WorldWideScience

Sample records for whitney indirect cycle

  1. Steam generators in indirect-cycle water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajeau, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the indirect cycle water-cooled nuclear reactors, the steam generators are placed between the primary circuit and the turbine. They act both as an energy transmitter and as a leaktigh barrier against fission or corrosion products. Their study is thus very important from a performance and reliability point of view. Two main types are presented here: the U-tube and the once-through steam generators [fr

  2. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Assessment of gas cooled fast reactor with indirect supercritical CO2 cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Driscoll, M. J.; Dostal, V.; Dumaz, P.; Poullennec, G.; Alpy, N.

    2006-01-01

    Various indirect power cycle options for a helium cooled Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) with particular focus on a supercritical CO 2 (SCO 2 ) indirect cycle are investigated as an alternative to a helium cooled direct cycle GFR. The Balance Of Plant (BOP) options include helium-nitrogen Brayton cycle, supercritical water Rankine cycle, and SCO 2 recompression Brayton power cycle in three versions: (1) basic design with turbine inlet temperature of 550 .deg. C, (2) advanced design with turbine inlet temperature of 650 .deg. C and (3) advanced design with the same turbine inlet temperature and reduced compressor inlet temperature. The indirect SCO 2 recompression cycle is found attractive since in addition to easier BOP maintenance it allows significant reduction of core outlet temperature, making design of the primary system easier while achieving very attractive efficiencies comparable to or slightly lower than, the efficiency of the reference GFR direct cycle design. In addition, the indirect cycle arrangement allows significant reduction of the GFR 'proximate-containment' and the BOP for the SCO 2 cycle is very compact. Both these factors will lead to reduced capital cost

  4. General problems of metrology and indirect measuring in cardiology: error estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantine K. Mamberger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims This paper treats general problems of metrology and indirect measurement methods in cardiology. It is aimed at an identification of error estimation criteria for indirect measurements of heart cycle phase durations. Materials and methods A comparative analysis of an ECG of the ascending aorta recorded with the use of the Hemodynamic Analyzer Cardiocode (HDA lead versus conventional V3, V4, V5, V6 lead system ECGs is presented herein. Criteria for heart cycle phase boundaries are identified with graphic mathematical differentiation. Stroke volumes of blood SV calculated on the basis of the HDA phase duration measurements vs. echocardiography data are compared herein. Results The comparative data obtained in the study show an averaged difference at the level of 1%. An innovative noninvasive measuring technology originally developed by a Russian R & D team offers measuring stroke volume of blood SV with a high accuracy. Conclusion In practice, it is necessary to take into account some possible errors in measurements caused by hardware. Special attention should be paid to systematic errors.

  5. Direct versus indirect effects of tropospheric humidity changes on the hydrologic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, S C

    2010-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that tropospheric specific humidity increases in a warmer atmosphere, at rates roughly comparable to those at constant relative humidity. While the implications for the planetary energy budget and global warming are well recognized, it is the net atmospheric cooling (or surface heating) that controls the hydrologic cycle. Relative humidity influences this directly through gas-phase radiative transfer, and indirectly by affecting cloud cover (and its radiative effects) and convective heating. Simple calculations show that the two indirect impacts are larger than the direct impact by roughly one and two orders of magnitude respectively. Global or regional relative humidity changes could therefore have significant indirect impacts on energy and water cycles, especially by altering deep convection, even if they are too small to significantly affect global temperature. Studies of climate change should place greater emphasis on these indirect links, which may not be adequately represented in models.

  6. Thermal cycle efficiency of the indirect combined HTGR-GT power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    High thermal efficiency of 50% could be expected in a power generation system coupling a high temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) with a closed cycle gas turbine(GT). There are three candidate systems such as a direct cycle(DC), an indirect cycle(ICD) and an indirect combined cycle(IDCC). The IDCC could solve many problems in both the DC and the IDC and consists of a primary circuit and a secondary circuit where a topping cycle is a Brayton cycle and a bottoming cycle is a steam cycle. In this report, the thermal cycle efficiency of the IDCC is examined regarding configurations of components and steam pressure. It has been shown that there are two types of configurations, that is, a perfect cascade type and a semi-cascade one and the latter can be further classified into Case A, Case B and Case C. The conditions achieving the maximum thermal cycle efficiency were revealed for these cases. In addition, the optimum system configurations were proposed considering the thermal cycle efficiency, safety and plant arrangement. (author).

  7. Design of a power conversion system for an indirect cycle, helium cooled pebble bed reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Ballinger, R.G.; Stahle, P.W.; Demetri, E.; Koronowski, M.

    2002-01-01

    A design is presented for the turbomachinery for an indirect cycle, closed, helium cooled modular pebble bed reactor system. The design makes use of current technology and will operate with an overall efficiency of 45%. The design uses an intermediate heat exchanger which isolated the reactor cycle from the turbomachinery. This design excludes radioactive fission products from the turbomachinery. This minimizes the probability of an air ingress accident and greatly simplifies maintenance. (author)

  8. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household......Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated....

  9. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P.; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J.; Malpas, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid ‘combined model’ of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause–effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided. PMID:22467143

  10. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J; Malpas, Rick

    2012-06-07

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid 'combined model' of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause-effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided.

  11. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  12. Thermodynamic modelling and efficiency analysis of a class of real indirectly fired gas turbine cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zheshu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirectly or externally-fired gas-turbines (IFGT or EFGT are novel technology under development for small and medium scale combined power and heat supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies mainly for the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass or 'dirty' fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, by assuming that all fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by a corresponding isentropic efficiency and all global irreversibilities in the high temperature heat exchanger are taken into account by an effective efficiency, a one dimensional model including power output and cycle efficiency formulation is derived for a class of real IFGT cycles. To illustrate and analyze the effect of operational parameters on IFGT efficiency, detailed numerical analysis and figures are produced. The results summarized by figures show that IFGT cycles are most efficient under low compression ratio ranges (3.0-6.0 and fit for low power output circumstances integrating with micro gas turbine technology. The model derived can be used to analyze and forecast performance of real IFGT configurations.

  13. Suppression and revival of oscillation in indirectly coupled limit cycle oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.R.; Kamal, N.K.; Verma, U.K.; Suresh, K.; Thamilmaran, K.; Shrimali, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The phenomena of suppression and revival of oscillations are studied in indirectly coupled nonlinear oscillators. • The decay parameter and a feedback factor play a crucial role in emergent dynamical behavior of oscillators. • The critical curves for different dynamical regions are obtained analytically using linear stability analysis. • Electronic circuit experiments demonstrate these emergent dynamical states. - Abstract: We study the phenomena of suppression and revival of oscillations in a system of limit cycle oscillators coupled indirectly via a dynamic local environment. The dynamics of the environment is assumed to decay exponentially with time. We show that for appropriate coupling strength, the decay parameter of the environment plays a crucial role in the emergent dynamics such as amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD). We also show that introducing a feedback factor in the diffusion term revives the oscillations in this system. The critical curves for the regions of different emergent states as a function of coupling strength, decay parameter of the environment and feedback factor in the coupling are obtained analytically using linear stability analysis. These results are found to be consistent with the numerics and are also observed experimentally.

  14. A Framework for Modelling Indirect Land Use Changes in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Brandão, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Around 9% of global CO2 emissions originate from land use changes. Often, these emissions are not appropriately addressed in Life Cycle Assessment. The link between demand for crops in one region and impacts in other regions is referred to here as indirect land use change (iLUC) and includes...... demand for land and land use changes is established through markets for land's production capacity. The iLUC model presented is generally applicable to all land use types, crops and regions of the world in typical LCA decision-making contexts focusing on the long-term effects of small-scale changes...... deforestation, intensification and reduced consumption. Existing models for iLUC tend to ignore intensification and reduced consumption, they most often operate with arbitrary amortisation periods to allocate deforestation emissions over time, and the causal link between land occupation and deforestation...

  15. A nuclear gas turbine perspective: The indirect cycle (IDC) offers a practical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The current generation of nuclear power plants are based on light water reactors and steam cycle power conversion systems. This coupling yields a power plant efficiency of less than 30% when dry-cooled. By utilizing a higher temperature heat source, and a more efficient prime-mover, the next generation of nuclear power plants have the potential for an efficiency of close to 50%, with attendant fuel savings and reduced heat rejection to the environment. The nuclear closed Brayton cycle (NCBC) gas turbine plant involves the coupling of a high temperature reactor (HTR) and a high efficiency helium gas turbine. Studies over many years have shown the merits of an indirect cycle (IDC) approach in which an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the reactor thermal energy to the prime-mover. The major advantages of this include the following: (1) multipurpose nuclear heat source; (2) gas turbine operation in a clean non-nuclear environment; (3) power conversion system simplicity; and (4) maximum utilization of existing technology. An additional factor, which may dominate the above is that the IDC approach is in concert with the only active gas-cooled reactor program remaining in the world, namely a high temperature test reactor (HTTR) under construction in Japan, the culmination of which will be the demonstration of a viable high temperature nuclear heat source. The major theme of this paper is that the IDC nuclear gas turbine offers a practical NCBC power plant concept for operation in the second or third decades of the 21st century

  16. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)

  17. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces odonto/osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nattasit, Praphawi; Thongngam, Tanutchaporn; Pavasant, Prasit; Tompkins, Kevin A; Egusa, Hiroshi; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-08-31

    Notch signaling regulates diverse biological processes in dental pulp tissue. The present study investigated the response of human dental pulp cells (hDPs) to the indirect immobilized Notch ligand Jagged1 in vitro. The indirect immobilized Jagged1 effectively activated Notch signaling in hDPs as confirmed by the upregulation of HES1 and HEY1 expression. Differential gene expression profiling using an RNA sequencing technique revealed that the indirect immobilized Jagged1 upregulated genes were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization, disease, and signal transduction. Downregulated genes predominantly participated in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 significantly reduced cell proliferation, colony forming unit ability, and the number of cells in S phase. Jagged1 treated hDPs exhibited significantly higher ALP enzymatic activity, osteogenic marker gene expression, and mineralization compared with control. Pretreatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuated the Jagged1-induced ALP activity and mineral deposition. NOTCH2 shRNA reduced the Jagged1-induced osteogenic marker gene expression, ALP enzymatic activity, and mineral deposition. In conclusion, indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of hDPs via the canonical Notch signaling pathway.

  18. Whitney biennaal tulekul / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    7. III-26. V 2002 New Yorgi Whitney Ameerika Kunsti Muuseumis toimuvast 71. Whitney biennaalist. Osalejatest. Esindatud on kõik kunstiliigid maalikunstist netikunstini, olulist rõhku on pandud helikunstile, performanceile, videole ja arhitektuurile. Kuraator Lawrence R. Rinder. Väljaantavast Bucksbaumi auhinnast.

  19. Calculation of the emergency condenser of the indirect cycle reactor CAREM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, D.; Schaffrath, A.

    2002-08-01

    CAREM is an Argentine project to achieve the development, design and construction of an innovative, simple and small Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This NPP has an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features (e.g. integrated primary cooling system by natural circulation, self-pressurized primary system and passive safety systems, etc.). In the frame of an IAEA forwarded HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT - 'Advice on CAREM passive emergency condenser' at the Centro Atomico in San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina) German experimental as well as analytical investigations of passive safety systems - mainly performed at the research centers Juelich and Rossendorf - were presented. During this visit it was decided that FZR should determine the emergency condenser capacity by using the ATHLET code with and without the condensation module extension KONWAR (condensation inside horizontal tube). These results should be compared and assessed with existing RELAP calculations. The ATHLET and ATHLET/KONWAR calculations of the emergency condenser were used for minimizing the user influence performed with exactly the same nodalization scheme and the same initial and boundary conditions than the RELAP calculations. The comparison of all three computational results shows that the required condenser capacities were achieved. The magnitudes were in order of up to 12%. An additionally performed evaluation of local flow parameters show large deviations especially for the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer tube wall. Due to the good validation progress of KONWAR by an extensive module validation against NOKO and HORUS experiments, the focus of the further investigation were concentrated on the boiling heat transfer. A comparison of the ATHLET boiling model (according to Forster and Zuber in combination with the equation of Thom for the determination of temperature difference between wall and saturated fluid) with other models from literature (Borishansky

  20. Indirect water management through Life Cycle Assessment: Fostering sustainable production in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Bayer, P.; Koehler, A.; Hellweg, S.

    2009-04-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents a methodological framework for analyzing the total environmental impact of any product or service of our daily life. After tracking all associated emissions and the consumption of resources, this impact is expressed with respect to a few common impact categories. These are supposed to reflect major societal and environmental priorities. However, despite their central role in environmental processes, to date hydrological as well as hydrogeological aspects are only rarely considered in LCA. Compared with standard impact categories within LCA, water is special. In contrast to other abiotic resources such as crude oil, it can be replenished. Total freshwater resources are immense, but not evenly distributed and often scarce in regions of high demand. Consequently, threads to natural water bodies have immense spatial dependency. Setting up functional relationships in order to derive a generally valid and practicable evaluation is tedious due to the complex, insufficiently understood, and uncertain natural processes involved. LCA that includes the environmental effects of water consumption means global indirect water resource management. It supports goal-directed consumer behaviour that aims to reduce pressure on natural water systems. By developing a hydrologically-based assessment of potential impacts from human interaction with natural water bodies, "greener" products can be prioritised. More sustainable and environmentally friendly water management is the result. The proposed contribution presents an operational assessment method of global surface water consumption for impacts on human health and ecosystem quality within a LCA framework. A major focus is the issue of how such global assessment helps to quantify potential impacts from water-intensive production in developing countries, where the means for proper water management are often limited. We depict a compensation scheme for impacts related to water consumption that

  1. "Indirect Network Effects and the Product Cycle: Video Games in the U.S., 1994-2002"

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew T. Clements; Hiroshi Ohashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective later. The paper also finds a degree of inertia in the software market that does no...

  2. Laulja Whitney Houston sõlmis rekordlepingu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Popstaar Whitney Houston pikendas oma plaadifirmaga Arista lepingut ja tegi artistina popmuusika ajaloo kõige kallima tehingu, mis garanteerib talle kuue stuudioalbumi ja kahe hitikogumiku eest 100 miljonit dollarit

  3. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  4. Evaluation of Indirect Combined Cycle in Very High Temperature Gas--Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Robert Barner; Cliff Davis; Steven Sherman; Paul Pickard

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory are developing a very high temperature reactor to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is twofold: (a) efficient, low-cost energy generation and (b) hydrogen production. Although a next-generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual purpose, as assumed here. A dual-purpose design with a combined cycle of a Brayton top cycle and a bottom Rankine cycle was investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting heat to a hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and a helium-nitrogen mixture were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms of the cycle efficiency. The relative component sizes were estimated for the different working fluids to provide an indication of the relative capital costs. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the cycle were performed to determine the effects of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of the cycle to various operating conditions as well as trade-offs between efficiency and component size. Parametric studies were carried out on reactor outlet temperature, mass flow, pressure, and turbine cooling

  5. A study of a high temperature nuclear power plant incorporating a non-integrated indirect cycle gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlos, G.; Helbling, W.; Zollinger, E.; Gregory, N.; Luchsinger, H.

    1982-04-01

    In connection with the HHT-project, the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research has performed a study of a 1640-MWth HTR-plant incorporating a non-integrated indirect cycle gas turbine with two-stage intercooling, as a possibility of simplifying and reducing the cost of the HHT-demonstration plant. In this paper, the plant design is described and compared with the HHT-demonstration plant (a CCGT integrated plant with single stage intercooling). Also included is an evaluation of the various advantages and disadvantages of this design together with the presentation of some of the sensitivity results. (Auth.)

  6. The Embedding Theorems of Whitney and Nash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    We begin by briefly motivating the idea of a manifold and then discuss the embedding the- orems of Whitney and Nash that allow us to view these objects inside appropriately large Eu- clidean spaces. 1. Introduction. Let us begin by motivating the concept of a manifold. Start with the unit circle C in the plane given by x2.

  7. The Embedding Theorems of Whitney and Nash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by briefly motivating the idea of amanifold and then discuss the embedding theorems of Whitney and Nash that allow us toview these objects inside appropriately large Euclidean spaces. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018.

  8. Performance analysis of a Miller cycle engine by an indirect analysis method with sparking and knock in consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Zu, Bingfeng; Xu, Yuliang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A quasi-dimensional model was adopted to study Miller cycle engine’s performance. • A new indirect performance analysis method was proposed. • The definition of effective compression ratio was modified. • The modified effective compression ratio takes the trapped mixture mass in account. • The factors limiting the fuel economy in Miller cycle engine were found out. - Abstract: In this paper, a full-factorial design of experiment was applied to thoroughly investigate the effects of compression ratio, intake valve closing retardation angle, and engine speed on the fuel consumption performance and power performance of the Miller cycle engine based on a quasi-dimensional simulation model. A new indirect analysis method based on formula derivation and main effect analysis was proposed to simplify the complex relationship between the design factors and the performance parameters. The definition of effective compression ratio was modified to take account of the actual mass of mixture trapped in the cylinder. The results show that the distributions of brake mean effective pressure and brake specific fuel consumption can be regarded as the re-organization results from the distributions of volumetric efficiency and indicated efficiency. The intake valve closing retardation angle has a strong negative correlation with volumetric efficiency. The modified effective compression ratio is the approximate product of the compression ratio and the volumetric efficiency, and makes obvious effects on the distribution of the indicated efficiency. Therefore the combustion process is co-evolved with the intake process in a Miller cycle engine. The further improvement of brake specific fuel consumption is mainly limited by four factors, i.e., the back flow loss, the exergy loss, the incomplete expansion loss, and the combustion loss. The improvement of fuel consumption performance is at a cost of power performance, and the trade-off between the both essentially

  9. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  10. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  11. 77 FR 23637 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for certain Pratt & Whitney Division PW4000-94'' and PW4000-100'' turbofan engines having a...-flight engine shutdowns, in certain PW4000-94'' and PW4000-100'' turbofan engines. Pratt & Whitney's...

  12. 77 FR 57007 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... turbofan engines. That AD currently requires initial and repetitive fluorescent penetrant inspections (FPI... applies to the following Pratt & Whitney Division (Pratt & Whitney) turbofan engines: (1) PW4000-94...

  13. 78 FR 49111 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... & Whitney Division (PW) turbofan engine model PW4074, PW4074D, PW4077, PW4077D, PW4084D, PW4090, and PW4090...) Applicability This AD applies to all Pratt & Whitney Division (PW) turbofan engine models PW4074, PW4074D...

  14. 77 FR 42424 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... & Whitney Division PW4074 and PW4077 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires removing the 15th stage..., August 4, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Pratt & Whitney Division PW4074 and PW4077 turbofan...

  15. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  16. Direct and indirect costs of dinitrogen fixation in Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 and possible implications for the nitrogen cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eGroßkopf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent detection of heterotrophic nitrogen (N2 fixation in deep waters of the southern Californian and Peruvian OMZ questions our current understanding of marine N2 fixation as a process confined to oligotrophic surface waters of the oceans. In experiments with Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501, a marine unicellular diazotrophic (N2-fixing cyanobacterium, we demonstrated that the presence of high nitrate concentrations (up to 800 µM had no inhibitory effect on growth and N2 fixation over a period of two weeks. In contrast, the environmental oxygen concentration significantly influenced rates of N2 fixation and respiration, as well as carbon and nitrogen cellular content of C. watsonii over a 24 hour period. Cells grown under lowered oxygen atmosphere (5% had a higher nitrogenase activity and respired less carbon during the dark cycle than under normal oxygen atmosphere (20%. Respiratory oxygen drawdown during the dark period could be fully explained (104% by energetic needs due to basal metabolism and N2 fixation at low oxygen, while at normal oxygen these two processes could only account for 40% of the measured respiration rate. Our results revealed that under normal oxygen concentration most of the energetic costs during N2 fixation (~60% are not derived from the process of N2 fixation per se but rather from the indirect costs incurred for the removal of intracellular oxygen or by the reversal of oxidative damage (e.g. nitrogenase de novo synthesis. Theoretical calculations suggest a slight energetic advantage of N2 fixation relative to assimilatory nitrate uptake for heterotrophic and phototrophic growth, when oxygen supply is in balance with the oxygen requirement for cellular respiration (i.e. energy generation for basal metabolism and N2 fixation. Taken together our results imply the existence of a niche for diazotrophic organisms inside oxygen minimum zones, which are predicted to further expand in the future ocean.

