur in these cells leading to squamous cell carcinoma. This cancer can arise in a site native to the epithelium or where squamous metaplasia has occurred. This malignancy therefore has ...

  13. CT findings of malignant tumors of maxillary sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ae; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    CT findings of histologically proven malignant tumors of maxillary sinus in 36 patients were retrospectively analyzed. A variety of malignant tumors were included; 27 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 3 malignant lymphomas, 2 malignant melanomas, 2 rhabdomyosarcomas, and chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and malignant ameloblastoma. CT staging was T4 in 19 cases, T3 in 16 cases and T2 in 1 case. The most common involved area beyond maxillary antrum was nasal cavity (25 cases), followed by ethmoid sinus (20 cases), orbit (19 cases), infratemporal fossa (17 cases), check skin (13 cases), pterygopalatine fossa (10 cases), and nasopharynx (6 cases). Skeletal destruction was seen in medial wall of antrum (31 cases), posterior wall of antrum (25 cases), anterior wall of antrum (23 cases), roof of antrum (19 cases), lamina papyracea (6 cases), and lateral wall of orbit (5 cases) in that order of frequency. Lymph node metastases were found in 2 cases of malignant melanoma, 2 cases of malignant lymphoma, and chondrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant ameloblastoma. Predilection site of lymph node involvement was submandibular (3 cases), internal jugular (2 cases), parotid (2 cases), and retropharyngeal node (1 case)

  14. Post-transplantation Malignancy After Kidney Transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Y; Tekin, S; Duzenli, M; Yuksel, Y; Yücetin, L; Dosemeci, L; Sengul, A; Demirbaş, A; Tuncer, M

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment option for end-stage renal disease patients. Increased incidence of post-transplantation malignancy can be caused by immunosuppressive drugs and some oncogenic infections. The aim of this study is to show the incidence of post-transplantation malignancy in patients who had surgery and were followed up in the Organ Transplant Center, Medical Park Antalya, Antalya, Turkey. The study was based on 2100 kidney transplantation patients who had surgery between May 2008 and December 2012 and also on 1900 patients who had surgery by members of our team in other centers and who were followed up routinely. In all of our patients, the type of malignancy, the time that malignancy developed, immunosuppressive regimens, and viral status (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus) were investigated. Malignancy was developed in 30 patients (60% of them were male, median age was 52.1 years). Post-transplantation malignancy development time was a median of 5.1 years. The types of malignancies were as follows: non-melanoma skin cancer in 12 patients (40%), urogenital cancer in 7 patients (24%), breast cancer in 4 patients (14%), lymphoproliferative disease in 3 patients (10%), thyroid cancer in 2 patients (6%), and lung cancer in 2 patients (6%). In this study, we did not find any increased post-transplantation malignancy risk in our patients. This finding could be due to the low-dosage immunosuppressive protocols that we used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  16. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  17. A case of clear cell sarcoma-A rare malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...

  18. The Point Prevalence of Malignancy in a Wound Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Farhad; Anooshirvani, Niloofar; Sibbald, R Gary; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malignant leg ulcers and to identify the most frequent characteristics of such wounds. This study was a retrospective investigation of patients with chronic leg ulcers in a North American tertiary wound clinic. Between January 2011 and September 2013, a total of 1189 patients with lower extremity wounds, including 726 patients with leg wounds, were identified. A total of 124 of the 726 had undergone a biopsy of their atypical wound, 16.1% (20/124) of which were malignant. Patients with malignant wounds were older than patients with nonmalignant leg wounds (P hypergranulation tissue (P < .0001), and friable/bleeding wound surface (P < .0001). The frequency of malignant wounds in patients with chronic leg ulcers highlights the need for a systematic approach, which would involve biopsy of wounds to identify malignancy in this patient population early on. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Hematologic Malignancies: Questions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sapire, Kenneth

    2017-10-14

    Hematologic malignancies represent 9.7% of all cancers, making them the fourth most common type of cancer in the United States. The aggressive and complex treatments administered in hematologic malignancies result in a high burden of psychological needs. Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is becoming one of the options that patients use to address their distress during and after cancer treatments. It is not clear whether appropriate CIM can relieve distress in patients affected by these malignancies. This review covers the potential benefits of CIM as relates to nutrition, nutritional supplements, exercise, circadian rhythm, methods for reducing distress during bone marrow aspiration, massage therapy, and acupuncture, in treating patients with hematological malignancies. This review may provide a framework to enhance patient-doctor dialogue regarding CIM use in hematologic malignancies.

  20. De Novo Malignant Neoplasms in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Akçay, Eda; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Deniz, Ebru; Börcek, Pelin; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of posttransplant malignancy in kidney transplant patients and investigate the clinical and histopathologic features of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed information on donor and recipient characteristics, patient and graft survival, and cancer incidence after transplant for 867 kidney transplant patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to transplant were excluded. A follow-up study estimated cancer incidence after transplant. Neoplasms were diagnosed in 59 patients (6.8%), 41 men and 18 women; 22 (37.3%) had skin tumors, 19 (32.2%) had solid tumors, 10 (16.9%) had posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and 8 (13.6%) had Kaposi sarcoma. The mean age at the time of malignant tumor diagnosis was 42.7 ± 13.6 years, and statistically significant differences were found between tumor groups (P < .01). The average latency period between transplant and diagnosis of malignant tumors was 99.8 ± 56.9 months for solid tumors, 78.4 ± 52 months for skin tumors, 64.5 ± 48.8 months for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and 13.5 ± 8.8 months for Kaposi sarcoma, with significant difference found between tumor groups (P < .01). Ten patients (16.9%) had more than 1 malignant tumor. Eighteen patients died, with a mean time to death of 31.5 ± 22.8 months after tumor diagnosis. A significant positive association was found between survival and the number of tumors (P = .001); 5-year survival after tumor diagnosis was 81% and 40% for patients with 1 malignant tumor and patients with more than 1 malignant tumor, respectively. Malignancy is a common cause of death after renal transplant. Early detection and treatment of posttransplant malignancies is an important challenge. Screening these patients for malignancies posttransplant is crucial, and efforts should be directed to define effective immunosuppressive protocols that are associated with a lower incidence of malignancy.

  1. Role of DR-70 immunoassay in suspected malignant pleural effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Amitabha; Saha, Kaushik; Jash, Debraj; Banerjee, Sourindra Nath; Biswas, Nirendra Mohan; Dey, Atin

    2013-01-01

    Context: A good proportion of patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion (PE) turn into malignancy over a period of time. Identification of positive biomarker may help in selecting the individuals who require close follow-up. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of DR-70 immunoassay in suspected malignant PE. Settings and Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 89 patients of suspected malignant PE and 50 normal subjects (NS) were taken as control. Materials and Methods: Patients with exudative PE; who had pleural fluid lymphocyte count greater than 50% and adenosine deaminase less than 30 U/L were taken as cases. We had selected NSs among relatives of patients having normal blood chemistry and radiological investigations. Sensitivity and specificity of the test to differentiate malignant and non-malignant PE and also to identify PE with underlying malignancy was analyzed. Results: Mean value of DR-70 in NS was found to be 0.83 ± 0.273 mg/L without any significant difference between males (0.82 mg/L) and females (0.85 mg/L). Mean value of DR-70 in PE with underlying cancer was 5.03 ± 3.79 mg/L. Sensitivity (80%) and specificity (77.78%) of the test was maximum in PE with underlying cancer using cut-off value of 2 mg/L. Mean value DR-70 in malignant PE was 5.18 ± 3.75 mg/L and in non-malignant PE was 3.73 ± 3.74 mg/L without any statistically significant difference (P = 0.08). Conclusions: DR-70 assay has high sensitivity in detecting underlying lung cancer, but has no role in differentiating malignant PE from non-malignant PE. PMID:24339491

  2. The renin-angiotensin system in malignant hypertension revisited: plasma renin activity, microangiopathic hemolysis, and renal failure in malignant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Koopmans, Richard P.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant hypertension is a renin-dependent form of hypertension. However, the variations in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation in malignant hypertension are not completely understood. A proposed mechanism for ongoing RAS activation is the presence of microangiopathic hemolysis

  3. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  4. Comparison of loss of heterozygosity patterns between ovarian tumors of low malignant potential and malignant ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, E.C.; Miller, D.M.; Finley, W.H. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) represent a pathologic subtype of ovarian tumor that possess many features common to malignant tumors including epithelial stratification, increased mitotic activity and atypical cellularity. These tumors, however, do not invade the ovarian stroma and have a much improved patient prognosis. Utilizing dinucleotide repeats, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed on a total of 12 ovarian tumors of LMP in 5 regions found to have significant levels of LOH in malignant ovarian tumors. The regions chosen for study were 3p, 6q, 11p, 17p and 17q. LOH could be demonstrated in malignant ovarian tumors in loci from 3p, 11p and both chromosomal arms of 17 when compared to normal tissue from the same patient. Loss in malignant tumors was more common in loci mapped to 3p21 and to 11p15. OH was not noted in any samples for a repeat in the TP53 gene even though flanking markers on 17p were lost in 1 patient with a malignant tumor. Loss was not demonstrated in any of the loci examined from 6q in malignant ovarian tumors. LOH was not demonstrated in any of the 39 loci examined from any of the five chromosomal regions in the ovarian tumors of LMP. Cytogenetic analyses of these LMP tumors were consistent with lack of involvement in these chromosomal regions. These data suggest the mechanism of tumorigenesis is different in tumors of LMP from that in malignant ovarian tumors.

  5. Radical multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Elsayed, Zeinab; Mohamed, Hadeer; Eltobgy, Mostafa

    2018-01-08

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an almost always fatal tumour, for which palliative platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. Multimodal therapeutic strategies incorporating surgery, radiation therapy or photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy have been recommended for selected patients but there is no consensus about their effectiveness. To assess the benefits and harms of radical multimodal treatment options (including radical surgery ± radical radiotherapy ± photodynamic therapy ± systemic therapy) compared to each other or to palliative treatments, for people with malignant pleural mesothelioma. We reviewed data from the Cochrane Lung Cancer group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and Embase. We also checked reference lists of primary original studies, review articles and relevant conference proceedings manually for further related articles up to 21 March 2017. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials of multimodal therapy for people with malignant pleural mesothelioma (stages I, II or III) that measured at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, health-related health-related quality of life, adverse events or progression-free survival. We considered studies regardless of language or publication status. Two review authors independently extracted relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, study outcomes, and data on the outcomes for this review, as well as information on the design and methodology of the studies. Two review authors assessed the risk of bias in the included trials using pre-defined 'Risk of bias' domains. We assessed the methodological quality using GRADE. We conducted this review in accordance with the published Cochrane protocol. Two randomised clinical trials with 104 participants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Both trials were at high risk of bias (for outcomes other than overall survival), and we rated

  6. Malignancy in disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) represent a spectrum of conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex are atypical and affect 1 in 4,500–5,000 live births. The diagnosis of DSD raises concerns of tumor risk and treatment as well as future fertility preservation. We review the current understanding of the types of gonadal tumors that arise in DSD patients as well as possible markers and treatment. The goal is to inform the members of the DSD team (urologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, psychologist) of the latest findings regarding malignancy in DSD. PubMed® and Google ScholarTM literature searches were performed of current and past peer-reviewed literature on DSD (intersex) regarding gonadal development and tumor formation/treatment. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined, including cited references, and a synopsis of the data was generated. DSD patients are at increased risk for the development of testicular carcinoma in-situ (CIS) and germ cell tumors (GCT), including seminoma, non-seminoma, juvenile granulosa cell, gonadoblastoma, and dysgerminoma. Cancer risk factors include Y-chromosomal material and gonadal position, especially for streak gonads. The 46 XX DSD patients [congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)] with no genetic Y-chromosomal material are not at higher risk of cancer. Post-pubertal complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) patients remain prone to tumor development if the testes remain in the abdomen. Estimates of the risk of GCT in partial AIS for untreated undescended testes may be as high as 50%. The cancer risk of scrotal testes in partial AIS is unknown. CIS occurs almost exclusively in patients with hypovirilization, most notably in AIS. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) confers the usual cancer risk associated with cryptorchidism, but also a possible tumor risk of the Mullerian remnant. Several markers are under investigation for tumor evaluation in the DSD population beyond hCG and AFP

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells in myeloid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Thomas; Geyh, Stefanie; Germing, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are clonal myeloid disorders characterized by hematopoietic insufficiency. As MDS and AML are considered to originate from genetic and molecular defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the main focus of research in this field has focused on the characterization of these cells. Recently, the contribution of BM microenvironment to the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies, in particular MDS and AML has gained more interest. This is based on a better understanding of its physiological role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Additionally, it was demonstrated as a 'proof of principle' that genetic disruption of cells of the mesenchymal or osteoblastic lineage can induce MDS, MPS or AML in mice. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the contribution of the BM microenvironment, in particular mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to the pathogenesis of AML and MDS. Furthermore, potential models integrating the BM microenvironment into the pathophysiology of these myeloid disorders are discussed. Finally, strategies to therapeutically exploit this knowledge and to interfere with the crosstalk between clonal hematopoietic cells and altered stem cell niches are introduced.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of cutaneous malignant melanoma (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, D; Fratino, L; Gianni, W; Campisi, C; Pietropaolo, M; Trimarco, G; Marigliano, V

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Once considered a rare tumour, CMM is now the fourth commonest cancer in Australia and New Zeland, the tenth in the Usa, Canada and Scandinavia and the eighteenth in Great Britain. The growing scientific concern on the urgent need to highlight the cause/s of CMM is well documented by the large number of well-designed and well-conducted epidemiological studies reported in the last two decades. Such studies facilitated testing of many etiological hypotheses derived from earlier descriptive investigations and contributed to significant progress in understanding the etiology of such disease. The quantification of the extent to which the increases in CMM incidence and mortality rates are related to new lifestyles and to new patterns of exposure to potential carcinogenetic agents is essential in order to establish an appropriate preventive strategy. In population of mainly European origin a substantial proportion of the increased incidence of CMM is attributable to steady change from predominantly occupational to predominantly recreational exposure to solar radiation. Therefore the present review puts particular emphasis on exposure to sunlight as well as to artificial ultraviolet light, as modifiable causes of CMM. Incidence and mortality data and other potential risk factors for the development of CMM will also be briefly reviewed.

