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Sample records for whites non-hispanic blacks

  1. Predictors of Participation in Mammography Screening among non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic Women

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    Cathy Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.

  2. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

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    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Susceptibility to Food Advertisements and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

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    Cervi, Meredith M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Dwyer, Laura A; Thai, Chan L; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity among adolescents in the United States has risen by 16% in the past 30 years. One important contributing factor may be the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), which is encouraged by advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks that are targeted to adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between susceptibility to food and drink advertisements and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescents and to examine if BMI is associated with SSB consumption. Data were obtained from 765 NHB and NHW of ages 14-17 who were surveyed in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. Two weighted adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The first examined the associations of advertisement susceptibility, race, and BMI with SSB consumption. The second examined the associations of race and BMI with advertisement susceptibility. Adolescents with high advertisement susceptibility were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21, 2.47). Additionally, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08, 2.85) and more likely to be highly susceptible to advertisements (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48) than non-Hispanic whites. No significant associations were found between BMI and advertising susceptibility or BMI and daily SSB consumption. One approach to addressing the consumption of SSBs may be to reduce advertising that markets unhealthy food and beverages to adolescents and minorities.

  4. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

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    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  5. Is the prevalence of specific types of congenital heart defects different for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic infants?

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    Nembhard, Wendy N; Salemi, Jason L; Wang, Tao; Loscalzo, Melissa L; Hauser, Kimberlea W

    2010-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CHD among non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-White, and Hispanic infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 9,352 singleton infants diagnosed with conotruncal, right or left obstructive or septal CHDs from the Florida Birth Defects Registry, born 1998-2003 to resident NH-White, NH-Black, and Hispanic women aged 15-49. Defect-specific prevalence rates, prevalence ratios and P-values were calculated for each type of CHD and by number of defects for each racial/ethnic group. Compared to NH-Whites, NH-Blacks had higher rates of pulmonary valve atresia/stenosis but lower frequency of aortic valve atresia/stenosis and ventricular septal defect. Hispanics had lower rates of aortic valve atresia/stenosis and atrioventricular septal defects than NH-Whites. Although few racial/ethnic differences in prevalence are present among infants with major CHD, observed differences are clinically meaningful. However, the underlying etiologies for the observed differences remain unknown.

  6. Epidemiology of infant death among black and white non-Hispanic populations in Hampton Roads, Virginia.

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    Emuren, Leonard; Chauhan, Suneet; Vroman, Richard; Beydoun, Hind

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of racial disparities in infant mortality rates and assess risk factors for infant death among black and white populations in Hampton Roads, Virginia. A retrospective study with secondary analyses of linked birth/death certificate data was conducted using a sample of 201,610 live-born infants and 1659 infant deaths identified between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Hampton Roads. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were significantly (P deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (P efforts should target prenatal care, preterm delivery, and low-birth-weight infants and neonates to reduce infant mortality rates.

  7. Variations in Social Network Type Membership Among Older African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

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    Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-07-01

    This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership. Four network typologies were identified: optimal (high social integration, low negative interaction), family-centered (high social integration within primarily the extended family network, low negative interaction), strained (low social integration, high negative interaction), and ambivalent (high social integration and high negative interaction). Findings for race and age and race and education interactions indicated that the effects of education and age on typology membership varied by race. Overall, the findings demonstrate how race interacts with age and education to influence the probability of belonging to particular network types. A better understanding of the influence of race, education, and age on social network typologies will inform future research and theoretical developments in this area.

  8. Proportion of gestational diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women in South Carolina.

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    Cavicchia, Philip P; Liu, Jihong; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E; Hussey, James R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hebert, James R

    2014-10-01

    Objective was to estimate race-specific proportions of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) attributable to overweight and obesity in South Carolina. South Carolina birth certificate and hospital discharge data were obtained from 2004 to 2006. Women who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus before pregnancy were classified with GDM if a diagnosis was reported in at least one data source. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using the log-binomial model. The modified Mokdad equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions for overweight body mass index (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), and extremely obese (≥35 kg/m(2)) women after adjusting for age, gestational weight gain, education, marital status, parity, tobacco use, pre-pregnancy hypertension, and pregnancy hypertension. Overall, the adjusted RR of GDM was 1.6, 2.3, and 2.9 times higher among the overweight, obese, and extremely obese women compared to normal-weight women in South Carolina. RR of GDM for extremely obese women was higher among White (3.1) and Hispanic (3.4) women than that for Black women (2.6). The fraction of GDM cases attributable to extreme obesity was 14.0 % among White, 18.1 % among Black, and 9.6 % among Hispanic women. The fraction of GDM cases attributable to obesity was about 12 % for all racial groups. Being overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9) explained 8.8, 7.8, and 14.4 % of GDM cases among White, Black, and Hispanic women, respectively. Results indicate a significantly increased risk of GDM among overweight, obese, and extremely obese women. The strength of the association and the proportion of GDM cases explained by excessive weight categories vary by racial/ethnic group.

  9. Rates of Primary and Secondary Syphilis Among White and Black Non-Hispanic Men Who Have Sex With Men, United States, 2014.

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    Grey, Jeremy A; Bernstein, Kyle T; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kidd, Sarah E; Gift, Thomas L; Hall, Eric W; Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Weinstock, Hillard S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2017-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States experience an approximately 100-fold greater rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis diagnoses compared with men who have sex with women only. As in the general population, racial/ethnic disparities in P&S syphilis diagnosis rates may exist among MSM, but MSM-specific P&S syphilis rates by race/ethnicity are unavailable. We enhanced a published modeling approach to estimate area-level MSM populations by race/ethnicity and provide the first estimates of P&S syphilis among black and white non-Hispanic MSM. We used data from the American Community Survey (ACS), published findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and national syphilis surveillance data to estimate state-level rates of P&S syphilis diagnoses among MSM, overall and for black and white non-Hispanic MSM. We also used variability around ACS and NHANES estimates to calculate 95% confidence intervals for each rate. Among 11,359 cases of P&S syphilis among MSM with known race/ethnicity in 2014, 72.5% were among white (40.3%) or black (32.2%) MSM. The national rate of P&S syphilis diagnosis was 168.4/100,000 for white MSM and 583.9/100,000 for black MSM. Regional rates for black MSM ranged from 602.0/100,000 (South) to 521.5/100,000 (Midwest) and were consistently higher than those for white MSM. Although white MSM accounted for more P&S syphilis diagnoses than black MSM in 2014, when evaluating diagnoses based on rate per 100,000, black MSM had consistently and markedly higher rates than white MSM, with the highest impacted states located in the US South.

  10. Separate and Combined Effects of Anxiety, Depression and Problem Drinking on Subjective Health among Black, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men.

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    Assari, Shervin

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined race and ethnic differences in the separate and combined (additive) effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on the baseline and trajectory of subjective health among adult men in the United States. This longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. We included 4,655 men, composed of 2,407 Blacks, 1,354 Hispanic Whites and 894 non-Hispanic Whites. The dependent variable was subjective health, measured four times (i.e., baseline, year 1, year 3 and year 5). Latent growth curve modeling was used for data analysis. When controlling for socio-economics, we tested separate effects of anxiety and depression. Then we tested combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking. Among all race and ethnic groups, anxiety and problem drinking were associated with baseline and trajectory of subjective health. Combined (additive) effects of anxiety and depression, however, varied based on race and ethnicity. Among Blacks, depression and anxiety were associated with a worse trajectory of subjective health. Among non-Hispanic Whites, anxiety was associated with a better baseline and worse trajectory of subjective health, while depression was associated with worse baseline subjective health. Among Hispanic Whites, anxiety was associated with a worse trajectory of subjective health, while depression was not associated with subjective health. Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  11. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

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    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  12. Comparisons Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Informal Caregivers

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    Nancy J. Karlin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.

  13. Four Decades of Obesity Trends among Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks in the United States: Analyzing the Influences of Educational Inequalities in Obesity and Population Improvements in Education.

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    Yu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Both obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) and educational attainment have increased dramatically in the United States since the 1970s. This study analyzed the influences of educational inequalities in obesity and population improvements in education on national obesity trends between 1970 and 2010. For non-Hispanic white and black males and females aged 25-74 years, educational differences in the probability of being obese were estimated from the 1971-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and population distributions of age and educational groups, from the 1970 Census and 2010 American Community Survey. In the total population, obesity increased from 15.7% to 38.8%, and there were increases in the greater obese probabilities of non-college graduates relative to four-year college graduates. The increase in obesity would have been lower by 10% (2.2 percentage points) if educational inequalities in obesity had stayed at their 1970 values and lower by one third (7.9 points) if obesity inequalities had been eliminated. Obesity inequalities were larger for females than males and for whites than blacks, and obesity did not differ by education among black males. As a result, the impact of obesity inequalities on the obesity trend was largest among white females (a 47% reduction in the obesity increase if obesity inequalities had been eliminated), and virtually zero among black males. On the other hand, without educational improvements, the obesity increase would have been 9% more in the total population, 23% more among white females and not different in the other three subpopulations. Results indicate that obesity inequalities made sizable contributions to the obesity trends, and the obesity reductions associated with educational improvements were more limited.

  14. Non-hispanic whites have higher risk for pulmonary impairment from pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Pasipanodya Jotam G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT contributes heavily to the societal burden of TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Methods We analyzed the pulmonary function of 320 prospectively identified patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who had completed at least 20 weeks standard anti-TB regimes by directly observed therapy. We compared frequency and severity of spirometry-defined PIAT in groups stratified by demographics, pulmonary risk factors, and race/ethnicity, and examined clinical correlates to pulmonary function deficits. Results Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was identified in 71% of non-Hispanic Whites, 58% of non-Hispanic Blacks, 49% of Asians and 32% of Hispanics (p p p = 0.978. Conclusions Despite controlling for cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status and time to beginning TB treatment, non-Hispanic White race/ethnicity remained an independent predictor for disproportionately frequent and severe pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis relative to other race/ethnic groups. Since race/ethnicity was self reported and that race is not a biological construct: these findings must be interpreted with caution. However, because race/ethnicity is a proxy for several other unmeasured host, pathogen or environment factors that may contribute to disparate health outcomes, these results are meant to suggest hypotheses for further research.

  15. Child-feeding Practices among Chinese-American and Non-Hispanic White Caregivers

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    Huang, Shirley H.; Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Grier, Sonya A.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A.; Stettler, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared child-feeding and related practices with child weight status between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers who attended three community health centers. Study participants were caregivers of 50 Chinese-American and 108 non-Hispanic white children ages 2 to 12 years who completed a short version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in English or Chinese. The feeding behaviors assessed were concern, pressure, restriction, and monitoring. Child body mass index (BMI)...

  16. Child-feeding practices among Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers.

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    Huang, Shirley H; Parks, Elizabeth P; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Grier, Sonya A; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    This study compared child-feeding and related practices with child weight status between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers who attended three community health centers. Study participants were caregivers of 50 Chinese-American and 108 non-Hispanic white children aged 2-12 years who completed a short version of the child feeding questionnaire in English or Chinese. The feeding behaviors assessed were concern, pressure, restriction, and monitoring. Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from child weight and height measured in clinic by clinicians trained in anthropometrics. The sample was stratified into 2-5 and 6-12 years age groups to account for developmental differences. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was moderate to high and similar by ethnicity for all four behaviors for Chinese-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. In models adjusted for confounding variables, Chinese-American caregivers had higher mean scores than non-Hispanic white caregivers for concern and restriction in all age groups and monitoring in 2-5 year-olds. No feeding practices were associated with child BMI in Chinese-Americans; concern and restriction were associated with child BMI in non-Hispanic whites in 2-5 year-olds. These results suggest that differences in child-feeding practices exist between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

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    ... or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Hispanic or Latino Population Health of Mexican American Population Health of White non-Hispanic Population ...