  17. Time Series Analysis Based on Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive and objective time series analysis method based on the calculation of Mann Whitney U statistics is described. This method samples data rankings over moving time windows, converts those samples to Mann-Whitney U statistics, and then normalizes the U statistics to Z statistics using Monte-...

  18. 77 FR 16139 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... & Whitney (PW) PW2037, PW2037(M), and PW2040 turbofan engines with certain fan blades with a cutback leading..., PW2040, PW2240, PW2337 Turbofan Engine Manual, Part No. 1A6231, Chapter/Section 72-31-12, Repair-14 and...

  19. 77 FR 15939 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... & Whitney (PW) JT9D series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires revisions to the Airworthiness..., -7R4E, - 7R4E1, -7R4E4, -7R4G2, and -7R4H1 series turbofan engines. (d) Unsafe Condition This AD results...

  20. 77 FR 54791 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... & Whitney Division PW4000-94'' and PW4000-100'' turbofan engines having a 1st stage high-pressure turbine... AD will affect 446 P&W PW4000-94'' and PW4000-100'' turbofan engines installed on airplanes of U.S...

  1. 77 FR 51459 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., PW4460, PW4462, PW4164, PW4164C, PW4164C/B, PW4168, and PW4168A turbofan engines with certain high... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to the following Pratt & Whitney Division turbofan engines...

  2. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT......-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit....

  3. Pratt and Whitney ESCORT derivative for mars surface power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, Gerald J.; Joyner, Russell

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the applicability of a common reactor system design from the Pratt and Whitney ESCORT nuclear thermal rocket engine concept to support current NASA mars surface-based power requirements. The ESCORT is a bimodal engine capable of supporting a wide range of propulsive thermal and vehicle electrical power requirements. The ESCORT engine is powered by a fast-spectrum beryllium-reflected CERMET-fueled nuclear reactor. In addition to an expander cycle propulsive mode, the ESCORT is capable of operating in an electrical power mode. In this mode, the reactor is used to heat a mixture of helium and xenon to drive a closed-loop Brayton cycle in order to generate electrical energy. Recent Design Reference Mission requirements (DRM) from NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Lewis Research Center studies in 1997 and 1998 have detailed upgraded requirements for potential mars transfer missions. The current NASA DRM requires a nuclear thermal propulsion system capable of delivering total mission requirements of 200170 N (45000 lbf) thrust and 50 kWe of spacecraft electrical power. Additionally, these requirements detailed a surface power system capable of providing approximately 160 kW of electrical energy over an approximate 10 year period within a given weight and volume envelope. Current NASA studies use a SP-100 reactor (0.8 MT) and a NERVA derivative (1.6 MT) as baseline systems. A mobile power cart of approximate dimensions 1.7 mx4.5 mx4.4 m has been conceptualized to transport the reactor power system on the Mars Surface. The 63.25 cm diameter and 80.25 cm height of the ESCORT and its 1.3 MT of weight fit well within the current weight and volume target range of the NASA DRM requirements. The modifications required to the ESCORT reactor system to support this upgraded electrical power requirements along with operation in the Martian atmospheric conditions are addressed in this paper. Sufficient excess reactivity and burnup capability

  4. Aeroderivative Pratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine – an interesting solution for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate load electric power stations become more and more interesting for theelectric power market in Romania. In this context, the Combined Cycle Power Plants came as a veryattractive solution. This paper presents the results of a study regarding the use of the aeroderivativePratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine, available in Romania, for the electric power generation in aCombined Cycle Power Plant. It is also analyzed the Combined Heat in Power generation with FT8-3gas turbine when saturated steam or hot water are required.

  5. Effect of the weld thermal cycles by the modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) on the mechanical properties of the AA6061-T6 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, R. A.; Barrera, G.; Garcia, R.; Lopez, V. H.

    2009-01-01

    Results of temperature measurements during welding of 12.7 mm thick AA6061-T6 alloy plates by modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) are presented. This study describes the thermal cycles of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and also in the fusion zone. Depending upon the position of the transducers, the maximum temperatures measured in the HAZ range from 308 to 693 degree centigrade, these measurements were related with the tensile test results, and the failure zone reported previously by the authors. It was observed that, there is a decrease in the mechanical strength of the welded joints, due to the microstructural changes suffered by AA6061-T6 alloy in which formation of the βoccurs according to the TTT transformation diagram. The inherent cooling conditions of the weld pool observed for the MIEA technique (only one pass of welding), have permitted to establish the characteristics of solidification and microstructure for a specific cooling rate. (Author) 24 refs

  6. Anmeldelse: Whitney Davis A General Theory of Visual Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2012-01-01

    Whitney Davis bog A General Theory of Visual Culture vil utvivlsomt blive opfattet som en provokation af mange deltagere i forskningsdebatterne om visuel kultur. At basere en »generel« teori om visuel kultur – dvs. en teori, som benytter sig af termer som »visualitet« – på et kerneargument de facto...

  7. 77 FR 67763 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., PW4156A, PW4158, PW4160, PW4460, PW4462, and PW4650 turbofan engines, including models with any dash... PW4650 turbofan engines, including models with any dash number suffix, with 3rd stage low-pressure...

  8. 77 FR 12448 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., PW4160, PW4460, PW4462, and PW4650 turbofan engines, including models with any dash number suffix. This..., PW4062, PW4062A, PW4152, PW4156, PW4156A, PW4158, PW4160, PW4460, PW4462, and PW4650 turbofan engines...

  9. 77 FR 16967 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., PW4164C, PW4164C/B, PW4168, and PW4168A turbofan engines with certain high- pressure turbine (HPT) stage 1...) Applicability This AD applies to the following Pratt & Whitney Division turbofan engines: (1) PW4052, PW4152...

  10. 77 FR 16921 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., PW4160, PW4460, PW4462, and PW4650 turbofan engines, including models with any dash number suffix. This... Compliance We estimate that this AD will affect 44 turbofan engines installed on airplanes of U.S. registry...

  11. Climate Verification Using Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A robust method previously used to detect observed intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) climate regimes was adapted to test whether climate models could reproduce IMD variations in U.S. surface temperatures during 1919-2008. This procedure, called the running Mann Whitney Z (MWZ) method, samples data ranki...

  12. A Novel Design Method for Optimizing an Indirect Forced Circulation Solar Water Heating System Based on Life Cycle Cost Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the energy performance and economic benefits of solar water heating (SWH systems, the installation and operation-related design variables as well as those related to capacity must be optimized. This paper presents a novel design method for simultaneously optimizing the various design variables of an indirect forced-circulation SWH system that is based on the life cycle cost and uses a genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is assessed by evaluating the long-term performance corresponding to four cases, which are optimized using different annual solar fractions and sets of the design variables. When the installation and operation-related design variables were taken into consideration, it resulted in an efficient and economic design and an extra cost reduction of 3.2%–6.1% over when only the capacity-related design variables were considered. In addition, the results of parametric studies show that the slope and mass flow rate of the collector have a significant impact on the energy and economic performances of SWH systems. In contrast, the mass flow rate in the secondary circuit and the differences in the temperatures of the upper and lower dead bands of the differential controller have a smaller impact.

  13. Whitney towers, Gropes and Casson-Gordon style invariants of links

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a conjecture of Friedl and Powell that their Casson-Gordon type invariant of 2-component link with linking number one is actually an obstruction to being height 3.5 Whitney tower/grope concordant to the Hopf Link. The proof employs the notion of solvable cobordism of 3-manifolds with boundary, which was introduced by Cha. We also prove that the Blanchfield form and the Alexander polynomial of links in $S^3$ give obstructions to height 3 Whitney tower/grope concordance....

  14. 77 FR 60288 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (P&W) Division Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Guidance Service Information Pratt & Whitney and United Parcel Service Co. (UPS) requested that we add the... service information. Request To Duplicate the Strip and Recoat Requirements United Airlines requested that... in the AD. We did not add that Special Instruction reference to the AD. Request To Add Service...

  15. The True Voice of Whitney Houston: Commodification, Authenticity, and African American Superstardom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Taking its title from the 1994 AT&T commercial starring Whitney Houston, this article examines how Houston’s voice has functioned in the construction of her star persona from her 1985 debut album to her premature death on 11 February 2012, recognising three phases: the formative years (1985-1991);

  16. 75 FR 55459 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., PW4152, PW4156A, PW4158, PW4164, PW4168, PW4168A, PW4460, and PW4462 turbofan engines. This AD requires... series turbofan engines. We published the proposed AD in the Federal Register on March 25, 2010 (75 FR...

  17. 76 FR 68660 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division (PW) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Division (PW) PW4000 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for PW4000 series turbofan engines. This proposed AD would require replacing the..., PW4152, PW4156, PW4156A, PW4158, PW4160, PW4460, PW4462, and PW4650 turbofan engines, including models...

  18. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial

  19. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  20. 77 FR 16916 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW)Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW)Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... and -7R4H1 turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by the determination that a new lower life limit for... PW JT9D-7R4G2 and -7R4H1 turbofan engine models. We agree. In addition to the JT9D-7R4G2 and -7R4H1...

  1. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  2. Pratt & Whitney aircraft nuclear J-8 turbojet engine performance variation with radiator diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, John W.

    1960-01-01

    The variation of engine performance with liquid metal radiator diameter and flight altitude has been estimated for both the 1600F NaK and 1800F NaK radiators at Mach 0.6 and hot day atmospheric conditions. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power is presented in 3 figures for the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft J-58 engine with the 1600F NaK radiator. The net thrust, air flow and reactor power for the 1800F NaK radiator are also presented in figures.

  3. The Mann-Whitney U: A Test for Assessing Whether Two Independent Samples Come from the Same Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Nachar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult, particularly when conducting research in psychology, to have access to large normally distributed samples. Fortunately, there are statistical tests to compare two independent groups that do not require large normally distributed samples. The Mann-Whitney U is one of these tests. In the following work, a summary of this test is presented. The explanation of the logic underlying this test and its application are presented. Moreover, the forces and weaknesses of the Mann-Whitney U are mentioned. One major limit of the Mann-Whitney U is that the type I error or alpha (? is amplified in a situation of heteroscedasticity.

  4. Dissolution process analysis using model-free Noyes-Whitney integral equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Haruna, Yoshimasa; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Drug dissolution process of solid dosages is theoretically described by Noyes-Whitney-Nernst equation. However, the analysis of the process is demonstrated assuming some models. Normally, the model-dependent methods are idealized and require some limitations. In this study, Noyes-Whitney integral equation was proposed and applied to represent the drug dissolution profiles of a solid formulation via the non-linear least squares (NLLS) method. The integral equation is a model-free formula involving the dissolution rate constant as a parameter. In the present study, several solid formulations were prepared via changing the blending time of magnesium stearate (MgSt) with theophylline monohydrate, α-lactose monohydrate, and crystalline cellulose. The formula could excellently represent the dissolution profile, and thereby the rate constant and specific surface area could be obtained by NLLS method. Since the long time blending coated the particle surface with MgSt, it was found that the water permeation was disturbed by its layer dissociating into disintegrant particles. In the end, the solid formulations were not disintegrated; however, the specific surface area gradually increased during the process of dissolution. The X-ray CT observation supported this result and demonstrated that the rough surface was dominant as compared to dissolution, and thus, specific surface area of the solid formulation gradually increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. B. T. Whitney. Physician, dentist, inventor, entrepreneur and dedicated figther for dentistry and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Malvin E

    2004-02-01

    In the mid-1850s, Western New York had become one of the most highly industrialized areas of the nation, largely because it was the terminus of the Erie Canal. Buffalo was among the foremost cities in the country; and its dentists were actively establishing a professional association. What was lacking, however, was a dental school to serve the whole area, including the territory to the west. Four leading men in the profession, who also started one of America's greatest and most innovative dental manufacturing companies, struggled to achieve that goal. Foremost among them was Benajah Ticknor Whitney, a physician, who had received his M.D. at the first medical school west of the Hudson River. But his interest in dentistry developed early in his training, and Dr. Whitney went on to become one of the state's outstanding dental leaders. Sadly, he didn't live to see his dream fulfilled. It would take 20 more years--and a hard fight to overcome opposition within the profession--until a university-affiliated school was established in Buffalo.

  6. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  7. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae

    1994-01-01

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes

  8. Mann-Whitney Type Tests for Microarray Experiments: The R Package gMWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fischer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the R package gMWT which is designed for the comparison of several treatments (or groups for a large number of variables. The comparisons are made using certain probabilistic indices (PI. The PIs computed here tell how often pairs or triples of observations coming from different groups appear in a specific order of magnitude. Classical two and several sample rank test statistics such as the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, or Jonckheere-Terpstra test statistics are simple functions of these PI. Also new test statistics for directional alternatives are provided. The package gMWT can be used to calculate the variable-wise PI estimates, to illustrate their multivariate distribution and mutual dependence with joint scatterplot matrices, and to construct several classical and new rank tests based on the PIs. The aim of the paper is first to briefly explain the theory that is necessary to understand the behavior of the estimated PIs and the rank tests based on them. Second, the use of the package is described and illustrated with simulated and real data examples. It is stressed that the package provides a new flexible toolbox to analyze large gene or microRNA expression data sets, collected on microarrays or by other high-throughput technologies. The testing procedures can be used in an eQTL analysis, for example, as implemented in the package GeneticTools.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  10. Forward transformation for high resolution eddy current tomography using whitney elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szewczyk, R.; Salach, J.; Nowicki, M.; Ruokolainen, J.; Raback, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tomographic methods are intensively developed field of non-destructive testing. The main advantage of this type of NDT method is 3D information concerning the shape of the discontinuities in investigated material. On the other hand, the most common tomography method utilizing X-rays creates the significant risks typical to X-ray technique. As a result, Xray tomography is difficult to use in industry. Introduced to the industry in 2007, the eddy current tomography is safe and cost effective. However, in opposite to X-ray tomography, eddy current tomography requires sophisticated and time consuming inverse transformation creating 2D or 3D view of discontinuities. For this reason solutions presented previously are focused on 2D inverse transformation and exhibit limited resolution. For eddy current tomography, the forward tomographic transformation is most important, which is the base of inverse transformation. This paper presents the novel, fast and cost-effective solution utilizing Whitney elements method for such forward transformation. As a result, new possibilities of development in the area of high resolution 3D eddy current tomography are created. (authors)

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  12. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  13. EDISON-WMW: Exact Dynamic Programing Solution of the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marx

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In many research disciplines, hypothesis tests are applied to evaluate whether findings are statistically significant or could be explained by chance. The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney (WMW test is among the most popular hypothesis tests in medicine and life science to analyze if two groups of samples are equally distributed. This nonparametric statistical homogeneity test is commonly applied in molecular diagnosis. Generally, the solution of the WMW test takes a high combinatorial effort for large sample cohorts containing a significant number of ties. Hence, P value is frequently approximated by a normal distribution. We developed EDISON-WMW, a new approach to calculate the exact permutation of the two-tailed unpaired WMW test without any corrections required and allowing for ties. The method relies on dynamic programing to solve the combinatorial problem of the WMW test efficiently. Beyond a straightforward implementation of the algorithm, we presented different optimization strategies and developed a parallel solution. Using our program, the exact P value for large cohorts containing more than 1000 samples with ties can be calculated within minutes. We demonstrate the performance of this novel approach on randomly-generated data, benchmark it against 13 other commonly-applied approaches and moreover evaluate molecular biomarkers for lung carcinoma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We found that approximated P values were generally higher than the exact solution provided by EDISON-WMW. Importantly, the algorithm can also be applied to high-throughput omics datasets, where hundreds or thousands of features are included. To provide easy access to the multi-threaded version of EDISON-WMW, a web-based solution of our algorithm is freely available at http://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/software/wtest/.

  14. Comparative study of the performance of the M-cycle counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers for indirect evaporative cooling – Paving the path toward sustainable cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Changhong; Duan, Zhiyin; Zhao, Xudong; Smith, Stefan; Jin, Hong; Riffat, Saffa

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the performance of cross-flow and counter-flow M-cycle heat exchangers for dew point cooling. It is recognised that evaporative cooling systems offer a low energy alternative to conventional air conditioning units. Recently emerged dew point cooling, as the renovated evaporative cooling configuration, is claimed to have much higher cooling output over the conventional evaporative modes owing to use of the M-cycle heat exchangers. Cross-flow and counter-flow heat exchangers, as the available structures for M-cycle dew point cooling processing, were theoretically and experimentally investigated to identify the difference in cooling effectiveness of both under the parallel structural/operational conditions, optimise the geometrical sizes of the exchangers and suggest their favourite operational conditions. Through development of a dedicated computer model and case-by-case experimental testing and validation, a parametric study of the cooling performance of the counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers was carried out. The results showed the counter-flow exchanger offered greater (around 20% higher) cooling capacity, as well as greater (15%–23% higher) dew-point and wet-bulb effectiveness when equal in physical size and under the same operating conditions. The cross-flow system, however, had a greater (10% higher) Energy Efficiency (COP). As the increased cooling effectiveness will lead to reduced air volume flow rate, smaller system size and lower cost, whilst the size and cost are the inherent barriers for use of dew point cooling as the alternation of the conventional cooling systems, the counter-flow system is considered to offer practical advantages over the cross-flow system that would aid the uptake of this low energy cooling alternative. In line with increased global demand for energy in cooling of building, largely by economic booming of emerging developing nations and recognised global warming, the research

  15. Effect of the weld thermal cycles by the modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) on the mechanical properties of the AA6061-T6 alloy; Efecto de los ciclo termicos de soldadura por arco electrico indirecto modificado (AEIM) en las propiedades mecanicas de la aleacion AA6061-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, R. A.; Barrera, G.; Garcia, R.; Lopez, V. H.

    2009-07-01

    Results of temperature measurements during welding of 12.7 mm thick AA6061-T6 alloy plates by modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) are presented. This study describes the thermal cycles of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and also in the fusion zone. Depending upon the position of the transducers, the maximum temperatures measured in the HAZ range from 308 to 693 degree centigrade, these measurements were related with the tensile test results, and the failure zone reported previously by the authors. It was observed that, there is a decrease in the mechanical strength of the welded joints, due to the microstructural changes suffered by AA6061-T6 alloy in which formation of the {beta}occurs according to the TTT transformation diagram. The inherent cooling conditions of the weld pool observed for the MIEA technique (only one pass of welding), have permitted to establish the characteristics of solidification and microstructure for a specific cooling rate. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  17. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  18. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  19. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  20. Design review and analysis for a Pratt and Whitney fluid-film bearing and seal testing rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Dara W.

    1994-01-01

    A design review has been completed for a Pratt and Whitney (P&W)-designed fluid-film bearing and annular-seal test rig to be manufactured and installed at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Issues covered in this study include: (1) the capacity requirements of the drive unit; (2) the capacity and configuration of the static loading system; (3) the capacity and configuration of the dynamic excitation system; (4) the capacity, configuration, and rotordynamic stability of a test bearing, support bearings, and shaft; and (5) the characteristics and configuration of the measurement transducers and data channels.

  1. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  2. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  3. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  4. Trajectory optimization using indirect methods and parametric scramjet cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the solution of time sensitive regional strike trajectories for hypersonic missiles. This minimum time trajectory is suspected to be best performed by scramjet powered hypersonic missiles which creates strong coupled interaction between the flight dynamics and the performance of the engine. Comprehensive engine models are necessary to gain better insight into scramjet propulsion. Separately, robust and comprehensive trajectory analysis provides references for vehicles ...

  5. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  6. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  7. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  8. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  9. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  10. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  11. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  12. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  13. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indirect taxation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ene, Sebastian; Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Indirect taxes are levied on the production and consumption of goods and services. They influence the retail price, and hence affect patterns of trade and consumption. Indirect taxes are ultimately paid by the final consumer. Sales and turnover taxes, excise duties and tariffs are the basic indirect taxes. In contrast with direct taxes, indirect taxes are seldom progressive. The principles for the levying of these taxes will be considered before the analysis of indirect taxes.