  9. Therapeutics targeting Bcl-2 in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Reed, John C

    2017-10-23

    Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) gene family are attractive targets for cancer therapy as they play a key role in promoting cell survival, a long-since established hallmark of cancer. Clinical utility for selective inhibition of specific anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins has recently been realized with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of venetoclax (formerly ABT-199/GDC-0199) in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion. Despite the impressive monotherapy activity in CLL, such responses have rarely been observed in other B-cell malignancies, and preclinical data suggest that combination therapies will be needed in other indications. Additional selective antagonists of Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development and hold the promise of extending clinical utility beyond CLL and overcoming resistance to venetoclax. In addition to direct targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins with BH3 mimetics, combination therapies that aim at down-regulating expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members or restoring expression of pro-apoptotic BH3 family proteins may provide a means to deepen responses to venetoclax and extend the utility to additional indications. Here, we review recent progress in direct and selective targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins for cancer therapy and the search for rationale combinations. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Nonrandom chromosomal changes in human malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1977-01-01

    The role of chromosomal changes in human malignant cells has been the subject of much debate. The observation of nonrandom chromosomal changes has become well recognized in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and more recently in acute myelogenous leukemia. In the present report, data are presented on the sites of duplication of chromosome No. 1 in hematologic disorders. Trisomy for region lq25 to lq32 was observed in every one of 34 patients whose cells showed duplication of some part of chromosome No. 1. Adjacent regions lq21 to lq25, and lq32 to lqter, also were trisomic in the majority of patients. Two patients had deletions, one of lq32 to qter, and the other, of lp32 to pter. The sites of chromosomal breaks leading to trisomy differ from those involved in balanced reciprocal translocations. Some of these sites are sometimes, but not always, vulnerable in constitutional chromosomal abnormalities. The nature of the proliferative advantage conferred on myeloid cells by these chromosomal changes is unknown.

  11. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of malignant mesothelioma of pleura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warloe, Trond; Heyerdahl, Helen; Peng, Qian; Hoie, J.; Normann, E.; Solheim, O.; Moan, Johan; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent extensive surgery followed by intra-operative photodynamic therapy. Two mg/kg Photofrin was given 48 hours prior to surgery. The thoracic cavity and eventual remaining lung were exposed to 15 - 30 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light. Tumor tissue was analyzed by microscopic photometrical techniques. Five patients with mixed or epithelioid tumors with fluorescence intensity > 100 gray level/pixel seemed to benefit from the given therapy. One patient was free of disease 18 months after treatment. Two patients were treated for metastasis after 12 months with no sign of intrathoracic recurrence. Both are still alive, one without further sign of disease 32 months after initial treatment. Two patients presented generalized disease after 9 and 13 months and intrathoracic recurrence several months later. Two patients with poorly differentiated tumors and 2 patients with moderate to highly differentiated tumors, but with fluorescence intensity < 100 gray level/pixel, presented recurrences after 4 months. PDT-efficiency seems to be predicted by the intensity and distribution of drug-induced fluorescence in tumor tissue. PDT may enhance the possibility to achieve complete local tumor control after excision. Multimodal therapeutic approach of local and systemic disease seems mandatory to further improve survival.

  13. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Hofstede, Theresa M; Chambers, Mark S; Lai, Stephen Y; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2016-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19months, range: 4-72months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50Gy (1 case) to 70Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8-14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location of SGM is very important, with cases that developed ORN disproportionally having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  15. Non-teleological differentiation of malignancy (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, M; Watanabe, H

    1994-03-01

    So-called 'de-differentiation' of malignant tumors is not identical with 'retro-differentiation' of normal cells, although induction of differentiation of tumor cells seems to be successful. De-differentiation of tumor cells is a more stochastic process than the reversion of serial developmental lineage in normal differentiation. After retro-differentiation, re-differentiation of normal cells includes serial expression of negative regulators programmed a priori, and a teleological explanation of differentiation is possible. However, 'fragmented' gene expression is generally observed in tumor-cell differentiation. In tumor cells, it is more important that they cannot maintain a differentiated state under normal microenvironments than that they can be induced to differentiate by artificial agents. Induction of differentiation of tumor cells should be different from that of their normal counterparts since loss of regulatory mechanisms could not be restored by the inducers. Phenomenological homology between tumor cells and their normal counterparts in the differentiation may be only an experimental artifact, since the genetic information of development is generally damaged or lost in tumor cells. Loss of teleology in tumor cells is essentially correlated with their selfish behavior. Differentiation is not necessary for tumor cells, since they are 'selfish cells' in the altruistic somatic cell society. The differentiation program of tumor cells should be considered as a remnant of the normal one with loss of teleology.

  16. Congenital Disseminated Extrarenal Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjemaa, Sabah; Petit, Arnaud; Dainese, Linda; Bourdeaut, Franck; Lipsett, Jill; Coulomb, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in association with genetic or malformation syndromes have been increasingly reported. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a highly aggressive neoplasm of infancy and young childhood, characterized by typical morphology and biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) gene on chromosome 22q.2 which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. Congenital infantile disseminated MRT represents a unique clinicopathologic presentation of this tumor. We report a case occurring in a female neonate who presented at birth a voluminous left thigh mass. Surgical biopsy performed at day 9 showed morphology and immunoprofile of MRT. Staging evaluation identified hypercalcemia and distant nodules. The mass showed rapid growth. Despite chemotherapy, the tumor progressed with exteriorization through the biopsy scar. Chemotherapy was discontinued and treatment limited to palliative care and the child died on day 51. The tumor was homozygous for the SMARCB1 deletion with apparent de novo heterozygous germ line deletion in the infant, not identified in the parents.

  17. Obinutuzumab for B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn J; Stewart, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    We analyse data for the use of obinutuzumab in the treatment of CD20(+) lymphoproliferative disorders with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Targeted therapy against CD20 with the mAb rituximab led to significant improvements in survival for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is the current mainstay of treatment for CD20(+) malignancies. Despite this, many patients relapse or become refractory after rituximab-containing therapies, so efforts have been made to develop better anti-CD20 mAbs. Obinutuzumab recently demonstrated superiority over rituximab in the only published Phase III study comparing the two antibodies. Obinutuzumab is a humanised, anti-CD20 mAb being compared to rituximab in several Phase III studies. An overview of obinutuzumab, its mechanisms of action and results of Phase I-III studies are presented. The demonstration of superiority of obinutuzumab over rituximab in the CLL11 Phase III study is potentially practice-changing. Obinutuzumab has also proven safe and efficacious in CD20(+) NHL in Phase I/II studies and results of Phase III studies in NHL are eagerly awaited. The potential implications of improved outcomes for CLL and NHL with the introduction of this more potent anti-CD20 antibody are tremendous given the impressive results obtained after the introduction of rituximab over a decade ago.

  18. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  19. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnor, Kelly J; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Sporn, Thomas A; Roggli, Victor L

    2017-03-01

    Mesothelial reaction simulating peritoneal diffuse malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been reported in the setting of Crohn ileitis. To our knowledge, peritoneal MM arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to report the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with peritoneal MM and IBD. A database of approximately 3800 MM was reviewed for cases of MM in patients with IBD. Three patients (0.08%) with peritoneal MM and Crohn disease (CD) were identified, including two women and one man ranging in age from 56 to 65 years. All had a long-standing history of diarrhoea and an established diagnosis of CD of 3 years or greater duration. Two had epithelial MM and one had biphasic MM. Only one had documented asbestos exposure. Peritoneal MM occurs rarely in patients with IBD, but interestingly, has only been observed in the setting of CD and not in patients with ulcerative colitis. Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development of MM in rare instances and these three cases suggest that CD with transmural inflammation may also be a precursor. The precise role of CD-related transmural inflammation in the carcinogenesis of peritoneal MM remains to be determined. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. A clinicopathological study of eyelid malignancies from central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Sameer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyelid malignancies are completely treatable if detected early. The treatment depends on the invasiveness of the cancer which in turn depends on the type of malignancy. Aim: The aim of the study was to characterize the distribution of the types of eyelid malignancies in central India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: We report a series of 27 cases of eyelid malignancies. In the same case series, we also include a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma which is an extremely rare form of eyelid malignancy worldwide. Statistical Analysis: Depending on the underlying statistical distribution, either analysis of variance (ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W test was used to assess the differential distribution of these variables across the types of eyelid malignancies observed in this study. Results: We observed that sebaceous cell carcinoma (~37% was almost as prevalent as basal cell carcinoma (~44% in the study subjects and had an earlier age of occurrence and a more rapid clinical course. Conclusions: Sebaceous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is almost as common as basal cell carcinoma in a large tertiary care centre in central India.

  1. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Pour M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of the middle age. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. At present, the clinicopathological classification of oral melanoma is not yet clearly outlined; consequently, the skin form is often taken as a reference. In many cases (up to 30%, the diagnosis of melanoma is made on lesions, which have evolved from the pre-existing pigmented lesions. The poor prognosis of oral melanomas requires that pigmented lesions of undetermined origin be routinely biopsied. The surgical approach, combined with the chemotherapeutic one, is the first choice treatment. The purpose of this study is to review literature that has been published about malignant melanoma of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight published articles and 8 textbooks related to oral malignant melanoma and been published in the last two decades are reviewed. Conclusion: The review of literature in the field of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity show that this malignancy might be different from cutaneous malignant melanomas, and new criteria for diagnosis and therapy should be considered for this disease. Physicians and dentists who treat problems of the oral cavity should be aware of the need for early diagnosis of oral melanomas and performing biopsies of doubtful pigmented lesions.

  2. Survival and Prognosis for Malignant Tumors of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sunil; Mark, Jonathan; Xie, Changchun; Ghulam, Enas; Patil, Yash

    2016-07-01

    Determine survival and factors affecting survival for patients with malignant tumors of odontogenic origin. Retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Institute's SEER database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results). Tertiary medical center. All cases of malignant tumors of odontogenic origin were extracted from the SEER database for the period of 1973 to 2011. Demographic, tumor-specific, and survival data were tabulated and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis conducted according to histopathologic results. Cox regression analysis stratified for histopathology was conducted to determine factors that influenced survival. A total of 308 cases of malignant tumors with odontogenic origin were analyzed. Malignant ameloblastoma accounted for 59.7% of cases, followed by malignant odontogenic tumor (35.4%; including odontogenic carcinoma, odontogenic sarcoma, primary intraosseous carcinoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma) and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (2.9%). The overall mean and median were 229 and 227 months, respectively, while the 5-year survival rate was 81% for the entire cohort. Malignant ameloblastoma exhibited the best mean survival (237 months), whereas malignant odontogenic tumor (139 months) and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (42 months) had lower mean survival rates. Younger age, surgery with adjuvant radiation, and smaller tumor size were found to improve survival. Significantly different survival can be expected depending on individual tumor histopathology, tumor size, age at diagnosis, and treatment modality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. Hospital end-of-life care in haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussant, Yvan; Daguindau, Etienne; Chauchet, Adrien; Rochigneux, Philippe; Tournigand, Christophe; Aubry, Régis; Morin, Lucas

    2018-02-06

    To investigate patterns of care during the last months of life of hospitalised patients who died from different haematological malignancies. Nationwide register-based study, including all hospitalised adults ≥20 years who died from haematological malignancies in France in 2010-2013. Outcomes included use of invasive cancer treatments and referral to palliative care. Percentages are adjusted for sex and age using direct standardisation. Of 46 629 inpatients who died with haematological malignancies, 24.5% received chemotherapy during the last month before death, 48.5% received blood transfusion, 12.3% were under invasive ventilation and 18.1% died in intensive care units. We found important variations between haematological malignancies. The use of chemotherapy during the last month of life varied from 8.6% among patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia up to 30.1% among those with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Pcare units. A high proportion of patients who died from haematological malignancies receive specific treatments near the end of life. There is a need for a better and earlier integration of the palliative care approach in the standard practice of haematology. However, substantial variation according to the type of haematological malignancy suggests that the patients should not be considered as one homogeneous group. Implementation of palliative care should account for differences across haematological malignancies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. MFH Mimic in Breast: A High-Grade Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is usually diagnosed by the presence of benign duct-like epithelium and malignant mesenchymal tissue. In addition to the usual fibrosarcomatous features, the mesenchymal component may show areas resembling osteogenic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant mesenchymoma, and, very rarely, malignant fibrous histiocytoma. We present one such rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor with malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like stromal differentiation.