  18. Comparison of outcomes for African Americans, Hispanics, and Non-Hispanic Whites in the CATIE study.

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    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.

  19. Influence of residential segregation on survival after AIDS diagnosis among non-Hispanic blacks.

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    Fennie, Kristopher P; Lutfi, Khaleeq; Maddox, Lorene M; Lieb, Spencer; Trepka, Mary Jo

    2015-02-01

    Non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) are disproportionately affected by the AIDS epidemic. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), survival after AIDS diagnosis has increased dramatically, yet survival among NHBs is shorter compared with non-Hispanic whites. Racial residential segregation may be an important factor influencing observed racial disparities in survival. We linked data on 30,813 NHBs from the Florida Department of Health HIV/AIDS Reporting system (1993-2004) with death records and applied segregation indices and poverty levels to the data. Weighted Cox models were used to examine the association between segregation measured on five dimensions and survival, controlling for demographic factors, clinical factors, and area-level poverty. Analyses were stratified by pre-HAART (1993-1995), early HAART (1996-1998), and late-HAART (1999-2004) eras. In the late-HAART era, adjusting for area-level poverty, segregation remained a significant predictor of survival on two dimensions: Concentration (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.56) and centralization (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.84). Area-level poverty was an independent predictor of survival. These findings suggest that certain dimensions of segregation and poverty are associated with survival after AIDS diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hospital discharge destinations for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients treated for traumatic brain injury.

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    Janus, Todd J; Smith, Hayden L; Chigazola, Angela; Wortman, Mikelle R; Sidwell, Richard A; Piper, John G

    2013-01-01

    To examine hospital discharge destinations for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients treated for traumatic brain injury. Retrospective cohort study with patient matching. Ethnicity status not determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .2150). Patient hospital length of stay determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .0072), with every 1 day increase in length of stay, resulting in a 12% increase in odds of being discharged to care facility. Study data suggest that length of stay can predict discharge destination for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients in a medium-sized trauma center in the Midwest.

  1. Participation in Physical Activity among Normal- and Overweight Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents

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    Stovitz, Steven D.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Boostrom, Ardys

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between weight status and participation in physical activity (PA) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescent boys and girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, height and weight were measured and a modified 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 1302…

  2. Well-being in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white survivors of breast cancer.

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    Dirksen, Shannon Ruff; Erickson, Julie Reed

    2002-06-01

    To test a well-being model on Hispanic and non-Hispanic white survivors of breast cancer by comparing responses about variables hypothesized to predict well-being. Healthcare orientation, uncertainty, social support, resourcefulness, self-esteem, and well-being. Descriptive and comparative. 50 Hispanic and 50 non-Hispanic white women who completed treatment for breast cancer and were disease-free. Regional cancer center in southwestern United States. Subjects completed the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Health Care Orientation Subscale, Mishel Uncertainty Illness Scale, Personal Resource Questionnaire, Self-Control Schedule, Self-Esteem Inventory, and Index of Well-Being. Both groups of women reported high well-being. Sample characteristics were not related significantly to well-being in either group. No statistically significant differences were found between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women on any variables. Comparison of well-being models revealed similarities between the two groups, including variables entering each regression equation, and explained variance. Further research is needed to explore whether commonalities in women's responses to breast cancer exist independent of ethnicity. Nurses should continue encouraging both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women to share concerns and seek information from healthcare providers while strengthening feelings of self-worth because these factors directly affect well-being.

  3. Differences in life satisfaction among older community-dwelling Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites.

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    Marquine, María J; Maldonado, Yadira; Zlatar, Zvinka; Moore, Raeanne C; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic/racial group of the older adult population in the United States, yet little is known about positive mental health in this group. We examined differences in life satisfaction between demographically matched groups of older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites, and sought to identify specific factors associated with these differences Participants included 126 community-dwelling English-speaking Hispanics aged 50 and older, and 126 age-, gender-, and education-matched non-Hispanic Whites. Participants completed standardized measures of life satisfaction and postulated correlates, including physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning, as well as positive psychological traits and religiosity/spirituality. Hispanics reported greater life satisfaction than non-Hispanic Whites (p life satisfaction, except that Hispanics had lower levels of cognitive performance, and higher levels of daily spiritual experiences, private religious practices and compassion (ps life satisfaction in the overall sample. Multivariable analyses testing the influence of these three factors on the association between ethnicity and life satisfaction showed that higher spirituality among Hispanics accounted for ethnic differences in life satisfaction. English-speaking Hispanics aged 50 and older appeared to be more satisfied with their lives than their non-Hispanic White counterparts, and these differences were primarily driven by higher spirituality among Hispanics. Future studies should examine positive mental health among various Hispanic subgroups, including Spanish speakers, as an important step toward development of culturally sensitive prevention and intervention programs aimed at promoting positive mental health.

  4. Self-Harm Experiences among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults

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    Croyle, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Very little research exists on self-harm in Hispanic populations, although there is a strong literature that addresses suicidality in Hispanics. This study compares self-reported rates of self-harm in 255 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 187 Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) undergraduate students. Results indicated that self-harm is…

  5. Prevalence of Amblyopia or Strabismus in Asian and Non-Hispanic White Preschool Children

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    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Cotter, Susan A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Wen, Ge; Kim, Jeniffer; Borchert, Mark; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and race-specific prevalence of amblyopia in Asian and non-Hispanic white children aged 30 to 72 months and of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A population-based, multiethnic sample of children aged 6 to 72 months was identified in Los Angeles and Riverside counties in California to evaluate the prevalence of ocular conditions. Methods A comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview were conducted with 80% of eligible children. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures in children aged 6 to 72 months, as well as a determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children aged 30 to 72 months. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of 6- to 72-month-old participants with strabismus and 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with study definitions of amblyopia. Results Strabismus was found in 3.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68–4.60) of Asian children and 3.24% (95% CI, 2.40–4.26) of non-Hispanic white children, with a higher prevalence with each subsequent older age category from 6 to 72 months in both racial/ethnic groups (P=0.0003 and 0.02, respectively). Amblyopia was detected in 1.81% (95% CI, 1.06–2.89) of Asian and non-Hispanic white children; the prevalence of amblyopia was higher for each subsequent older age category among non-Hispanic white children (P=0.01) but showed no significant trend among Asian children (P=0.30). Conclusions The prevalence of strabismus was similar in Asian and non-Hispanic white children and was found to be higher among older children from 6 to 72 months. The prevalence of amblyopia was the same in Asian and non-Hispanic white children; prevalence seemed to be higher among older non-Hispanic white children but was relatively stable by age in Asian children. These findings may help clinicians to better understand the patterns of

  6. A Comparison of Women of Color and Non-Hispanic White Women on Factors Related to Leaving a Violent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Zhang, Lingling

    2011-01-01

    This study compares women of color and non-Hispanic White women regarding the influence of socioeconomic status, family investment, and psychological abuse on leaving a violent relationship. It was found that most women who left stayed away for less than a month. Women of color and non-Hispanic White women did not differ in their length or rate of…

  7. Racial residential segregation and risky sexual behavior among non-Hispanic blacks, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person's community can affect his or her STI risk by the community's underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation-the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments-is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15-44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05-2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03-2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15-44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating additional contextual factors may

  8. Severe injury among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Catherine J; Rivara, Frederick P; Cummings, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The authors' anecdotal experience at a regional Level I trauma center was that Hispanic children were overrepresented among burn patients, particularly among children with burns due to scalding from hot food. This study describes injury incidence and severity among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents with serious traumatic injuries in Washington State. Data from the Washington State Trauma Registry for 1995-1997 were used to identify injured individuals aged injury incidence rates for Hispanic children relative to non-Hispanic white children were calculated using denominator estimates derived from U.S. Census Bureau population data. Hispanic children and non-Hispanic white children were also compared on several measures of severity of injury. In 1995-1997, serious traumatic injuries were reported to the Registry for 231 Hispanic children aged white children (56 per 100,000 person-years), yielding an overall rate ratio (RR) of 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8, 1.1). Motor vehicle crashes and falls accounted for one-third to one-half of the injuries for each group. Infants, children, and adolescents identified as Hispanic had higher rates of injuries related to hot objects (i.e., burns) (RR=2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 4.1), guns (RR=2.2; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.3), and being cut or pierced (RR=3.5; 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5). The Hispanic group had a lower injury rate for motor vehicle accidents (RR=0.7; 95% CI 0.5, 0.9). Mortality rates were similar (RR=1.1; 95% CI 0.7, 1.7). The mean length of hospital stay was 5.5 days for the Hispanic group and 8.8 days for the non-Hispanic white group (difference=3.3 days; 95% CI -0.7, 7.4). The study found little difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents in the burden of traumatic pediatric injury. However, burns, guns, drowning, and being pierced/cut appeared to be particularly important mechanisms of injury for Hispanic children. More specific investigations targeted toward

  9. The Role of Language Use in Reports of Musculoskeletal Pain Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Kapoor, Anna; Omidpanah, Adam; Monico, Evelyn; Buchwald, Dedra; Harris, Raymond; Jimenez, Nathalia

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the role of English language use in the reported frequency of musculoskeletal pain among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White youth. This is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional sample of 12,189 Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adolescents recruited for the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were classified into three groups: (a) English-speaking non-Hispanic Whites, (b) English-speaking Hispanics, and (c) Spanish-speaking Hispanics. After controlling for body mass index and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, Spanish-speaking Hispanics reported the least frequent musculoskeletal pain ( OR = 0.415, 95% CI [0.361, 0.477]; p cultural phenomenon. Health care providers should consider the role of language use in reports of pain in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adolescents.

  10. The relation between physical activity and mental health among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, Jennifer; Steffen, Lyn M; Lytle, Leslie; Patterson, Joan; Boostrom, Ardys

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relation of physical activity (PA) with feelings of sadness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescent boys and girls. Cross-sectional study using a modified 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. One thousand eight hundred seventy Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents, aged 14 to 18 years, attending high school in Nueces County, Texas. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation between PA, including moderate and vigorous PAs, strength and toning, total PA, physical education class, and participation in team sports, and the dependent variables feelings of sadness and considering, planning, and attempting suicide. More boys reported participating in PA than girls (Pclass was inversely related to feelings of sadness (odds ratio [OR], 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.94]); participation in more total PA sessions per week was associated with a lower risk of considering suicide (OR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.65-0.79]); and higher levels of vigorous PA (OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.57-0.93]), total PA (OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.48-0.87]), and strength and toning activity (OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.99]) were associated with a lower risk of planning suicide. These findings are consistent with a beneficial effect of PA on feelings of sadness and suicidal behaviors in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white boys and girls. Physical activity may be considered as part of an intervention strategy to improve adolescent health as a whole.