  15. Electronic Commerce and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the reason why indirect tax issues arise in the context of electronic commerce and discusses relevant issues. To do so, the paper presents a simple framework to understand and examine these issues in the international context. It also identifies common and different issues of the VAT system and the RST system. It demonstrates that an emerging solution proposed in the context of the VAT system can be affected with difficult problems that were regarded to be problems of the...

  16. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenika-Zovko, I.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  17. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  19. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the Cold Dark Matter scenario, the Dark Matter particle candidate may be a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (Wimp). Annihilation of two Wimps in local or cosmological structures would result in the production of a number of standard model particles such as photons, leptons and baryons which could be observed with the presently available or future experiments such as the Pamela or Glast satellites or the Cherenkov Telescopes. In this work we review the status-of-the-art of the theoretical and phenomenological studies about the possibility of indirect detection of signals coming from Wimp annihilation.

  20. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Lamanna, G; Lavalle, J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an experimental review of the status and prospects of indirect searches for dark matter. Experiments observe secondary particles such as positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and neutrinos which could originate from annihilations of dark matter particles in various locations in the galaxy. Data exist from some experiments which have been interpreted as hints of evidence for dark matter. These data and their interpretations are reviewed together with the new experiments which are planned to resolve the puzzles and make new measurements which could give unambiguous results

  1. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  2. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raciborski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%. According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  3. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  6. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  7. Directe en indirecte werknemersparticipatie in Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Gijs; Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo; Vermeylen, Greet

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at different forms of direct and indirect employee participation in the EU. The research questions are: (1) which forms of direct and indirect employee participation can we distinguish?; (2) to what extent do forms of direct and indirect employee participation coincide within

  8. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  9. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  10. Nuclear astrophysics with indirect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    In the area of astrophysics, it is well known that several different type of nuclear reactions are involved in the production of elements and for energy generation in stars. The knowledge of rates and cross section of these reactions is necessary in order to understand the origin of elements in the universe. Particularly, interests are there in the processes like pp-chain, CNO cycle, r-process and s-process, which are responsible for the formation of majority of the nuclei via various reactions like (p, γ), (n, γ), (α, γ) etc

  11. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  12. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study. Amit Sharma Manish Dev Shrimali. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 881-889 ... The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev ...

  13. Indirect search for dark matter with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goy, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    This document summarises the potential of AMS in the indirect search for Dark Matter. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of Dark Matter of unknown nature. A good candidate is the Ligthest Supersymmetric Particle in R-Parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study Dark Matter indirect signature in three spectra: gamma, antiprotons and positrons

  14. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  15. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  16. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  18. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  19. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... using a gold-standard, modified Tissot bell-spirometer method in mechanically ventilated patients who were hemodynamically, respiratory, and metabolically stable. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing general anesthesia and major gynecological surgery. We measured oxygen consumption ((Formula...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  20. Indirect zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic CAD/CAM restorations: Preliminary clinical results after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Koller, Christina; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    No clinical data are available for the new computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) material zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic. This study describes preliminary clinical results for indirect ZLS CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months. Indirect restorations were fabricated, using the CEREC method and intraoral scanning (CEREC Omnicam, CEREC MCXL). Sixty-seven restorations were seated adhesively (baseline). Sixty restorations were evaluated after 12 months (follow-up), using modified FDI criteria. Two groups were established, according to ZLS restorations' post-processing procedure prior to adhesive seating: group I (three-step polishing, n = 32) and group II (fire glazing, n = 28). Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test (P  .05). Statistically significant differences were found for criteria surface gloss for group I and group II (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05). This study demonstrates ZLS CAD/CAM restorations have a high clinical success rate after 12 months. A longer clinical evaluation period is necessary to draw further conclusions.

  1. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Roberts

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  2. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  3. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  5. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect composite material to a zirconia framework.

  6. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  7. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  8. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  9. Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma indirectly caused by pituitary prolactinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Niwa, Yuri; Mizutani, Teruyuki; Shimizu, Ken; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 44-year-old nulliparous woman who experienced irregular menstrual cycles for about 10 years and developed both pituitary prolactinoma and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism by inhibiting secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thus suppressing luteinizing hormone levels, which can cause menstrual disorders ranging from amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulatory cycle to short luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A chronic anovulatory menstrual cycle is the most common cause of long-term exposure of the endometrium to endogenous estrogen without adequate opposition from progestins, which can lead to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In this case, pituitary prolactinoma may have caused the chronic anovulatory cycle and indirectly led to the endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In patients for whom the cause of irregular menstruation and chronic anovulatory cycle is suspected to be hyperprolactinemia, explorations of both the hypophysis and endometrium are essential.

  10. Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Indirectly Caused by Pituitary Prolactinoma:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 44-year-old nulliparous woman who experienced irregular menstrual cycles for about 10 years and developed both pituitary prolactinoma and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism by inhibiting secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thus suppressing luteinizing hormone levels, which can cause menstrual disorders ranging from amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulatory cycle to short luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. A chronic anovulatory menstrual cycle is the most common cause of long-term exposure of the endometrium to endogenous estrogen without adequate opposition from progestins, which can lead to endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In this case, pituitary prolactinoma may have caused the chronic anovulatory cycle and indirectly led to the endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. In patients for whom the cause of irregular menstruation and chronic anovulatory cycle is suspected to be hyperprolactinemia, explorations of both the hypophysis and endometrium are essential.

  11. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  12. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  13. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  14. Integration of indirect CO2 emissions from the full energy chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, S.; Tadokoro, Y.; Sato, O.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The methodologies of life-cycle analysis are discussed. The system boundaries have to be adequately defined, which is illustrated with the example of coal-fired electricity generation. The input/output method of LCA is discussed, including the incorporation of material recycling in the analysis. Also discussed is the linkage of engineering and economic approaches together with the necessary improvements of MARKAL in order to integrate the indirect processes. Finally examples are given of the analysis of the direct and indirect CO 2 emission from a pressurized-water reactor and its fuel cycle. The analysis shows that the life-cycle CO 2 emission coefficient is 25.7 g CO 2 /kW.h in case of gas-diffusion enrichment, whereas in case of centrifuge enrichment this emission coefficient amounts to 7.9 g CO 2 /kW.h only. (author). 9 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Ballistic fractures: indirect fracture to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Sherman, Don; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    Two mechanisms of injury, the temporary cavity and the sonic wave, have been proposed to produce indirect fractures as a projectile passes nearby in tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal relationship of pressure waves using strain gauge technology and high-speed video to elucidate whether the sonic wave, the temporary cavity, or both are responsible for the formation of indirect fractures. Twenty-eight fresh frozen cadaveric diaphyseal tibia (2) and femurs (26) were implanted into ordnance gelatin blocks. Shots were fired using 9- and 5.56-mm bullets traversing through the gelatin only, passing close to the edge of the bone, but not touching, to produce an indirect fracture. High-speed video of the impact event was collected at 20,000 frames/s. Acquisition of the strain data were synchronized with the video at 20,000 Hz. The exact time of fracture was determined by analyzing and comparing the strain gauge output and video. Twenty-eight shots were fired, 2 with 9-mm bullets and 26 with 5.56-mm bullets. Eight indirect fractures that occurred were of a simple (oblique or wedge) pattern. Comparison of the average distance of the projectile from the bone was 9.68 mm (range, 3-20 mm) for fractured specimens and 15.15 mm (range, 7-28 mm) for nonfractured specimens (Student's t test, p = 0.036). In this study, indirect fractures were produced after passage of the projectile. Thus, the temporary cavity, not the sonic wave, was responsible for the indirect fractures.

  16. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  17. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  18. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  19. The power of indirect social ties

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Xiang; Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    While direct social ties have been intensely studied in the context of computer-mediated social networks, indirect ties (e.g., friends of friends) have seen little attention. Yet in real life, we often rely on friends of our friends for recommendations (of good doctors, good schools, or good babysitters), for introduction to a new job opportunity, and for many other occasional needs. In this work we attempt to 1) quantify the strength of indirect social ties, 2) validate it, and 3) empiricall...

  20. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  1. A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Kenneth; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne; Adams, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth's energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) using analytic representations of cloud and aerosol distributions and processes. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of AIEs that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates by the simple model are sensitive to preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, preindustrial accumulation mode radius, width of the accumulation mode, size of primary particles, cloud thickness, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Estimates of present-day AIEs as low as 5 W/sq m and as high as 0.3 W/sq m are obtained for plausible sets of parameter values. Estimates are surprisingly linear in emissions. The estimates depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models, which adds to understanding of the dependence on AIE uncertainty on uncertainty in parameter values.

  2. Development of an indirect spectrophotometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of ... of the colored product was measured at 405 nm and pH 3 against a reagent blank. ... The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.20±0.03 and ...

  3. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  4. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  5. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene...

  6. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  7. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  8. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  9. Indirect Costs: Daily Bread, Cake, or Cracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The tradition of negotiating indirect costs in grants should be abandoned, and research administrators should instead offer different levels of service depending on what the sponsor wants to spend. Three levels of overhead rate are suggested (super, regular, and economy) and their corresponding levels of service are defined. (MSE)

  10. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  11. Indirect Determination of the sigma - omega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Brincker, Rune

    . The beams where submitted to three-point bending in a servo-controlled materials testing system. The constitutive parameters in the fictitious crack model were determined by using three different indirect techniques, which are described and evaluated. The results show that the fracture energy is increasing...

  12. Comprehension Process of Second Language Indirect Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the comprehension of English conventional indirect requests by native English speakers and Japanese learners of English. Subjects read stories inducing either a conventional or a literal interpretation of a priming sentence. Results suggest that both native and nonnative speakers process both meanings of an ambiguous conventional request.…

  13. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  14. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  15. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  16. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  17. The Indirect cost of illness in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study estimated (a the indirect costs associated with non-fatal disability and premature death across a wide range of diseases and health conditions in Africa in 2015 and (b the potential savings that could be accrued if countries were to meet the 3 health targets of the substainable development goal (SDG compared to the costs under the status quo. Methods: This study used the lost output or human capital approach to quantify the gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with the disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs lost due to all causes by age group as well as by country economic classification (Group 1: 10 high/upper-middle income countries; Group 2: 17 lower-middle income countries; and Group 3: 27 low income countries. Results: The expected indirect cost of the 704,765,879 DALYs lost in Africa in 2015 was Int$ 2,983,187,560,197. Of this amount, 25.17%, 57.84% and 16.99% were incurred by the economies of the countries comprising Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. Of the total continental indirect cost, 36.9%, 10.5%, 13.7%, 17.0%, 7.6%, 6.8% and 7.5% were associated with people aged 0-4, 5-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70 years or older, respectively. Most of the total indirect cost (56.61% was attributable to maternal conditions, AIDS, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, neglected tropicald diseases (NTDs, non-communicable diseases and traffic injuries. Approximately half (47% of this cost could be avoided (or saved every year if the 3 (health targets of the SDG were fully met. Conclusion: The study estimated the total indirect cost of illness due to all causes by age group and country economic classification. The annual indirect cost is substantial. The findings contained in this paper suggest that health system strengthening should focus on both rich and poor countries, people of all ages and specific disease categories.

  18. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  19. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  20. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  1. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi......Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models...... present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using...

  2. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  3. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...

  4. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  5. Studies on direct and indirect electrochemical immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches to electrochemical immunoassay are reported. The first approach was an indirect method, involving an electroactive, enzyme-catalysed, substrate to product reaction. Conditions were optimised for the amperometric detection of para-aminophenol, the electroactive product of the alkaline phosphatase catalysed hydrolysis of a new substrate, p-aminophenylphosphate, after separation by HPLC. The second approach involved the direct electrochemical detection of an immunoglo...

  6. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  7. Software Prefetching for Indirect Memory Accesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Sam; Jones, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Many modern data processing and HPC workloads are heavily memory-latency bound. A tempting proposition to solve this is software prefetching, where special non-blocking loads are used to bring data into the cache hierarchy just before being required. However, these are difficult to insert to effectively improve performance, and techniques for automatic insertion are currently limited. This paper develops a novel compiler pass to automatically generate software prefetches for indirect mem...

  8. Draft of textbook focused on indirect taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about draft of textbook which is focused on indirect taxes for business school. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on teaching tax issues at business school. Readers are introduced with basic studying documents, for example framework educational program and school educational program. In the following part I have conducted didactic analysis of curriculum and textbook of economics for business schools. The draft of t...

  9. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  10. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  12. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  13. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  14. Comparison of stabilities in translucency, fluorescence and opalescence of direct and indirect composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lee, Young-Keun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate translucency, fluorescence and opalescence stabilities of direct and indirect composite resins after aging. One direct (16 shades) and two indirect composite resins (16 and 26 shades) were investigated. Resins were filled in a mold (1 mm thick) and light cured; post-curings were performed for indirect resins. Color was measured before and after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling on a reflection spectrophotometer in reflectance and transmittance modes to calculate parameters for translucency (TP), fluorescence (FL) and opalescence (OP). Differences in the changes of TP, FL and OP after aging by the type of resin were determined by t test, and those were also determined by one-way ANOVA with the factor of the brand or the shade group (P resins; and were -2.0 to 1.8, -0.9 to 0.4 and -2.9 to 3.7, respectively, for indirect resins. Changes in TP were not significantly different by the type of resin, but those in FL and OP were different (P = 0.05). Changes in optical parameters were influenced by the brand or the shade group of the resins (P resins varied depending on type, brand or shade group. Aging significantly affected fluorescence and opalescence, but not translucency, of indirect resins compared to those of direct resins.

  15. Indirect Measurement of Energy Density of Soft PZT Ceramic Utilizing Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruan, Muangjai; Unruan, Sujitra; Inkong, Yutthapong; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on an indirect measurement of energy density of soft PZT ceramic utilizing mechanical stress. The method works analogous to the Olsen cycle and allows for a large amount of electro-mechanical energy conversion. A maximum energy density of 350 kJ/m3/cycle was found under 0-312 MPa and 1-20 kV/cm of applied mechanical stress and electric field, respectively. The obtained result is substantially higher than the results reported in previous studies of PZT materials utilizing a direct piezoelectric effect.

  16. Cell cycle phases in the unequal mother/daughter cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Chlebowicz-Sledziewska, E; Fangman, W L

    1984-11-01

    During cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother cells produce buds (daughter cells) which are smaller and have longer cell cycles. We performed experiments to compare the lengths of cell cycle phases in mothers and daughters. As anticipated from earlier indirect observations, the longer cell cycle time of daughter cells is accounted for by a longer G1 interval. The S-phase and the G2-phase are of the same duration in mother and daughter cells. An analysis of five isogenic strains shows that cell cycle phase lengths are independent of cell ploidy and mating type.

  17. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  18. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  19. Indirect evidence of calcitonin secretion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P; Nuti, R

    1976-09-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin, a large amount of calcium given orally, pentagastrin and glucagon on plasma 47Ca radioactivity curves in subjects pretreated with 47Ca was examined. 2. A sudden increase of plasma radioactivity after intravenous administration of calcitonin and pentagastrin and after the oral calcium load was observed in normal subjects; the intravenous infusion of glucagon was less effective. 3. Two thyroparathyroidectomized patients who responded to the calcitonin infusion did not respond to the oral calcium load. 4. These data may be considered to offer indirect evidence of endogenous calcitonin secretion in man.

  20. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  1. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  2. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  3. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  4. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  5. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  6. On the Relative Size of Direct and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatos, Gerasimos T.

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the standard analytical apparatuses for direct and indirect tax evasion to incorporate forward indirect tax shift in a monopolistically competitive environment, this paper maintains that indirect tax evasion would exceed for sure direct tax evasion only under consumer risk neutrality and a tax policy zeroing the tax shift. Also, in the presence of tax evasion, there cannot be optimal direct-indirect tax mix, because tax evasion is accompanied by uncertainty and hence, nonlinearities...

  7. Microdosimetric concepts for indirect radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is the aim of microdosimetric models to get information about the influence of microscopic energy deposition by radiation on radiation reactions. Two parameters are always of interest: the energy necessary to produce a certain reaction and the volume in which this energy has to be desposited. In the simple case of an aqueous solution with point targets a complete description of radiation reactions in targets with various concentrations can be given. This model takes into consideration the distinct energy deposition on the particle track, diffusion of radicals and a mean energy necessary for a certain reaction at the target. Typical dose effect curves are obtained which allow the determination of all these quantities from experiments. The model has been tested with the oxydation of iron atoms in aqueous solutions and has been applied for more complex targets such as different alcohols and amino acids. The oxygen consumption in these reactions is used as an easy method for continuous measurement of these indirect reactions. It is the aim of such experiments to get enough quantitative microscopic data on indirect radiation reactions that these reactions can also be followed in living cells

  8. The indirect strategies of internationalization of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work are, as mentioned in the title, the indirect strategies of internationalization of companies. The first part talks about the new business environment, the factors that lead to changes and their implications. It is at the same time the business context, which must be taken into consideration that determines the success of companies in the new business environment. In this paper, the emphasis is on company business in international markets, and the selection of appropriate strategies of internationalization, which will be responsible for this new business environment. There are many reasons that are discussed in this paper, and would rather indicate that partners from different countries to accept different strategies, rather than opting for a strategy of export, or a strategy of direct investments abroad. The dynamic technical and technological development, and its universal impact, among other relevant factors, put in the first place the importance of different strategies which is achieved through technology transfer, knowledge and experience whereby the exports, as a classic strategy of involvement in international trade, becomes significantly more difficult. Also, the internationalization of enterprises through direct investment abroad, involves many difficulties related to fitting in a foreign enterprise environment, and a high risk strategy. In addition, there is still a large number of countries do not allow wholly owned foreign enterprises. The paper discusses the value of various indirect internationalization strategy, which may be useful for those domestic companies that are in front of problem the choice of acceptable strategies of internationalization.