  5. Pediatric ovarian malignancy presenting as ovarian torsion: incidence and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Sarah C; Fischer, Anne; Barber, Robert; Huang, Rong; Hicks, Barry; Garcia, Nilda

    2010-01-01

    With ovarian torsion, concern for underlying malignancy in the enlarged ovary has previously driven surgeons to resection. Detorsion alone has been recommended to allow for resolution of edema of the ovary with follow-up ultrasound surveillance to evaluate for a persistent mass, yet is not routine practice. However, the incidence of malignancies presenting as ovarian torsion is not documented. Does the risk of an underlying malignancy justify salpingoophorectomy and decreased fertility? After institutional review board exemption (IRB#-022008-095), a 15(1/2)-year retrospective review was conducted to identify cases of operative ovarian torsion in our medical center. Tumors with neoplastic pathology (malignant and benign) were analyzed and compared with all reported cases in the literature. A total of 114 patients (mean +/- SEM age, 10 years, 2 days to 19 years +/- 0.53) with operatively proven ovarian torsion were identified. Four malignancies (3.5%) and 26 benign neoplasms (23%) were present in this age group. Malignancies consisted of serous borderline tumors (2), juvenile granulosa cell tumor (1), and dysgerminoma (1). All were stage I: the former were stage IA and cured with resection alone, and 1 was a stage IB dysgerminoma, which required chemotherapy. The literature yielded a total of 593 cases of operative ovarian torsion with 9 (1.5%) malignancies and 193 (33%) benign neoplasms. The malignancies were juvenile granulosa cell tumor (n = 4), dysgerminoma (n = 2), serous borderline tumors (n = 2), and 1 undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. By combining our series with 13 in the literature, a 1.8% malignancy rate occurred in 707 patients with ovarian torsion, markedly less than the reported malignancy rate of 10% in children with ovarian masses. Thus, neither a pathologic nor malignant lead point should be assumed in cases of torsion. In our series, which represents the largest series of torsion in the pediatric literature, all malignancies presented as stage I

  6. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Malignant Progression in Two Children with Multiple Osteochondromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Schmale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Osteochondromas (MO is a disease of benign bony growths with a low incidence of malignant transformation. Secondary chondrosarcoma in children is rare even in children with MO. Making a diagnosis of malignancy in low-grade cartilage tumors is challenging and requires consideration of clinical, radiographic, and histopathological factors. We report two cases of skeletally immature patients with MO who presented with rapidly enlarging and radiographically aggressive lesions consistent with malignant transformation. Both underwent allograft reconstruction of the involved site with no signs of recurrence or metastatic disease at a minimum of four-year follow-up.

  8. Malignant hyperechoic breast lesions at ultrasound: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Stephen; Metcalf, Cecily; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Malignant breast lesions are typically hypoechoic at sonography. However, a small subgroup of hyperechoic malignant breast lesions is encountered in clinical practice. We present a pictorial essay of a number of different hyperechoic breast malignancies with mammographic, sonographic and histopathologic correlation. Suspicious sonographic features in a hyperechoic lesion include inhomogeneity in echogenic pattern, an irregular margin, posterior acoustic shadowing and internal vascularity. A hyperechoic lesion at ultrasound does not discount the need to undertake histological assessment of a mammographically suspicious lesion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Current and Future Gene Therapy for Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzawa Takao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common neoplasm in the central nervous system. When treated with conventional treatments including surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the average life expectancy of the most malignant type, glioblastoma multiforme is usually less than 1 year. Therefore, gene therapy is expected to be an effective and possibly curative treatment. Many gene therapeutic approaches have demonstrated efficacy in experimental animal models. However, the current clinical trials are disappointing. This review focuses on current therapeutic genes/vectors/delivery systems/targeting strategies in order to introduce updated trends and hopefully indicate prospective gene therapy for malignant gliomas.

  10. Actinomyces israelii May Produce Vulvar Lesions Suspicious for Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We present a case of Actinomyces israelii causing vulvar mass suspicious for malignancy in a postmenopausal woman. Case. A 60 year-old woman presented due to a firm, nonmobile, 10 cm vulvar mass, which had been rapidly enlarging for 5 months. The mass was painful, with localized pruritus and sinus tracts oozing of serosanguinous fluid. Biopsy and cultures revealed a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst containing granulation tissue and Actinomyces israelii. Conclusion. Actinomyces israelii may produce vulvar lesions that are suspicious for malignancy. Thus, biopsies and cultures are both mandatory while evaluating vulvar masses suspicious for malignancy.

  11. Actinomyces israelii May Produce Vulvar Lesions Suspicious for Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jennifer Y.; Gorens, Marsha E.; Jackson, Lisa N.; Stigger, Danielle; Becker, Teresa; Sheiner, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    Background. We present a case of Actinomyces israelii causing vulvar mass suspicious for malignancy in a postmenopausal woman. Case. A 60 year-old woman presented due to a firm, nonmobile, 10 cm vulvar mass, which had been rapidly enlarging for 5 months. The mass was painful, with localized pruritus and sinus tracts oozing of serosanguinous fluid. Biopsy and cultures revealed a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst containing granulation tissue and Actinomyces israelii. Conclusion. Actinomyces israelii may produce vulvar lesions that are suspicious for malignancy. Thus, biopsies and cultures are both mandatory while evaluating vulvar masses suspicious for malignancy. PMID:17093351

  12. Unusual occurrence of primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of nasal cavity is an extremely rare tumor with an incidence rate of 0.67% among all malignant melanomas. Melanomas are tumors arising from melanocytes that are neuroectodermal cells located in the basal layers of skin, skin adnexa, uveal tract, and occasionally in mucosal membranes. We report a case of malignant melanoma of nasal cavity in a 60-year-old female for its rare occurrence. These tumors have poor prognosis owing to high rates of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis. We report this case without the symptom of epistaxis because of its rarity.

  13. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma of Parotid Gland with a Regressed Primary Tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılıçkaya, M. Mustafa; Aynali, Giray; Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Çiriş, Metin

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, some malignant melanomas may metastasize and subsequently regress. Therefore, it may not be possible to observe a metastatic malignant melanoma and its primary melanoma simultaneously...

  14. Malignant collision tumors in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jacqueline E; Liptak, Julius M; Powers, Barbara E

    2017-10-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old Labrador Retriever with a 4-cm-diameter ulcerated perianal mass and a 12-year-old Golden Retriever with a 5-cm-diameter ulcerated caudolateral abdominal mass were brought to a referral oncology practice for evaluation of the dermal masses. Both masses were resected with wide margins without reported postoperative complications. For both dogs, a diagnosis of collision tumor was made. The database of the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories at Colorado State University was searched for other examples of collision tumors in dogs. CLINICAL FINDINGS Histologic assessment of the masses revealed collision tumors in both patients. The perianal mass was diagnosed as a perianal gland carcinoma with adjacent hemangiosarcoma. The flank mass was diagnosed as a fibrosarcoma with an adjacent mast cell tumor. The university database search of sample submissions in 2008 through 2014 for the keywords collision, admixed, or adjacent yielded 37 additional cases of dogs with malignant nontesticular collision tumors. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Both dogs were treated with surgery alone and received no adjunctive treatments. Both tumors were completely excised. There was no evidence of either local tumor recurrence or metastasis in the Labrador Retriever and the Golden Retriever at 1,009 and 433 days after surgery, respectively. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Collision tumors are rare, and there is minimal information regarding treatment recommendations and outcome for animals with collision tumors. On the basis of the 2 cases described in this report, the outcome associated with treatment of collision tumors may be similar to the expected outcome for treatment of any of the individual tumor types in dogs.

  15. [Malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänichen, T; Reid, H W; Wiesner, H; Hermanns, W

    1998-09-01

    An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in Indian gauer (Bos gaurus gaurus) and Javan banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the Munich zoo at that time. In the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of MCF occurred sporadically at the zoo in European and American bison (Bison bonasus, B. bison' bison, B. bison athabascae), elk (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and again in gaur and banteng. The clinical and pathomorphological observations, including those of prophylactic and tentative treatment are reported. The subspecies of caprinae and alcelaphinae potentionally latently infected with viral agents of MCF kept at the zoo over the reported period are listed. Some details concerning housing, taking care of the animals etc. of the latently infected carriers of the family caprinae and the susceptible species of bovidae and cervidae are also given as far as they are of epidemiological interest. The results of the retrospective analysis and the results of testing paraffin-embedded tissue samples for the presence of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2)-specific DNA and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1)-specific DNA from 1964 up to 1997 are discussed. The negative results for OHV-2-specific DNA suggest that MCF at Munich zoo until 1979 could have been "wildebeest-associated", also because until 1974 blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus taurinus) and until 1983 white-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou) were kept. However, positive results for OHV-2-specific DNA in the tissues collected from 1985 onwards, strongly suggest the "sheep-associated" MCF.

  16. Malignant Mesothelioma: Facts, Myths and Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Ly, Bevan H.; Dodson, Ronald F.; Pagano, Ian; Morris, Paul T.; Dogan, Umran A.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Pass, Harvey I.; Yang, Haining

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells lining the pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities. Over 20 million people in the US are at risk of developing MM due to asbestos exposure. MM mortality rates are estimated to increase by 5-10% per year in most industrialized countries until about 2020. The incidence of MM in men has continued to rise during the past 50 years, while the incidence in women appears largely unchanged. It is estimated that about 50-80% of pleural MM in men and 20-30% in women developed in individuals whose history indicates asbestos exposure(s) above that expected from most background settings. While rare for women, about 30% of peritoneal mesothelioma in men has been associated with exposure to asbestos. Erionite is a potent carcinogenic mineral fiber capable of causing both pleural and peritoneal MM. Since erionite is considerably less widespread than asbestos, the number of MM cases associated with erionite exposure is smaller. Asbestos induces DNA alterations mostly by inducing mesothelial cells and reactive macrophages to secrete mutagenic oxygen and nitrogen species. In addition, asbestos carcinogenesis is linked to the chronic inflammatory process caused by the deposition of a sufficient number of asbestos fibers and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory molecules, especially HMGB-1, the master switch that starts the inflammatory process, and TNF-alpha by macrophages and mesothelial cells. Genetic predisposition, radiation exposure and viral infection are co-factors that can alone or together with asbestos and erionite cause MM. PMID:21412769

  17. Malignant Mesothelioma: Clinical, Pathological and Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Yıldırım

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a tumor of locally invasive character and of fatal course, frequently arising following asbest exposure. In the present study we attempted to retrospectively evaluate the clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of 27 cases diagnosed with MPM. Material and Method: 27 cases diagnosed with MPM in our medical facility have been included into the study, 14 females, and 13 males. Of the cases, 4 have been diagnosed based on transthoracic pleural biopsy, and 23 %u2013 using surgical methods (VYTC, thoracotomy. Result: Radiological evaluation revealed pleural thickening in 23 (85.2%, pleural effusion in 20 (74.1%, volume loss in 15 (55.6%, pleural nodulation in 14 (51.9%, mediastinal shift in 4 (14.8%, pneumothorax in 1 (3.7%, and hydropneumothorax in 1 (3.7% of the cases, respectively. Histopathological examination failed to reveal any typing in 17 (63% of the cases. On the other hand, 5 (18.5% of the remainder cases were of the epitheloid type, 4 (14.8% were of the sarcomatoid type, and 1 (3.7% was of the biphasic MPM type. Mean survival rate of the 3 (11.1% Stage I cases was 1449 days, of the 6 (22.2% Stage II cases was 480 days, of the 18 (66.7% Stage III cases was 214 days. We had no Stage IV cases at the time of diagnosis. A statistically significant difference has been established between the Stage and the mean survival rate of the cases. Discussion: In diagnosing MPM, proper histopathological exam followed by proper radiological staging should be carried out. A multimodality approach comprises the present MPM treatment, but total cure cannot be provided.

  18. [Pathologic characteristics of malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tomio; Matsuda, Yoko; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant neoplasm preferentially occurs in the elderly. Common cancers in the elderly are gastric, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers in men whereas colorectal, lung, gastric and pancreatic cancers in women. There are several characteristic features such as tumor location, histology, biological behavior and pathway of carcinogenesis in malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly. Multiple cancers increase with aging. Although it is generally believed that carcinoma in the elderly shows well differentiation, slow growth, low incidence of metastasis and favorable prognosis, the tumor does not always show such features. Regarding biological behavior of malignant tumor in the elderly, age-related alterations of the host such as stromal weakness and decreased immune response against cancer cell invasion should be considered as well as characteristics of tumor cell itself. Thus, we need a specific strategy for treatment for malignant neoplasms in the elderly.

  19. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (Enzinger, 1988. The malignant granular cell tumor is an extremely rare, aggressive variant, which provides a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma, especially with early presentation when it may be mistaken for other entities. There is also controversy regarding surgical management and follow-up of both benign and malignant granular cell tumors.

  20. Radio-induced malignancies of the scalp (34 cases)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalej, M.; Ben Youssef, A.; Hajji, M.; Ben Attia, A.; Ben Abdallah, M. (Salah Azaiz Inst., Tunis (TN))

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-four radio-induced malignancies of the scalp following irradiation for tinea capitis are reported. Patient age at the time of the discovery of the malignancy varies from 20 to 83. Basocellular carcinomas (24 cases) and spinocellular carcinomas (5 cases) are the most common: two other cases of annexial tumors, two malignant non-hodgkin's lymphomas and one malignant melanoma are also present. The average age at irradiation is 11, and the cancerization interval is 35 years. In 60% of the cases, the scalp appeared normal and in 40 more or less severe radiodermitis is noted. Radiotherapy was used in the treatment of these cancers in 32 cases; only two patients had surgical exicision alone. Out of the evaluable patients, 6 developed local and/or nodal recurrence, 5 of which were recovered with surgery.

  1. Ovarian Thecoma with Meigs Syndrome Mimicking Malignancy in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Chia

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: Meigs syndrome is not uncommon in gynecology. The clinical signs and symptoms, and imaging and laboratory findings may not sufficiently differentiate Meigs syndrome from malignancy. An exploratory laparotomy is essential for the final diagnosis of this syndrome.

  2. Psykomotorisk retardering på baggrund af malign infantil osteopetrose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene S; Schou, Anders J; Kibæk, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP) is a hereditary bone disorder caused by osteoclastic dysfunction. Within the first year of life affected children present with recurrent infections, vision impairment, failure to thrive, bone marrow failure, and at later stages neurological deficits...

  3. Theranostics of Malignant Melanoma with 64CuCl2

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Chunxia; Liu, Hongguang; Chen, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Lan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yongxue; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (CTR1) is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the use of 64CuCI2 as a theranostic agent for PET and radionuclide therapy of malignant melanoma.