  11. Racial Residential Segregation and STI Diagnosis Among Non-Hispanic Blacks, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Ibañez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2017-11-02

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) disproportionately impact non-Hispanic blacks. Racial residential segregation has been associated with negative socioeconomic outcomes. We sought to examine the association between segregation and STI diagnosis among blacks. The National Survey of Family Growth and US Census served as data sources. Five distinct dimensions represent segregation. The association between STI diagnosis and each segregation dimension was assessed with multilevel logistic regression modeling. 305 (7.4%) blacks reported STI diagnosis during the past 12 months. Depending on the dimension, segregation was a risk factor [dissimilarity aOR 2.41 (95% CI 2.38-2.43)] and a protective factor [isolation aOR 0.90 (95% CI 0.89-0.91)] for STI diagnosis. Findings suggest that STI diagnosis among blacks is associated with segregation. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms for how segregation affects STI diagnosis and to aid in the development of interventions to decrease STIs.

  12. Low sensitivity for the metabolic syndrome to detect uric acid elevations in females and non-Hispanic-black male adolescents: an analysis of NHANES 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Gurka, Matthew J

    2012-02-01

    Uric acid is tightly linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and among adults higher uric acid levels are associated with future risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and renal disease. Evaluate the sensitivity of MetS to identify adolescents with elevated uric acid levels on a race/ethnicity and gender-specific basis. We evaluated 3296 male and female adolescents 12-19 y participating in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey 1999-06, comprised of 67.6% non-Hispanic whites, 15.1% non-Hispanic blacks, and 17.3% Hispanics. We used a definition of MetS modified for use in adolescents and evaluated the sensitivity of a diagnosis of MetS to identify individuals with uric acid elevations (approximately the 95th percentile of uric acid by gender among normal-weight adolescents). When used as a screening test to identify individuals with uric acid elevations MetS performed more poorly among females (18.0%) than among males (37.0%) (puric acid levels among females (non-Hispanic-white 15.5%, non-Hispanic-black 19.4%, Hispanic 26.5%, p>0.05). Current criteria to diagnose MetS exhibit racial/ethnic and gender differences in the ability to identify adolescents with elevated uric acid levels, performing poorly among non-Hispanic-black males and among females. Given emerging data regarding the ability of uric acid elevations for predicting future disease, these data may have implications regarding the use of MetS as a marker of risk among all gender and racial/ethnic groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Demographic risk factors for injury among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children: an ecologic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Agran, P.; Winn, D.; Tran, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of neighborhood levels of poverty, household crowding, and acculturation on the rate of injury to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Setting—Orange County, California. Methods—An ecologic study design was used with census block groups as the unit of analysis. Measures of neighborhood poverty, household crowding, and acculturation were specific to each ethnic group. Poisson regression was used to calculate mutually adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) corresponding to a 20% difference in census variables. Results—Among non-Hispanic white children, injury rates were more closely associated with neighborhood levels of household crowding (adjusted IRR 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 4.57) than with neighborhood poverty (adjusted IRR 1.06, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.26). For Hispanic children, the strongest risk factors were the proportion of Hispanic adults who spoke only some English (compared with the proportion who spoke little or no English, adjusted IRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53) and the proportion who were US residents for injury among Hispanic children (adjusted IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.08), but surprisingly, neighborhood poverty was associated with lower injury rates (adjusted IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.97). Conclusions—Cultural and geographic transitions, as well as socioeconomic differences, appear to contribute to differences in childhood injury rates between ethnic groups. PMID:9595329

  14. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  15. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  16. Depression and sexual adjustment following breast cancer in low-income Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Maly, Rose C

    2010-10-01

    Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States and breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Hispanic women. However, Hispanics are underrepresented in the psychosocial breast cancer literature. This study included 677 low-income women (425 Hispanic, 252 non-Hispanic White) enrolled in the Medi-Cal Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program. Data were gathered through phone interviews conducted in English or Spanish 6 and 18 months following breast cancer diagnosis. We focus on three variables that the literature indicates are salient for breast cancer survivors: sexual function, body image and depression. Results of an ANCOVA indicated worse sexual function for Hispanic women, even after controlling for significant covariates. Hispanics reported significantly less sexual desire, greater difficulty relaxing and enjoying sex, and greater difficulty becoming sexually aroused and having orgasms than non-Hispanic White women. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women endorsed a lack of sexual desire more frequently than problems with sexual function. Body image did not differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women. In all, 38% of Hispanic and 48% of non-Hispanic White women scored above cut-off scores for depressive symptoms. While there was no ethnic difference in depressive symptoms, single women reported more depressive symptoms than partnered women. Findings suggest that low-income breast cancer survivors may experience symptoms of depression more than a year following diagnosis, and that sexual dysfunction may be particularly salient for low-income Hispanic women. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Traffic law knowledge disparity between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenton L; Patel, Chirag V; Vaca, Federico; Anderson, Craig L; Mendoza, Rosemarie; Barton, Renee L; Lekawa, Michael E; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2011-06-01

    The Hispanic population is one group that is involved in a disproportionately high percentage of fatal motor vehicle collisions in the United States. This study investigated demographic factors contributing to a lack of knowledge and awareness of traffic laws among Hispanic drivers involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in southern California. The cross-sectional study enrolled adults (n = 190) involved in MVCs presenting to a Level I trauma center in southern California over a 7-month period. Subjects completed a survey about California traffic law knowledge (TLK) consisting of eight multiple-choice questions. The mean number of questions answered correctly was compared between groups defined by demographic data. The mean number of TLK questions answered correctly by Hispanic and non-Hispanic white groups were significantly different at 4.13 and 4.62, respectively (p = 0.005; 95% confidence interval -0.83 to -0.15). Scores were significantly lower in subjects who were not fluent in English, had less than a high school education, did not possess a current driver's license, and received their TLK from sources other than a driver's education class or Department of Motor Vehicle materials. Analysis of variance showed that the source of knowledge was the strongest predictor of accurate TLK. Source of TLK is a major contributing factor to poor TLK in Hispanics. An emphasis on culturally specific traffic law education is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Lung Cancer Risk in Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Stephanie C; Daniel, Carrie R.; Ye, Yuanqing; Pierzynski, Jeanne A.; Roth, Jack A.; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin responses play a role in carcinogenesis. We evaluated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), markers of carbohydrate intake and PPG, and lung cancer risk in non-Hispanic whites. Methods GL and GI were assessed among 1,905 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases recruited from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas and 2,413 healthy controls recruited at Kelsey-Seybold Clinics in Houston. We assessed associations between quintiles of GI/GL and lung cancer risk and effect modification by various risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results We observed a significant association between GI (5th vs 1st quintile (Q)) OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.21–1.83, P-trend glycemic index and other lung cancer risk factors may jointly and independently influence lung cancer etiology. Impact Understanding the role of glycemic index in lung cancer could inform prevention strategies and elucidate biological pathways related to lung cancer risk. PMID:26944871

  19. Racial Residential Segregation and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Non-Hispanic Blacks, National Survey of Family Growth, 2006 – 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Khaleeq; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Ibanez, Gladys; Gladwin, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have disproportionately affected the non-Hispanic black population in the United States. A person’s community can affect his or her STI risk by the community’s underlying prevalence of STIs, sexual networks, and social influences on individual behaviors. Racial residential segregation—the separation of racial groups in a residential context across physical environments—is a community factor that has been associated with negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine if non-Hispanic blacks living in highly segregated areas were more likely to have risky sexual behavior. Demographic and sexual risk behavior data from non-Hispanic blacks aged 15 – 44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth were linked to Core-Based Statistical Area segregation data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Five dimensions measured racial residential segregation, each covering a different concept of spatial variation. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to test the effect of each dimension on sexual risk behavior controlling for demographics and community poverty. Of the 3,643 participants, 588 (14.5%) reported risky sexual behavior as defined as two or more partners in the last 12 months and no consistent condom use. Multilevel analysis results show that racial residential segregation was associated with risky sexual behavior with the association being stronger for the centralization [aOR (95% CI)][2.07 (2.05 – 2.08)] and concentration [2.05 (2.03 – 2.07)] dimensions. This suggests risky sexual behavior is more strongly associated with neighborhoods with high concentrations of non-Hispanic blacks and an accumulation of non-Hispanic blacks in an urban core. Findings suggest racial residential segregation is associated with risky sexual behavior in non-Hispanic blacks 15 – 44 years of age with magnitudes varying by dimension. Incorporating

  20. Consumption of obesogenic foods in non-Hispanic black mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Wasser, Heather; Adair, Linda S; Thompson, Amanda L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Bentley, Margaret E

    2018-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a problem in the United States. Of particular concern is the epidemic of early childhood obesity. A significant predictor of child diet is maternal diet, but little is known about this relationship during infancy. This study examined the association between maternal and infant consumption of key food groups from 6 to 18 months using data from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Study, a prospective cohort of 217 non-Hispanic black, low-income, first-time mothers. Using data from 24-hr dietary recalls collected during in-home visits at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, we assessed longitudinal associations between mother and child intake of both energy-dense, nutrient-poor (obesogenic) food groups and fibre-, nutrient-rich food groups using random intercept logistic regression. Both mothers and their infants had high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts, and sweets and low intake of vegetables and whole grains. Infant consumption of key food groups was strongly associated with maternal consumption, suggesting the need for focused interventions to target maternal diet as a pathway to decreasing risk for the establishment of poor dietary patterns early in life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among African Americans, Afro Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, José A.; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A.; Belue, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African America...

  2. Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Amelie G; P?rez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Mu?oz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan EC; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; N?poles, Anna; Casta?eda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J

    2013-01-01

    Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En ...

  3. Barriers to and Methods of Help Seeking for Domestic Violence Victimization: A Comparison of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women Residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J; Karlsson, Marie E; Jackson, Jennifer C; Andrews, Arthur R; Villalobos, Bianca T

    2018-02-01

    This study examined strategies Hispanic and non-Hispanic White victims of domestic violence use to manage violence and leave their relationships. Participants ( N = 76, 41% Hispanic) completed self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview with a language-congruent research assistant. Hispanics reported child care needs and fears of social embarrassment as barriers to leaving, while non-Hispanic Whites reported fewer social supports as a barrier. Hispanics were more likely to use legal resources for help, while non-Hispanic Whites used more informal resources. Recognizing unique barriers to leaving abusive relationships and accessing help can guide service providers and others to target vulnerable populations more effectively.

  4. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  5. Diabetes is more lethal in Mexicans and Mexican Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kelly J; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Lopez, Ruy; Haffner, Steve M; Stern, Michael P; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the mortality risk associated with diabetes in the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS) and the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS). Methods Prospective cohorts conducted 1990-2007 in MCDS and 1979-2000 in SAHS. Mortality risk was examined using Cox proportional hazard models in 1,402 non-Hispanic whites (NHW), 1,907 U.S.-born Mexican Americans (MA), 444 Mexican-born MA, 2,281 Mexico City residents (MCR) between the ages of 35 and 64. Results Age- and sex-adjusted mortality HRs comparing U.S.-born MA, Mexican-born MA and MCR to NHW were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.37), 1.23 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.76) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23), respectively, in non-diabetic individuals; in contrast, mortality risk varied in diabetic individuals with respective HRs of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.61), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.97) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.35) (interaction p-value=0.0003). Excluding Mexican-born MA and non-diabetic individuals, controlling for medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose levels and duration of diabetes explained a significant proportion of the mortality differential (HRs relative to NHW were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.98) in U.S.-born MA and 1.38 (95% CI: 0.89, 2.12) in MCR). Conclusions This study provides evidence that diabetes is more lethal in U.S.-born MA and MCR than in NHW. PMID:21840730

  6. Mexican Americans Receive Less Intensive Stroke Rehabilitation Than Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2017-06-01

    Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurological, functional, and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine whether allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Patients with stroke were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, TX, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for 3 months after stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using 2 sample t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using χ(2) tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using χ(2) tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (SD 13), MA-66 (SD 11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services (P=0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation, NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), P=0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) (P=0.0017). In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation, whereas NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Increases in light and intermittent smoking among Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2014-06-01

    Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (smoking daily). Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.