  9. Indirect costs of teaching in Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, T A; Willan, A R; Cox, M A; Green, A

    1991-01-01

    We sought to determine whether there are indirect costs of teaching in Canadian hospitals. To examine cost differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals we estimated two cost functions: cost per case and cost per patient-day (dependent variables). The independent variables were number of beds, occupancy rate, teaching ratio (number of residents and interns per 100 beds), province, urbanicity (the population density of the county in which the hospital was situated) and wage index. Within each hospital we categorized a random sample of patient discharges according to case mix and severity of illness using age and standard diagnosis and procedure codes. Teaching ratio and case severity were each highly correlated positively with the dependent variables. The other variables that led to higher costs in teaching hospitals were wage rates and number of beds. Our regression model could serve as the basis of a reimbursement system, adjusted for severity and teaching status, particularly in provinces moving toward introducing case-weighting mechanisms into their payment model. Even if teaching hospitals were paid more than nonteaching hospitals because of the difference in the severity of illness there should be an additional allowance to cover the indirect costs of teaching. PMID:1898870

  10. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  11. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  12. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  13. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  14. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  15. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  16. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Direct contra naïve-indirect comparison of clinical failure rates between high-viscosity GIC and conventional amalgam restorations: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Naïve-indirect comparisons are comparisons between competing clinical interventions' evidence from separate (uncontrolled) trials. Direct comparisons are comparisons within randomised control trials (RCTs). The objective of this empirical study is to test the null-hypothesis that trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparisons and from direct comparisons/RCTs regarding the failure rates of amalgam and direct high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) restorations in permanent posterior teeth have similar direction and magnitude. A total of 896 citations were identified through systematic literature search. From these, ten and two uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies for HVGIC and amalgam, respectively, were included for naïve-indirect comparison and could be matched with three out twenty RCTs. Summary effects sizes were computed as Odds ratios (OR; 95% Confidence intervals) and compared with those from RCTs. Trend directions were inferred from 95% Confidence interval overlaps and direction of point estimates; magnitudes of performance differences were inferred from the median point estimates (OR) with 25% and 75% percentile range, for both types of comparison. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for statistically significant differences between point estimates of both comparison types. Trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparison based on evidence from uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies and from direct comparisons based on RCT evidence are not the same. The distributions of the point estimates differed significantly for both comparison types (Mann-Whitney U  =  25, n(indirect)  =  26; n(direct)  =  8; p  =  0.0013, two-tailed). The null-hypothesis was rejected. Trends and performance differences inferred from either comparison between HVGIC and amalgam restorations failure rates in permanent posterior teeth are not the same. It is recommended that clinical practice

  18. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  19. Haloperidol Selectively Remodels Striatal Indirect Pathway Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, Luke E; Graves, Steven M; Chan, C Savio; Surmeier, D James

    2017-01-01

    Typical antipsychotic drugs are widely thought to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by antagonizing dopamine D2 receptors expressed by striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). What is less clear is why antipsychotics have a therapeutic latency of weeks. Using a combination of physiological and anatomical approaches in ex vivo brain slices from transgenic mice, it was found that 2 weeks of haloperidol treatment induced both intrinsic and synaptic adaptations specifically within indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs). Perphenazine treatment had similar effects. Some of these adaptations were homeostatic, including a drop in intrinsic excitability and pruning of excitatory corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses. However, haloperidol treatment also led to strengthening of a subset of excitatory corticostriatal synapses. This slow remodeling of corticostriatal iSPN circuitry is likely to play a role in mediating the delayed therapeutic action of neuroleptics. PMID:27577602

  20. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  1. Indirect adaptive control of discrete chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salarieh, Hassan; Shahrokhi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an indirect adaptive control algorithm is proposed to stabilize the fixed points of discrete chaotic systems. It is assumed that the functionality of the chaotic dynamics is known but the system parameters are unknown. This assumption is usually applicable to many chaotic systems, such as the Henon map, logistic and many other nonlinear maps. Using the recursive-least squares technique, the system parameters are identified and based on the feedback linearization method an adaptive controller is designed for stabilizing the fixed points, or unstable periodic orbits of the chaotic maps. The stability of the proposed scheme has been shown and the effectiveness of the control algorithm has been demonstrated through computer simulations

  2. Indirect land use change – Help beyond the hype?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The ‘food vs. fuel’ debate inspired the concept of indirect land use change (iLUC). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for iLUC are proposed for inclusion into carbon footprints (CF) of biofuels. The range of published iLUC values is enormous: from about 200% below, up to 1700% above the CF values of fossil fuels. From the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA) and CF science, single iLUC factors are currently more representative for the approach or model used than for the crop or biofuel assessed. The scientific robustness is not sufficient for political and corporate decision making. None of the relevant international standards of LCA or CF require the inclusion of iLUC. The iLUC concept deserves credit for raising awareness of a relevant problem but it is not the solution. Science and policy should focus on proactive real world mitigation of iLUC rather than reactive and theoretical iLUC factors. - Highlights: • There are international accounting standards for LCA and CF but not for iLUC. • LCA and CF are based on physical flows; iLUC is based on market predictions. • Published iLUC values range from 200% below, up to 1700% above the CF of fossil fuels. • No relevant international standard of LCA or CF requires the inclusion of iLUC. • iLUC was successful at raising awareness but it will not help mitigation

  3. Direct and indirect effects of copper-contaminated sediments on the functions of model freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardham, Stephanie; Chariton, Anthony A; Hose, Grant C

    2015-01-01

    Copper is acutely toxic to, and directly affects, primary producers and decomposers, which are key players in essential processes such as the nutrient cycle in freshwater ecosystems. Even though the indirect effects of metals (for example effects due to changes in species interactions) may be more common than direct effects, little is known about the indirect effects of copper on primary producers and decomposers. The effects of copper on phytoplankton, macrophytes, periphyton and organic matter decomposition in an outdoor lentic mesocosm facility were assessed, and links between the responses examined. Copper directly decreased macrophyte growth, subsurface organic matter decomposition, and the potential for high phytoplankton Chlorophyll a concentrations. However, periphyton cover and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the sediment were stimulated by the presence of copper. These latter responses were attributed to indirect effects, due to a reduction in grazing pressure from snails, particularly Physa acuta, in the higher copper-contaminated mesocosms. This permitted the growth of periphyton and other heterotrophs, ultimately increasing decomposition at the sediment surface. The present study demonstrates the pronounced influence indirect effects may have on ecological function, findings that may not be observed in traditional laboratory studies (which utilize single species or simplistic communities).

  4. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Prediction Error from Application of Kohler Theory: Importance for the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    In situ observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the GISS GCM Model II' with an online aerosol simulation and explicit aerosol-cloud interactions are used to quantify the uncertainty in radiative forcing and autoconversion rate from application of Kohler theory. Simulations suggest that application of Koehler theory introduces a 10-20% uncertainty in global average indirect forcing and 2-11% uncertainty in autoconversion. Regionally, the uncertainty in indirect forcing ranges between 10-20%, and 5-50% for autoconversion. These results are insensitive to the range of updraft velocity and water vapor uptake coefficient considered. This study suggests that Koehler theory (as implemented in climate models) is not a significant source of uncertainty for aerosol indirect forcing but can be substantial for assessments of aerosol effects on the hydrological cycle in climatically sensitive regions of the globe. This implies that improvements in the representation of GCM subgrid processes and aerosol size distribution will mostly benefit indirect forcing assessments. Predictions of autoconversion, by nature, will be subject to considerable uncertainty; its reduction may require explicit representation of size-resolved aerosol composition and mixing state.

  5. 75 FR 62319 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9, -9A, -11, -15, -17, and -17R Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... overhauling fan blade leading edges at the first shop visit after 4,000 cycles-in-service (CIS) since the last... proposed to require overhauling fan blade leading edges at the first shop visit after 4,000 CIS since the... Visit Delta Airlines, Inc. requests clarification of the shop visit definition in paragraph (i) of the...

  6. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  7. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  8. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  9. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  10. Performance comparison of direct and indirect lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, F.; Morse, O.; Clark, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a retrofitted indirect lighting system was compared to the performance of a typical de-lamped direct lighting system in a partitioned office space. Power, illuminance and luminance measurements were made for the de-lamped direct lighting system and after installation of the indirect lighting system with various lamp and ballast combinations. Using the same lamps and ballasts, average workplace illuminance was slightly higher with indirect lighting than with direct lighting. With indirect lighting, workplace lumen efficacy was 4.5% lower due to the higher power draw of the lamps in the more open and cooler indirect fixtures. Indirect lighting with 36 watt T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts achieved an initial average workplace illuminance of 45 foot-candles in the partitioned office space at only 1.1 w/ft 2

  11. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  12. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  13. Indirectly cooled large thin superconducting CDF solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kunitaka; Mori, Shigeki; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Saito, Ryusei; Asano, Katsuhiko.

    1985-01-01

    The manufacturing technique of the indirectly cooled large thin superconducting solenoid for the collider detector facility (CDF solenoid) has been studied through cooperation of University of Tsukuba and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics of the Ministry of Education of Japan, and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S. Fabrication and testing of the solenoid has recently been completed by Hitachi. The CDF solenoid has a large-sized thin structure for meeting the requirement by experiments to be applied. Hitachi has thus developed a variety of new technologies including the design standard, coil cooling method, material selection, and manufacturing technique in accordance with experimental data, which were confirmed in a series of analyses and tests made on various prototypes. The CDF solenoid, built using Hitachi's new technologies, is of the world's top class among equipment of this type. This paper outlines the design criteria for the major components employed in the CDF solenoid and the test results of the solenoid. (author)

  14. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  15. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  16. Indirect Sensitivities to the Scale of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Olive, Keith A; Weiglein, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Precision measurements, now and at a future linear electron-positron collider (ILC), can provide indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry. We illustrate the present-day and possible future ILC sensitivities within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM), in which there are three independent soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m_{1/2}, m_0 and A_0. We analyze the present and future sensitivities separately for M_W, sin^2(theta_eff), (g-2)_mu, BR(b -> s gamma), BR(B_s -> mu+ mu-), M_h and Higgs branching ratios. We display the observables as functions of m_{1/2}, fixing m_0 so as to obtain the cold dark matter density allowed by WMAP and other cosmological data for specific values of A_0, tan beta and mu > 0. In a second step, we investigate the combined sensitivity of the currently available precision observables, M_W, sin^2(theta_eff), (g-2)_mu and BR(b -> s gamma), by performing a chi^2 analysis. The current data are in very good agreement with ...

  17. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  18. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  19. Noninvasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A noninvasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present noninvasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45-degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (males and females) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the noninvasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, noninvasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  1. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  2. Indirect detection methods: Looking for what is not there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Indirect detection allows one to monitor species that normally do not give a response. It has grown from an intellectual curiosity to become an extremely useful tool. For volume displacement, polarimetry gives the best results. For charge displacement, ion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis are ideal situations for applying indirect fluorescence detection. LOD surpasses all but the most specialized detection schemes. Future developments in systems specially designed for indirect detection should make these schemes even more powerful

  3. Indirect Catastrophic Injuries in Olympic Styles of Wrestling in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce. Objectives: To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The injur...

  4. Tipping and Concentration in Markets with Indirect Network Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre H. Dubé; Günter J. Hitsch; Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for measuring “tipping”—the increase in a firm's market share dominance caused by indirect network effects. Our measure compares the expected concentration in a market to the hypothetical expected concentration that would arise in the absence of indirect network effects. In practice, this measure requires a model that can predict the counterfactual market concentration under different parameter values capturing the strength of indirect network effects. We build...

  5. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  6. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  7. Suggestions for future Pu fuel cycle designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Recommended follow-up Pu Studies: • Verification of VSOP-A vs. VSOP 99/05, by comparison with MCNP. • DLOFC temperatures with Multi-group Tinte. • Redesign of the reactor: - Replace small concentrated Pu fuel kernels with large (500 μm diameter) diluted kernels to reduce burn-up. - Switch from the direct Brayton cycle to the indirect Rankine steam cycle to reduce fuel temperatures. - Add neutron poisons to the reflectors to suppress power and temperature peaks and to produce negative uniform temperature reactivity coefficients

  8. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  9. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS.... The indirect teaching adjustment factor equals [e (raised to the power of .2822×the ratio of residents...

  10. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the

  11. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  12. The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás J. T. Baliño; Charles Enoch; William E. Alexander

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary policy have been introduced. Case Studies are presented for Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Poland.

  13. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant” as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant. So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s memory for the identity of the speaker. Participants read a direct or an indirect speech version of a story and then addressed statements to one of the four protagonists of the story in a memory task. We found better source memory at the level of protagonist gender after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 1–3. When the story was rewritten to make the protagonists more distinctive, we also found an effect of speech type on source memory at the level of the individual, with better memory after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 3–4. Memory for the content of the story, however, was not influenced by speech type (Exp. 4. While previous research showed that direct speech may enhance memory for how something was said, we conclude that indirect speech enhances memory for who said what.

  14. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  15. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific...

  16. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  17. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  18. Smoking Cessation Is Associated With Lower Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Bruno, Marianna; Emir, Birol; Li, Vicky W; Goren, Amir

    2018-06-01

    This study quantified differences in indirect costs due to decreased work productivity between current and former smokers. Former smokers were further categorized by number of years since quitting to assess corresponding differences. Data on employed individuals were obtained from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; N = 75,000). Indirect costs were calculated for current smokers and former smokers from weekly wages based on age and sex. The annual total indirect costs for current smokers were $1327.53, $1560.18, and $1839.87 higher than for those who quit 0 to 4 years, 5 to 10 years, and more than or equal to 11 years prior, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean total indirect costs between the former smoker groups. Current smokers showed significantly higher total annual indirect costs compared with former smokers, independently of the number of years since quitting smoking.

  19. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  20. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  2. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    -related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas......Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  3. Restoration of oscillation in network of oscillators in presence of direct and indirect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K. [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India); Bhowmick, Sourav K. [Department of Electronics, Asutosh College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Ghosh, Dibakar, E-mail: diba.ghosh@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)

    2016-10-23

    The suppression of oscillations in coupled systems may lead to several unwanted situations, which requires a suitable treatment to overcome the suppression. In this paper, we show that the environmental coupling in the presence of direct interaction, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified by introducing a feedback factor in the coupling scheme in order to restore the oscillation. We inspect how the introduction of the feedback factor helps to resurrect oscillation from various kinds of death states. We numerically verify the resurrection of oscillations for two paradigmatic limit cycle systems, namely Landau–Stuart and Van der Pol oscillators and also in generic chaotic Lorenz oscillator. We also study the effect of parameter mismatch in the process of restoring oscillation for coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • Amplitude death is observed using direct and indirect coupling. • Revival of oscillation using feedback parameter is discussed. • Restoration of oscillation is observed in limit cycle and chaotic systems.

  4. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-01-01

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements ( and lt; 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications

  5. Indirect Energy for Road and Railway Transportation in Sweden; Indirekt energi foer svenska vaeg- och jaernvaegstransporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2005-02-01

    Besides energy for propulsion, there are a number of considerable indirect energy categories in the life-cycle of transport systems, e.g. construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and manufacture and service of vehicles. Indirect energy represents 64-66% of the total amount of energy used in the railway sector, while the corresponding share in the road sector is 42-45%. Consequently, decision-making and planning processes regarding transport infrastructure and environmental impacts should also consider indirect energy-use. Two energy case studies have been carried through; the railroad project Botniabanan in the north of Sweden, and the motorway tunnel Soedra Laenken in Stockholm. The result for Botniabanan corresponds with the Swedish railroad average, but Botniabanan contributes to decreased energy use in the transport sector as a whole. The infra structural energy use for Soedra Laenken is considerably higher than the Swedish road average. Soedra Laenken also contributes to an increase of the energy use in the transport sector as a whole.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ERYTHROCYTES OSMOTIC FRAGILITY TEST PERFORMED IN CHILDREN WITH INDIRECT HYPERBILIRUB1NEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stojanović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes is useful in the diagnosis of different types of hereditary hemolytic anemias followed with hyperbilirubinemia. Hemolytic anemias, characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells, are usually the consequence of many metabolic abnormalities like cellular membrane defect, erythrocyte enzymes defect or hemoglobin abnormalities – hemoglobinopathies. The object of our study was to assess the relationship between osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes and severity of indirect hyperbilirubinemia in some inherited erythrocytes’ disorders. We did the osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes by using Dacie, s method with normal values of erythrocytes hemolysis between 0,48 to 0,34% NaCl (minimal to maximal hemolysis. In hereditary spherocytosis, fragility of erythrocytes was increased (min. at 0,50 % NaCl to max. 0,44 % NaCl . In the child with β- thalassemia and cycle cell anemia erythrocytes fragility was decreased (min . at 0,42 to max. 0,32 % NaCl, that is 0,40% min. of hemolysis and 0,34% max. hemolysis in the second case. In newborn infants with high levels of indirect bilirubin in serum as a cause of physiological jaundice, the osmotic fragility test was within a normal range. Our findings point out the diagnostic value of osmotic fragility test in assessing patients with the indirect hyperbilirubinemia. This simple and important diagnostic test can be performed in small laboratories.

  7. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Qiu Tian; Shen Xiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. (paper)

  8. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  9. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  10. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  11. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  12. Comparison of desiccant air conditioning systems with different indirect evaporative air coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey; Worek, William M.; Drąg, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical study of desiccant air conditioning systems is presented. • The ε-NTU model is used for the analysis. • Different arrangements of the desiccant systems were compared. • The systems were compared under different operating conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical analysis of three desiccant air-conditioning systems equipped with different indirect evaporative air coolers: (1) the cross-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger (HMX), (2) the regenerative counter-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger and (3) the standard cross-flow evaporative air cooler. To analyze the desiccant wheel and the indirect evaporative air coolers, the modified ε-NTU-model was used. The simulations were performed under assumption that the desiccant wheel is regenerated with air heated to relatively low temperature values (50–60 °C), which can be produced with solar panels in typical moderate climatic conditions. It was established that the main advantage of the presented solutions is that they can provide comfort conditions even with less effective dehumidification. The different systems were compared under variable selected operational factors (i.e. inlet air temperature, humidity and regeneration air temperature). The analysis allowed establishing the advantages and disadvantages of presented solutions and allowed estimating their application potential.

  13. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process

  14. An Indirect Assessment of the War Against Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson Jr, C. M

    1992-01-01

    ...? General Schwartzkopf's statement of intent reveals that his strategy for the conduct of operations reflected an appreciation for the "indirect approach," of Sun Tzu and his erstwhile protege, B. H. Liddell-Hart...

  15. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  16. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  17. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimation. We propose to solve this inconsistency by jointly estimating the nuisance and the structural parameters. Under standard assumptions, this estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. A condition for the identification of ARMA plus noise is obtained. The proposed methodology is used......We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...

  18. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  19. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  20. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... in property shares is more risky than commercial property due to the risk ... of the stock market, it was discovered that there is a strong positive relationship ...

  1. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  2. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller

  3. Ancestry of indirect techniques for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, L.

    1989-01-01

    Historical citations concerning the origins of coded-aperture imaging are corrected. Another scheme is presented for synthetic indirect imaging to overcome certain shortcomings of simple coded apertures. Pairs of Fresnel zone patterns are used to create moire patterns that can be Fourier transformed for image reconstruction. It is also conjectured that image reconstructions that are constrained to be nonnegative should overcome certain complaints concerning indirect imaging. 20 refs

  4. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect costs of GHG projects are very important in the evaluation of such projects. In many cases they are more important than the direct costs. This paper has shown what such costs consist of and how they may be estimated. As countries prepare their mitigation strategies, it is very important that they develop tools for the assessment of these indirect costs and use these tools in the appropriate manner. Hopefully, this paper will point them in the right direction. (au) 11 refs

  5. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijantini, Wijantini

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported opera...

  6. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Environmental context may influence the sign, strength, andmechanisms of species interactions but few studies have experimentally tested the potential for abiotic conditions to mediate interactions through multiple cooccurring stress pathways. Abiotic conditionsmay mediate species interactions...... by directly or indirectly influencing the effects of habitat-modifying organisms that are capable of simultaneously ameliorating and exacerbating multiple stressors. Itwas hypothesized that light availability changes seagrassmetabolismand thereby indirectly regulates bivalve habitat modification...

  7. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2018-04-01

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.

  8. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  9. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  11. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  12. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  13. Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Zachary C [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL

    2016-06-14

    Amorphous powders often possess high hardness values and other useful mechanical properties. However, densifying these powders into complex shapes while retaining their unique properties is a challenge with standard processing routes. Pressureless sintering, for example, can densify intricate green parts composed of rapidly-solidified powders. But this process typically involves long exposures to elevated temperatures, during which the non-equilibrium microstructure of the powder can evolve towards lower energy configurations with inferior properties. Pressure-assisted compaction techniques, by contrast, can consolidate green parts with simple shapes while preserving the microstructure and properties of the powder feedstock. But parts made with these processes generally require additional post-processing, including machining, which introduces new challenges due to the high hardness of these materials. One processing route that can potentially avoid these issues is Indirect 3D Printing (I-3DP; aka Binder Jetting) followed by melt infiltration. In I-3DP, an organic binder is used to join powder feedstock, layer-by-layer, into a green part. In melt infiltration, this green preform is densified by placing it in contact with a molten alloy that wets the preform and wicks into the pores as a result of capillary forces. When these processes are paired together, they offer two key advantages for the densification of rapidly-solidified powders. The first advantage is that the timescale associated with melt infiltration is on the order of seconds for parts with cm-scale dimensions. So in many instances, infiltration requires only a brief thermal excursion that does not degrade the feedstock’s microstructure. The second advantage is that the combination of binder-jet 3D printing and melt infiltration gives fully-dense net shape objects, minimizing the need for subsequent post-processing. In this work, fully-dense, net shape objects have been fabricated from an amorphous

  14. Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. Here we implement the IMN scheme into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on H2SO4-H2O binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN, the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~3, CCN burden by ~10% (at 0.2% supersaturation to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation, and cloud droplet number burden by ~18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF by 3.67 W m−2 (more negative and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W m−2 (more positive, with large spatial variations. The effect of ionization on SWCF derived from this study (3.67 W m−2 is a factor of ~3 higher that of a previous study (1.15 W m−2 based on a different ion nucleation scheme and climate model. Based on the present CAM5 simulation, the 5-yr mean impacts of solar cycle induced changes in ionization rates on CCN and cloud forcing are small (~−0.02 W m−2 but have larger inter-annual (from −0.18 to 0.17 W m−2 and spatial variations.