  4. Treatment with levodopa and risk for malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H; Tangerud, Karina; Wermuth, Lene

    2007-01-01

    A large follow-up study in Denmark of 14,088 patients in whom Parkinson's disease was diagnosed at hospital showed a twofold higher incidence of malignant melanoma in these patients than in the general population. In a nested case-control study of 45 patients with malignant melanoma, 97 patients...... melanoma in a subgroup of patients with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as compared with other patients. There was apparently no effect of levodopa on the risk for malignant melanoma as indicated by an odds ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.3) per 1,000 g cumulative intake...... of the drug. We conclude that the increased rate of malignant melanoma observed in patients treated at hospital for Parkinson's disease is restricted to those with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, however, unrelated to the treatment with levodopa. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society....

  5. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-15

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies.

  6. Advance of Therapeutic Methods for Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-tao XU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a condition caused by primary malignant tumors in the pleura or other malignant tumors metastasis to the pleura. It is also one of common serious complications of middle-late malignant tumor, which has severe impact on the quality of life, even threatening the life of the patients. The selection of treatments for MPE depends on many factors, including the symptoms, performance status, primary tumor types, response to systemic therapy, and degree of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRM after drainage of pleural effusion. Generally, the treatment methods include thoracentesis, indwelling pleural catheter, pleurodesis, intrapleural injection of drugs, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy, surgery, and thermotherapy. With the in-depth study on pathogenesis of MPE, the treatments of MPE have continuous improvements. This study mainly reviewed the treatment methods for MPE so as to provide the basis for clinical practice in the future.

  7. Malignant Mesothelioma Mimicking Invasive Mammary Carcinoma in a Male Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor with strong association with asbestos exposure. Few cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma metastatic to the female breast have been reported. Herein, we presented, for the first time, a case of locally infiltrating malignant pleural mesothelioma forming a mass in the breast of a male as the first pathologically confirmed manifestation of the disease. Breast ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the right breast which involves the pectoralis muscle. Breast core biopsy revealed a proliferation of neoplastic epithelioid cells mimicking an infiltrating pleomorphic lobular carcinoma. IHC studies showed the cells to be positive for calretinin, CK5/6, WT1, and CK7. The cells were negative for MOC-31, BerEp4, ER, and PR. A final diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, epithelioid type, was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis in the setting of atypical presentation with application of a panel of IHC markers.

  8. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system(including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, andhepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most commontypes of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide.MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playingan important role in pancreatic development andendocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulatedin digestive system malignancies compared with normaltissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is atumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specificpathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genessimultaneously in different malignancies of the digestivesystem. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is alsoinvolved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseasesas a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene indigestive system malignancies.

  9. Treatment Options for Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Low ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  10. General Information about Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for osteosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma may cause side effects. Four types of standard treatment are used: Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Samarium New types of treatment are ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... providers who are experts in treating cancer in children. Treatment for osteosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma may cause side effects. Four types of standard treatment are used: Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Samarium New types of treatment are ...

  12. primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a vitiligo patch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    May 5, 2014 ... nevus, achromic patches on melanoma scars, depigmentation of injection site after immunotherapy and depigmentation associated with regressing malignant melanoma. The association of vitiligo with regressing melanoma has been widely reported in literature, however primary melanoma presenting.

  13. Role of fibulin-3 in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Agha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Fibulin-3 in the serum and pleural fluid is a good biomarker in the diagnosis of MPM and in differentiation between MPM from malignant pleural metastasis other than mesothelioma and also from benign pleural effusions.

  14. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Is there a new treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kerr

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a novel, alternative approach to treat malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM targeting, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF using anti-VEGF (bevacizumab chemotherapy combination.

  15. Multimodal treatment for resectable epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuyama Yasuro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignancy. The outcome remains poor despite complete surgical resection. Patients and methods Eleven patients with histologicaly proven epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy with systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy before and after surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. Results Ten out of 11 patients underwent complete surgical resection, of these 7 patients had stage I disease. Of these 7 patients, 5 are alive without any recurrence, a 2-year survival rate of 80% was observed in this group. There was no operative mortality or morbidity. Conclusion Extrapleural pneumonectomy with perioperative adjuvant treatment is safe and effective procedure for epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  16. A contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of benign and malignant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enhanced ultrasound assessment in benign and malignant breast tissue, using histological examination as the reference standard. Methods. An HDI 5000 Phillips ultrasound scanner with microvascular imaging software and 2.5 ml SonoVue (Bracco ...

  17. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology.

  18. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim; Erol, Bekir; Ciftci, Tuerkmen T. [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter in palliation of malignant ascites. Between July 2005 and June 2009, 41 tunneled peritoneal catheters were placed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance in 40 patients (mean age, 55 years; 22 women) who had symptomatic malignant ascites. No procedure related mortality was observed. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.5%) in the form of serious bacterial peritonitis that necessitated catheter removal. Minor complications such as minor bacterial peritonitis, catheter dislodgement, tunnel infection, and catheter blockage occurred in 11 patients (27.5%). The mean duration of survival after catheter placement was 11.8 weeks. All patients expired of their primary malignancies in the follow-up. Radiologically placed tunneled peritoneal catheter is safe and effective in palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites.

  19. Rotationplasty as a limb salvage procedure for malignant bone tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Badhwar, R.; M Agarwal

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen patients with malignant bone tumours, 15 osteosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma, were treated by rotationplasty at Tata Memorial Hospital between 1989 and 1994. The functional results are better than after amputation.

  20. Rotationplasty as a limb salvage procedure for malignant bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, R; Agarwal, M

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen patients with malignant bone tumours, 15 osteosarcoma and one Ewing's sarcoma, were treated by rotationplasty at Tata Memorial Hospital between 1989 and 1994. The functional results are better than after amputation.

  1. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  2. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Gungor

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: Although malignant melanoma of the female genital tract is uncommon, elderly women should undergo regular gynecologic examinations and suspicious pigmented lesions should be biopsied. The use of immunohistochemical assays could markedly improve diagnosis. However, the prognosis for these tumors is poor, regardless of the treatment delivered, and they are associated with a high rate of recurrence and low long-term survival. Surgery is the best available treatment for controlling and potentially curing malignant melanomas.

  3. [Malignant otitis externa with diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazitsh, D; Jeshitsh, S

    1995-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is non-taming skin and soft tissues of the outer hearing canal infection tending to expand towards temporal bone and the base of the skull. The infection is usually caused by Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, sometimes by Staphilococcus aureus or Klebsiela. In 90% cases the patients are diabetics, mainly in older age. A nineteen years old girl with insulindependent diabetes mellitus and having malignant externa is shown.

  4. Clinical Presentation of Pelvic Tuberculosis Imitating Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Ju Huang; Lin-Hung Wei; Chang-Yao Hsieh

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Pelvic tuberculosis is rare, but is problematic for differential diagnosis. In this communication, we report a case series of pelvic tuberculosis clinically presenting as ovarian malignancy. Case Series: Over the past 10 years in our hospital, six cases of pelvic tuberculosis were seen. Five were thought to be ovarian malignancies, presenting either with ascites, an elevation of serum CA-125, or an adnexal tumor. Four patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and one received on...

  5. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Burgers, Jacobus A; Baas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because...... and survival of the mesothelioma cases were comparable with cases from the general population, asbestos exposure and the proportion of males were lower than expected. The evidence for radiotherapy as cause for mesothelioma independent of exposure to asbestos is expanding, and the diagnosis of mesothelioma...

  6. Epidemiology and trend analysis on malignant mesothelioma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zuo, Tingting; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Yang, Zhixun; Chen, Wanqing

    2017-08-01

    Population-based cancer registration data were used to analyze the epidemiology and trend of malignant mesothelioma in China, and the result would provide basic data for its prevention and control. Malignant mesothelioma data in 2013 were retrieved from the database of National Cancer Registry. Malignant mesothelioma incidence and mortality were estimated using age-specific rate by urban/rural and gender according to the national population in 2013. Malignant mesothelioma data from 22 cancer registries were used for trend analysis during 2000-2013. It is estimated that there were 2,041 new malignant mesothelioma cases and 1,659 malignant mesothelioma deaths occurred in 2013. The crude incidence rate in China were 1.50/106 (males 1.67/106, females 1.32/106), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 1.03/106 and 1.02/106, respectively. The crude mortality rate in China was 1.22/106 (males 1.67/106, females 1.32/106), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 0.83/106 and 0.81/106, respectively. There was an increasing trend of incidence rate for malignant mesothelioma in registration areas of China during 2000-2013 with annual percentage change (APC) of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.6%-4.5%]. After age standardization, no significant differences were observed. No matter for crude mortality rates or age-standardized mortality rates, no significant differences were observed during 2000-2013. Malignant mesothelioma is the major occupational and environmental neoplasm associated with asbestos exposure. The increasing incidence trend suggests that more attention should be paid on this disease.

  7. Malignancy rates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Sebba, Anthony; Brockwell, Laura; Kelman, Ariella; Porter-Brown, Benjamin; Pulley, Jennifer; Napalkov, Pavel; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    To analyse malignancy rates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tocilizumab. Patients who received tocilizumab or placebo+methotrexate/disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the double-blind phases of 5-phase three trials or who received at least 1 dose of tocilizumab in the long-term extension studies were analysed up to the 2 May 2012 cut-off date. Malignancies were monitored throughout the studies, analysed and adjudicated as malignant by medical review. Risk was compared with that in the general population using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) based on data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results SEER (US general population) and GLOBOCAN (non-US general population) databases. In total, 4009 patients in the tocilizumab all-exposure population were included. Mean treatment duration was 4.0 years (mean 5.1 (range 0.0-6.8); total observation time was 16 120.1 patient-years (PY). The adjudicated malignancy rate (95% CI) was 1.26/100 PY (1.09 to 1.44) and remained constant over time. The SIR (95% CI) for all malignancies combined, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, was 1.36 (1.01 to 1.80) for US and 1.81 (1.44 to 2.23) for non-US populations, driven primarily by higher rates in lung and bronchus (US/non-US) malignancies and prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (non-US), in contrast to those for the general populations; these higher rates are in line with those expected in patients with RA or in the geographic regions studied. Malignancy rates remained stable with long-term tocilizumab treatment, and malignancy types and rates were consistent with those expected in patients with RA.

  8. Immunomodulation of hematological malignancies using oligonucleotides based-nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Rosenblum, Daniel; Mizrahy, Shoshy; Ng, Brandon D; Peer, Dan

    2016-12-28

    Hematological malignancies are a group of diseases characterized by clonal proliferation of blood-forming cells. Malignant blood cells are classified as myeloid or lymphoid cells depending on their stem cell origin. Lymphoid malignancies are characterized by lymphocyte accumulation in the blood stream, in the bone marrow, or in lymphatic nodes and organs. Several of these diseases are associated with chromosomal translocations, which cause gene fusion and amplification of expression, while others are characterized with aberrant expression of oncogenes. Overall, these genes play a major role in development and maintenance of malignant clones. The discovery of antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms offer new tools to specifically manipulate gene expression. Systemic delivery of inhibitory oligonucleotides molecules for manipulation of gene expression in lymphocytes holds a great potential for facilitating the development of an oligonucleotides -based therapy platform for lymphoid blood cancer. However, lymphocytes are among the most difficult targets for oligonucleotides delivery, as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed throughout the body, making it difficult to successfully localize or deliver oligonucleotides payloads via systemic administration. In this review, we will survey the latest progress in the field of oligonucleotides based nanomedicine in the heterogeneous group of hematological malignancies with special emphasis on RNA based strategies. We will describe the most advanced non-viral nanocarriers for RNA delivery to malignant blood cells. We will also discuss targeted strategies for cell specific delivery of RNA molecules using nanoparticles and the therapeutic benefit of manipulating gene function in hematological malignancies. Finally, we will focus on the ex vivo, in vivo, and clinical trial strategies, that are currently under development in hematological malignancies - strategies that

  9. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the perineum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamurovic, M; Soldo, V; Cutura, N; Perisic, Z

    2013-01-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed and surgically treated for amelanotic malignant melanoma of the perineum, accompanied by several local relapses, metastases to iliac-femoral lymph nodes, and distant metastases to both lungs is presented. Survival, up to date, equals 12 years. Amelanotic malignant melanomas are very rare tumors. Perineal and perianal localization of these tumors is especially rare. References cite about 500 cases with survival limited to between six months and one year after diagnosis..

  10. Primary malignant bone tumours in Ibadan, Nigeria: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, A B; Okolo, C A; Ogunlade, S O; Oyebadejo, T Y; Adeoye, A O; Ogunbiyi, J O; Akang, E E; Gopaldasani, V K

    2009-03-01

    Bone tumours are relatively rare compared to tumours of other sites. The frequency of primary malignant bone tumours is low in our environment, as was observed in an earlier study. The aim of this study is to update the information available on the pattern of primary malignant bone tumours at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. The medical records of 49 patients with malignant bone tumours documented in the Cancer Registry of UCH, Ibadan between January 2001 and September 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. The results were then added to those of the previous study published in 2002. This brought the number of cases of primary malignant bone tumours to 163 from January 1977 to September 2007. Primary malignant bone tumours represented 0.53% of the 30462 cases of cancer seen in the hospital in the period studied. The male female ratio was 1.5:1. About 44% of the tumours occurred among patients less than 20 years of age. Osteogenic sarcoma was the commonest malignant bone tumour. Important changes recorded in the seven years since the last review from this centre include; a rise in the prevalence rate of primary malignant bone tumours (49 new cases in the last seven years as compared to 114 cases over 23 years), the male-female ratio of Osteogenic sarcoma showed a decline (1.5:1 as compared to 1.6:1), and there was an increase in the prevalence of primary malignant bone tumours in the 0-9 years and > 60 years age groups. The significance of these findings will need to be determined by further studies.