  8. Descriptive drinking norms in Native American and non-Hispanic White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Kylee J; Pearson, Matthew R; Venner, Kamilla L; Greenfield, Brenna L

    2017-09-01

    College students tend to overestimate how much their peers drink, which is associated with higher personal alcohol use. However, research has not yet examined if this phenomenon holds true among Native American (NA) college students. This study examined associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences in a sample of NA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) college students. NA (n=147, 78.6% female) and NHW (n=246, 67.8% female) undergraduates completed an online survey. NAs NHWs showed similar descriptive norms such that the "typical college student," "typical NA student," and "typical NHW student" were perceived to drink more than "best friends." "Best friends" descriptive norms (i.e., estimations of how many drinks per week were consumed by participants' best friends) were the most robust predictors of alcohol use/consequences. Effect size estimates of the associations between drinking norms and participants' alcohol use were consistently positive and ranged from r=0.25 to r=0.51 across the four reference groups. Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that all descriptive norms tended to predict drinking, and "best friends" drinking norms predicted alcohol consequences. Apart from one interaction effect, likely due to familywise error rate, these associations were not qualified by interactions with racial/ethnic group. We found similar patterns between NAs and NHWs both in the pattern of descriptive norms across reference groups and in the strength of associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences. Although these results suggest that descriptive norms operate similarly among NAs as other college students, additional research is needed to identify whether other norms (e.g., injunctive norms) operate similarly across NA and NHW students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Impact of Stroke Risk Factors on Ethnic Stroke Disparities Among Midlife Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajiv C; Sánchez, Brisa N; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Li, Chengwei; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2017-10-01

    We examined the contribution of stroke risk factors to midlife (age 45-59 years) Mexican American and non-Hispanic White ischemic stroke (IS) rate disparities from 2000 to 2010. Incident IS cases (n=707) and risk factors were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, Nueces County, TX (2000-2010). US Census data (2000-2010) were used to estimate the population at-risk for IS, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-2010) was used to estimate risk factor prevalence in the stroke-free population. Poisson regression models combined IS counts (numerator) and population at-risk counts (denominator) classified by ethnicity and risk factor status to estimate unadjusted and risk factor-adjusted associations between ethnicity and IS rates. Separate models were run for each risk factor and extended to include an interaction term between ethnicity and risk factor. The crude rate ratio (RR) for ethnicity (Mexican American versus non-Hispanic White) was 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-2.36) and was attenuated in models that adjusted for diabetes mellitus (RR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26-1.78) and hypertension (RR: 1.84; 95% CI, 1.50-2.26). In addition, diabetes mellitus had a stronger association with IS rates among Mexican Americans (RR: 6.42; 95% CI, 5.31-7.76) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (RR: 4.07; 95% CI, 3.68-4.51). The higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and stronger association of diabetes mellitus with IS among midlife Mexican Americans likely contribute to persistent midlife ethnic stroke disparities. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Challenges to Healthy Eating Practices: A Qualitative Study of Non-Hispanic Black Men Living With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Loretta T; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Locher, Julie L; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore current dietary practices and perceived barriers to healthy eating in non-Hispanic black men with type 2 diabetes. Four 90-minute focus groups held in September and October 2011 were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on dietary practices and barriers to healthy eating. Participants were recruited from the diabetes database at a public safety-net health system in Jefferson County, Alabama. Two-independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive and inductive approach. There were 34 male participants aged 18 years and older. Mean years living with diabetes was 9.6 ± 5.9. Sixty-two percent of participants perceived themselves to be in fair or poor health. Participants' self-reported eating practices did not always relate to hunger. Internal cues to eat included habit and response to emotions, and external cues to eat included media messaging, medication regimens, and work schedules. Men identified multiple barriers to healthy eating including hard-to-break habits, limited resources and availability of food at home and in neighborhood grocery stores, and perceived poor communication with health care professionals. Non-Hispanic black men acknowledged the importance of healthy eating as part of diabetes self-management but reported various internal and external challenges that present barriers to healthy eating. Tailored strategies to overcome barriers to healthy eating among non-Hispanic black men should be developed and tested for their impact on diabetes self-management. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Tattoo types and frequencies in New Mexican white hispanics and white non-hispanics: autopsy data from homicidal and accidental deaths, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah

    2008-12-01

    Tattoos serve as a form of forensic personal identification and providing evidence of possible gang affiliation, incarceration history, and high-risk lifestyle factors such as drug use. Despite their forensic applications, tattoo typology and frequencies in specific ethnic and racial groups are underreported and poorly understood. This study examined autopsy records from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator from 2002 to 2005. A total of 3430 individuals (1666 white Hispanics; 1764 white non-Hispanics), aged 18 to 100 years, with homicidal or accidental manners of death were included in the study. In addition to demographic information, data were recorded on the presence/absence of tattoos, singular or multiple tattoos, and the language of text tattoos. Tattoos depicting gang or religious symbolism were also recorded. Results indicate statistically significant differences in tattoo frequencies by ethnicity (52% Hispanic vs. 29.5% non-Hispanic), sex (46.8% men vs. 25.9% women) and age cohort. Hispanics were more likely to have multiple tattoos than non-Hispanics (41% and 19%, respectively), and were 4.67 times more likely to have a religious tattoo and 7.13 times more likely to have a gang tattoo than non-Hispanics. Significant patterns in language of text tattoos and correlations with manner of death were also noted.

  12. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  13. Race, Coping Style, and Substance Use Disorder Among Non-Hispanic African American and White Young Adults in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gundy, Karen T; Howerton-Orcutt, Amanda; Mills, Meghan L

    2015-01-01

    Despite their higher rates of stress, African American young adults tend toward similar or lower rates of substance misuse than their White counterparts. Arguably, such patterns derive from: (1) racial variations in the availability of coping strategies that mitigate stress; and/or (2) racial differences in the efficacy of available coping styles for reducing substance misuse. We assessed whether two coping style types-problem-focused and avoidance-oriented-varied by race (non-Hispanic African American vs. non-Hispanic White) and whether the effects of coping styles on substance misuse were moderated by race. Using data from a community sample of South Florida young adults, we employed logistic regression analyses to examine racial differences in coping style and to test if race by coping style interactions (race × problem-focused coping and race × avoidance-oriented coping) influenced the odds of qualifying for a DSM-IV substance use disorder, net of lifetime stressful events and sociodemographic controls. We found that African American young adults displayed lower problem-focused coping, and higher avoidance-oriented coping, than did White young adults. Among both African American and White respondents, problem-focused coping was associated with reduced odds of illicit drug use disorder (excluding marijuana), and among Whites, avoidance-oriented coping was associated with increased odds of an aggregate measure of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use disorders. Among African Americans, however, avoidance-oriented coping was associated with lower odds of marijuana use disorder. Substance misuse policies and practices that consider the sociocultural contexts of stress and coping are recommended.

  14. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis between non-Hispanic white and Hispanic populations, San Diego County 1988-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J R; Delfino, R J; Taylor, T H; Howe, S; Anton-Culver, H

    1998-07-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in the U.S. is lower among Hispanic women than non-Hispanic white women. However, population-based studies show that Hispanic women are more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage than non-Hispanic whites. We aimed to determine whether: 1) a lower proportion of breast cancer was diagnosed at early vs. late stages in Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic white women from 1988-93 in San Diego County, and 2) lower income is related to later stage at diagnosis for both groups. All incident cases of breast cancer in San Diego County from the California Cancer Registry (10,161 cases) were stratified by 'early' (in situ or localized) or 'late' (regional or distant) stage, and by race/ethnicity. Annual average age-adjusted incidence rates/100,000 (AAIR) were calculated. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) (AAIR for early stages divided by AAIR for late stages) were used as a surrogate of early detection. AAIRs for early and late stage disease were significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (89.3, 42.3) than Hispanic women (46.7, 27.2). The IRR was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites than Hispanics, (2.11 vs 1.72, p = 0.01). This difference was greatest among women under 50 years old (IRR difference 0.63), and not apparent for women 65 or older (IRR difference 0.06). There was also an association between increasing census tract per capita income and higher rates of early stage disease among non-Hispanic whites but not Hispanics. Results suggest that Hispanic women and lower income women should be targeted for early detection.

  15. Cancer risk disparities between hispanic and non-hispanic white populations: the role of exposure to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Diana E; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Morandi, Maria T; Stock, Thomas H; Corsi, Richard L

    2009-12-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States; however, minimal information is available on their cancer risks from exposures to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and how these risks compare to risks to non-Hispanic whites. We estimated the personal exposure and cancer risk of Hispanic and white adults who participated in the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. We evaluated 12 of the sampled volatile organic compounds and carbonyls and identified the HAPs of most concern and their possible sources. Furthermore, we examined sociodemographic factors and building characteristics. Cumulative cancer risks (CCRs) estimated for Hispanics (median = 519 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 3,968 x 10(-6)) and for whites (median = 443 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 751 x 10(-6)) were much greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmark of 10(-6). Cumulative risks were dominated by formaldehyde and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) and, to a lesser extent, by acetaldehyde, chloroform, and benzene. Exposure to all of these compounds except benzene was primarily due to indoor residential sources. Hispanics had statistically higher CCRs than did whites (p whites. Cancer risks for pollutants emitted indoors increased in houses with lower ventilation rates. Hispanics appear to be disproportionately affected by certain HAPs from indoor and outdoor sources. Policies that aim to reduce risk from exposure to HAPs for the entire population and population subgroups should consider indoor air pollution.

  16. Sociodemographic Factors and Self-Management Practices Related to Type 2 Diabetes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in a Rural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby; Chen, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Context: Hispanics in the United States have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and experience more complications for the disease than non-Hispanic whites. Differences in medical management or self-management practices may, in part, explain the relative high risk for diabetes complications among…

  17. Correlates of Never Testing for HIV Among Non-Hispanic Black Men in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Oraka, Emeka; Abara, Winston E; Wafula, Edith; Turo, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that persons between 15 and 64 years get tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at least once in their lifetime and persons with HIV risk factors get tested more frequently. There is limited research examining factors associated with never testing for HIV among non-Hispanic Black men in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of never testing for HIV, reasons for never testing for HIV, and correlates of never testing for HIV. We analyzed 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth data and restricted analyses to male respondents aged 15-44 years who self-identified as being non-Hispanic Black. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) assessing the association between socio-demographic and behavioral factors and never testing for HIV. An estimated 31.2 % of non-Hispanic Black males aged 15-44 years have never been tested for HIV. Non-Hispanic Black men aged 15-17 years (APR 4.45; 95 % CI 2.88-6.87) or 18-24 years (APR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.21-3.13), who did not visit a doctor or healthcare provider (APR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.10-1.86), or did not report any sexual risk behaviors in the past 12 months (APR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.34-2.51) were more likely to never test for HIV compared to their respective counterparts. Continued expansion of HIV testing initiatives and prevention programs that focus on non-Hispanic Black men is critical to addressing HIV-related health disparities and the public health burden of HIV in this population.