  15. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  16. The effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite veneering material to three implant framework materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizuka, Mai; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the shear-bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material to three different implant framework materials (zirconia ceramics, gold alloy, and titanium), and to investigate the effect of surface pretreatment by air-particle abrasion and four priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite (Ceramage) was bonded to three framework materials (n = 80): commercially pure titanium (CP- Ti ), ADA (American Dental Association)-type 4 casting gold alloy (Type IV), and zirconia ceramics (Zirconia) with or without airborne-particle abrasion. Before bonding, the surface of the specimens was treated using no (control) or one of four priming agents: Alloy Primer (ALP), Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP), Metal Link Primer (MLP), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear-bond strength was determined after 24-h wet storage. Data were analyzed using Steel-Dwass for multiple comparisons, and Mann-Whitney U-test (P = 0.05). For both CP- Ti and Zirconia substrates, three groups, ALP, EOP, and MLP, showed significantly higher bond strengths (P composite material to commercially pure titanium and zirconia frameworks. Combined use of a thione monomer with a phosphoric monomer enhances the bond strengths to airborne-particle abraded type IV gold alloy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...

  18. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  20. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  1. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  2. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  4. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  6. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  7. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported operating income, the estimated costs are overstated. The simple regressions analysis suggest that the indirect cost of financial distress significantly increases with size, leverage, number of creditors, and poor industry performance, but is not related to degree of bank loan reliance. The findings provide a weak support for the financial distress theory which suggests that conflicts of interest render the costs of financial distress.

  8. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    This thesis addresses the topic of control of flexible demand to provide support to the operation of the electric power system. We focus on the indirect control approach, a framework that enables demand response by means of a consumption incentive signal. Initially, the concept of flexibility...... a shift in the consumption according to an indirect control signal. We present from simple control algorithms with a few requirements up to model predictive control strategies. The performance of the indirect control algorithms are compared by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations using Power...... and storage in the operation of the future power system, we develop a model predictive control strategy for a smart building with the objective of supplying iii space heating and providing regulating power to the grid according to a dynamic electricity price. We named this application energy replacement...

  9. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (Pcomposite material and monolithic zirconia.

  10. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  11. Estimating direct and indirect costs of premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeff; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Dean, Bonnie; Wong, John; Wade, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the economic impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on the employer. Data were collected from 374 women aged 18-45 with regular menses. Direct costs were quantified using administrative claims of these patients and the Medicare Fee Schedule. Indirect costs were quantified by both self-reported days of work missed and lost productivity at work. Regression analyses were used to develop a model to project PMS-related direct and indirect costs. A total of 29.6% (n = 111) of the participants were diagnosed with PMS. A PMS diagnosis was associated with an average annual increase of $59 in direct costs (P increase in direct medical costs and a large increase in indirect costs.

  12. Characterization of thermophysical properties of phase change materials for non-membrane based indirect solar desalination application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, J.; Mansoor, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal cycling of paraffin waxes phase change materials. • Differential Scanning Calorimetry and thermogravimetric study of the materials. • Characterization of the phase change materials via Temperature History Method. • Investigation of suitability of materials for indirect solar desalination system. • Paraffin waxes are suitable for non-membrane indirect solar desalination system. - Abstract: Phase change material as a thermal energy storage medium has been widely incorporated in various technologies like solar air/water heating, buildings, and desalination for efficient use and management of fluctuating solar energy. Temperature and thermal energy requirements dictate the selection of an appropriate phase change material for its application in various engineering systems. In this work, two phase change materials belonging to organic paraffin wax class have been characterized to obtain their thermophysical properties. The melting/solidification temperatures, latent heat of fusion and heat capacities of the phase change materials have been investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis and Temperature History Method. Thermal cycles up to 300 are performed to investigate melting and solidification reversibility as well as degradation over time. It is shown that the selected paraffin waxes have reversible phase change with no degradation of thermophysical properties over time. It is also shown that melting/solidification temperature and thermal energy storage capabilities make them suitable for their application as a thermal energy storage medium, in high temperature vapour compression, multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation processes of non-membrane based indirect desalination systems.

  13. Direct and indirect pathways for choosing objects and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Masaharu; Isoda, Masaki; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2018-02-23

    A prominent target of the basal ganglia is the superior colliculus (SC) which controls gaze orientation (saccadic eye movement in primates) to an important object. This 'object choice' is crucial for choosing an action on the object. SC is innervated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) which is controlled mainly by the caudate nucleus (CD). This CD-SNr-SC circuit is sensitive to the values of individual objects and facilitates saccades to good objects. The object values are processed differently in two parallel circuits: flexibly by the caudate head (CDh) and stably by the caudate tail (CDt). To choose good objects, we need to reject bad objects. In fact, these contrasting functions are accomplished by the circuit originating from CDt: The direct pathway focuses on good objects and facilitates saccades to them; the indirect pathway focuses on bad objects and suppresses saccades to them. Inactivation of CDt deteriorated the object choice, because saccades to bad objects were no longer suppressed. This suggests that the indirect pathway is important for object choice. However, the direct and indirect pathways for 'object choice', which aim at the same action (i.e., saccade), may not work for 'action choice'. One possibility is that circuits controlling different actions are connected through the indirect pathway. Additional connections of the indirect pathway with brain areas outside the basal ganglia may also provide a wider range of behavioral choice. In conclusion, basal ganglia circuits are composed of the basic direct/indirect pathways and additional connections and thus have acquired multiple functions. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  15. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  16. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  17. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  18. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  19. Direct and indirect two-photon processes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1986-07-01

    The expressions describing direct and indirect two-photon absorption in crystals are given. They are valid both near and far from the energy gap. A perturbative approach through two different band models is adopted. The effects of the non-parabolicity and the degeneracy of the energy bands are considered. The numerical results are compared with the other theories and with a recent experimental data in Zn and AgCl. It is shown that the dominant transition mechanisms are of the allowed-allowed type near and far from the gap for both direct and indirect processes. (author)

  20. Indirect search for neutralino dark matter with high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan; Kao, Chung

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the prospects of indirect searches for supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. Relic neutralinos gravitationally accumulate in the Sun and their annihilations produce high energy neutrinos. Muon neutrinos of this origin can be seen in large detectors such as AMANDA, IceCube, and ANTARES. We evaluate the relic density and the detection rate in several models--the minimal supersymmetric model, minimal supergravity, and supergravity with nonuniversal Higgs boson masses at the grand unification scale. We make realistic estimates for the indirect detection rates including effects of the muon detection threshold, quark hadronization, and solar absorption. We find good prospects for detection of neutralinos with mass above 200 GeV

  1. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...... and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...

  2. The use of gas based energy conversion cycles for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, M.; Haubensack, D.; Alpy, N.; Gerber, A.; Daid, F.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors, CEA, AREVA and EDF are involved in a substantial effort providing both significant expertise and original work in order to investigate the interest to use a gas based energy conversion cycle as an alternative to the classical steam cycle. These gas cycles consist in different versions of the Brayton cycle, various types of gas being considered (helium, nitrogen, argon, separately or mixed, sub or supercritical carbon dioxide) as well as various cycle arrangements (indirect, indirect / combined cycles). The interest of such cycles is analysed in details by thermodynamic calculations and cycle optimisations. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison between gas based energy conversion cycles from the viewpoint of the overall plant efficiency. Key factors affecting the Brayton cycle efficiency include the turbine inlet temperature, compressors and turbine efficiencies, recuperator effectiveness and cycle pressure losses. A nitrogen Brayton cycle at high pressure (between 100 and 180 bar) could appear as a potential near-term solution of classical gas power conversion system for maximizing the plant efficiency. At long-term, supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle appears very promising for Sodium Fast Reactors, with a potential of high efficiency using even at a core outlet temperature of 545 deg. C. (authors)

  3. Parametric studies on different gas turbine cycles for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Gu Yihua

    2005-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with turbine cycle is considered as one of the leading candidates for future nuclear power plants. In this paper, the various types of HTGR gas turbine cycles are concluded as three typical cycles of direct cycle, closed indirect cycle and open indirect cycle. Furthermore they are theoretically converted to three Brayton cycles of helium, nitrogen and air. Those three types of Brayton cycles are thermodynamically analyzed and optimized. The results show that the variety of gas affects the cycle pressure ratio more significantly than other cycle parameters, however, the optimized cycle efficiencies of the three Brayton cycles are almost the same. In addition, the turbomachines which are required for the three optimized Brayton cycles are aerodynamically analyzed and compared and their fundamental characteristics are obtained. Helium turbocompressor has lower stage pressure ratio and more stage number than those for nitrogen and air machines, while helium and nitrogen turbocompressors have shorter blade length than that for air machine

  4. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked diseases examined by indirect linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgulova, I; Putzova, M; Soldatova, I; Krautova, L; Pecnova, L; Mika, J; Kren, R; Potuznikova, P; Stejskal, D

    2015-01-01

    Many centers of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic offer preimplantation genetic diagnosis with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to couples requiring preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of X-linked diseases. However, this process results in discarding all male embryos and is not able to distinguish a carrier or healthy female embryo in X-linked recessive disorders. The main aim of this study was to summarize a six-year period of PGD of X-linked monogenic diseases using indirect linkage analysis. We wanted to accentuate the advantage indirect analysis of PGD using multiple displacement amplification (MDA) followed by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. We present forty-six PGD cycles, including pre-case haplotyping (PGH) panel, for fifteen X-linked diseases. Embryo transfer was made thirty-eight times and gravidity was confirmed in thirteen female probands with a success rate of pregnancy calculated at 42 %. PGD procedure using MDA amplification followed by STR analysis provides help in identifying genetic defects within embryos prior to implantation. The reliability of the method was also supported by high pregnancy rate compared to other publications, which commonly achieved a 30-35 % success rate (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 33).

  6. Prediction of direct and indirect genetic gains and genotypic correlations in rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters, genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and direct and indirect genetic gains among and within rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis progenies. The experiment was set up at the Municipality of Jaú, SP, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, with 22 treatments (progenies, 6 replicates, and 10 plants per plot at a spacing of 3x3 m. Three‑year‑old progenies were assessed for girth, rubber yield, and bark thickness by direct and indirect gains and genotypic correlations. The number of latex vessel rings showed the best correlations, correlating positively and significantly with girth and bark thickness. Selection gains among progenies were greater than within progeny for all the variables analyzed. Total gains obtained were high, especially for girth increase and rubber yield, which were 93.38 and 105.95%, respectively. Young progeny selection can maximize the expected genetic gains, reducing the rubber tree selection cycle.

  7. Direct and indirect evidence for earthquakes; an example from the Lake Tahoe Basin, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Noble, P. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Schmauder, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution seismic CHIRP data can image direct evidence of earthquakes (i.e., offset strata) beneath lakes and the ocean. Nevertheless, direct evidence often is not imaged due to conditions such as gas in the sediments, or steep basement topography. In these cases, indirect evidence for earthquakes (i.e., debris flows) may provide insight into the paleoseismic record. The four sub-basins of the tectonically active Lake Tahoe Basin provide an ideal opportunity to image direct evidence for earthquake deformation and compare it to indirect earthquake proxies. We present results from high-resolution seismic CHIRP surveys in Emerald Bay, Fallen Leaf Lake, and Cascade Lake to constrain the recurrence interval on the West Tahoe Dollar Point Fault (WTDPF), which was previously identified as potentially the most hazardous fault in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Recently collected CHIRP profiles beneath Fallen Leaf Lake image slide deposits that appear synchronous with slides in other sub-basins. The temporal correlation of slides between multiple basins suggests triggering by events on the WTDPF. If correct, we postulate a recurrence interval for the WTDPF of ~3-4 k.y., indicating that the WTDPF is near its seismic recurrence cycle. In addition, CHIRP data beneath Cascade Lake image strands of the WTDPF that offset the lakefloor as much as ~7 m. The Cascade Lake data combined with onshore LiDAR allowed us to map the geometry of the WTDPF continuously across the southern Lake Tahoe Basin and yielded an improved geohazard assessment.

  8. Direct and indirect health and safety impacts of electrical generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the health and safety risks of seven electrical generation systems, all of which have the potential for commercial availability after the year 2000. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays associated with average unit generation of 1000 MW(e) per year. The risks and associated uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel extraction and processing, on-site construction and system operation and maintenance. Also included are the risks of direct and indirect component manufacture, materials production and energy inputs, all of which are major contributors to the risks of the more capital-intensive solar technologies. The potential significance of major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable are also considered. (author)

  9. Fistule carotido-caverneuse indirecte post traumatique: diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indirect carotido-cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between multiple arterioles coming from dural or meningeal branches of the external carotid artery and/or of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Its definitive diagnosis relies on carotid angiography showing the fistula. This imaging ...

  10. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Counseling, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Phone: +234(0) ... Mathematics using Direct Instructional strategy, while Group B students were taught using ... strategy; significant difference existed between direct and indirect instruction ..... is to ensure individual student's mastery of the subject matter.

  11. Determination of cyanide by a highly sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Maspoch, S

    1984-01-01

    Complexation of Pd(2+) with cyanide inhibits the extraction of the palladium complex of 5-phenylazo-8-aminoquinoline. This effect is used for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the mug level. Cyanide in industrial waste water and in sea-water is determined after distillation as HCN from the sample and collection in sodium hydroxide solution.

  12. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10) as foll...... esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth....

  13. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  14. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    An indirect matrix converter is an alternative "all-semiconductor" energy processor proposed recently for converting an ac source with fixed magnitude and frequency to a variable voltage and frequency supply that can meet the requirements of a particular industry application. In principle...

  15. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  17. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  18. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsahl Karset, Inger Helene; Koren Berntsen, Terje; Storelvmo, Trude; Alterskjær, Kari; Grini, Alf; Olivié, Dirk; Kirkevåg, Alf; Seland, Øyvind; Iversen, Trond; Schulz, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol-cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects) contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from -1.32 to -1.07 W m-2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3). The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  20. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. H. Karset

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from −1.32 to −1.07 W m−2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3. The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  1. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  2. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  3. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  4. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Allowability of costs and acceptability of cost allocation methods shall be determined in...) the period for which the rates apply, and (4) the specific items treated as direct costs or any changes in the items previously agreed to be direct costs. The indirect cost rate agreement shall not...

  5. Indirect environmental effects of nuclear war affecting health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1984-01-01

    The indirect effects of a nuclear war that will affect the health of survivors are considered to include consequences to: (a) the economies of nations, (b) food and nutrition, (c) water supplies, (d) the climate and the ecosphere, and (e) sanitation and public health; and they include long-term radiation effects

  6. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a quasi experimental research designed to determine the effects of Direct and Indirect instructional strategies on Mathematics achievement among junior secondary school students. The population consisted of students in a Public Secondary School in Owerri, Imo State. A sample of 102 students from two (2) intact ...

  7. Estimating two indirect logging costs caused by accelerated erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    In forest areas where high soil erosion potential exists, a comparative yarding cost estimate, including the indirect costs determined by methods proposed here, shows that the total cost of using "advanced" logging methods may be less than that of "traditional" systems.

  8. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period. [48 FR 42447...

  9. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles; (2) The costs included in the distribution are limited to costs actually incurred by...), part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, relating to contracts with commercial organizations... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907...

  10. Indirect self-destructiveness in individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the indirect self-destructiveness syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Two hundred individuals with paranoid schizophrenia (117 men and 83 women, mean age 37.15 years, all in remission, were examined using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale. Two hundred well-matched healthy individuals served as a control group. Results: The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness was greater in the schizophrenia group than in controls. The intensity of each manifestation was as follows (in decreasing order: helplessness and passiveness in the face of difficulties (A5, personal and social neglects (A3, lack of planfulness (A4, poor health maintenance (A2, transgression and risk (A1. Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia displayed more behaviors that were indirectly self-destructive than healthy controls; they scored better than healthy controls only on caring for their own health. The patients showed the lowest intensity of behaviors connected with the active form of indirect self-destructiveness, and the highest intensity of behaviors connected with the passive form. These findings may enable delivery of more effective forms of pharmacological and psychosocial help to patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Indirect calorimetry: assessing animal response to heat and cold stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaughan, J.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Hendriks, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetric thermal stress studies where indirect calorimetry is used as a tool to estimate energy expenditure have been undertaken since this technique was developed. Some examples of these studies are presented in this chapter. The measurement of gas exchange by means of an open-circuit

  12. STEM Faculty and Indirect Costs: What Administrators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this single site, qualitative case study was on public research university STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) faculty and their perspectives on, and behavior towards, indirect cost recovery. The explanatory scheme was derived from anthropological theory and incorporated organizational culture, resource dependency…

  13. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  14. Contribution of indirect obstetric deaths to maternal mortality at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Maternal death is unacceptably high in this center like in most centers in the developing world. Objective: To determine the maternal mortality ratio and the contribution of the direct and indirect obstetric complications to maternal deaths. Method: A retrospective review of all maternal deaths at Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  15. In vitro and in vivo Comparison of Orthodontic Indirect Bonding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro shear bond strength ... with indirect bonding resins that were either chemically or light-cured. ...... strength of composite, glass ionomer, and acidic primer adhesive.

  16. Special considerations regarding indirect expropriation in international economic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana Spătaru-Negură

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to property is a human right that has to be respected so that if the property of a natural or legal person is taken over, the respective person has to be compensated. The right of a state to control the economic business is one of the rights sustained and exercised by the states on a constant basis. This reflects the inherent sovereignty of a state to control its people, incidents and objects found on its territory. Between these rights, the situation of indirect expropriation appears which has been described in the doctrine as being very abstract and rigid, big lacunae existing. The sense of the indirect expropriation and of the international investors’ protection against the indirect expropriation is very ambiguous. Using different methods specific to scientific analyse of the legal phenomenon (e.g. the logical method, the comparative method, the historical method and the quantitative methods, we consider that through this paper we can reach certain results that could be interesting for any legal practitioner or theoretician, this paper intending to present the most relevant cases that could amount to indirect expropriation.

  17. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... title to 50 percent or more of the stock of the contractor or subcontractor is held subject to trust or...

  18. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  19. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  20. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  1. Chords in longest cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord.......If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord....

  2. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-11-05

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard). Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against) good individuals is regarded as good (bad) and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals independently infer reputations of individuals

  3. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  4. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2018-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision...

  5. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  6. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  7. Accounting for the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2013-08-20

    Nitrogen is indispensable for sustaining human activities through its role in the production of food, animal feed, and synthetic chemicals. This has encouraged significant anthropogenic mobilization of reactive nitrogen and its emissions into the environment resulting in severe disruption of the nitrogen cycle. This paper incorporates the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen into the 2002 input-output model of the U.S. economy. Due to the complexity of this cycle, this work proposes a unique classification of nitrogen flows to facilitate understanding of the interaction between economic activities and various flows in the nitrogen cycle. The classification scheme distinguishes between the mobilization of inert nitrogen into its reactive form, use of nitrogen in various products, and nitrogen losses to the environment. The resulting inventory and model of the US economy can help quantify the direct and indirect impacts or dependence of economic sectors on the nitrogen cycle. This paper emphasizes the need for methods to manage the N cycle that focus not just on N losses, which has been the norm until now, but also include other N flows for a more comprehensive view and balanced decisions. Insight into the N profile of various sectors of the 2002 U.S. economy is presented, and the inventory can also be used for LCA or Hybrid LCA of various products. The resulting model is incorporated in the approach of Ecologically-Based LCA and available online.