  11. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Presenting as an Appendiceal Mucocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alduaij

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma metastatic to the appendix is extremely rare. Here we describe a case of a 31-year-old female from Bolivia with a remote history of metastatic malignant melanoma first diagnosed as a cutaneous malignant melanoma ten years prior to this presentation. The patient was being followed for a mucocele which on resection was found to be metastatic melanoma. “Mucocele” is a generic diagnosis that warrants further characterization and treatment.

  12. Treating malignant glioma in Chinese patients: update on temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chang,1 Jun Su,1 Xiuzhi Jia,2,3 Huan Ren2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Immunology, Harbin Medical University, 3Key Lab Infection and Immunity, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12–14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ, a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Keywords: malignant glioma, chemotherapy, temozolomide, efficacy, side effect, People's Republic of China

  13. Screening for reducing morbidity and mortality in malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Minna; Brodersen, John; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects on morbidity and mortality of screening for malignant melanoma in the general population.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects on morbidity and mortality of screening for malignant melanoma in the general population....

  14. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were inc......-cell differentiation. The cause of this neoplasm was not determined. This is the first report of malignant lymphoma in the mammal order Sirenia....

  15. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Weiqian; Ding, Jianxun; Li, Mingqiang; Cheng, Yilong; Sun, Shuo; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung). Current treatments for spinal malig...

  16. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Somak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of ectomesenchymal origin. It is the malignant counterpart of benign soft tissue tumors like neurofibromas and schwannomas and may often follow them. Common sites include deeper soft tissues, usually in the proximity of a nerve trunk. Breast is an extremely rare location of this lesion and presentation as a breast lump in the absence of pain or previous benign neural tumor is even rarer. Case presentation A 38-year-old female presented with complaints of painless, hard breast lump for three months which was clinically suspected to be a ductal carcinoma with inconclusive fine needle aspiration cytology. Histopathology revealed a malignant spindle cell tumor which was confirmed to be malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor on the basis of immunopositivity for vimentin, neurone specific enolase and S-100. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge only six such case reports have been published in literature. The differential diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor should be considered by the clinician as well as the pathologists in the work-up of a breast neoplasm as treatment and prognosis of this rare malignancy is different.

  17. ‘Trained immunity’: consequences for lymphoid malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy B.C.; Netea, Mihai G.; Kater, Arnon P.; van der Velden, Walter J.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed ‘trained immunity’. In this review the concept of ‘trained immunity’ is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. PMID:27903713

  18. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadahiro Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD. Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD.

  19. An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mammary phyllodes tumors (MPT are uncommon fibroepithelial (biphasic neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on the basis of histological criteria only. They are divided into benign, borderline malignant and malignant groups. Sometimes it appears difficult to distinguish these tumors from other types of soft tissue sarcomas. Because of the relatively scant data on the role of biological markers in MPT histogenesis, we have decided to undertake the following study, trying to shed more light on the issue by investigating the following elements that make up MPT: their histological patterns, biological behavior, enzymohistochemical, histochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics (ICH together with the mast cell analysis. Methods. We examined the biopsy material of 35 MPT in our laboratory. Enzymohistochemistry was performed on frozen sections (method of Crowford, Nachlas and Seligman. The used methods were classical hematoxylin-eosin (H&E; histochemical Massontrichrome, Alcian-blue, Periodic acid Schiff and immunohistochemical LSAB2 method (DacoCytomation. Ki-67, ckit, vimentin, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2 oncoprotein immunohistochemistry was performed on all tumors. Results. The patients were ranged per age from 30-62 years (mean 43.3 years, median 39 years. A total of 35 cases of MPT were included: 20 benign (57%, 6 borderline malignant (17% and 9 malignant (26%. Twenty-two patients (62.8 % underwent segmental mastectomy, while 13 (37.2% had total mastectomies. Twenty-eight patients had negative surgical margins at original resection. The mean size of malignant MPT (7.8 cm was larger than that of benign MPT (4.5 cm. Significant features of the malignant MPT were: stromal cellularity, stromal cellular atypism, high mitotic activity, atypic mitoses, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative tumor contour and heterologous stromal elements. Benign MPT showed strong enzymohistochemical

  20. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razpotnik, Rok; Novak, Neža; Čurin Šerbec, Vladka; Rajcevic, Uros

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A "Trojan horse" method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT). Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs) are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts), are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell-based therapy using the

  1. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  2. Apoptotic response of malignant rhabdoid tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini Silvano

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs are extremely aggressive and resist current radio- and chemotherapic treatments. To gain insight into the dysfunctions of MRT cells, the apoptotic response of a model cell line, MON, was analyzed after exposure to several genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents employed separately or in association. Results Fluorescence microscopy of chromatin morphology and electrophoretic analysis of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation revealed that MON cells were, comparatively to HeLa cells, resistant to apoptosis after treatment with etoposide, cisplatin (CisPt or X-rays, but underwent some degree of apoptosis after ultraviolet (UV C irradiation. Concomitant treatment of MON cells with X-rays or vinblastine and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor wortmannin resulted in synergistic induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that the p53 protein was upregulated in MON cells after exposure to all the different agents tested, singly or in combination. In treated cells, the p53 downstream effectors p21WAF1/CIP1, Mdm2 and Bax were induced with some inconsistency with regard to the accumulation of p53. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, indicative of ongoing apoptosis, occurred in UVC-irradiated cells and, especially, in cells treated with combinations of X-rays or vinblastine with wortmannin. However, there was moderate or no PARP cleavage in cells treated with CisPt, X-rays, vinblastine or wortmannin singly or with the combinations X-rays plus CisPt or vinblastine and CisPt plus vinblastine or wortmannin. The synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis exerted by some agent combinations corresponded with synergy in respect of MON cell growth inhibition. Conclusion These results suggest abnormalities in the p53 pathway and apoptosis control in MRT cells. The Ras/PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway might also be deregulated in these cells by generating an excess of survival factors. These

  3. Schwannoma retroperitoneal maligno Malign retroperitoneal schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pinilla González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del retroperitoneo son poco frecuentes y se clasifican según el tejido del que se originan. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con dolor en el hipocondrio derecho y tumor en esta zona, pérdida de peso y molestia dolorosa en la cara anterolateral del muslo derecho. En el examen físico se halló palidez cutáneo-mucosa y tumoración indolora en el hipocondrio y flanco derecho. El ultrasonido abdominal mostró una masa homogénea de 14,11 cm y la tomografía computarizada de abdomen permitió observar un tumor retroperitoneal derecho que rechazaba el riñón. El urograma excretor mostró rechazamiento anteromedial del riñón derecho. Se extirpó un tumor encapsulado con pocas adherencias peritumorales. Mediante estudio histológico se confirmó un tumor de células fusiformes con hipercromatismo y pleomorfismo nuclear, numerosas mitosis y áreas de necrosis y el diagnóstico de tumor maligno de la vaina de un nervio periférico.The retroperitoneal tumors are infrequent and are classified according to the original tissue. This is a case presentation of a patient presenting with pain in right hypochondrium and a tumor in this zone, weight loss and painful discomfort in the anterolateral face of right thigh. In physical examination we found cutaneous-mucous paleness and painless tumor in hypochondrium and right flank. Abdominal ultrasound (US showed a homogenous mass of 14,11 cm and abdominal computed tomography allows to see a right retroperitoneal tumor rejecting the kidney. Excretory urogram showed a anteromedial rejection of right kidney. An encapsulated tumor with a few peritumoral adherences was removed. By histological study it was possible to confirm a fusiform cells tumor with hyperchromatism and nuclear pleomorphism, numerous mitosis and areas of necrosis and in the diagnosis of malign tumor of the sheath of a peripheral nerve.

  4. Benign versus malignant lymphadenopathy : the usefulness of color doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Yong Il; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate the vascular pattern of lymph nodes, and the usefulness of color Doppler sonogaphy in differentiating benign from malignant superficial lymphadenopathy. Twenty-six patients were pathologically and clinically confirmed to be suffering from benign reactive lymphadenitis and tuberculosis (n=16) or lymphoma and malignant lymphadenitis (n=10). Lymph node shape was assessed by the ratio of longitudinal diameter to transverse diameter(L/T), and patients were thus assigned to one of two groups : L/T{>=}2, or L/T<2. The hilar vascular pattern of lymph node was assessed by color Doppler sonography and classified as central, eccentric, or absent. On the basis of peripheral vascularity, patients were divided into three groups according to circumferental linear vascularity. An absence of peripheral vascularity was classified as grade 0. If less than half the periphery was covered by linear vascularity, a patient was assigned to as grade I, and if more than half was covered by a vessel, the classification was grade II. Statistically significant differences in L/T ratio were noted between malignant and benign node (p<.001). Of the 16 benign reactive nodes, 13 showed L/T{>=}2, and 3 L/T<2. while in nine of the ten malignant nodes, L/T<2 was noted. Among 16 benign reactive nodes, hilar vascularity was central in 13, eccentric in one, and absent in two. Among the ten malignant nodes, the corresponding totals were nil, four, and Six. The hilar vascular pattern showed statistically significant differentiation between malignant and benign node (p<.05). Among 16 benign reactive nodes, 13 were grade 0, two were grade I, and one was grade II, while among ten malignant nodes, two were grade 0 and eight were grade I. On the basis of vascular pattern, the difference between benign and malignant nodes was statistically significant (p<.05). L/T ratio<2, absent or eccentric hilar vascularity, and the presence of peripheral vascularity are suggestive of malignant lymph node. The

  5. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn Frej; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    -linking does not suppress the constitutive activation of Stat3 in the malignant T cells and there is no correlation between the level of activated Stat3 and the level of CD45 expression on the malignant T cells. Furthermore, in contrast to non-malignant T cells, the malignant T cells are protected against CD45...

  6. IMRT with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Boost for High Risk Malignant Salivary Gland Malignancies : A Case Series

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    Sana D Karam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with high risk salivary gland malignancies are at increased risk of local failure. We present our institutional experience with dose escalation using hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT in a subset of this rare disease. Over the course of 9 years, 10 patients presenting with skull base invasion, gross disease with one or more adverse features, or those treated with adjuvant radiation with three or more pathologic features were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy followed by hypofractionated SBRT boost. Patients presented with variable tumor histologies, and in all but one, the tumors were classified as poorly differentiated high grade. Four patients had gross disease, 3 had gross residual disease, 3 had skull base invasion, and 2 patients had rapidly recurrent disease (≤ 6 months that had been previously treated with surgical resection. The median Stereotactic Radiosurgery boost dose was 17.5 Gy (range 10-30 Gy given in a median of 5 fractions (range 3-6 fractions for a total median cumulative dose of 81.2 Gy (range 73.2-95.6 Gy. The majority of the patients received platinum based concurrent chemotherapy with their radiation. At a median follow-up of 32 months (range 12-120 for all patients and 43 months for surviving patients (range 12-120, actuarial 3-year locoregional control, distant control, progression free survival, and overall survival were 88%, 81%, 68%, and 79%, respectively. Only one patient failed locally and two failed distantly. Serious late toxicity included graft ulceration in 1 patient and osteoradionecrosis in another patient, both of which underwent surgical reconstruction. Six patients developed fibrosis. In a subset of patients with salivary gland malignancies with skull base invasion, gross disease, or those treated adjuvantly with three or more adverse pathologic features, hypofractionated SBRT boost to Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy yields good local control rates and

  7. Diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised children with malignant and non-malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruti; Foca, Marc; Satwani, Prakash; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Constantinescu, Andrei; Saiman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    The diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the Immunocompromised pediatric population has ranged from 28% to 68%. We hypothesized that the diagnostic yield of BALs would be higher in more recent years due to new diagnostic assays. A retrospective case series was performed among immunocompromised children ≤18 years old who underwent BALs from 2001 to 2012, to assess the yield of microbiologic diagnostic studies and to determine the impact of BAL findings on antimicrobial management. In all, 123 subjects underwent 174 BALs (mean age 9.9 years). Underlying diagnoses included both malignant (n = 79) and non-malignant (n = 44) disorders, and 75 (61.0%) subjects were hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Fifty-four (31.0%) of 174 BAL were positive for ≥1 potential pathogen (n = 58 microorganisms). The diagnostic yield of BALs performed from 2001 to 2006 versus2007-2012 was similar (40.5% vs. 26.6%, respectively, P = 0.07). Most subjects (86.2%) were on ≥1 antimicrobial at the time of BAL. Most (65.8%) negative BALs were associated with narrowing antimicrobial therapy, while most (74.1%) positive BALs were associated with continuing or changing to targeted antimicrobial therapy. In this study population, the diagnostic yield of BAL was similar to that previously described and unchanged in more recent years. Both negative and positive BALs were associated with changes in antimicrobial management. A 10-year retrospective review of bronchoalveolar lavage in 123 immunocompromised children determined that the rate of isolation of potential pathogens was 31% in this population. The majority of BAL was associated with a change in antimicrobial therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:820-826. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy for noninvasive early diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions

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    Chaturvedi Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the results of a clinical in vivo study to evaluate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for differential diagnosis of oral mucosal malignant and potentially malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: The study involved 26 healthy volunteers and 144 patients enrolled for routine medical examination of the oral cavity at the outpatient department of the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. In vivo autofluorescence spectra were recorded using a N 2 laser based portable fluorimeter developed in-house. The different tissue sites investigated belonged to either of the four histopathologic categories: 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 2 oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSMF, 3 leukoplakia (LP and 4 normal squamous tissue. A multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multi-class classification was used to predict pathological designations. Results: With respect to histopathology as the "gold standard", the diagnostic algorithm was found to provide an accuracy of 82, 76, 81 and 85% based on leave-one-patient-out cross-validation in classifying the oral tissue spectra into four different pathology classes - SCC, OSMF, LP, and normal squamous tissue - respectively. When the algorithm was employed for delineating the normal oral tissues from all the abnormal oral tissues including SCC, OSMF and LP put together, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 100% were obtained. Conclusion: The results suggest that it is possible to objectively classify the oral tissue into different pathology classes based on their in vivo autofluorescence spectra. Thus, the technique can potentially improve oral screening efforts in low resource settings where clinical expertise and resources are limited.