  18. Beliefs, Fertility, and Earnings of African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jacqueline M.; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study explores gender ideology, fertility factors (e.g., age at first birth, number of children), and their effects on earnings of African American (n = 413), Hispanic American (n = 271), and White (n = 817) mothers. An analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth over a 10-year period (1988 to 1998) shows that, on average,…

  19. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviors among non-Hispanic white U.S. college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Less is known about the sexual health of young adults compared to adolescents, despite 20-24 year olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices, including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and masturbation. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Midwestern and one Southwestern (N=1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Results Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48% versus 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex, and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusions Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common, and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well-being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent. PMID:20152094

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Texas Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men: Implications for Gastric Cancer Risk Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Parma, Dorothy; Muñoz, Edgar; Ogden, Susan M; Westin, Gustavo F; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2017-07-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infection is a major gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) risk factor. GA disproportionately affects U.S. Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Since H. pylori infection studies in Hispanics are few, infection rates in Hispanic and NHW men in Bexar County were compared, and relationships with ethnicity and obesity examined. Age- and zip code-matched participants from a community-dwelling cohort were randomly selected. Sera from 284 men were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for H. pylori antibodies. Adjusted risk ratio estimation for matched data was conducted to identify differences. Hispanics had a markedly higher prevalence of infection (30.3%) than NHWs (9.2%). Matched risk ratio (mRR) analyses revealed a strong association between H. pylori seropositivity and Hispanic ethnicity (mRR = 3.31; 95% CI [1.91, 5.73], adjusted by BMI, smoking status, and family history of cancer (mRR range = 3.28-3.89). BMI mRRs (range = 1.19-1.22) were significant in all models. In this cohort, Hispanic men had higher H. pylori infection rates than NHWs, and parallel the disproportionately higher rates of GA; obesity contributes to this higher prevalence. Future studies should address country of origin, acculturation, and other factors influencing obesity to further elucidate risk of GA in Hispanic populations.

  1. Predictors of valid engagement with a video streaming web study among asian american and non-Hispanic white college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjong; Choi, Heeseung; Suarez, Marie L; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Park, Chang; Wilkie, Diana J

    2014-04-01

    The study purpose was to determine the predictors of watching most of a Web-based streaming video and whether data characteristics differed for those watching most or only part of the video. A convenience sample of 650 students (349 Asian Americans and 301 non-Hispanic whites) was recruited from a public university in the United States. Study participants were asked to view a 27-minute suicide awareness streaming video and to complete online questionnaires. Early data monitoring showed many, but not all, watched most of the video. We added software controls to facilitate video completion and defined times for a video completion group (≥26 minutes) and video noncompletion (video noncompletion group, the video completion group included more females, undergraduates, and Asian Americans, and had higher individualistic orientation and more correct manipulation check answers. The video noncompletion group skipped items in a purposeful manner, showed less interest in the video, and spent less time completing questionnaires. The findings suggest that implementing software controls, evaluating missing data patterns, documenting the amount of time spent completing questionnaires, and effective manipulation check questions are essential to control potential bias in Web-based research involving college students.

  2. The relationship between perceived discrimination and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among African Americans, Afro Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; BeLue, Rhonda

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3570 African Americans, 1438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African Americans, but not other groups. We did not expect non-race based discrimination to predict GAD. Results showed that while more frequent experiences of non-race based discrimination predicted GAD for all groups, experiencing race based discrimination was associated with significantly higher odds of endorsing lifetime GAD for African Americans only. Results are interpreted in light of the different contexts that these three ethnic groups represent relative to their history within the United States as well as their present day circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Texas Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men: Implications for Gastric Cancer Risk Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Dorothy Long; Muñoz, Edgar; Ogden, Susan M.; Westin, Gustavo F.; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) risk factor. GA disproportionately affects U.S. Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Since H. pylori infection studies in Hispanics are few, infection rates in Hispanic and NHW men in Bexar County were compared, and relationships with ethnicity and obesity examined. Age- and zip code-matched participants from a community-dwelling cohort were randomly selected. Sera from 284 men were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for H. pylori antibodies. Adjusted risk ratio estimation for matched data was conducted to identify differences. Hispanics had a markedly higher prevalence of infection (30.3%) than NHWs (9.2%). Matched risk ratio (mRR) analyses revealed a strong association between H. pylori seropositivity and Hispanic ethnicity (mRR = 3.31; 95% CI [1.91, 5.73], adjusted by BMI, smoking status, and family history of cancer (mRR range = 3.28–3.89). BMI mRRs (range = 1.19–1.22) were significant in all models. In this cohort, Hispanic men had higher H. pylori infection rates than NHWs, and parallel the disproportionately higher rates of GA; obesity contributes to this higher prevalence. Future studies should address country of origin, acculturation, and other factors influencing obesity to further elucidate risk of GA in Hispanic populations. PMID:28413904

  4. Hypertension among US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic Blacks: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2014 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison G M; Houser, Robert F; Mattei, Josiemer; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Folta, Sara C

    2017-12-01

    Non-Hispanic Blacks in the United States have the highest reported prevalence of hypertension (44%) worldwide. However, this does not consider the heterogeneity of Blacks within the United States, particularly comparing US-born to long-standing or recent (foreign-born) immigrants. The objective of this study is to compare odds of hypertension between US-born and foreign-born Blacks in the United States. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension among US-born (n = 4511) vs. foreign-born (n = 522) non-Hispanic Black adults aged 22-79 years, based on pooled nationally representative data (2003-2014); as well by length of US residency among immigrants. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to investigate the association between nativity and hypertension odds. Nearly half (42.8%) of US-born Blacks but only 27.4% of foreign-born Blacks had hypertension. After adjusting for major covariates, foreign-born Blacks were 39.0% less likely (odds ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.49, 0.77) to have hypertension than their US-born counterparts. Among foreign-born Blacks, length of US residency was not significantly associated with odds of hypertension. Foreign-born vs. US-born non-Hispanic Blacks have substantially lower prevalence of hypertension. Considering nativity among US Blacks in clinical research and public health efforts may improve accuracy of characterizing health disparities and facilitate development of targeted interventions to reduce hypertension in this diverse population.

  5. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine the ability the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain caregivers' intention to serve sugar-sweetened beverages to non-Hispanic black preschoolers. A sample of 165 caregivers of non-Hispanic black children preschoolers completed a written questionnaire. Multiple regression with path analysis confirmed the relationships of attitude and subjective norm, but not perceived behavioral control (PBC),with intention. After removing PBC, the model accounted for 45.1% of variance in intention. Nurses and other health care professionals can use these findings to tailor behaviorally-based obesity prevention programs at the individual, family, and community-based levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet patterns and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Sweeney, Carol; Giuliano, Anna R; Herrick, Jennifer S; Hines, Lisa; Byers, Tim; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-04-01

    There is a lower incidence of breast cancer among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white women. Little is known about the role of diet in this difference. We examined the associations of dietary patterns (Western, Prudent, Native Mexican, Mediterranean, and Dieter) with risk for breast cancer in Hispanic women (757 cases, 867 controls) and non-Hispanic white women (1524 cases, 1598 controls) from the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study. Dietary intake, physical activity, and other exposures were assessed by using interviews. Dietary patterns were defined via factor analysis. Risk was assessed by using logistic regression with adjustment for age, center, education, smoking, total activity, calories, dietary fiber, dietary calcium, height, parity, recent hormone exposure, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and body mass index x recent hormone exposure. The Western (odds ratio for highest versus lowest quartile: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 168; P for trend diet and breast cancer among postmenopausal women and those of the Native Mexican diet among premenopausal women. Associations of dietary patterns with breast cancer risk varied by menopausal and body mass index status, but there was little difference in associations between non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women.

  7. Active and passive cigarette smoking and mortality among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Connor, Avonne E; John, Esther M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hines, Lisa M; Rai, Shesh N; Riley, Elizabeth C; Pinkston, Christina M; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Women who smoke at breast cancer diagnosis have higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality than nonsmokers; however, differences by ethnicity or prognostic factors and risk for noncancer mortality have not been evaluated. We examined associations of active and passive smoke exposure with mortality among Hispanic (n = 1020) and non-Hispanic white (n = 1198) women with invasive breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (median follow-up of 10.6 years). Risk of breast cancer-specific (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.11-2.16) and all-cause (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.30-2.17) mortality was increased for current smokers, with similar results stratified by ethnicity. Ever smokers had an increased risk of noncancer mortality (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12-2.51). Associations were strongest for current smokers who smoked for 20 years or more were postmenopausal, overweight and/or obese, or reported moderate and/or high alcohol consumption; however, interactions were not significant. Breast cancer-specific mortality was increased two fold for moderate and/or high recent passive smoke exposure among never smokers (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.24-3.63). Findings support associations of active-smoking and passive-smoking diagnosis with risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality and ever smoking with noncancer mortality, regardless of ethnicity, and other factors. Smoking is a modifiable lifestyle factor and effective smoking cessation, and maintenance programs should be routinely recommended for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of PR interval length as a criterion for development of atrial fibrillation in non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Eric; Aagaard, Philip; Kargoli, Faraj; Hoch, Ethan; Zheng, Laura; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Ferrick, Kevin; Krumerman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PR interval prolongation on electrocardiogram (ECG) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Non-Hispanic Whites are at higher risk of AF compared to African Americans and Hispanics. However, it remains unknown if prolongation of the PR interval for the development of AF varies by race/ethnicity. Therefore, we determined whether race affects the PR interval length's ability to predict AF and if the commonly used criterion of 200 ms in AF prediction models can continue to be used for non-White cohorts. This is a retrospective epidemiological study of consecutive inpatient and outpatients. An ECG database was initially interrogated. Patients were included if their initial ECG demonstrated sinus rhythm and had two or more electrocardiograms and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic White, African American or Hispanic. Development of AF was stratified by race/ethnicity along varying PR intervals. Cox models controlled for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, BMI, QRS, QTc, heart rate, murmur, treatment for hypertension, heart failure and use of AV nodal blocking agents to assess PR interval's predictive ability for development of AF. 50,870 patients met inclusion criteria of which 5,199 developed AF over 3.72 mean years of follow-up. When the PR interval was separated by quantile, prolongation of the PR interval to predict AF first became significant in Hispanic and African Americans at the 92.5th quantile of 196-201 ms (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09-1.86, p=0.01; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64, p=0.01, respectively) then in non-Hispanic Whites at the 95th quantile at 203-212 ms (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.24-1.53, p=0.04). For those with a PR interval above 200 ms, African Americans had a lower risk than non-Hispanic Whites to develop AF (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64-0.95, p=0.012), however, no significant difference was demonstrated in Hispanics. This is the first study to validate a PR interval value of 200 ms as a criterion in African Americans and

  9. A Population-Based Study of Job Stress in Mexican Americans, Non-Hispanic Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Norma; Franzini, Luisa; Freeman, Daniel H.; Ju, Hyunsu; Peek, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    There is little known about the association between socioeconomic status and job stress in Mexican Americans. To address this issue, data were originated on a community level using personal interviews from working Mexican Americans using a multistage probability sample. In this study we described the population's sociodemographic characteristics,…

  10. Dietary nutrients associated with preservation of lung function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers from New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuguang Leng,1,2 Maria A Picchi,1 Yohannes Tesfaigzi,3 Guodong Wu,1 W James Gauderman,4 Fadi Xu,5 Frank D Gilliland,4 Steven A Belinsky1,2,6 1The Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2Cancer Control Research Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3COPD Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, 4Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 5Pathophysiology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 6Cancer Genetics and Epigenetics Program, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Cigarette smoking accelerates the age-related forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 decline, an important determinant for the genesis of COPD. Hispanic smokers have lower COPD prevalence and FEV1 decline than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. Patients and methods: A nutritional epidemiological study was conducted in the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC; n=1,829 and the Veterans Smokers cohort (n=508 to identify dietary nutrients (n=139 associated with average FEV1 and its decline and to assess whether nutrient intakes could explain ethnic disparity in FEV1 decline between Hispanics and NHW smokers. Results: Nutrients discovered and replicated to be significantly associated with better average FEV1 included magnesium, folate, niacin, vitamins A and D, eicosenoic fatty acid (20:1n9, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, and fiber. In addition, greater intakes of eicosenoic fatty acid and DPA were associated with slower FEV1 decline in the LSC. Among omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, DPA is the most potent nutrient associated with better average FEV1 and slower FEV1 decline. Adverse effect of continuous current smoking on FEV1 decline was completely negated in LSC members with high DPA intake (>20

  11. Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study.