  8. Available online Efficiency potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with different types of solar air receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Henrik von; Roeb, Martin; Stadler, Hannes; Sattler, Christian; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process for indirectly heated solar reforming of natural gas with air as heat transfer fluid is proposed. • Different solar receivers are modeled and implemented into the reforming process. • The overall efficiency of the process with different solar receivers is determined. • Optimum solar receiver characteristics for application in a solar reforming process are determined. - Abstract: In solar reforming, the heating value of natural gas is increased by utilization of concentrated solar radiation. Hence, it is a process for storing solar energy in a stable and transportable form that also permits further conversion into liquid fuels like methanol. This process has the potential to significantly decrease the natural gas consumption and the associated CO_2-emissions of methanol production with only few open questions to be addressed prior to commercialization. In the medium and long term, it has the potential to generate methanol as an environmentally friendly fuel for both transport as well as flexible electricity production in combined cycle gas turbines, when biogas is used as reactant. In a previous study the high potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with solar air receivers was shown; however, the efficiency is limited when using state of the art open volumetric receivers. Therefore, different types of air receivers are implemented into an indirectly heated solar reforming process and the overall efficiency potential is assessed in the present study. The implemented receivers are an open volumetric cavity receiver, a closed volumetric cavity receiver and a tubular cavity receiver. The open volumetric cavity receiver and tubular cavity receiver achieve the best results due to their capability of operating efficiently at temperatures well above 700 °C. For these receivers peak efficiencies up to 29% and 27% respectively are predicted. As the utilization of an open volumetric cavity receiver constitutes an open heat transfer

  9. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  10. Indirect evidence for decreased hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Andersen, M; Flyvbjerg, A

    2002-01-01

    in the central feeding mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN). Peripheral administration of pyridostigmine (PD) minimizes the release of hypothalamic SRIH. DESIGN: To study the influence of hypothalamic somatostatinergic inhibition on the exaggerated somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH in patients with severe AN, two...... indirectly to greater SRIH withdrawal and greater GHRH release in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, hypothalamic SRIH activity seems to be inversely related to cortisol levels, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that SRIH and CRH neuronal activity are inversely related in anorexia nervosa. Leptin, which...... is believed to act on hypothalamic feeding mechanisms, seems to be positively related to SRIH activity. Finally, the present data demonstrate that the potentiating effect of pyridostigmine in anorexia nervosa is related to body mass index and increases upon weight gain, suggesting that the low...

  11. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones....... The study also indicates that primary parties' shifts from direct to indirect address are closely related either to the form or to the content of the interpreter's prior utterance. Finally, it emerges that repeated one-language talk, triggered by the interpreter's problems with medical terminology, can......This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...

  12. Dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate with indirect microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyrankaya, Abdullah; Ozalp, Baris

    2006-01-01

    In this study, dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na 2 CO 3 .H 2 O) (SCM) in microwave (MW) field with silicon carbide (SiC) as an indirect heating medium was investigated. SCM samples containing up to 3% free moisture were placed in the microwave oven. The heating experiments showed that SCM is a poor microwave energy absorber for up to 6 min of irradiation at an 800 W of microwave power. The heat for SCM calcination is provided by SiC which absorbs microwave. The monohydrate is then converted to anhydrous sodium carbonate on the SiC plate by calcining, i.e. by removing the crystal water through heating of the monohydrate temperatures of over 120 deg. C. The calcination results in a solid phase recrystallization of the monohydrate into anhydrate. In the microwave irradiation process, dehydration of SCM in terms of indirect heating can be accelerated by increasing the microwave field power

  13. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  14. Review of indirect detection of dark matter with neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danninger, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Dark Matter could be detected indirectly through the observation of neutrinos produced in dark matter self-annihilations or decays. Searches for such neutrino signals have resulted in stringent constraints on the dark matter self-annihilation cross section and the scattering cross section with matter. In recent years these searches have made significant progress in sensitivity through new search methodologies, new detection channels, and through the availability of rich datasets from neutrino telescopes and detectors, like IceCube, ANTARES, Super-Kamiokande, etc. We review recent experimental results and put them in context with respect to other direct and indirect dark matter searches. We also discuss prospects for discoveries at current and next generation neutrino detectors.

  15. Indirect and two fold measurements in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fer, Francis

    1981-01-01

    Keeping strictly in the positivist, probabilistic and hilbertian frame of quantum mechanics, the author develops a criticism of the accepted theory of indirect and twofold measurements. He shows that this theory cannot logically derive from the usual axiomatics, namely from the so-called reduction-of-state axiom. He proposes a modified statement (already used sometimes) of this axiom, which leads to a reliable theory of indirect and twofold measurements. The results are particularly: a) that a measurement made on a sub-system does not modify the mathematical representation of the complementary system, nor its prior probability distributions; b) that measurement is nothing else than an information which enables to correct the probabilities of further measurements according to the classical rules of the calculus of probabilities [fr

  16. The Dominance of Indirect Taxes in Estonian State Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  17. Kant’s concept of indirect duties and environmental ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Consenso Tonetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess whether Kant’s moral theory is suitable to deal with our obligations to take care of nonhuman animals and the environment. Kant’s ethics distinguishes persons, that is, rational beings with unconditional values who are considered as ends in themselves, from things, which have only relative worth. In relation to nature as a whole and to nonrational beings, Kant argues that we have only indirect duties or duties with regard to them. According to some philosophers, Kant’s ethics has anthropocentric starting points which lead to speciesist conclusions. This paper will argue that indirect duties can be in accordance with nonhuman interests, such as the suffering of nonhuman animals, the preservation of species and ecosystems, and so on. Thus Kant’s moral philosophy may contribute to environmental ethics because it justifies at least animal welfare and environmental protections as constraints on unrestricted human action.

  18. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  19. Utility loss and indirect costs after stroke in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Peter; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Jönsson, Bengt

    2008-04-01

    Currently little data exist on the development of quality of life over time in patients suffering from stroke, in particular using instruments that can be adapted in economic studies. The purpose of the study was to assess the utility loss and indirect costs following a stroke in Sweden. A cross-sectional mail survey. In collaboration with the National Stroke registry (RIKS-STROKE), a questionnaire consisting of the EuroQol-5D and questions regarding the present working status and the status prior to the stroke was mailed to patients below 76 years of age at six participating centres. The questionnaire was mailed to 393 patients in total, divided into groups with 3, 6, 9 or 12 months having passed since the stroke. The EuroQol-5D scores were converted to utility scores using the UK social tariff. Indirect costs were valued according to the average salary+employer contributions. A total of 275 questionnaires (70%) were returned. Utility scores were similar over time: 0.65, 0.75, 0.63, and 0.67 at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Regression analyses revealed a tendency for lower utility scores among women, but no significant differences overall. Among patients in the working ages, a stroke caused 18.5 work weeks lost, corresponding to an indirect cost of 120,000 Swedish Kronor (SEK) (13,200euro, 95% confidence interval 82,541-160,050 SEK, 9080-17 605euro). Stroke causes a significant reduction in utility and causes high indirect costs. A substantial improvement was not noted over time, which is important to consider in economic models.

  20. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    involvement between NSF and the awardee in carrying out the activity supported by the award. 2Office of Management and Budget , Uniform Administrative...NSF’s Award Cash Management $ervice—NSF’s online approach to award payments and post-award financial processes—does not collect data about indirect...percent. 16NSF’s Award Cash Management $ervice implements the OMB-approved form for awardees to report financial data on their federal awards. The

  1. Direct and indirect effects of organizational justice on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M

    2014-12-01

    Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  3. Ion irradiation and biomolecular radiation damage II. Indirect effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Zengliang; Su, Wenhui

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that damage of genome in a living cell by ionizing radiation is about one-third direct and two-thirds indirect. The former which has been introduced in our last paper, concerns direct energy deposition and ionizing reactions in the biomolecules; the latter results from radiation induced reactive species (mainly radicals) in the medium (mainly water) surrounding the biomolecules. In this review, a short description of ion implantation induced radical formation in water is ...

  4. Total, Direct, and Indirect Effects in Logit Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    It has long been believed that the decomposition of the total effect of one variable on another into direct and indirect effects, while feasible in linear models, is not possible in non-linear probability models such as the logit and probit. In this paper we present a new and simple method...... average partial effects, as defined by Wooldridge (2002). We present the method graphically and illustrate it using the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988...

  5. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyšín, Luděk; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, V.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bugler, B.; Legube, G.; Cafarelli, P.; Casta, R.; Champeaux, J. P.; Sence, M.; Vlk, M.; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, S.; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 343-352 ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28721S; GA MŠk LD12008; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : proton radiation * DNA plasmid * direct and indirect effects * clustered damage * repair enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2015

  6. “Other” indirect methods for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache Livius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the house of Trojan Horse Method (THM, I will say a few words about “other” indirect methods we use in Nuclear Physics for Astrophysics. In particular those using Rare Ion Beams that can be used to evaluate radiative proton capture reactions. I add words about work done with the Professore we celebrate today. With a proposal, and some results with TECSA, for a simple method to produce and use isomeric beam of 26mAl.

  7. Cooperative Exploration for USAR Robots with Indirect Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ziparo, V. A.; Kleiner, Alexander; Farinelli, A.; Marchetti, L.; Nardi, D.

    2007-01-01

    To coordinate a team of robots for exploration is a challenging problem, particularly in unstructured areas, as for example post-disaster scenarios where direct communication is severely constrained. Furthermore, conventional methods of SLAM, e.g. those performing data association based on visual features, are doomed to fail due to bad visibility caused by smoke and fire. We use indirect communication (based on RFIDs), to share knowledge and use a gradient-like local search to direct robots t...

  8. Separation of the mercury isotopes by the indirect photochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter nee Bergheaud, F.; Scaringella nee Desnoyer, M.; Wacongne, M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of photochemical separation of the mercury isotopes by the so-called indirect route in which a gas stream of oxygen and butadiene containing a mixture of mercury isotopes is passed through one or a number of vessels placed in series. The gas stream is irradiated by a lamp containing mercury which is depleted in one or a number of the isotopes and said isotopes are recovered in a trap placed downstream of the vessel or vessels

  9. A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven indirect measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the indirect measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.

  10. Indirect search for New Physics: complementarity to direct searches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudi, F

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on the interplay between direct searches for new physics at the LHC and indirect constraints from the flavour sector, with an emphasis on the implications of the recent LHCb results. The complementarity with the Higgs search results will also be addressed. We show the correlation and complementarity between the different sectors in the context of a few specific examples in supersymmetry.

  11. Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-01-02

    Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.

  12. Hybrid Instruments and the Indirect Credit Method - Does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedermann-Ondrej, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of double non-taxation of hybrid instruments in cross border transactions where the country of the investor has implemented the indirect credit method for mitigation or elimination of double taxation. From an isolated perspective a double non-taxation cannot be obtained because typically no taxes are paid in the foreign country due to the classification as debt and therefore even in the case of a classification as a dividend in the country of the investor n...

  13. Accuracy of five intraoral scanners compared to indirect digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Runkel, Cornelius; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel; Keul, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Direct and indirect digitalization offer two options for computer-aided design (CAD)/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-generated restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different intraoral scanners and compare them to the process of indirect digitalization. A titanium testing model was directly digitized 12 times with each intraoral scanner: (1) CS 3500 (CS), (2) Zfx Intrascan (ZFX), (3) CEREC AC Bluecam (BLU), (4) CEREC AC Omnicam (OC) and (5) True Definition (TD). As control, 12 polyether impressions were taken and the referring plaster casts were digitized indirectly with the D-810 laboratory scanner (CON). The accuracy (trueness/precision) of the datasets was evaluated by an analysing software (Geomagic Qualify 12.1) using a "best fit alignment" of the datasets with a highly accurate reference dataset of the testing model, received from industrial computed tomography. Direct digitalization using the TD showed the significant highest overall "trueness", followed by CS. Both performed better than CON. BLU, ZFX and OC showed higher differences from the reference dataset than CON. Regarding the overall "precision", the CS 3500 intraoral scanner and the True Definition showed the best performance. CON, BLU and OC resulted in significantly higher precision than ZFX did. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of the ascertained datasets was dependent on the scanning system. The direct digitalization was not superior to indirect digitalization for all tested systems. Regarding the accuracy, all tested intraoral scanning technologies seem to be able to reproduce a single quadrant within clinical acceptable accuracy. However, differences were detected between the tested systems.

  14. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  15. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth...

  17. An experimental test for indirect benefits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ödeen Anders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite much empirical attention, tests for indirect benefits of mate choice have rarely considered the major components of sexual and nonsexual offspring fitness relevant to a population. Here we use a novel experimental design to test for the existence of any indirect benefits in a laboratory adapted population of D. melanogaster. Our experiment compared the fitness (mating success, longevity, and productivity of individuals possessing genomes that derived two generations previously from males that were either entirely successful (studs or wholly unsuccessful (duds at achieving mates in three subsequent rounds of mating trials. Results Males from the stud treatment were 30% more successful on average at securing mates than males from the dud treatment. In contrast, we found no difference between treatments in measures of productivity or of longevity when measured in a mixed-sex environment. In the absence of females, however, males in the stud treatment outlived males in the dud treatment. Conclusion Our results suggest that mating with successful males in this population provides an indirect benefit to females and that, at least in this environment, the benefit arises primarily through the production of more attractive male offspring. However, it is unclear whether this represents solely a traditional sexy sons benefit or whether there is an additional good genes component (with male offspring simply allocating their surplus condition to traits that enhance their mating success. The lack of any detectable differences in female fitness between the two treatments suggests the former, although the longevity advantage of males in the stud treatment when females were absent is consistent with the latter. Determining the effect of this indirect benefit on the evolution of female mate preferences (or resistance will require comparable data on the direct costs of mating with various males, and an understanding of how these costs

  18. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 {mu}Sv and 37.8 {mu}Sv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 {mu}Sv, 27.6 {mu}Sv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 {mu}Sv, 15.9 {mu}Sv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  19. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Methodologies for estimating the indirect costs of traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Soledad; Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents generate multiple costs to society, including those associated with the loss of productivity. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate methodology for estimating those costs. The aim of this study was to review methods for estimating indirect costs applied in crash cost studies. A thematic review of the literature was carried out between 1995 and 2012 in PubMed with the terms cost of illness, indirect cost, road traffic injuries, productivity loss. For the assessment of costs we used the the human capital method, on the basis of the wage-income lost during the time of treatment and recovery of patients and caregivers. In the case of premature death or total disability, the discount rate was applied to obtain the present value of lost future earnings. The computed years arose by subtracting to life expectancy at birth the average age of those affected who are not incorporated into the economically active life. The interest in minimizing the problem is reflected in the evolution of the implemented methodologies. We expect that this review is useful to estimate efficiently the real indirect costs of traffic accidents.

  1. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  2. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  3. Indirect radiation effects related to the environmental structure of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is supposed, that in biological systems there are direct as well as indirect radiation effects. Their contributions to lethal effects depend mainly on two different kinds of structures within irradiated systems: the microscopic energy deposition patterns of radiation and the environmental structures of targets. The approach to determine these contributions of the lethal action of ionizing radiation in yeast cells was, to use chemical compounds, which specifically change the radical spectrum of water radiolysis. The efficiency of such chemical compounds in scavenging specifically water radicals was tested in aqueous solutions of thymine molecules, in which indirect radiation effects occur exclusively. The main result is, that the OH'-radical is by far the most effective radical to destroy thymine molecules. The relative contributions of direct and indirect radiation effects to lethal actions of ionizing radiation was investigated in yeast cells. The radical spectrum of water radiolysis was changed by bubbling the cell suspensions with different gases. The main result is, that there are no lethal radiation effects du to the action of water radicals

  4. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  5. Evidence of indirect gap in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2017-10-09

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have been known as direct gap semiconductors and emerged as new optically active materials for novel device applications. Here we reexamine their direct gap properties by investigating the strain effects on the photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2. Instead of applying stress, we investigate the strain effects by imaging the direct exciton populations in monolayer WSe2–MoS2 and MoSe2–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions with inherent strain inhomogeneity. We find that unstrained monolayer WSe2 is actually an indirect gap material, as manifested in the observed photoluminescence intensity–energy correlation, from which the difference between the direct and indirect optical gaps can be extracted by analyzing the exciton thermal populations. Our findings combined with the estimated exciton binding energy further indicate that monolayer WSe2 exhibits an indirect quasiparticle gap, which has to be reconsidered in further studies for its fundamental properties and device applications.

  6. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited. PMID:28150808

  7. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  8. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  9. Direct and Indirect Pathways From Social Support to Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoyoun; Thomas, Patricia A

    2017-07-04

    We aimed to investigate potential direct and indirect pathways linking social support and health, while considering mental health and chronic inflammation as inter-related outcomes. The study also contributes to the literature through testing potential bidirectional relationships between social support, mental health, and chronic inflammation. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling and two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), including 1,124 community-living older adults aged 57-85 years at Wave 1 (2005). Analyses show that social support influenced mental health indirectly through better self-esteem. Moreover, social support was associated with lower levels of chronic inflammation but chronic inflammation did not influence social support. The growing number of older adults with an aging population urgently calls for a greater understanding of factors influencing their physical and mental health. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of social support in older adults' health, while specifically focusing on understudied indirect pathways from social support to health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas O; Ascoli, Carl A

    2017-07-05

    The indirect competitive ELISA (indirect cELISA) pits plate-immobilized antigen against antigens in solution for binding to antigen-specific antibody. The antigens in solution are in the test sample and are first incubated with antigen-specific antibody. These antibody-antigen complexes are then added to microtiter plates whose wells have been coated with purified antigen. The wells are washed to remove unbound antigen-antibody complexes and free antigen. A reporter-labeled secondary antibody is then added followed by the addition of substrate. Substrate hydrolysis yields a signal that is inversely proportional to antigen concentration within the sample. This is because when antigen concentration is high in the test sample, most of the antibody is bound before adding the solution to the plate. Most of the antibody remains in solution (as complexes) and is thus washed away before the addition of the reporter-labeled secondary antibody and substrate. Thus, the higher the antigen concentration in the test sample, the weaker the resultant signal in the detection step. The indirect cELISA is often used for competitive detection and quantification of antibodies against viral diseases in biological samples. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-02

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called "Staying" that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  12. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  13. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  14. The Krebs Uric Acid Cycle: A Forgotten Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Jack G

    2018-05-25

    Hans Kornberg wrote a paper entitled 'Krebs and his trinity of cycles' commenting that every school biology student knows of the Krebs cycle, but few know that Krebs discovered two other cycles. These are (i) the ornithine cycle (urea cycle), (ii) the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle), and (iii) the glyoxylate cycle that was described by Krebs and Kornberg. Ironically, Kornberg, codiscoverer of the 'glyoxylate cycle', overlooked a fourth Krebs cycle - (iv) the uric acid cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  16. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Mitsuhiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. Results We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard. Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against good individuals is regarded as good (bad and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals

  17. International Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-01-01

    Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two ...

  18. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  19. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  20. Measuring Business Cycle Time.

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  1. Thorium cycles and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes several prevalent misconceptions about nuclear fuel cycles that breed fissile uranium-233 from thorium. Its main conclusions are: U-233, despite the gamma radioactivity of associated isotopes, is a rather attractive material for making fission bombs, and is a credible material for subnational as well as national groups to use for this purpose; (2) pure thorium cycles, which in effect merely substitute U-233 for Pu, would take many decades and much U to establish, and offer no significant safeguards advantage over Pu, cycles; (3) denatured Th-U cycles, which dilute the U-233 with inert U-238 to a level not directly usable in bombs, are not an effective safeguard even against subnational bomb-making; (4) several other features of mixed Th-U cycles are rather unattractive from a safeguards point of view; (5) thus, Th cycles of any kind are not a technical fix for proliferation (national or subnational) and, though probably more safeguardable than Pu cycles, are less so than once-through U cycles that entail no reprocessing; (6) while thorium cycles have some potential technical advantages, including flexibility, they cannot provide major savings in nuclear fuel resources compared to simpler ways of saving neutrons and U; and (7) while advocates of nuclear power may find Th cycles worth exploring, such cycles do not differ fundamentally from U cycles in any of the respects--including safeguards and fuel resources--that are relevant to the broader nuclear debate, and should not be euphorically embraced as if they did

  2. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  3. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Joseph; Muehlegger, Erich; Samphantharak, Krislert

    2010-01-01

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  4. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  5. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  6. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  9. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractEconomic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of

  10. δ13C of Tree-Ring Lignin as an Indirect Measure of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.; Loader, N. J.; McCarroll, D.; Carter, A. H. C.; Cheng, L.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution paleoclimatic data are an essential requirement for testing numerical models of climate change and the global carbon cycle. If the long tree-ring chronologies, originally established for the purpose of dendrochronology, are to be fully exploited as an indirect measure of past climatic variability, additional techniques are required to obtain this information. The determination of the δ 13 C value of tree-ring cellulose has been used successfully to reconstruct past climates. However, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the polysaccharide components of vascular plants (mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses) are more prone to rapid degradation than lignin. This has serious implications for the use of carbon isotope values of tree-ring cellulose as an indirect measure of past climates. An absolutely dated ring-width chronology was established for oaks (Quercus robur L.) growing at Sandringham Park in eastern England. Carbon isotope values were determined on α-cellulose and 'Klason' lignin isolated from annual latewood samples over the period AD 1895-1999. The carbon isotope values of earlywood lignin are correlated with the latewood carbon isotope values of the previous year, supporting the theory that some of the carbon utilised in earlywood synthesis is assimilated in the previous year. The high-frequency variance in the carbon isotope indices of latewood lignin and cellulose is highly correlated with combined July and August environmental variables, indicating that they were formed at similar times. There was no evidence of secondary lignification. These results demonstrate that the determination of carbon isotope values of latewood lignin offers the potential to obtain unambiguous proxy climatic data covering several millennia

  11. Photochemical Reactions of Particulate Organic Matter: Deciphering the Role of Direct and Indirect Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical reactions of natural organic matter (NOM) represent potentially important pathways for biologically recalcitrant material to be chemically altered in aquatic systems. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools, however, a molecular level understanding of this chemically dynamic system is currently lacking. Photochemical reactions of a target molecule proceed by the direct absorption of a photon, or through reaction with a second photolytically generated species (i.e. the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, excited triplet state NOM, hydrogen peroxide, etc.). Here, we isolate the major direct and indirect photochemical reactions of a lignocellulose-rich POM material (Phragmites australis) to determine their relative importance in changing the the chemical structure of the parent POM, and in the production of DOM. We measured POM molecular structure using a combination of NMR and FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry, while the chemical composition of photo-produced DOM was measured using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results are discussed in the context of the differences in chemical composition of both NOM pools resulting from the isolated photochemical pathways. All treatments result in an increase in DOM with reaction time, indicating that the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller more soluble species. Spectroscopic measurements, on the other hand, point to functionalization reactions which increase the abundance of alcohol, acid, and carbonyl moieties in both carbon pools. This unique dataset provides new insight into how photochemical reactions alter the chemical composition of NOM while highlighting the relative importance of indirect pathways.