  9. "Suspicious" salivary gland FNA: Risk of malignancy and interinstitutional variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zahra; Miller, James Adam; Arab, Seyedeh Elham; Fadda, Guido; Bo, Ping; Wise, Olga; Rossi, Esther Diana; Jhala, Nirag; Ashish, Chandra; Ali, Syed Z; Wang, He

    2018-02-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimally invasive, and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Salivary gland neoplasms are often difficult to diagnose because of morphologic heterogeneity and a variety of epithelial metaplastic changes. Hence, a number of salivary gland FNA specimens yield indeterminate results. For indeterminate FNA specimens, the suspicious-for-malignancy (SFM) category is used when a specific neoplasm falls short in quantity or quality for the criteria for malignancy. Therefore, the findings are not sufficient for a conclusive diagnosis of malignancy. This study was designed to evaluate the risk of malignancy (ROM) for the SFM group at 5 tertiary medical centers worldwide with the aforementioned criteria. Among 12,606 salivary gland FNA cases between 1997 and 2014, 276 (2.2%) were reported to be SFN. Specifically, 114 suspicious cases (41%) had histological follow-up. Histological follow-up of the 114 suspicious cases showed 95 malignant tumors indicating a risk of malignancy (ROM) of 83.3%. The ROM varied between 74% and 88% for the 5 participating institutions, and a Fisher's exact test with significance set to p<.05 showed no significant difference in ROM among the institutions (p = .78). Overall, 83.3% of SFM salivary gland FNA specimens turned out to be malignant; there was no significant interinstitutional variability in the ROMs. The SFM category for salivary gland FNA is very homogeneous, and the ROMs are quite similar worldwide. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:94-100. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality - United States, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Syamlal, Girija; Wood, John M; Hendricks, Scott A; Weston, Ainsley

    2017-03-03

    Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplasm associated with occupational and environmental inhalation exposure to asbestos* fibers and other elongate mineral particles (EMPs) (1-3). Patients have a median survival of approximately 1 year from the time of diagnosis (1). The latency period from first causative exposure to malignant mesothelioma development typically ranges from 20 to 40 years but can be as long as 71 years (2,3). Hazardous occupational exposures to asbestos fibers and other EMPs have occurred in a variety of industrial operations, including mining and milling, manufacturing, shipbuilding and repair, and construction (3). Current exposures to commercial asbestos in the United States occur predominantly during maintenance operations and remediation of older buildings containing asbestos (3,4). To update information on malignant mesothelioma mortality (5), CDC analyzed annual multiple cause-of-death records † for 1999-2015, the most recent years for which complete data are available. During 1999-2015, a total of 45,221 deaths with malignant mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying or contributing cause of death were reported in the United States, increasing from 2,479 deaths in 1999 to 2,597 in 2015 (in the same time period the age-adjusted death rates § decreased from 13.96 per million in 1999 to 10.93 in 2015). Malignant mesothelioma deaths increased for persons aged ≥85 years, both sexes, persons of white, black, and Asian or Pacific Islander race, and all ethnic groups. Despite regulatory actions and the decline in use of asbestos the annual number of malignant mesothelioma deaths remains substantial. The continuing occurrence of malignant mesothelioma deaths underscores the need for maintaining measures to prevent exposure to asbestos fibers and other causative EMPs and for ongoing surveillance to monitor temporal trends.

  11. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

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    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  12. Differential diagnosis of cervical malignant lymphadenopathy among Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Amin; Erfanian, Youssef; Velayati, Arash; Izadian, Shahla; Golparvar, Sadegh

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the differential diagnosis in cases referred with neck lumps suspicious to malignant nodal masses and its relation to demographic variants. Individuals who entered in this cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology, Ghaem Medical Center, Mashdad, Iran from May 1995 to April 2005 were re-evaluated by history taking, physical examination and imaging studies. Fine needle aspiration was applied to obtain tissue sampling. Among the patients, 232 cases had malignant disease confirmed by pathology reports. Cases with unknown primary tumor underwent investigations including pan-endoscopy, and further imaging studies were carried out to determine the primary tumor site. Demographic data as gender, age, location, size, and pathology of tumor were considered. The results of this study showed that 50% of patients which were referred with neck masses had malignant neoplasm. The most common pathology in patients younger than 40 years were lymphoma (55%) and thyroid cancer (26%), whereas, in patients older than 40 years squamous cell carcinoma (67%) was more common. The most involved lymph nodes were jugulodigastric chain. Larynx and hypopharynx are the most common sources of aerodigestive tract metastatic. According to high incidence malignancy (50%) among neck lesions, an asymmetrical neck mass in adults should be considered malignant until proven otherwise. It seems that age is an important predictor of tumor pathology, and determination of further diagnostic investigations would be helpful.

  13. The malignant conversion step of mouse skin carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuspa, S.H.; Hennings, H.; Roop, D.; Strickland, J.; Greenhalgh, D.A. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Multiple benign squamous papillomas commonly precede the development of an occasional squamous cell carcinoma in mouse skin carcinogenesis. The incidence of carcinomas can be enhanced by treating papilloma-bearing mice with mutagens such as urethane, nitroquinoline-N-oxide, or cisplatinum. This observation suggests that a genetic change is required for malignant conversion. The malignant phenotype is characterized by a marked reduction in the transcription of specific epidermal differentiation markers, a pattern which is useful for the early diagnosis of malignant conversion. Cells expressing a benign phenotype can be obtained by introducing the v-ras{sup Ha} oncogene into cultured epidermal cells by a replication-defective retrovirus. Alternatively, benign tumor cells can be cultured from papillomas induced by chemical carcinogens in vivo or from carcinogen-treated mouse epidermis. In all cases, the benign phenotype in vitro is characterized by an altered biological response to changes in extracellular calcium, an important determinant of the differentiation state of cultured normal keratinocytes. Transfection of cloned plasmid DNA into benign tumor cells has revealed that transforming constructs of the fos oncogene induce malignant conversion, whereas myc and adenovirus E1A oncogenes do not. Cultured normal epidermal cells, exposed to the v-ras and the v-fos oncogenes simultaneously, are malignantly transformed. Alone, the fos oncogene does not detectably alter the phenotype of normal keratinocytes. These studies indicate that a limited number of genes is involved in epidermal carcinogenesis.

  14. A Rare Case of Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Esophagus

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    Gurvinder Singh Bali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare neoplasms that usually occur on the hands in a subungual location, or sometimes in palms, wrists or soles of the feet. They are described as purple/pink tiny painful lesions with a triad of pain, local point tenderness, and cold hypersensitivity. They are almost always benign, but rare malignant variants have been reported. They have also been reported to be present at unusual locations, like the lung, stomach, or liver. Gastrointestinal glomus tumors are extremely rare tumors and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Most that have been reported were usually benign in nature. A rare esophageal glomangioma, mimicking a papilloma, was reported in 2006. We report a case of glomangiosarcoma (malignant glomus tumor in a 49-year-old female, who presented with symptoms of dysphagia including some spasm and hoarseness and subjective unintentional weight loss. On endoscopic exam, she was found to have a distal esophageal mass with malignant features. Radiologically, the mass had a size of about 8 cm on the CT scan without evidence of metastases. Pathology and immunostaining of the biopsy showed features resembling a malignant glomus tumor. She underwent an endoscopic and laparoscopic staging of the tumor along with ultrasound. Based on the laparoscopic findings, which were consistent with the preoperative diagnosis, she was scheduled for an esophagectomy. Histopathology and immunophenotypic features of the excised mass were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant glomus tumor.

  15. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  16. Chemotherapy for myeloid malignancy in children with Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Parinda A; Ileri, Talia; Harris, Richard E; Williams, David A; Mo, Jun; Smolarek, Teresa; Auerbach, Arleen D; Kelly, Patrick; Davies, Stella M

    2007-06-15

    Children with Fanconi anemia (FA) have a markedly increased risk of developing myeloid malignancies. Historically, patients with FA and myeloid malignancy have extremely poor outcomes. There are currently no clinical trials or case series addressing the use of chemotherapy for children with FA, except in the context of preparative regimens for stem cell transplantation (SCT). In this report we describe the toxicity of a chemotherapy approach for patients with FA and myeloid malignancy to achieve cytoreduction prior to SCT. Four patients with FA and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were treated with chemotherapy (fludarabine 30 mg/m(2) and cytosine arabinoside 300 mg/m(2) each on days 2-4 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 microg/kg on days 1-5), termed reduced intensity FLAG prior to SCT. The chemotherapy was well tolerated with expected hematologic toxicity and no measurable toxicity in other organs. Two of the three patients with AML cleared blasts from their bone marrow. Reduction in marrow cellularity was also achieved in one patient with hypercellular MDS. These data indicate that children with FA and myeloid malignancy can tolerate chemotherapy and achieve clearance of disease. It remains unclear whether pre-SCT chemotherapy improves currently poor survival rates for SCT in FA patients with myeloid malignancies and further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinical role for this strategy. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  18. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

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    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  19. Siltuximab and hematologic malignancies. A focus in non Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Andrea; Merli, Michele; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Passamonti, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumorigenesis and in particular in haematological malignancies is crucial. On the basis of the favourable results obtained in the subset of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), Siltuximab, a chimeric, human-murine, immunoglobulin (Ig) Gk monoclonal antibody directed against human IL-6 has been evaluated in haematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma, myelodisplastic syndromes and non Hodgkin lymphomas. Areas covered: This review discusses available data related to the role of IL-6 as a therapeutic target, the characteristics of Siltuximab in term pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties and a detailed analysis of the studies involving haematological malignancies with a peculiar focus on non Hodgkin lymphoma. Expert opinion: The results obtained with Siltuximab in haematological malignancies and in particular with non Hodgkin lymphoma are inferior to those obtained in MCD. The complex interaction between malignant clones, inflammatory background and host response could justify this difference. New interesting areas of study are the role of Siltuximab in early phase of multiple myeloma (smoldering multiple myeloma) and if there may be a possible future application in the treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

  20. Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - the importance of a multidisciplinary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Altaf, Rahim; Krarup-Hansen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the pheochromocytomas and 20% of the paragangliomas are malignant with poor survival. As the biological behaviour of these tumours cannot be predicted with certainty from pathology the diagnosis of malignancy is difficult. Genetic testing is gaining impact as mutations in the...... in the tumour suppressor gene Von Hippel-Lindau and the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme complex subunit B (SDHB) are associated with malignancy. Excess release of catecholamines is characteristic for pheochromocytomas. High levels of chromogranin A, that is co-stored and co......-secreted with catecholamines, may indicate tumour mass and malignancy and can be used to monitor response and relapse. The secretory and non-secretory tumours can be visualised with functional (specific and non-specific) imaging as SPECT and PET using ¹²³I-MIBG, somatostatin analogues, ¹8F-DOPA, and ¹8F-FDG. These modalities...... are recommended in patients with extra-adrenal and suspected metastatic/malignant disease, in case of distorted post-operative anatomy, and when suspected recurrence. The sensitivities of ¹²³I-MIBG scintigraphy or ¹8F-DOPA PET are relatively low in SDHB mutated tumours, but high using ¹8F-FDG. Specific PET...

  1. Survival outcome of malignant minor salivary tumors in Pakistani population

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    Hassan Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant tumors of minor salivary glands (MSG are rare. Survival outcome in Pakistani population with malignant MSG tumors remains to be defined. The objective of this study was to report the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and survival outcome of radically treated malignant tumors of MSG in Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: Between April 2003 and March 2011, 45 patients with malignant tumors of MSG were treated at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and included in the study. Patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed and local, regional, and distant failures determined. Relapse-free (RFS and overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank test was used to determine significance. Results: Median age was 40 (17-83 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. Most common site was hard palate in 31 (69% patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (51% was the most common histological diagnosis. Nine patients (20% underwent surgery as the only treatment modality, six patients received (13% radiotherapy alone, and 30 patients (67% had surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight patients developed recurrence (four local, two regional, one locoregional, and one distant. The 5-year actuarial overall OS and RFS was 77 and 66%, respectively. Age, T-stage, and treatment modality were significant for RFS, whereas T-stage and treatment modality were significant factors for OS. Conclusion: Surgery as single modality or combined with radiation therapy resulted in acceptable survival in Pakistani population with malignant minor salivary tumors.

  2. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

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    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  3. EXPLORING THE ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF VIRUS IN MALIGNANT GLIOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipongkor; Ahmed, Seemin S; Rabkin, Samuel D

    Malignant gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor with no effective treatments. Current conventional therapies (surgical resection, radiation therapy, temozolomide (TMZ), and bevacizumab administration) typically fail to eradicate the tumors resulting in the recurrence of treatment-resistant tumors. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to improve therapeutic outcomes. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are excellent candidates as a more effective therapeutic strategy for aggressive cancers like malignant gliomas since OVs have a natural preference or have been genetically engineered to selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells. OVs have been used in numerous preclinical studies in malignant glioma, and a large number of clinical trials using OVs have been completed or are underway that have demonstrated safety, as well as provided indications of effective antiglioma activity. In this review, we will focus on those OVs that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of malignant gliomas (herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, parvovirus, reovirus, poliovirus, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, and retrovirus) and OVs examined preclinically (vesicular stomatitis virus and myxoma virus), and describe how these agents are being used.