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    Ramirez, Amelie G; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Muñoz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan Ec; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; Nápoles, Anna; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J

    2013-12-01

    Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas' median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women's diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas' successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care

  12. Relationship between femur neck bone mineral density and prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or COPD mortality in older non-Hispanic white adults from NHANES III.

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    Looker, A C

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between femur neck bone mineral density (FNBMD), prevalent COPD, and COPD mortality was examined in older non-Hispanic white adults from NHANES III. FNBMD was significantly related to prevalent COPD and COPD mortality before and after adjusting for shared risk factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) has been linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about its relationship with COPD mortality. The present study examined the relationship between FNBMD, prevalent COPD, and COPD mortality in older non-Hispanic white adults from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). COPD status at baseline was defined by self-reported physician's diagnosis and by airway obstruction based on spirometry measurements in 3,275 non-Hispanic whites aged 50 years and older. COPD mortality cases were identified using linked mortality records obtained through 2006. FNBMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression was used to examine the baseline relationship between COPD and FNBMD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for COPD mortality by FNBMD. Twelve percent self-reported a physician's diagnosis of COPD, 23 % had mild or moderate airway obstruction, and 9 % had severe or very severe airway obstruction. There were 180 COPD mortality cases in the sample. FNBMD was significantly lower in those with self-reported COPD diagnosis or airway obstruction before and after adjusting for shared risk factors (p COPD mortality risk was significantly increased for each standard deviation decline in FNBMD before (by 68 %) and after (by 26-38 %) adjusting for shared risk factors. Low FNBMD was associated with both baseline COPD and future COPD mortality. Shared risk factors appeared to explain some, but not all, of these relationships.

  13. Understanding ethnic and nativity-related differences in low cardiovascular risk status among Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.

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    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Greenlund, Kurt J; Stamler, Jeremiah; Shay, Christina M; Daviglus, Martha L

    2012-12-01

    Recent guidelines highlight the importance of improving cardiovascular health in the general population in addition to disease prevention among high risk individuals. We investigated factors associated with ethnic and nativity-related differences in the prevalence of low cardiovascular risk (optimal levels of all major cardiovascular risk factors). We used logistic regression to estimate differences in likelihood of being low risk (not currently smoking; no diabetes; untreated total cholesterol Mexican-American and non-Hispanic White 2003-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, lifestyle, and acculturation-related factors. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans were more likely to be low risk than non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for all covariates (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.00, 2.34). In contrast, U.S.-born Mexican-Americans were less likely to be low risk compared to Whites (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.84). Differences between foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican-Americans were largely attenuated after adjustment for acculturation indicators. Our findings support the healthy migrant hypothesis and suggest that acculturation-related factors may be important drivers of ethnic and nativity-related differences in low cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

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    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CKD Progression and Mortality among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2016-11-01

    Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. The relationship between dietary advanced glycation end products and indicators of diabetes severity in Mexicans and non-Hispanic whites: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Contreras, Claudia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Preciado-Puga, Monica; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen Marie

    2013-02-01

    Diet is an important source of exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary AGEs content depends on nutrient composition and on the way food is processed/cooked. The objective of our study was to compare AGEs intake of two different ethnic groups (Mexicans and non-Hispanic whites) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to study the relationship between dietary AGEs and diabetes-related complications. Complications were self-reported by subjects (n = 65) and categorized according to a published DM disease severity index as low risk or moderate-high risk. Dietary records for 10 days were used to estimate dietary AGEs from a published food table. Non-Hispanic whites had higher intake of dietary AGEs (natural logarithm was used, LogAGEs) when compared with Mexicans, which was consistent with their higher intake of saturated fat. In addition, for each unit increase in the LogAGEs, a participant was 3.7 times more likely to have moderate-high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Association between workplace psychosocial factors and mental health in Black, Hispanic, and White women: Cross-sectional findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Research evaluating the relation of workplace psychosocial factors to mental health among U.S. women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds is limited. This study investigated the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and mental health among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Independent variables of interest included job insecurity, workplace harassment, and work-family conflict (WFC). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between the outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of unfavorable mental health was highest among non-Hispanic Black women (36%) compared to Hispanic (34%) and non-Hispanic White (30%) women. A higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black women reported WFC compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (χ(2) = 15.50, p workplace harassment did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Odds of unfavorable mental health were significantly higher for women reporting psychosocial work factors. Unexpectedly, a greater association between psychosocial work factors and unfavorable mental health was observed among non-Hispanic White women compared to non-White women; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these cross-sectional results. Future studies should investigate temporal associations and additional psychosocial variables that were not available for use in the current study.

  18. Cancer incidence profile in sub-Saharan African-born blacks in the United States: Similarities and differences with US-born non-Hispanic blacks.

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    Medhanie, Genet A; Fedewa, Stacey A; Adissu, Hibret; DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-08-15

    Sub-Saharan African-born blacks (ABs) are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. However, to the authors' knowledge, data regarding the cancer burden in this group are lacking, which would inform targeted cancer prevention and control. The authors calculated age-standardized proportional incidence ratios (PIRs) comparing the frequency of the top 15 cancers in ABs with that of US-born non-Hispanic blacks (USBs) by sex and region of birth using incidence data for 2000 through 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 17) program. Compared with USBs, ABs had significantly higher PIRs of infection-related cancers (liver, stomach, and Kaposi sarcoma), blood cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma), prostate cancer, and thyroid cancers (females only). For example, the PIR for Kaposi sarcoma in AB versus USB women was 12.06 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.23-18.90). In contrast, ABs had lower PIRs for smoking-related and colorectal cancers (eg, for lung cancer among men, the PIR was 0.30 [95% CI, 0.27-0.34]). Furthermore, cancer occurrence in ABs versus USBs varied by region of birth. For example, the higher PIRs for liver cancer noted among male ABs (PIR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.79-5.35) and for thyroid cancer in female ABs (PIR, 3.03; 95% CI, 2.03-4.02) were confined to Eastern African-born blacks, whereas the higher PIR for prostate cancer (PIR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.78, 2.02) was confined to Western African-born blacks. The cancer incidence profile of ABs is different from that of USBs and varies by region of birth, suggesting differences in environmental, cultural, social, and genetic factors. The findings of the current study could stimulate etiologic research and help to inform targeted interventions. Cancer 2017;123:3116-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Difference in Association of Obesity With Prostate Cancer Risk Between US African American and Non-Hispanic White Men in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Schenk, Jeannette M; Etzioni, Ruth; Arnold, Kathryn B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Kristal, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    African American men have the highest rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Understanding underlying reasons for this disparity could identify preventive interventions important to African American men. To determine whether the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk differs between African American and non-Hispanic white men and whether obesity modifies the excess risk associated with African American race. Prospective study of 3398 African American and 22,673 non-Hispanic white men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (2001-2011) with present analyses completed in 2014. Total, low-grade (Gleason score cancer incidence. With a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 5.6 (1.8) years, there were 270, 148, and 88 cases of total, low-, and high-grade prostate cancers among African American men and a corresponding 1453, 898, and 441 cases in non-Hispanic white men, respectively. Although not associated with risk among non-Hispanic white men, BMI was positively associated with an increase in risk among African American men (BMI, risk associated with African American race increased from 28% (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.91-1.80]) among men with BMI less than 25 to 103% (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.98]) among African American men with BMI at least 35 (P for trend = .03). Body mass index was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk within non-Hispanic white men (BMI, risk within African American men (BMI, risk of high-grade prostate cancer in both non-Hispanic white men (BMI, Obesity is more strongly associated with increased prostate cancer risk among African American than non-Hispanic white men and reducing obesity among African American men could reduce the racial disparity in cancer incidence. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of obesity in African American and non-Hispanic white men.

  20. The obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and endometrial cancer risk in non-Hispanic white women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Lurie

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2. This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively. In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR  = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.32, p = 0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI, suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p = 0.68. FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.

  1. The obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and endometrial cancer risk in non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Galina; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Carney, Michael E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yang, Hannah P; Weiss, Noel S; Webb, Penelope M; Thompson, Pamela J; Terada, Keith; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Prescott, Jennifer; Orlow, Irene; O'Mara, Tracy; Olson, Sara H; Narod, Steven A; Matsuno, Rayna K; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Levine, Douglas A; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; De Vivo, Immaculata; Chen, Chu; Brinton, Louise A; Akbari, Mohammad R; Goodman, Marc T

    2011-02-08

    Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)  = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32, p = 0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p = 0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.

  2. Nonadherence to oral mercaptopurine and risk of relapse in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the children's oncology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Shangguan, Muyun; Hageman, Lindsey; Schaible, Alexandra N; Carter, Andrea R; Hanby, Cara L; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Kornegay, Nancy M; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A Kim; Casillas, Jacqueline N; Dickens, David S; Meza, Jane; Carroll, William L; Relling, Mary V; Wong, F Lennie

    2012-06-10

    Systemic exposure to mercaptopurine (MP) is critical for durable remissions in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nonadherence to oral MP could increase relapse risk and also contribute to inferior outcome in Hispanics. This study identified determinants of adherence and described impact of adherence on relapse, both overall and by ethnicity. A total of 327 children with ALL (169 Hispanic; 158 non-Hispanic white) participated. Medication event-monitoring system caps recorded date and time of MP bottle openings. Adherence rate, calculated monthly, was defined as ratio of days of MP bottle opening to days when MP was prescribed. After 53,394 person-days of monitoring, adherence declined from 94.7% (month 1) to 90.2% (month 6; P < .001). Mean adherence over 6 months was significantly lower among Hispanics (88.4% v 94.8%; P < .001), patients age ≥ 12 years (85.8% v 93.1%; P < .001), and patients from single-mother households (80.6% v 93.1%; P = .001). A progressive increase in relapse was observed with decreasing adherence (reference: adherence ≥ 95%; 94.9% to 90%: hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; 95% CI,1.2 to 13.5; P = .02; 89.9% to 85%: HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 15.5; P = .04; < 85%: HR. 5.7; 95% CI, 1.9 to 16.8; P = .002). Cumulative incidence of relapse (± standard deviation) was higher among Hispanics (16.5% ± 4.0% v 6.3% ± 2.2%; P = .02). Association between Hispanic ethnicity and relapse (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.1; P = .02) became nonsignificant (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6 to 5.2; P = .26) after adjusting for adherence and socioeconomic status. At adherence rates ≥ 90%, Hispanics continued to demonstrate higher relapse, whereas at rates < 90%, relapse risk was comparable to that of non-Hispanic whites. Lower adherence to oral MP increases relapse risk. Ethnic difference in relapse risk differs by level of adherence-an observation currently under investigation.