  12. How important is organic aerosol hygroscopicity to aerosol indirect forcing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohong; Wang Jian

    2010-01-01

    Organics are among the most abundant aerosol components in the atmosphere. However, there are still large uncertainties with emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (precursor gases of secondary organic aerosol, SOA), formation of SOA, and chemical and physical properties (e.g., hygroscopicity) of POA and SOA. All these may have significant impacts on aerosol direct and indirect forcing estimated from global models. In this study a modal aerosol module (MAM) in the NCAR community atmospheric model (CAM) is used to examine sensitivities of aerosol indirect forcing to hygroscopicity (represented by a single parameter 'κ' ) of POA and SOA. Our model simulation indicates that in the present-day (PD) condition changing the 'κ' value of POA from 0 to 0.1 increases the number concentration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation S = 0.1% by 40-80% over the POA source regions, while changing the 'κ' value of SOA by ± 50% (from 0.14 to 0.07 and 0.21) changes the CCN concentration within 40%. There are disproportionally larger changes in CCN concentration in the pre-industrial (PI) condition. Due to the stronger impact of organics hygroscopicity on CCN and cloud droplet number concentration at PI condition, global annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) between PD and PI conditions reduces with the increase of the hygroscopicity of organics. Global annual mean AIF varies by 0.4 W m -2 in the sensitivity runs with the control run of - 1.3 W m -2 , highlighting the need for improved understanding of organics hygroscopicity and its representation in global models.

  13. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesanz, Jeremy C; Falk, Carl F; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-08-06

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses ( Baron & Kenny, 1986 ; Sobel, 1982 ) have in recent years been supplemented by computationally intensive methods such as bootstrapping, the distribution of the product methods, and hierarchical Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. These different approaches for assessing mediation are illustrated using data from Dunn, Biesanz, Human, and Finn (2007). However, little is known about how these methods perform relative to each other, particularly in more challenging situations, such as with data that are incomplete and/or nonnormal. This article presents an extensive Monte Carlo simulation evaluating a host of approaches for assessing mediation. We examine Type I error rates, power, and coverage. We study normal and nonnormal data as well as complete and incomplete data. In addition, we adapt a method, recently proposed in statistical literature, that does not rely on confidence intervals (CIs) to test the null hypothesis of no indirect effect. The results suggest that the new inferential method-the partial posterior p value-slightly outperforms existing ones in terms of maintaining Type I error rates while maximizing power, especially with incomplete data. Among confidence interval approaches, the bias-corrected accelerated (BC a ) bootstrapping approach often has inflated Type I error rates and inconsistent coverage and is not recommended; In contrast, the bootstrapped percentile confidence interval and the hierarchical Bayesian MCMC method perform best overall, maintaining Type I error rates, exhibiting reasonable power, and producing stable and accurate coverage rates.

  14. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  15. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  17. Smartphone Image Acquisition During Postmortem Monocular Indirect Ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Patrick E; Schoppe, Candace H; Thibault, Kirk L; Porter, William T

    2016-01-01

    The medical usefulness of smartphones continues to evolve as third-party applications exploit and expand on the smartphones' interface and capabilities. This technical report describes smartphone still-image capture techniques and video-sequence recording capabilities during postmortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Using these devices and techniques, practitioners can create photographic documentation of fundal findings, clinically and at autopsy, without the expense of a retinal camera. Smartphone image acquisition of fundal abnormalities can promote ophthalmological telemedicine--especially in regions or countries with limited resources--and facilitate prompt, accurate, and unbiased documentation of retinal hemorrhages in infants and young children. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Justification of indirect methods of bending stresses polyethylene pipes evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, A. A.; Serebrennikov, D. A.; Hakimov, Z. R.

    2017-10-01

    The world and Russian companies have a long experience of the polyethylene pipeline installation and operation. At the same time, the significant attention is paid to the improvement of the relevant machines and the production technology. The polyethylene pipeline installation experience proves that its operation properties (reliability and durability) depend on physical and mechanical characteristics of polyethylene, which should be saved during its installation. Defects can occur, including in cases when the pipe is subjected to the significant bending stresses during installation. To evaluate these stresses, including when exposed to cold weather conditions, an indirect method based on the relationship between strength characteristics and occurred deformations is proposed.

  19. Distributed Generation Using Indirect Matrix Converter in Reverse Power Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Chiang Loh, Poh; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Indirect matrix converter (IMC) is an alternative for ac/ac energy conversion, usually operated with a voltage stepped-down gain of only 0.866. For applications like distribution generation where voltage-boost functionality is required, the traditional style of operating the IMC is therefore...... not appropriate. Like most power converters, the operation of the IMC can surely be reversed to produce a boosted gain, but so far its relevant control principles have not been discussed. These challenges are now addressed in this paper with distributed generation suggested as a potential application. Simulation...

  20. Direct and indirect effects of radiation on polar solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.G.; Gaponova, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-chemical decomposition of a solute is due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation on it and also to its reaction with radical-ion products of radiolysis of the solution. At low temperature, the movement of the reagents is limited, and thus it is possible to isolate and evaluate the contribution of direct and indirect effects of radiation on the solute. The present paper is devoted to an investigation of the mechanism of formation of radicals from a solute (LiNO 2 ) in a polar solid solution (CH 3 OH) under the effect of γ-radiation

  1. Indirectly driven, high convergence inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Lerche, R.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of high convergence indirectly driven implosions has been done with the Nova Laser Fusion facility. These implosions were well characterized by a variety of measurements; computer models are in good agreement. The imploded fuel areal density was measured using a technique based on secondary neutron spectroscopy. At capsule convergences of 24:1, comparable to what is required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules, these capsules achieved fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 . Independent measurements of density, burn duration, and ion temperature gave nτθ=1.7±0.9x10 14 keV s/cm 3

  2. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco

    2016-01-06

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process by the approximation of the stochastic model applying a second order Taylor expansion of the SDE s infinitesimal generator in the Dynkin s formula. This method allows a simple and efficient procedure to infer the parameters of such stochastic processes given the data by the maximization of the likelihood of an approximating Gaussian process described by the two moments equations. Finally, we perform numerical experiments for two datasets arising from organic and inorganic fouling deposition phenomena.

  3. Prospects for indirect detection of frozen-in dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2018-03-01

    We study observational consequences arising from dark matter (DM) of nonthermal origin, produced by dark freeze-out from a hidden sector heat bath. We assume this heat bath was populated by feebly coupled mediator particles, produced via a Higgs portal interaction with the Standard Model (SM). The dark sector then attained internal equilibrium with a characteristic temperature different from the SM photon temperature. We find that even if the coupling between the DM and the SM sectors is very weak, the scenario allows for indirect observational signals. We show how the expected strength of these signals depends on the temperature of the hidden sector at DM freeze-out.

  4. Relevance of indirect transmission for wildlife disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modelling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. A second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e. basic reproductive number R0 and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host.We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models.We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude, but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  5. Parameters of an indirect exchange in gadolinium and iron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, A.K.; Nikitin, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the theory of an indirect exchange and experimental values of hyperfine fields, Curie point and electric resistance, the constants of sd and sf exchange are determined as well as the effective carrier mass for the Gdsub(x)Ysub(1-x)Fesub(3) type compounds. It is shown that the agreement with experiment can be improved on assumption that exchange interactions in the given compounds are realized not only through conductivity electrons but also through collectivized d-type electrons [ru

  6. Renography and indirect radionuclide cystography; Nierenfunktionsszintigrafie und indirekte Refluxpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzius, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; MR-, Nuklearmedizin- und PET/CT-Zentrum Bremen-Mitte (Germany); Hahn, Klaus [Klink und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Renal scintigraphy is one of the most common performed nuclear medicine procedures mainly in childhood. This review article describes in detail indications, preparation, data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation of renography using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 including indirect reflux study (radionuclide cystography) and of static renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA. The current controversies in interpretation were considered, especially the interpretation of a reduced or delayed drainage. Pitfalls in performance and analysis and the avoidance were addressed. Renography is a routine examination that allows a visual and quantitative evaluation of various aspects of renal function. (orig.)

  7. The direct and indirect costs of Dravet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Knupp, Kelly G; Vanderveen, Gina; Kim, Chong; Gammaitoni, Arnold; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs associated with Dravet Syndrome (DS). A survey was electronically administered to the caregivers of patients with DS treated at Children's Hospital Colorado. Survey domains included healthcare utilization of the patient with DS and DS caregiver work productivity and activity impairment. Patient healthcare utilization was measured using modified questions from the National Health Interview Survey; caregiver work productivity and activity impairment were measured using modified questions from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Direct costs were calculated by multiplying the caregiver-reported healthcare utilization rates by the mean unit cost for each healthcare utilization category. Indirect costs included lost productivity, income loss, and lost leisure time. The indirect costs were a function of caregiver-reported hours spent caregiving and an hourly unit cost. The survey was emailed to 60 DS caregivers, of which 34 (57% response rate) responded. Direct costs on average were $27,276 (95% interval: $15,757, $41,904) per patient with DS. Hospitalizations ($11,565 a year) and in-home medical care visits ($9894 a year) were substantial cost drivers. Additionally, caregivers reported extensive time spent providing care to an individual with DS. This caregiver time resulted in average annual indirect costs of $81,582 (95% interval: $57,253, $110,151), resulting in an average total annual financial burden of $106,378 (95% interval: $78,894, $137,906). Dravet Syndrome results in substantial healthcare utilization, financial burden, and time commitment. Establishing evidence on the financial burden of DS is essential to understanding the overall impact of DS, identifying potential areas for support needs, and assessing the impact of novel treatments as they become available. Based on the study findings, in-home visits, hospitalizations, and lost productivity and

  8. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  9. Power-law photoluminescence decay in indirect gap quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menšík, Miroslav; Král, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, November (2013), s. 170-174 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10007; GA MŠk LH12186; GA MŠk LH12236; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * indirect gap transition * power-law photoluminescence decay Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BE - Theoretical Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2013

  10. Kant’s concept of indirect duties and environmental ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Milene Consenso Tonetto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess whether Kant’s moral theory is suitable to deal with our obligations to take care of nonhuman animals and the environment. Kant’s ethics distinguishes persons, that is, rational beings with unconditional values who are considered as ends in themselves, from things, which have only relative worth. In relation to nature as a whole and to nonrational beings, Kant argues that we have only indirect duties or duties with regard to them. According to some philosoph...

  11. Production of radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments and, more recently, radiolabeled peptides have been extensively studied in order to develop radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The radioiodination of proteins can be done by a direct method, with radioiodine being incorporated in to a tyrosine residue of the protein by electrophilic substitution. The main problem in the use of radioiodinated proteins, is that they are often dehalogenated in vivo by the action of specific enzymes, probably because of the structural similarity between iodophenyl groups and thyroid hormones. Several protein radioiodination methods have been developed in order to minimize this in vivo dehalogenation using prosthetic groups for indirect labeling. In this case, the radioiodine is first incorporated in to the prosthetic group that is subsequently attached to a terminal amino group or to a ε-amino group of lysine residue. The aim of this work is to obtain a radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect labeling of proteins. The prosthetic group selected was the N-succinimidyl-4-radioiodine benzoate (SIB), obtained by the iodination of the p-bromobenzoic acid followed by the reaction with TSTU (0-(N-succinimidyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate) The results of these studies showed that the p-radio iodobenzoic acid was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 92% and a labeling yield of about 65%. Some reaction parameters were studied like temperature, time and Cu Cl mass (cataliser). The SIB was quantitatively obtained from p-radio iodobenzoic acid, using basic medium and after removing the water from the reaction using an nitrogen stream. The kinetic of this reaction is very fast with complete consumption of the p-radioiodebenzoic acid after 5 minutes. The coupling of the SIB prosthetic group to the protein was studied using Human Immunoglobulin (IgG) as a protein model. In a comparative way, the same protein was used on direct labeling

  12. Sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi: Measures to optimize the carbon footprint and to avoid indirect emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelberg, Elisa; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Hirschl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered to be one of the most efficient first-generation biofuels in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF), however, increases significantly when taking into account emissions induced by indirect land-use changes (ILUC). This case study investigates sugarcane ethanol production in the Republic of Malawi, in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA); the research objectives were to identify and quantify direct and indirect emissions and to identify measures to optimize the CF. The CF has been calculated with a life cycle approach and with data obtained from the involved companies; our estimations with regard to ILUC take into account further expansion plans for sugarcane crop production. Under existing production conditions ethanol produced in Malawi leads to GHG emissions expressed as CO 2eq of 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. However, high optimization potentials exist when the vinasse is used as an input for biogas production and the harvesting switches from pre-harvest burning to green harvesting. ILUC induced by prospective sugarcane expansions in the Southern Region will, according to current planning, probably not occur since these expansions are linked to the implementation of a large-scale irrigation project. However if ILUC takes place, high levels of additional CO 2 emissions of about 77 g MJ −1 of ethanol are to be expected. Although the case study results are only valid for a specific region, some of the findings, such as the high compensation potential regarding ILUC through investments in irrigation systems, may be transferable to other regions in SSA. - Highlights: • We conducted a case study on sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi and calculated its carbon footprint (CF). • The current CF of sugarcane ethanol produced in the Southern Region in Malawi amounts for 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. • The usage of vinasse in biogas plants would significantly improve the CF. • Another optimization measure is to

  13. How to Prepare an Indirect Cost Rate Proposal for a Non-profit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indirect cost rate proposal is the documentation prepared by a grantee organization, in accordance with applicable federal cost principles, to substantiate its claim for the reimbursement of indirect costs.

  14. A comparative study of direct and indirect solar drying of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of direct and indirect solar drying of mango. ... Thus, indirect solar dryer was found to be suitable for industrial or semi industrial mango drying, whereas direct solar dryer was appropriate to a family ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  16. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  17. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  18. Patterns and determinants of business cycle synchronization in the enlarged European Economic and Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SIEDSCHLAG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence about the degree of business cycle synchronization between the euro area countries and eight new European Union member states. We analyze the direct and indirect effects of similarity of economic structures and trade intensity on the co-movement of fluctuations of economic activity across these countries and find that bilateral similarity of economic structures and trade intensity were positively and significantly associated with business cycle correlations. This result is robust to different estimation techniques. Similarity of economic structures had an additional indirect positive effect on business cycle synchronization via its positive effect on trade intensity. The bilateral business cycle correlations are found to be endogenous with respect to bilateral similarity of economic structures and bilateral trade intensity suggesting that the new European Union countries will better satisfy the Optimum Currency Area criteria after the adoption of the euro.

  19. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-06

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.

  20. Probiotics and the Gut Immune System: Indirect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host. Among others, probiotics have immunomodulatory properties that usually act directly by (a) increasing the activity of macrophages or natural killer cells, (b) modulating the secretion of immunoglobulins or cytokines, or indirectly by (c) enhancing the gut epithelial barrier, (d) altering the mucus secretion, and (e) competitive exclusion of other (pathogenic) bacteria. This review focuses on specific bacteria strains with indirect immunomodulatory properties. Particularly, we describe here the mechanisms through which specific probiotics enhance the gut epithelial barrier and modulate mucus production. Moreover, we describe the antimicrobial properties of specific bacteria strains. Recent data suggest that multiple pathologies are associated with an unbalanced gut microflora (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between pathology and gut microflora is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health.

  1. Religiousness and hazardous alcohol use: a conditional indirect effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Hardy, Sam A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S

    2013-08-01

    The current study examined a conditional indirect effects model of the association between religiousness and adolescents' hazardous alcohol use. In doing so, we responded to the need to include both mediators and moderators, and the need for theoretically informed models when examining religiousness and adolescents' alcohol use. The sample consisted of 383 adolescents, aged 15-18, who completed an online questionnaire. Results of structural equation modeling supported the proposed model. Religiousness was indirectly associated with hazardous alcohol use through both positive alcohol expectancy outcomes and negative alcohol expectancy valuations. Significant moderating effects for alcohol expectancy valuations on the association between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use were also found. The effects for alcohol expectancy valuations confirm valuations as a distinct construct to that of alcohol expectancy outcomes, and offer support for the protective role of internalized religiousness on adolescents' hazardous alcohol use as a function of expectancy valuations. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Guideline for penetrant testing on welds by indirect visual test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Taguchi, Tetsuo; Asano, Toshio; Sakai, Kaoru; Sato, Takemitsu; Takagi, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    A study of guidelines for penetrant testing on welds by indirect visual test using image processing is presented. Due to penetrant testing regulations by direct visual test, a porosity (a round defect) whose diameter is under 1.0 mm is allowed, but no crack (a line-shaped defect) is allowed, and the allowable defect size is not clear. It was found in the investigation that the smallest line-shaped indication which the inspectors could recognize was 0.15 mm in width and 0.5 mm in length. This means that the limit of line pair which all inspectors could discriminate was 3.3. A TV camera was used to take pictures of the NSIT (National Institute of Standards and Technology) (NBS: National Bureau of Standard) resolution chart and the smallest indication above, and the limit of line pair which all inspectors could discriminate was 3.6. Therefore, it is recommended as a guideline for penetrant testing through a TV camera by indirect visual test that the resolution of 3.6 line pair per mm is required and a reference test piece be defined to assure the resolution. (author)

  3. [Prevalence and indirect costs of headache in a Brazilian Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M; Rodrigues, A de J; De Oliveira, G V; De Souza, K F; Doi, L M; Rocha, M B; Saporta, M A; Orleans, R B; Kotecki, R; Estrela, V V; De Medeiros, V A; Borges, W I

    1998-12-01

    Employees from a Brazilian oil company research centre (n = 993) were interviewed on the occurrence of headache during a 30 days period. Headache prevalence was 49.8%, with a mean frequency of 4.3 +/- 7.0 attacks per month, lasting 12.2 +/- 21.4 hours each. According to the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria, migraine (5.5%), episodic tension-type headache (26.4%), chronic tension-type headache (1.7%) and headaches not fulfilling the criteria for such disorders (16.2%) were observed. Women suffered comparatively more headache and specifically migraine than men. The pain interfered with work productivity in 10% of the subjects, corresponding to 538.75 hours off. According to an indirect costs estimation for each headache, the company may loose up to US$125.98 per employee annually. Since among headaches migraine has the highest indirect cost, migraine prevention and treatment is particularly important at the working environment. Migraine frequency may be prevented to a large extent, resulting on positive effects in both the quality of life and productivity. The cost-benefit ratio clearly favours therapeutic and preventive programs against chronic headaches.