  4. Primary malignant gastric PEComa - Diagnostic and technical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Peadar S; Mitchell, David P; Murphy, Ruth; McKenna, Michael; Waldron, Ronan P

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines PEComa's as "a mesenchymal tumour composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular cells".(1) These ubiquitous tumours show distinctive perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation and arise most commonly at visceral and abdominopelvic sites. We present a case of a forty-two year old man presenting to accident and emergency department with upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. He had a palpable epigatric mass on examination. He underwent a CT Scan Abdomen which displayed a tumour arising from the gastric wall. Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy was carried out and biopsied were taken for histological analysis. A primary gastric PEComa was diagnosed and the patient underwent distal polya gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy. This is believed to be the first reported case of a Primary malignant gastric PEComa. Perivascular epithelioid carcinomas were first described in 1943 as an abnormal myoblast in a case of renal angiomyolipoma. PEComas display a strong female predominance with a typical benign course. There are approximately 100 reported cases of PEComa to date, with 55 of which were malignant. PEComa's may be subdivided into benign, uncertain malignant potential and malignant. Their natural history can be very aggressive leading to multiple metastases and death as expected with a high-grade sarcoma. This case depicts the aggressive nature of malignant gastric PEComa's. The majority of PEComa's are benign in nature and have a better prognosis. We display here the challenges in ascertaining a definitive diagnosis and management of such patients due to limited clinical studies.

  5. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung. Current treatments for spinal malignancies, including wide resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have made significant progress like improving patients’ quality of life. Among them, chemotherapy plays an important role, but its potential for clinical application is limited by severe side effects and drug resistance. To ameliorate the current situation, various polymer nanoparticles have been developed as promising excipients to facilitate the effective treatment of spinal malignancies by utilizing their potent advantages, for example, targeting, stimuli response, and synergetic effect. This review overviews the development of polymer nanoparticles for antineoplastic delivery in the treatment of spinal malignancies and discusses future prospects of polymer nanoparticle-based treatment methods.

  6. Evaluation of Patients and Families With Concern for Predispositions to Hematologic Malignancies Within the Hereditary Hematologic Malignancy Clinic (HHMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNardo, Courtney D; Bannon, Sarah A; Routbort, Mark; Franklin, Anna; Mork, Maureen; Armanios, Mary; Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S; Jeff-Eke, Meselle; Churpek, Jane E; Takahashi, Koichi; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kornblau, Steve; Bertuch, Alison; Cheung, Hannah; Bhalla, Kapil; Futreal, Andrew; Godley, Lucy A; Patel, Keyur P

    2016-07-01

    Although multiple predispositions to hematologic malignancies exist, evaluations for hereditary cancer syndromes (HCS) are underperformed by most hematologist/oncologists. Criteria for initiating HCS evaluation are poorly defined, and results of genetic testing for hereditary hematologic malignancies have not been systematically reported. From April 2014 to August 2015, 67 patients were referred to the Hereditary Hematologic Malignancy Clinic (HHMC). Referral reasons included (1) bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome in patients ≤ 50 years, (2) evaluation for germ-line inheritance of identified RUNX1, GATA2, or CEBPA mutations on targeted next-generation sequencing panels, and (3) strong personal and/or family history of malignancy. Cultured skin fibroblasts were utilized for germ-line DNA in all patients with hematologic malignancy. Eight patients (12%) were clinically diagnosed with a HCS: 4 patients with RUNX1-related familial platelet disorder (FPD)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 1 patient each with dyskeratosis congenita, Fanconi anemia, germ-line DDX41, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Two patients with concern for FPD/AML and LFS, respectively, had RUNX1 and TP53 variants of unknown significance. Additionally, 4 patients with prior HCS diagnosis (1 LFS, 3 FPD/AML) were referred for further evaluation and surveillance. In this HHMC-referred hematologic malignancy cohort, HCS was confirmed in 12 patients (18%). HCS identification provides insight for improved and individualized treatment, as well as screening/surveillance opportunities for family members. The HHMC has facilitated HCS diagnosis; with increased clinical awareness of hematologic malignancy predisposition syndromes, more patients who may benefit from evaluation can be identified. Mutation panels intended for prognostication may provide increased clinical suspicion for germ-line testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Female Urethral Malignant Melanoma With Vesical Invasion: A Case Report

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    Alpaslan Akbas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a 75-year-old female with a primary urethral malignant melanoma. A mass protruding from inside the urethra was detected on physical examination. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass extending from the urethra with dimensions of 4 × 2 cm, and periurethral heterogenous fatty planes consistent with infiltration. The histopathologic examination was consistent with HMB45(+ malignant melanoma. We performed cystourethrectomy and bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy in one session. The pathology report revealed primary malignant melanoma of the urethra invading the inferior bladder wall. The patient received no adjuvant therapy because of cardiopulmonary morbidities and the presence of multiple pulmonary metastases. The patient eventually died 13 months after surgery.

  8. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Androutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion  cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3 cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  9. Malignant catatonia responsive to low doses of lorazepam: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Moreira Matias

    Full Text Available Abstract CONTEXT: Catatonia can be divided into non-malignant or malignant. The latter is characterized by autonomic instability, exhibiting high fever, tachycardia and hypertension, and is regarded as a fulminant and rapidly progressive subtype. CASE REPORT: This article reports a case of malignant catatonia in a 43-year-old patient who had been presenting psychiatric disorders for the last three years. The patient was stable, maintaining mutism, immobility and autonomic abnormalities. Oral lorazepam (1 mg every eight hours was introduced and, in a few hours, the patient became afebrile. Two days later, the patient was already responding to verbal commands. CONCLUSIONS: Early intervention with lorazepam reduced the evolution of this patient to a fatal complication. Therefore, this case report sought to show that early diagnosis and intervention reduced the occurrence of serious and irreversible clinical outcomes.

  10. Malignancy risk estimation of pulmonary nodules in screening CTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Riel, Sarah J; Ciompi, Francesco; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare human observers to a mathematically derived computer model for differentiation between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules detected on baseline screening computed tomography (CT) scans. METHODS: A case-cohort study design was chosen. The study group consisted of 300 chest CT...... scans from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST). It included all scans with proven malignancies (n = 62) and two subsets of randomly selected baseline scans with benign nodules of all sizes (n = 120) and matched in size to the cancers, respectively (n = 118). Eleven observers and the computer...... model (PanCan) assigned a malignancy probability score to each nodule. Performances were expressed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Performance differences were tested using the Dorfman, Berbaum and Metz method. Seven observers assessed morphological nodule characteristics using a predefined list...

  11. Pokemon expression in malignant glioma: an application of bioinformatics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovin, Richard A; Winn, Robert

    2005-10-15

    In this report the authors review the role of bioinformatics in the design of a research project in which the molecular genetics of malignant glioma were studied. A project to characterize Pokemon expression in malignant glioma was developed, refined, and implemented using bioinformatics methods. Using the resources available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence for Pokemon was determined. With this information and online primer design tools, novel primers were designed that would specifically amplify Pokemon mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. The promise of bioinformatics is in the rapid and widespread dissemination and analysis of genomic information. This information is then used in research investigating the genetic basis of disease. In this paper the authors review the bioinformatics methods used in their study of Pokemon expression in malignant glioma.

  12. [Malignant externa otitis: the modern principles of diagnostics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, G N; Svistushkin, V M; Shevchik, A E; Zolotova, A V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the clinical course of malignant externa otitis in the context of the present-day concepts. A total of 5 patients presenting with the confirmed diagnosis of malignant external otitis were available for the examination. The analysis of the clinical observations provided the basis for the characteristic of pathogenesis of this condition, diagnostic principles, and treatment modalities for the management of the pathology in question. It is concluded that the patients suffering from malignant externa otitis must remain under medical care and observation during a long period and the strategy for the treatment of each concrete patient should be chosen on an individual basis taking into consideration the presence of concomitant pathologies and their adequate therapy.

  13. Fusion genes in malignant neoplastic disorders of haematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohamed; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2016-10-01

    The new World Health Organization's (WHO) classification of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms incorporating the recurrent fusion genes as the defining criteria for different haematopoietic malignant phenotypes is reviewed. The recurrent fusion genes incorporated in the new WHO's classification and other chromosomal rearrangements of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue neoplasms are reviewed. Cytokines and transcription factors in haematopoiesis and leukaemic mechanisms are described. Genetic features and clinical implications due to the encoded chimeric neoproteins causing malignant haematopoietic disorders are reviewed. Multiple translocation partner genes are well known for leukaemia such as MYC, MLL, RARA, ALK, and RUNX1. With the advent of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and bioinformatics algorithms, an exponential growth in fusion genes discoveries is likely to increase. Demonstration of fusion genes and their specific translocation breakpoints in malignant haematological disorders are crucial for understanding the molecular pathogenesis and clinical phenotype of cancer, determining prognostic indexes and therapeutic responses, and monitoring residual disease and relapse status.

  14. Comparison of mechanical properties of normal and malignant thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhune, Meenakshi; Belge, Gazanfer; Dotzauer, Andreas; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Radmacher, Manfred

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation causing approximately 13% of deaths worldwide. Cancer cell mechanics is currently an important topic of investigation in cancer diagnostics as a possible tool to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells in addition to increasing our understanding of pathophysiology of the disease. Our study, based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements on cells, shows that malignant thyroid cells are 3- to 5-fold softer in comparison to primary normal thyroid cells depending on duration between cell seeding and AFM experiments. These results reveal cultivation period as an important factor that influences cell mechanics and which must be considered when comparing cells. Investigation of actin cytoskeleton by fluorescent labelling revealed differences in organization of actin between malignant and normal thyroid cells, which may be directly contributing to alteration of cell mechanics in cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dawei; Ran, Xingwu

    2017-07-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma (AML) does not exhibit the classic signs of malignant melanoma. ALM is frequently misdiagnosed because of its unusual sites and atypical clinical morphologies, which lead to poor prognosis. A female patient aged 78 years was presented to our center with two ulcers on her right foot. Diabetic foot ulcer was considered as the primary diagnosis. The ulcers failed to improve after 2 weeks' therapy. An incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed malignant melanoma. The patient received wide excision, skin grafting as well as biotherapy. The lesion was healed and no other metastasis has been founded until now. Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in distinguishing malignant melanoma from other more benign skin lesions of the foot. The need for early biopsy of ulcer, even when clinical suspicion is low, can not be overemphasized. Only in this way can we reduce misdiagnosis rate and improve survival rate in patients with foot ulcer.

  16. Liminal reproductive experiences after therapies for hematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A; Kerridge, Ian

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we discuss the psychosocial health of young women related to fertility, pregnancy, and motherhood after therapies for hematological malignancies. We utilized a hermeneutical phenomenological approach to conduct in-depth interviews with 12 women who had previously received treatment for a hematological malignancy and had experienced uncertainty surrounding their ability to start or extend their biological family. Our presented findings are interpretations of the women's own words as they articulated how they inhabited a liminal space. We concluded that although fertility and motherhood possibly might not be immediate concerns when they received a diagnosis of hematological malignancy, young women could subsequently experience ongoing issues and concerns related to reproductive uncertainty and motherhood capabilities, which have the potential to affect emotionally and psychosocially on their lives. These issues might possibly require longer-term support, counseling, and informational resources. We also discuss the strengths, limitations, and implications of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  18. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M; Gniadecki, R

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Over the past decades, its incidence has been increasing by 3-8% per year in western countries while mortality has stabilized. Melanoma is a heterogenous disease and can be subclassified based on distinct clinical...... characteristics, histopathological features and mutation patterns within NRAS and BRAF genes. Recent data indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. MiRNAs are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner and are known...... to play a crucial role in cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. MiRNAs might prove to be powerful cancer biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on the miRNA involvement in four molecular pathways known to be deregulated in malignant melanoma, including the RAS...

  19. Non-coding RNA repertoires in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Leah; Finn, Stephen P; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy, with extremely poor survival rates. There are limited treatment options, with no second line standard of care for those who fail first line chemotherapy. Recent advances have been made to characterise the underlying molecular mechanisms of mesothelioma, in the hope of providing new targets for therapy. With the discovery that non-coding regions of our DNA are more than mere junk, the field of research into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has exploded in recent years. Non-coding RNAs have diverse and important roles in a variety of cellular processes, but are also implicated in malignancy. In the following review, we discuss two types of non-coding RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs, in terms of their role in the pathogenesis of MPM and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the spleen: An extremely rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of the spleen is extremely rare. Since the first description of primary splenic MFH reported by Govoni et al in 1982, to the best of our knowledge, only twelve cases of MFH of the spleen have been reported in the literature. We herein report a rare case of primary splenic MFH in a 30-year-old Indian male who presented with abdominal pain with a history of recurrent hydatid cyst of liver and spleen. A computed tomography (CT scan was performed and a diagnosis of splenic hydatid cyst was made. Splenectomy was done. On histopathological examination, a diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal tumor, possibly storiform variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, was made. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for vimentin and CD68. The post operative period was uneventful. Compared with the twelve previously cases of MFH of the spleen, our patient is the youngest case reported so far.

  1. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...... of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...

  2. Oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide in treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Seyda; Mutlu, Hasan; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Tatli, Ali Murat; Uysal, Mukremin; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Bozcuk, Hakan; Ozdogan, Mustafa; Savas, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is almost always fatal and few treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide for patients who underwent standard treatment for advanced MM. This study included 22 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients who were treated with oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide (EE). The average follow-up period of the patients was 39.1 months. Under the treatment of oral EE, median progression- free survival was 7.7 months [95%CI HR (4.3-11.1)] and median overall survival was 28.1 months [95%CI HR (5.8-50.3)]. The treatment response rates were as follows: 4 patients (27.3%) had a partial response (PR), 12 (54.5%) had stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) was observed in 6 (35.9%). Oral EE can be administered effectively to patients with inoperable malignant mesothelioma who had previously received standard treatments.