  3. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ilse; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Marquine, Maria J; Umlauf, Anya; Moore, David J; Mungas, Dan; Gershon, Richard C; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB. T-scores (demographically-unadjusted) were developed based on the current sample and were used in analyses. Spanish-speaking Hispanics performed worse than English-speaking Hispanics and NH whites on demographically unadjusted NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite scores (ps language/cultural backgrounds in the Hispanic-Spanish group: better vocabularies and reading were predicted by being born outside the U.S., having Spanish as a first language, attending school outside the U.S., and speaking more Spanish at home. However, many of these same background factors were associated with worse Fluid Composites within the Hispanic-Spanish group. On tests of Fluid cognition, the Hispanic-Spanish group performed the poorest of all groups. Socio-demographic and linguistic factors were associated with those differences. These findings highlight the importance of considering language/cultural backgrounds when interpreting neuropsychological test performances. Importantly, after applying previously published NIHTB-CB norms with demographic corrections, these language/ethnic group differences are eliminated.

  4. Cell cycle–related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle–related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle–related genes and 31 DNA repair–related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P Lynch syndrome. PMID:23125224

  5. Cell cycle-related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala; Huang, Yu-Jing; Wei, Chongjuan; Amos, Christopher I; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Meldrum, Cliff J; Chen, Wei V; Gorlov, Ivan P; Lynch, Patrick M; Scott, Rodney J; Frazier, Marsha L

    2013-02-01

    Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle-related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle-related genes and 31 DNA repair-related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P Lynch syndrome.

  6. Contribution of clinical and socioeconomic factors to differences in breast cancer subtype and mortality between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena; Gomez, Scarlett L; Tao, Li; Cress, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Danielle; Unkart, Jonathan; Schwab, Richard; Nodora, Jesse N; Cook, Linda; Komenaka, Ian; Li, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    To assess tumor subtype distribution and the relative contribution of clinical and sociodemographic factors on breast cancer survival between Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). We analyzed data from the California Cancer Registry, which included 29,626 Hispanic and 99,862 NHW female invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to assess ethnic differences in tumor subtype, and Cox proportional hazard modeling to assess differences in breast cancer survival. Hispanics compared to NHWs had higher odds of having triple-negative (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.35) and HER2-overexpressing tumors (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.14-1.25 [HR-] and OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.31-1.48 [HR+]). In adjusted models, Hispanic women had a higher risk of breast cancer mortality than NHW women (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.24; 95% CI 1.19-1.28). Clinical factors accounted for most of the mortality difference (MRR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09); however, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and health insurance together accounted for all of the mortality difference (MRR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.97-1.05). Addressing SES disparities, including increasing access to health care, may be critical to overcoming poorer breast cancer outcomes in Hispanics.

  7. Quality, and not just quantity, of education accounts for differences in psychometric performance between african americans and white non-hispanics with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy

    2012-03-01

    The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.

  8. Obesity and risk of breast cancer mortality in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: the New Mexico Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with poorer survival in women with breast cancer, regardless of menopausal status. Our purpose was to determine if the associations of obesity with breast cancer-specific, all-cause, and non-breast cancer mortality differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women with breast cancer. Data on lifestyle and medical history were collected for incident primary breast cancer cases (298 NHW, 279 Hispanic) in the New Mexico Women's Health Study. Mortality was ascertained through the National Death Index and New Mexico Tumor Registry over 13 years of follow-up. Adjusted Cox regression models indicated a trend towards increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality in obese NHW women (hazard ratio [HR] 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-4.35) but not in Hispanic women (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64-2.74). Obese NHW women had a statistically significant increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.90) while Hispanic women did not (HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.71-2.12). Results were similar for non-breast cancer mortality: NHW (HR 2.65; 95% CI 0.90-7.81); Hispanic (HR 2.18; 95% CI 0.77-6.10). Our results suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality in NHW women; however, this association is attenuated in Hispanic women.

  9. Psychometric characteristics of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in English speaking non-Hispanic whites and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Schweizer, C Amanda; Dimsdale, Joel E; Loredo, José S

    2013-01-15

    The current study investigated the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among English speaking non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent (HMD). The PSQI was administered during a telephone interview. In order to test the factor structure of the PSQI structure across ethnic/language groups, multiple group confirmatory analysis with covariates (MIMIC) was employed. The 1- and 3-factor versions of the PSQI previously reported in the literature were examined. San Diego County. Community-dwelling English speaking, NHW (n = 1,698) and English (n = 654) and Spanish (n = 792) speaking HMD. A single-factor scoring model fit across language/ethnic groups; however, a 3-factor model provided a better than the 1-factor model in all language/ethnic groups. The subscale sleep medications loaded poorly and was removed from all models. Across groups, a 3-factor model of the PSQI more reliably assessed sleep quality than a single-factor global score. Results indicate that the 3-factor structure of the PSQI was uniform across English speaking NHW and English and Spanish speaking HMD.

  10. Cardiometabolic plasticity in response to a short-term diet and exercise intervention in young Hispanic and nonHispanic white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stacy L; Hickey, Matthew S; Koblenz, Kathryn M; Klamer, Holly; Botero, Maria F; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Melby, Christopher L

    2011-02-22

    Young adult Mexican Americans (MA) exhibit lower insulin sensitivity (Si) than nonHispanic whites (NHW), even when controlling for fitness and adiposity. It is unclear if MA are as responsive to the same lifestyle intervention as NHW. We developed a model to examine cardiometabolic plasticity (i.e., changes in Si and plasma lipids) in MA compared to NHW adults in response to a diet-exercise intervention. Sedentary subjects (20 NHW: 11F, 9M, 23.0 y, 25.5 kg/m(2); 17 MA: 13F, 4M, 22.7 y, 25.4 kg/m(2)) consumed their habitual diets and remained sedentary for 7 days, after which fasting blood samples were obtained, and a 3-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed with the insulin area under the curve (IAUC) used to estimate Si. Subjects then completed a 7-day diet/exercise intervention (diet: low saturated fat, low added sugar, high fiber; exercise: cycling, six total sessions lasting 40-45 min/session at 65% VO(2) max). Pre-intervention tests were repeated. Pre intervention IAUC was 28% higher (pdiet-exercise intervention, the magnitude of improvements in Si and serum cholesterol and TG in Hispanics are similar to those in NHW. However, because at the outset MA were less insulin sensitive compared to NHW, within the short timeframe studied the ethnic gap in insulin sensitivity remained.

  11. Current Data on Risk Factor Estimates Does Not Explain the Difference in Rates of Melanoma between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available United States Hispanics have seven times lower melanoma incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (NHW. It is unclear whether this difference can be explained solely by phenotypic risk factors, like darker skin, or whether modifiable risk factors, like sun exposure, also play a role. The purpose of this paper is to summarize what is currently known about melanoma risk factors among Hispanics and NHWs, and whether or not those differences could explain the difference in melanoma incidence. Through literature review, relative risks and prevalence of melanoma risk factors in Hispanics and NHWs were identified and used to calculate the expected rate in Hispanics and rate ratio compared to NHWs. We found that melanoma risk factors either have similar frequency in Hispanics and NHWs (e.g., many large nevi or are less frequent in Hispanics but do not explain a high proportion of disease variation (e.g., red hair. Considering current knowledge of risk factor prevalence, we found that melanoma incidence rates in the two groups should actually be similar. Sun exposure behavior among Hispanics may contribute to the explanation for the 7-fold difference in melanoma rates. Currently, limited data exist on sun exposure behavior among Hispanics, but possibilities for improving primary prevention by further studying these practices are substantial.

  12. Black Managers in White Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, John P.

    The study examines the major determinants of the career patterns of black managers in white businesses and the effects of corporations on their black managers' identities and relationships to the black community. Analyzed were occupational mobility theories; white and black managers' career patterns, goals, and related factors; company employment…

  13. Disparities in Mental Health Quality of Life Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White LGB Midlife and Older Adults and the Influence of Lifetime Discrimination, Social Connectedness, Socioeconomic Status, and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-10-01

    We assessed factors contributing to ethnic and racial disparities in mental health quality of life (MHQOL) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) midlife and older adults. We utilized cross-sectional survey data from a sample of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic LGB adults aged 50 and older. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of ethnicity/race on MHQOL via explanatory factors including social connectedness, lifetime discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived stress. Hispanics reported significantly lower levels of MHQOL, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In the final model, the association between ethnicity/race and MHQOL was explained by higher levels of perceived stress related to lower SES, higher frequency of lifetime discrimination, and lack of social connectedness among Hispanic LGB adults. This study suggests that perceived stress related to social disadvantage and marginalization plays an important role in MHQOL disparities among Hispanic LGB midlife and older adults.

  14. A population-based study of asthma, quality of life, and occupation among elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites: a cross-sectional investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos George L

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. population is aging and is expected to double by the year 2030. The current study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and its correlates in the elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white population. Methods Data from a sample of 3021 Hispanics and non-Hispanic White subjects, 65 years and older, interviewed as part of an ongoing cross-sectional study of the elderly in west Texas, were analyzed. The outcome variable was categorized into: no asthma (reference category, current asthma, and probable asthma. Polytomous logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable and various socio-demographic measures, self-rated health, asthma symptoms, quality of life measures (SF-12, and various occupations. Results The estimated prevalence of current asthma and probable asthma were 6.3% (95%CI: 5.3–7.2 and 9.0% (95%CI: 7.8–10.1 respectively. The majority of subjects with current asthma (Mean SF-12 score 35.8, 95%CI: 34.2–37.4 or probable asthma (35.3, 34.0–36.6 had significantly worse physical health-related quality of life as compared to subjects without asthma (42.6, 42.1–43.1. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women had a 1.64 times greater odds of current asthma (95%CI: 1.12–2.38 as compared to men. Hay fever was a strong predictor of both current and probable asthma. The odds of current asthma were 1.78 times (95%CI: 1.24–2.55 greater among past smokers; whereas the odds of probable asthma were 2.73 times (95%CI: 1.77–4.21 greater among current smokers as compared to non-smokers. Similarly fair/poor self rated health and complaints of severe pain were independently associated with current and probable asthma. The odds of current and probable asthma were almost two fold greater for obesity. When stratified by gender, the odds were significantly greater among females (p-value for interaction term = 0.038. The odds of current asthma were significantly greater for

  15. Genetic variants and non-genetic factors predict circulating vitamin D levels in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue Ann; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Stern, Mariana C; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Schwartz, Gary G; Nelson, David O; Fejerman, Laura; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L; John, Esther M

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common polymorphisms in or near GC, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, and NADSYN1/DHCR7 genes to be associated with circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in European populations. To replicate these GWAS findings, we examined six selected polymorphisms from these regions and their relation with circulating 25(OH)D levels in 1,605 Hispanic women (629 U.S. Hispanics and 976 Mexicans) and 354 non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. We also assessed the potential interactions between these variants and known non-genetic predictors of 25(OH)D levels, including body mass index (BMI), sunlight exposure and vitamin D intake from diet and supplements. The minor alleles of the two GC polymorphisms (rs7041 and rs2282679) were significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels in both Hispanic and NHW women. The CYP2R1 polymorphism, rs2060793, also was significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels in both groups. We found no significant associations for the polymorphisms in the CYP24A1. In Hispanic controls, 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with the rs12785878T and rs1790349G haplotype in the NADSYN1/DHCR7 region. Significant interactions between GC rs2282679 and BMI and between rs12785878 and time spent in outdoor activities were observed. These results provide further support for the contribution of common genetic variants to individual variability in circulating 25(OH)D levels. The observed interactions between SNPs and non-genetic factors warrant confirmation. PMID:24596595