  4. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  5. Guideline for penetrant testing on welds by indirect visual test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Isao; Taguchi, Tetsuo [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Asano, Toshio; Sakai, Kaoru; Sato, Takemitsu; Takagi, Mikio

    1999-07-01

    A study of guidelines for penetrant testing on welds by indirect visual test using image processing is presented. Due to penetrant testing regulations by direct visual test, a porosity (a round defect) whose diameter is under 1.0 mm is allowed, but no crack (a line-shaped defect) is allowed, and the allowable defect size is not clear. It was found in the investigation that the smallest line-shaped indication which the inspectors could recognize was 0.15 mm in width and 0.5 mm in length. This means that the limit of line pair which all inspectors could discriminate was 3.3. A TV camera was used to take pictures of the NSIT (National Institute of Standards and Technology) (NBS: National Bureau of Standard) resolution chart and the smallest indication above, and the limit of line pair which all inspectors could discriminate was 3.6. Therefore, it is recommended as a guideline for penetrant testing through a TV camera by indirect visual test that the resolution of 3.6 line pair per mm is required and a reference test piece be defined to assure the resolution. (author)

  6. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  7. Opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Hoon; Yu, Bin; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-08-01

    To measure the opalescence and fluorescence properties of indirect and direct resin materials before and after polymerization, and to determine the influence of the material and shade group combination on these properties. BelleGlass NG (BG, indirect resin) and Estelite Sigma (ES, direct resin), each composed in 3 shade groups (EN, OD and TL for BG; BS, AS and OP for ES) out of a total of 16 shades were investigated. Resin material was packed into a mold (the BEC condition) and polymerized with a light-polymerization unit (CWL). Secondary polymerization (CIC) was performed for BG. Color was measured in the BEC, CWL, and CIC conditions, and the opalescence parameter (OP) and fluorescence parameter (FL) were calculated. For the OP, the mean for BG material was 24.3 before polymerization, which changed to 19.9 after polymerization (CIC). In the case of ES, the mean OP before polymerization was 25.6, which changed to 12.4 after polymerization (CWL). For the FL, the mean FL for BG was 2.5 before polymerization, which changed to 0.7 after polymerization. In the case of ES, the mean FL before polymerization was 1.2, which did not change after polymerization. Material and shade group combination influenced the OP and FL values (popalescence and fluorescence properties of resin materials varied depending on the material, shade group, and polymerization. Clinically, these properties should be considered when neighboring teeth are restored with different types of material.

  8. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  9. 78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... method continues to be the Direct Labor Cost Base for all three DARRP component organizations. The Direct... allocation method for the development of the FY 2012 indirect cost rates. The DARRP's Indirect Cost Rates and... accounting system and allocation practices; recommend the appropriate indirect cost allocation methodology...

  10. International Business Cycle Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I extend the business cycle accounting method a la Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) to a two-country international business cycle model and quantify the effect of the disturbances in relevant markets on the business cycle correlation between Japan and the US over the 1980-2008 period. This paper finds that disturbances in the labor market and production efficiency are important in accounting for the recent increase in the cross-country output correlation. If international fina...

  11. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  12. STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Servetnyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.

  13. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  14. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  15. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  16. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  17. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  18. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  19. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  20. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  1. International Real Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mario J. Crucini

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a non-technical review of research developments in the international real business cycle literature. International business cycle facts are summarize with particular attention to the sources of output variance from the expenditure side of the NIPA and the production side, using a familiar neoclassical production function. Theoretical developments focus on the how consumption smoothing and investment dynamics shape the current account; the search for sources and propagation mecha...

  2. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  3. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  4. Hat cycle dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C.; Pini Prato, A.; Porro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment [it

  5. Dynamic simulation for scram of high temperature gas-cooled reactor with indirect helium turbine cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlong; Xie Heng

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic analysis code for this system was developed after the mathematical modeling and programming of important equipment of 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Helium Turbine Power Generation (HTR-10GT), such as reactor core, heat exchanger and turbine-compressor system. A scram accident caused by a 0.1 $ reactivity injection at 5 second was simulated. The results show that the design emergency shutdown plan for this system is safe and reasonable and that the design of bypass valve has a large safety margin. (authors)

  6. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  7. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Thorium fuel cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-07-01

    Systems analysis of the thorium cycle, a nuclear fuel cycle accomplished by using thorium, is reported in this paper. Following a brief review on the history of the thorium cycle development, analysis is made on the three functions of the thorium cycle; (1) auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle to save uranium consumption, (2) thermal breeder system to exert full capacity of the thorium resource, (3) symbiotic system to utilize special features of /sup 233/U and neutron sources. The effects of the thorium loading in LWR (Light Water Reactor), HWR (Heavy Water Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) are considered for the function of auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle. Analysis is made to find how much uranium is saved by /sup 233/U recycling and how the decrease in Pu production influences the introduction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor). Study on thermal breeder system is carried out in the case of MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). Under a certain amount of fissile material supply, the potential system expansion rate of MSBR, which is determined by fissile material balance, is superior to that of FBR because of the smaller specific fissile inventory of MSBR. For symbiotic system, three cases are treated; i) nuclear heat supply system using HTGR, ii) denatured fuel supply system for nonproliferation purpose, and iii) hybrid system utilizing neutron sources other than fission reactor.

  9. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  10. Cycles and Common Cycles in Property and Related Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Peijie Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines cycles and common cycles in the property market and the economy. While focusing on common cycles, the study also incorporates common trends in the meantime, so it covers the whole spectrum of dynamic analysis. It has been found that property shares common cycles, particularly with those sectors that are the user markets of property. The mechanisms of common cycles and the relative magnitudes of cycles of the sectors related to property are discussed to shed light on proper...

  11. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  12. Impacts of Human Alteration of the Nitrogen Cycle in the U.S. on Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen cycling processes affect radiative forcing directly through emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and indirectly because emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and ammonia (NH3) affect atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), ozone (O...

  13. Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Quantities of Hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, A. M. Haji; Dadfarnia, S.; Dehghan, K. [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    An indirect, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of trace amounts of hydrazine is described. The method is based on the oxidation of hydrazine by a known excess of iodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The unreacted iodate is used in the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. Sulfanilic acid is diazotized by the nitrite formed. The resulting diazonium ion is coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to form a stable azo dye, which shows an absorption maximum at 540 nm. Hydrazine can be determined in the range of 20-400 ng mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 3.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation for 50, 200 and 400 ng mL{sup -1} of hydrazine is 2, 1.5 and 1.3%, respectively (n = 10). The method was applied to the determination of hydrazine in water samples

  14. Detection of rotator cuff lesions with indirect MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, J.; Lorenz, M.; Schroeder, R.; Felix, R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of indirect MR arthrography in lesions of the rotator cuff, prospectively versus arthroscopy. Methods: 63 patients with suspected shoulder pathology were examined: Oblique-coronary and axial T 1 w sequences, axial FLASH-2 D sequences, furthermore oblique-coronary T 2 - and PD-weighted sequences were taken. After intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA/kilogram body weight and active motion of the shoulder T 1 w sequences were repeated. Signal intensities (SI) inside the tendon were quantitatively measured by the ROI technique (region-of-interest) and the percentual contrast-enhancement CE was calculated. In 32 patients the results were confirmed by surgical follow-up. Results: The mean SI measured in the supraspinous tendon were higher in lesions (degeneration, impingement, partial and total rupture), before as well as after contrast medium, compared to intact findings (p [de

  15. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  16. Indirect gonioscopy system for imaging iridocorneal angle of eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Fu, Chan Yiu; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    Current clinical optical imaging systems do not provide sufficient structural information of trabecular meshwork (TM) in the iridocorneal angle (ICA) of the eye due to their low resolution. Increase in the intraocular pressure (IOP) can occur due to the abnormalities in TM, which could subsequently lead to glaucoma. Here, we present an indirect gonioscopy based imaging probe with significantly improved visualization of structures in the ICA including TM region, compared to the currently available tools. Imaging quality of the developed system was tested in porcine samples. Improved direct high quality visualization of the TM region through this system can be used for Laser trabeculoplasty, which is a primary treatment of glaucoma. This system is expected to be used complementary to angle photography and gonioscopy.

  17. Dynamics of indirect exciton transport by moving acoustic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, A; Lazić, S; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Cohen, K; Rapaport, R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the modulation of indirect excitons (IXs) as well as their transport by moving periodic potentials produced by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The potential modulation induced by the SAW strain modifies both the band gap and the electrostatic field in the quantum wells confining the IXs, leading to changes in their energy. In addition, this potential captures and transports IXs over several hundreds of μm. While the IX packets keep to a great extent their spatial shape during transport by the moving potential, the effective transport velocity is lower than the SAW group velocity and increases with the SAW amplitude. This behavior is attributed to the capture of IXs by traps along the transport path, thereby increasing the IX transit time. The experimental results are well-reproduced by an analytical model for the interaction between trapping centers and IXs during transport. (paper)

  18. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.

    1996-01-01

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 ; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction 2 H( 3 H,n) 4 He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measurement results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. An indirect probe of the higgsino world at the CEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Lei [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-12-15

    The higgsino world is one of the popular natural SUSY scenarios, in which vertical stroke μ vertical stroke << M{sub gauginos} << M{sub scalars}. As such, searching for light degenerate higgsinos becomes an essential task of testing naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). In this work, we study the indirect effects of light higgsinos in the process e{sup +}e{sup -} → W{sup +}W{sup -} at future Higgs factories, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China. We find that the higgsino mass parameter μ

  20. Indirect Land Use Change – Science or Mission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Finkbeiner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current discussions of indirect land use change (iLUC and the greenhouse gas (GHG reduction potential of bioresources have turned into a rather controversial debate. The scientific robustness and consistency of current iLUC models and data are at least unclear. However, representatives of the scientific community still dare to provide straightforward political advice in their papers – way beyond the fact-based ‘proof’ of their data and on a level that is usually not accepted by scientific journals. But the actual task and challenge for the scientific community is to determine the environmental performance of bioresources as objectively and fact-based as possible – with a clear and sober focus on integrity and soundness, not sense of mission.

  1. Nuclear famine: The indirect effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    The indirect effects of a nuclear war, especially as mediated by disruption in food availability, could be much more extensive than the direct effects. Furthermore, this risk is especially severe for noncombatant countries - for the 4 billion or so humans expected to survive the immediate period after a nuclear war relatively physically unharmed. Thus, a fundamentally different picture of the post-nuclear-war world results, where a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union would probably result in more eventual fatalities in India than in the United States and the Soviet Union combined, and more people would die on the African continent than in all of Europe. Rather than reflecting images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a modern nuclear war would, for most of the people of the world, much more resemble current images of Ethiopia and the Sudan

  2. Assessing Natural Direct and Indirect Effects Through Multiple Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, T; Rasmussen, M; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-01-01

    . The approach is an extension of the natural effect models proposed by Lange et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):190-195). By allowing the analysis of distinct multiple pathways, the suggested approach adds to the capabilities of modern mediation techniques. Furthermore, the approach can be implemented using......Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand...... the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical...

  3. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    Even for similar residential buildings, a huge variability in the energy consumption can be observed. This variability is mainly due to the different behaviours of the occupants and this impacts the thermal (temperature setting, window opening, etc.) as well as the electrical (appliances, TV......, computer, etc.) consumption. It is very seldom to find direct observations of occupant presence and behaviour in residential buildings. However, given the increasing use of smart metering, the opportunity and potential for indirect observation and classification of occupants’ behaviour is possible...... sequence of states was determined (global decoding). From reconstruction of the states, dependencies like ambient air temperature were investigated. Combined with an occupant survey, this was used to classify/interpret the states as (1) absent or asleep, (2) home, medium consumption and (3) home, high...

  4. 17F breakup reactions: a touchstone for indirect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Napoli, M.; Raciti, G.; Sfienti, C.; Capel, P.; Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.; Sparenberg, J.-M.; Giacoppo, F.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Mazzocchi, C.

    2011-01-01

    An exclusive study of 17 F breakup reactions has been performed at the FRIBs facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). The experiment has been performed with the aim of testing the accuracy of the Coulomb-breakup indirect technique used to infer radiative-capture cross sections at low energies. This technique has been used in the 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B case, but has never been tested. By measuring the breakup of 17 F into 16 O+p, and comparing the inferred cross section for 16 O(p,γ) 17 F to direct precise measurements, the influence of E2 transitions and higher-order effects, that are predicted to be significant in Coulomb-breakup reactions, can be evaluated. The first results and preliminary model comparison are reported.

  5. PENINGKATAN ADDED VALUE KOPRA PUTIH DENGAN METODA INDIRECT DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron Mustajib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, drying of copra is carried out by sundrying or fumigation on a tomang (clay furnace. However, using these methods, the quality of copra resulted cannot be guaranteed and the prices is low, and thus the process is unprofitable. Another problem is that it is difficult to do the process during rainy season. We facilitated a copra home industry with a dryer with indirect drying system to replace the old copra processing drying equipment. The dryer consists of 12 racks equipped with a temperature controller (with temperatures reaching 150 ° C and a timer. By controlling temperature and time it was possible to get good quality copra and the process can be done in rainy season. From the test results using LPG fuel at temperature of 70 ° C for 18 hours, white copra was produced with 7% moisture content.

  6. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  7. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  8. Trojin horse method for indirect measurement of astrophysic S factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Zhou Shuhua; Li Chengbo; Wen Qungang

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear reaction rates in the astrophysical environment are indispensable input parameters in different astrophysics theories, and play important roles in understanding the astrophysical nuclear synthesis and the evolution of the universe. However, at the astrophysical temperature, the nuclear reactions proceed at very low energies. Due to the Coulomb barrier the reaction cross sections are very small, so that the direct measurement is almost impossible. The Trojin horse theory provides a useful method to measure indirectly the low energy two body cross sections by measuring the suitable three body reactions. Some approximations are applied in the theory to get convenient formula. This paper introduces the Trojin horse theory and its application in astrophysics nuclear reactions. (authors)

  9. Indirect sensorless speed control of a PMSG for wind application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.A.; Silva, C.; Juliet, J.

    2009-01-01

    the method usually referred in the literature as indirect speed control (ISC). The principle of this method is the regulation of the generator torque as function of rotor speed such that the steady state operation is at the MPPT. This strategy normally requires the knowledge of the shaft speed to determinate...... in the whole wind generator system a sensorless scheme is proposed, thereby avoiding problems of electromagnetic interferences and failures in the position sensor. Usually, in wind drive system, the generator is not operated a very low speeds, therefore problems related to low back-emf for flux estimation...... the reference torque and rotor position for the orientation of the vector torque control of the PMSG. To achieve both, speed and position estimation, the sensorless technique based in back-emf estimation is proposed. Also in this paper, a laboratory set-up is described. The experimental bench is composed...

  10. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. Gervasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  11. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  12. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  13. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  14. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-01

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  15. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  16. Direct and indirect parameters of free thyroxine. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Hoffmann, R.; Moll, E.; Baum, K.; Becker, W.; Eilles, C.; Gerhards, W.; Schick, F.; Spiegel, W.; Wiedemann, W.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Part II of the study concerning the clinical applicability of direct and indirect parameters for free thyroxine evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the FT 4 -RIAs ImmoPhase, GammaCoat, Liquisol, Amerlex and LisoPhase in relation to FT 4 index and T 4 /TBG ratio. This comparison of methods is done on a thoroughly classified collection (n = 640) of patients with normal and impaired thyroid function including patients with binding protein anomalies (pregnancy, estrogen-medication, phenytoin therapy, renal protein loss). FT 4 normal ranges of a given kit harmonize well with data of the manufacturers and of the literature. On the other hand, the normal ranges of the various kits are not comparable. The differentiation of euthyroidism from hyper- or hypothyroidism can be made without problems using any of these methods, with the exception of the FT 4 -RIA GammaCoat. As expected, patients with euthyroid goiter show, on the average, slightly lower parameters for FT 4 . In pregnancy all direct and indirect parameters for FT 4 have a tendency to lower values after the first trimester. This trend is most distinct for the T 4 /TBG ratio. A weak negative correlation of FT 4 parameters with basal TSH, which does not exceed the upper normal range, however, can be interpreted in the sense of a relative hypothyroxinemia. Under contraceptive estrogen medication FT 4 parameters do not fall outside the normal range, with the exception of the FT 4 -RIA ImmoPhase assay which yields a significantly increased frequency of high FT 4 levels. (orig./RW) [de

  17. 18-month-olds comprehend indirect communicative acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    From soon after their first birthdays young children are able to make inferences from a communicator's referential act (e.g., pointing to a container) to her overall social goal for communication (e.g., to inform that a searched-for toy is inside; see Behne, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2005; Behne, Liszkowski, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2012). But in such cases the inferential distance between referential act and communicative intention is still fairly close, as both container and searched-for toy lie in the direction of the pointing gesture. In the current study we tested 18- and 26-month-old children in a situation in which referential act and communicative goal were more distant: In the midst of a game, the child needed a certain toy. The experimenter then held up a key (that they knew in common ground could be used to open a container) to the child ostensively. In two control conditions the experimenter either inadvertently moved the key and so drew the child's attention to it non-ostensively or else held up the key for her own inspection intentionally but non-communicatively. Children of both ages took only the ostensive showing of the key, not the accidental moving or the non-ostensive but intentional inspection of the key, as an indirect request to take the key and open the container to retrieve the toy inside. From soon after they start acquiring language young children thus are able to infer a communicator's social goal for communication not only from directly-referential acts, but from more indirect communicative acts as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protection against Indirect Expropriation under National and International Legal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Gutbrod

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In recent years, direct expropriation2 has rarely been seen.3 States which wish to import capital do not like to be associated with posing a permanent, non-calculable threat to foreign-owned property but prefer to present themselves as jurisdictions with very stable, reliable and orderly regulatory environments.4 Expropriation, however, has by no means vanished; its execution has just become more subtle.5 Ambiguously or generously worded laws are ‘interpreted’ in a way that suits certain groups in the government or are only enforced when it suits a particular interest; administrative discretion is influenced by factors unrelated to the matter at issue, or administrations fail to conduct their processes in a transparent and comprehensible way. All these measures, turned against a foreign investor, can easily drive him out of business. Virtually all bilateral investment treaties (BITs and multilateral investment agreements (MITs, therefore, reflect this development and also cover acts of State which may expropriate “indirectly through measures tantamount to expropriation or nationalisation”6 (indirect expropriation7. Moreover, many international investment agreements (IIAs not only provide rules on (indirect expropriation but also establish so-called treatment standards “which refer to the legal regime that applies to investments once they have been admitted by the host State.”8 Administrative malfeasance, misfeasance and nonfeasance may also affect the investment adversely without amounting to “indirect expropriation”, constituting a less intense interference with the property. Indeed, there are arbitral awards which, while not accepting a claim based on “indirect expropriation”, established a compensable violation of “treatment standards”, i.e. in

  19. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  20. Multiparameter Cell Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, James W; Sramkoski, R Michael; Stefan, Tammy; Woost, Philip G

    2018-01-01

    Cell cycle cytometry and analysis are essential tools for studying cells of model organisms and natural populations (e.g., bone marrow). Methods have not changed much for many years. The simplest and most common protocol is DNA content analysis, which is extensively published and reviewed. The next most common protocol, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine S phase labeling detected by specific antibodies, is also well published and reviewed. More recently, S phase labeling using 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and a chemical reaction to label substituted DNA has been established as a basic, reliable protocol. Multiple antibody labeling to detect epitopes on cell cycle regulated proteins, which is what this chapter is about, is the most complex of these cytometric cell cycle assays, requiring knowledge of the chemistry of fixation, the biochemistry of antibody-antigen reactions, and spectral compensation. However, because this knowledge is relatively well presented methodologically in many papers and reviews, this chapter will present a minimal Methods section for one mammalian cell type and an extended Notes section, focusing on aspects that are problematic or not well described in the literature. Most of the presented work involves how to segment the data to produce a complete, progressive, and compartmentalized cell cycle analysis from early G1 to late mitosis (telophase). A more recent development, using fluorescent proteins fused with proteins or peptides that are degraded by ubiquitination during specific periods of the cell cycle, termed "Fucci" (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators) provide an analysis similar in concept to multiple antibody labeling, except in this case cells can be analyzed while living and transgenic organisms can be created to perform cell cycle analysis ex or in vivo (Sakaue-Sawano et al., Cell 132:487-498, 2007). This technology will not be discussed.