  3. Evidence Corner: Evidence-based Care for Malignant Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Malignant fungating wounds occur in 5% to 10% of individuals with cancer.1 They arise "when malignant tumour cells infiltrate and erode through the skin."2 Guidelines for treating these malignant wounds (MW) often lack randomized, clinical trial (RCT) evidence supporting local wound care interventions that meet patients' physical or psychosocial needs or facilitate healing.3 The rarity of RCTs exploring healing of MWs likely results from their very low expectation of complete closure.1 Affected patients and their professional and family caregivers rate pain, infection, and odor management among the most important challenges in minimizing distress.4-6 Though a recently updated Cochrane review3 reminds us that evidence remains insufficient for firm conclusions supporting management of MW, it does cite 2 recent RCTs described herein7,8 that can serve as "current best evidence"9 to inform clinical decisions for alleviating some aspects of these patients' distress.

  4. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  5. The differentiation between malignant and non-malignant breast tissues using elastic and inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A., E-mail: e.ryan@usyd.edu.a [Discipline of Medical Radiation Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Farquharson, Michael J. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this work was to investigate the differences in composition between malignant and non-malignant breast tissue. 38 invasive ductal carcinomas and 45 non-malignant breast tissues were measured, each being mounted in cylindrical sample holders of volume 25 mm{sup 2}. The experiments were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France. A monochromatic beam of 10 keV was used, focussed to a 0.5 mmx0.5 mm rectangular area on the sample. Elastic and inelastic scattered photons were collected at an angle of 120{sup o}. A novel technique was used to find the mean atomic numbers of the tissues (Z-bar). A CT scanner that has been calibrated with an ED phantom was used to find the Z-bar of 10 gels. These were composed of a gelatine base, with low concentrations of copper added to increase the Z-bar values by an incremental amount. These were then used to calibrate the scattering measurement system. The area of the elastic and inelastic scatter peaks were found using peak fitting software and the ratio of these two areas was obtained. The data was shown to be non-parametric, and was therefore analysed using a Mann-Whitney test. Using this analysis the difference between non-malignant and malignant tissues was found to be extremely significant, with a 2-tailed p-value of <0.0001. The absolute Z-bar values were also analysed.

  6. The differentiation between malignant and non-malignant breast tissues using elastic and inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the differences in composition between malignant and non-malignant breast tissue. 38 invasive ductal carcinomas and 45 non-malignant breast tissues were measured, each being mounted in cylindrical sample holders of volume 25 mm 2. The experiments were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France. A monochromatic beam of 10 keV was used, focussed to a 0.5 mm×0.5 mm rectangular area on the sample. Elastic and inelastic scattered photons were collected at an angle of 120°. A novel technique was used to find the mean atomic numbers of the tissues ( Z¯). A CT scanner that has been calibrated with an ED phantom was used to find the Z¯ of 10 gels. These were composed of a gelatine base, with low concentrations of copper added to increase the Z¯ values by an incremental amount. These were then used to calibrate the scattering measurement system. The area of the elastic and inelastic scatter peaks were found using peak fitting software and the ratio of these two areas was obtained. The data was shown to be non-parametric, and was therefore analysed using a Mann-Whitney test. Using this analysis the difference between non-malignant and malignant tissues was found to be extremely significant, with a 2-tailed p-value of <0.0001. The absolute Z¯ values were also analysed.

  7. Marked variation in malignant transformation rates of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Aisling; Ishak, Nurul

    2015-12-01

    Searches were carried out in the Medline, Embase and PubMed databases in July 2014 with a date range, 1960-2013. Observational cohort studies (either prospective or retrospective) were included. Studies following identical cohorts, case control studies, clinical trials, interventional studies, laboratory studies, experimental studies, studies with no follow-up data, studies of pre-leukoplakia or snuff-induced lesions were excluded. The databases were searched by one reviewer who also screened the studies and evaluated them against the inclusion criteria. Final decision on both inclusion and exclusion of the papers was agreed upon by both authors. A total of 24 studies were included in this review, involving 12,103 patients. Of the 24 studies included 14 were retrospective. Studies were analysed by subgroup, allowing the authors to identify the rate of malignant transformation as 14.9% with a range of 0.13% to 34%. Only 11 studies gave information on the site of malignant transformation; the most common site was the buccal mucosa. For buccal mucosa the malignant transformation was 3.53%, compared to 24.22% for the tongue. Homogenous oral leukoplakia (OL) was most common, however non-homogenous types showed a higher rate of transformation of 13.1%. There was an increased risk of malignant transformation with age. Most studies demonstrated that there is a higher risk of transformation in the female population. Malignant transformation rate of OL varies from 0.13 to 34% across the 24 studies reviewed here. The authors identified clear risk factors for malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia, including location (tongue), appearance (non-homogenous), increased age and female gender. There was little evidence that surgical intervention had any benefit in reducing the risk of transformation.

  8. Head and Neck Malignancies in Croatian Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Bašić-Jukić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is associated with increased incidence of cancer. We reviewed a large series of renal transplant recipients to determine the incidence and outcome of patients with malignant changes located at the head and neck. A total of 1232 renal transplant recipients have been followed at Department of Dialysis University Hospital Centre Zagreb from 1972 to 2009. Demographic data, localization and disease outcome were evaluated in patients who developed cancer. Twenty one patients (1,7% developed 27 head and neck malignancies. The average time from transplantation to development of cancer was 56,8 months. The mean length of follow-up was 9,4±4,8 years. Eighteen malignancies were cutaneous in origin and 9 were noncutaneous. Of cutaneous malignancies, 88.9% were basal cell carcinoma; one patient had Merkell-cell carcinoma and one patient developed squamous cell carcinoma. Six cases of basocellular skin cancer were recorded in one fair-skin patient. Noncutaneous malignancies involved the oral cavity (2 cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma and one pharyngeal cancer and the thyroid gland in 3 patients each. Two patients had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring at the head and neck. One patient had brain tumor. Radical surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy were necessary in 33,3% of patients. Immunosuppression was reduced in all patients, and 12 patients were switched from the calcineurin-based immunosuppression to sirolimus. They all have stable graft function. None of the patients died from cancer. Immunosuppression was ceased in one patient with Kaposi’s sarcoma who returned to dialysis and died 10 years later from heart failure. An increased incidence of cancer occurring in the head and neck was recorded. Careful skin examination and oral examination is mandatory for discovering cancer before dissemination. Sirolimus is safe alternative to calcineurin-based immunosuppression in patients who developed head and neck

  9. Perfusion MR imaging for differentiation of benign and malignant meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, First People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Roediger, Lars A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Shen, Tianzhen [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Miao, Jingtao [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, First People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2008-06-15

    Our purpose was to determine whether perfusion MR imaging can be used to differentiate benign and malignant meningiomas on the basis of the differences in perfusion of tumor parenchyma and/or peritumoral edema. A total of 33 patients with preoperative meningiomas (25 benign and 8 malignant) underwent conventional and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging. Maximal relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and the corresponding relative mean time to enhance (rMTE) (relative to the contralateral normal white matter) in both tumor parenchyma and peritumoral edema were measured. The independent samples t-test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in the mean rCBV and rMTE ratios between benign and malignant meningiomas. The mean maximal rCBV values of benign and malignant meningiomas were 7.16{+-}4.08 (mean{+-}SD) and 5.89{+-}3.86, respectively, in the parenchyma, and 1.05{+-}0.96 and 3.82{+-}1.39, respectively, in the peritumoral edema. The mean rMTE values were 1.16{+-}0.24 and 1.30{+-}0.32, respectively, in the parenchyma, and 0.91{+-}0.25 and 1.24{+-}0.35, respectively, in the peritumoral edema. The differences in rCBV and rMTE values between benign and malignant meningiomas were not statistically significant (P>0.05) in the parenchyma, but both were statistically significant (P<0.05) in the peritumoral edema. Perfusion MR imaging can provide useful information on meningioma vascularity which is not available from conventional MRI. Measurement of maximal rCBV and corresponding rMTE values in the peritumoral edema is useful in the preoperative differentiation between benign and malignant meningiomas. (orig.)

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children With Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefi Chaijan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and Anxiety is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. Based on studies, these disorders are more prevalent in some chronic disease. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of ADHD and anxiety in children with malignancy and anxiety in their parents and comparing the results with those of the control group. One hundred, 3-15-year-old children with malignancy and 100 healthy children without malignancy or any chronic disease were included in this case-control study as case and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric ward of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD and Anxiety were diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48 and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and were confirmed by psychologist consult. Data were analyzed by Student t-test in SPSS18. ADHD was observed in 23 cases (23% with malignancy and 5 controls (5% (P=0.001. In the case group, 57 children (57% and 45 of their parents (45% were suffering from anxiety while in the control group the figure was observed in 12 children (12% and 11 of their parents (11% (P=0.001. ADHD and anxiety are more common in children with malignancy as compared with children without malignancy and anxiety is also more common in their parents. Therefore, implementing interventions and psychiatric counseling are recommended for these children and their parents.

  11. Lymph node staging in malignant testicular germ cell tumors; Lymphknotenstaging maligner testikulaerer Keimzelltumoren

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    Krug, B.; Lackner, K. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Heidenreich, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie; Dietlein, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-08-01

    Imaging procedures are important in the initial staging and subsequent management of testicular germ cell tumors on account of the differing stage-dependent options for therapy. While the diagnosis of advanced tumors gives no cause for controversial discussion the situation in the clinical stage 1 of germ cell tumors is more ambiguous. The lymph node status is only assessed correctly in about 70% of the patients using the currently available methods since metastases in normally large lymph nodes are not detected on slice images. Although most clinical experience has been gained with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers an equally efficient diagnostic procedure. The significance of positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodoxyglucose (FDG-PET) appears to be limited on account of the absence of accumulation in lymph node metastases of the differentiating teratoma. Sonography and lymphography have not proved to be useful for retroperitoneal lymph node diagnosis. The present review presents and discusses the current value of the available imaging procedures for staging and follow-up of malignant testicular germ cell tumors in relation to modern therapy regimens. (orig.) [German] Aus den unterschiedlichen, stadienabhaengigen Therapieoptionen ergibt sich die Bedeutung bildgebende Verfahren beim initialen Staging und bei der Nachsorge von malignen testikulaeren Keimzelltumoren. Waehrend die Diagnostik fortgeschrittener Tumoren kaum Anlass zu kontroversen Diskussionen bietet, stellt sich die Situation bei Keimzelltumoren im klinischen Stadium I weniger zufriedenstellend dar: Der Lymphknotenstatus laesst sich mit den heute zur Verfuegung stehenden Methoden nur bei etwa 70% der Patienten korrekt erheben, da Metastasen in normal grossen Lymphknoten dem schichtbilddiagnostischen Nachweis entgehen. Obwohl fuer die Computertomographie (CT) derzeit die meisten klinischen Erfahrungen beim Staging testikulaerer Keimzelltumoren vorliegen, steht mit der

  12. Oral malignant melanoma: A rare case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala Rakaraddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is only rarely found in oral cavity (estimated between 0.2 and 8-0% of all melanomas and occurs approximately four times more frequently in oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate, alveolar gingiva and melanoma of mandibular gingiva is extremely rare. The peak age of diagnosis of melanoma is between 55 and 65 years. A biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. Here, we present a rare case of malignant melanoma of mandibular gingiva in a 64-year-old female patient which is confirmed by histopathology.

  13. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: CT and MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sperandio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is extremely rare malignancy in the general population, occurring more frequently in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. In the literature five cases of MPNST arising from the parapharyngeal space (PPS in patients without neurofibromatosis have been reported. We report imaging techniques in a patient with MPNST in the PPS, who had neither a family history nor sign of NF1. Computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed for a correct therapeutic planning. CT and MRI findings were correlated with hystopathological diagnosis.

  14. Association of bullous pemphigoid with malignancy: A myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelin Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune sub-epidermal blistering disorder of the skin. The association of BP with internal malignancy has always been a matter of debate with no consensus reached despite many published case reports and clinical trials. However, we report a hitherto unreported association of BP with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, wherein the patient had a recalcitrant downhill course despite adequate treatment measures with control of skin lesions being achieved only following excision of the tumor, and relapse coinciding with detection of metastasis. Hence, given the clinical behavior, it is reasonable to speculate that the association of malignancy was more than co-incidental.

  15. Black hairy tongue after chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuki; Maruyama, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Kume, Satoshi; Sasaki, Nobuyoshi; Yokoya, Shigeomi; Saito, Kuniaki; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2017-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) developed in five patients (2.6%) among 192 patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors. Three patients with a history of diabetes mellitus developed BHT within 10 days after the initiation of chemotherapy. The other two patients suffered more than 100 days after induction and lymphopenia of grade 3 or worse developed for more than 20 days, which was not observed in the three patients with diabetes. We found that BHT could develop after chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors. Patients with diabetes mellitus presented early after chemotherapy, while patients with longstanding severe lymphopenia presented in late phase.

  16. [Efficacy of the surgical treatment for malignant heart tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitovskiĭ, R M

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of malignant cardiac tumors surgical treatment were studied, basing on analysis of 33 observations. Rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed in 9 patients, angiosarcoma--in 11, leyomyosarcoma--in 6, malignant mixoma--in 4, fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and liposarcoma--each as a single observation. Special attention was paid to guarantee the maximal radicalism in the tumor excision, what made it necessary in 8 observations to perform additive surgical procedures, such as interatrial septum and atrial walls plasty, plastic operations on cardiac valves and the valves prostheses. The operation volume extension did not influence significantly its immediate result.

  17. Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Use of Clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo-Florez Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine. In the absence of fever and clinical improvement, the patient is considered to have an atypical presentation of this disease.

  18. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

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    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. [Radiotherapy indications for non-malignant diseases in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtte, P; Roelandts, M; Kantor, G

    2014-10-01

    This review updates the radiotherapy indications for non-malignant diseases, except those treated by radiosurgery. Since the last 2005 review, there have been no major changes in the indications: the prevention of heteropic bone formation and keloids remain classical indications, while the treatment of macular degeneration or the prevention of coronary restenosis are now past history. Nevertheless, the radiation treatment for benign diseases should have the same criteria as for malignant diseases: information of the patient on risks, benefits and treatment quality. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090