  16. Genetic ancestry modifies the association between genetic risk variants and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Laura; Stern, Mariana C; Ziv, Elad; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger; Wang, Wei; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Slattery, Martha L

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic women in the USA have lower breast cancer incidence than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Genetic factors may contribute to this difference. Breast cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in women of European or Asian descent have identified multiple risk variants. We tested the association between 10 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of breast cancer in a sample of 4697 Hispanic and 3077 NHW women recruited as part of three population-based case-control studies of breast cancer. We used stratified logistic regression analyses to compare the associations with different genetic variants in NHWs and Hispanics classified by their proportion of Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. Five of 10 SNPs were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Three of the five significant variants (rs17157903-RELN, rs7696175-TLR1 and rs13387042-2q35) were associated with risk among Hispanics but not in NHWs. The odds ratio (OR) for the heterozygous at 2q35 was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-1.15] for low IA ancestry and 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04-1.82) for high IA ancestry (P interaction 0.02). The ORs for association at RELN were 0.87 (95% CI = 0.59-1.29) and 1.69 (95% CI = 1.04-2.73), respectively (P interaction 0.03). At the TLR1 locus, the ORs for women homozygous for the rare allele were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.42-1.31) and 1.73 (95% CI = 1.19-2.52) (P interaction 0.03). Our results suggest that the proportion of IA ancestry modifies the magnitude and direction of the association of 3 of the 10 previously reported variants. Genetic ancestry should be considered when assessing risk in women of mixed descent and in studies designed to discover causal mutations.

  17. Investigating the complex genetic architecture of ankle-brachial index, a measure of peripheral arterial disease, in non-Hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD affects 8–10 million people in the United States and is associated with a marked impairment in quality of life and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Noninvasive assessment of PAD is performed by measuring the ankle-brachial index (ABI. Complex traits, such as ABI, are influenced by a large array of genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. We attempted to characterize the genetic architecture of ABI by examining the main and interactive effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and conventional risk factors. Methods We applied linear regression analysis to investigate the association of 435 SNPs in 112 positional and biological candidate genes with ABI and related physiological and biochemical traits in 1046 non-Hispanic white, hypertensive participants from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. The main effects of each SNP, as well as SNP-covariate and SNP-SNP interactions, were assessed to investigate how they contribute to the inter-individual variation in ABI. Multivariable linear regression models were then used to assess the joint contributions of the top SNP associations and interactions to ABI after adjustment for covariates. We reduced the chance of false positives by 1 correcting for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, 2 internal replication, and 3 four-fold cross-validation. Results When the results from these three procedures were combined, only two SNP main effects in NOS3, three SNP-covariate interactions (ADRB2 Gly 16 – lipoprotein(a and SLC4A5 – diabetes interactions, and 25 SNP-SNP interactions (involving SNPs from 29 different genes were significant, replicated, and cross-validated. Combining the top SNPs, risk factors, and their interactions into a model explained nearly 18% of variation in ABI in the sample. SNPs in six genes (ADD2, ATP6V1B1, PRKAR2B, SLC17A2, SLC22A3

  18. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared with non-Hispanic white women and between Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim H; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Karliner, Leah S

    2017-09-15

    Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors examined differences in abnormal screening mammogram follow-up between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian women. The authors used a prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging, Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) abnormal result of category 0 or 3-plus in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier estimation for the median number of days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test was performed, and the authors compared the percentage of women with follow-up at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days and no follow-up at 1 year for Asian women overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHW women. In addition, the authors assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time to follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipina women had the longest, and Japanese women the shortest, median follow-up (32 days, 28 days, and 19 days, respectively) compared with NHW women (15 days). The percentage of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians versus NHWs (57% vs 77%; Pethnic groups except Japanese. Asian women had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHW women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.72). Asian women also had a higher rate of receiving no follow-up compared with NHW women (15% vs 10%; Pethnic groups, Filipinas were found to have the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Asian women, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese women, were less likely than NHW women to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. Cancer 2017;123:3468-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Dietary intake of folate, B-vitamins and methionine and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongyan; Baumgartner, Richard N; Slattery, Martha L; Wang, Chenxi; Giuliano, Anna R; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Risendal, Betsy C; Byers, Tim; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2013-01-01

    Low dietary folate intake is associated with several neoplasias, but reports are inconsistent for breast cancer. Additionally, the association of folate with breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status is not well established. To determine if dietary intakes of folate, B-vitamins (B2, B6, B12) and methionine are associated with breast cancer risk and ER status in Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women in the southwestern U.S. Primary breast cancer cases (n = 2,325) in the 4-Corners region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah), diagnosed between October 1999 and May 2004, were identified through state cancer registries. Controls (n = 2,525) were frequency-matched by ethnicity and age (±5 years). Dietary intake, physical activity and other exposures were assessed using in-person interviews. Risk was assessed through multivariable and multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for relevant covariates. While there was no overall association with breast cancer, the highest quartile of folate intake was marginally inversely associated with ER- breast cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.25-1.00, p for trend = 0.07). Vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with breast cancer also (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.00, p for trend = 0.06), particularly for the highest quartile of ER+ breast cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, p for trend = 0.06), among NHW women (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p for trend = 0.01) and invasive breast cancer (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.93, P(trend) = 0.01). Methionine intake was also inversely associated with ER+ breast cancer (OR for 4th quartile = 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03, p for trend = 0.04), primarily among Hispanic women (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06, and P for trend = 0.02). Higher intake of folate is marginally associated with a lower risk for ER- breast cancer, and higher intakes of vitamin B-12 and methionine are marginally associated with a lower risk of ER+ breast

  20. PS1-02: Health Behaviors in Asian-Indian and White, Non-Hispanic Vegetarian Males in the California Men’s Health Study (CMHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Nirupa; Van Den Eeden, Stephen; Jacobsen, Steven; Ahmed, Ameena; Quinn, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies show a reduced risk of chronic diseases among vegetarians. A vegetarian diet based on fruits, vegetables, and legumes is popular among Asian-Indians. The purpose of this study is to determine if race/ethnicity, Asian-Indian and white non-Hispanic (WNH), modifies the association between a vegetarian diet and health behaviors. Methods Subjects are participants in the CMHS, a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men 45–69 years of age enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Southern and Northern California (2001–02). Descriptive and multivariable statistics were used to evaluate data from a mailed survey. Results Vegetarians accounted for 1.4% (736/51,901) of WNHs and 20.4% (124/602) of Asian-Indians. Age was not associated with diet among Asian-Indians, but among WNHs, vegetarian diet was associated with younger age (vegetarians reported higher educational attainment, with at least a college degree compared to non-vegetarians (73.1% vs. 52.8%, p vegetarians were first generation immigrants, with a majority residing in the U.S. vegetarians were more likely to self-report a healthy weight (51.5% vs. 24.7%, p self-report a CVD event (8.2% vs. 11.5%, p Vegetarians in both groups more often consumed a lower fat diet compared to non-vegetarians [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.22 (2.80–3.71)]. Vegetarians reported consuming more fruits and vegetables; however a significant difference wasn’t detected among Asian-Indians. Further, WNH vegetarians reported less sedentary activity [AOR = 0.65 (0.54–0.78)] and more moderate/vigorous physical activity [AOR = 1.87 (1.55–2.25)] than WNH non-vegetarians, however this was not the case among Asian-Indians. Vegetarians in both groups were less likely to report alcohol use or current/ever smoking compared to non-vegetarians. Discussion Compared to non-vegetarians, vegetarians more often reported healthier behaviors including a lower fat diet, higher fruit and vegetable intake, more physical and less sedentary activity. In

  1. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. Disparity in disability between native-born non-Hispanic white and foreign-born Asian older adults in the United States: effects of educational attainment and age at immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-04-01

    It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Variant rs16430 6bp > 0bp at the microRNA-Binding Site in TYMS and Risk of Sporadic Breast Cancer Risk in Non-Hispanic White Women Aged ≤55 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Hongliang; Ju, Jingfang; Li, Yangkai; Li, Peng; Wang, Li-E; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Arun, Banu K.; Wei, Qingyi; Liu, Zhensheng

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is involved in the folate metabolism and provision of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and repair. Thus, functional genetic variants in TYMS may alter cancer risk. In the study, we evaluated associations of three germline variants (rs2790 A > G, rs16430 6 bp > 0 bp, and rs1059394 C > T) in the predicted miRNA-binding sites of TYMS with risk of sporadic breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women aged ≤55. We found that carriers of the rs16430 0 bp variant allele had an increased risk of breast cancer [adjusted odd ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–1.73; P = 0.010], compared with carriers of the 6 bp/6 bp genotype. This increased risk was more evident in older subjects (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.06–2.03, P =0.022), never smokers (OR 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23–2.25, P < 0.001), never drinkers (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.01–2.05, P=0.043), and estrogen receptor-positive patients (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.11–1.92, P=0.006), regardless of tumor stages. The results are consistent with the functional analyses of rs16430 as previously reported, which showed that the 0bp allele had a decrease in both luciferase activity by ~70% and mRNA levels by ~50% compared with the 6bp allele. Additionally, the rs16430 variant was predicted to influence the binding activity of miR-561 Taken together, these findings indicate that the TYMS rs16430 may contribute to the etiology of sporadic breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women aged ≤55 yr. Further validation in large population-based or cohort studies is needed. PMID:24166930

  4. Effectiveness of a walking group intervention to promote physical activity and cardiovascular health in predominantly non-Hispanic black and Hispanic urban neighborhoods: findings from the walk your heart to health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela B; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L; Woods, Sachiko

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic residents of Detroit, Michigan. The study was designed and implemented using a community-based participatory research approach that actively engaged community residents, health service providers and academic researchers. It was implemented between 2009 and 2012. WYHH was a 32-week community health promoter-facilitated walking group intervention. Groups met three times per week at community-based or faith-based organizations, and walked for 45 to 90 minutes (increasing over time). The study used a cluster randomized control design to evaluate effectiveness of WYHH, with participants randomized into intervention or lagged intervention (control) groups. Psychosocial, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected at baseline, 8, and 32 weeks, and pedometer step data tracked using uploadable peisoelectric pedometers. Participants in the intervention group increased steps significantly more during the initial 8-week intervention period, compared with the control group (β = 2004.5, p = .000). Increases in physical activity were associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index at 8 weeks, and maintained at 32 weeks. The WYHH community health promoter-facilitated walking group intervention was associated with significant reductions in multiple indicators of cardiovascular risk among predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants in a low-to-moderate income urban community. Such interventions can contribute to reductions in racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in cardiovascular mortality. © 2015 Society for Public

  5. Examining HPV- and HPV vaccine-related cognitions and acceptability among US-born and immigrant hispanics and US-born and immigrant non-Hispanic Blacks: a preliminary catchment area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing, Kimlin Tam; Carrington, Agatha; Ragin, Camille; Roach, Veronica

    2017-11-01

    Disparities in HPV vaccination exist. Therefore, we investigated the distinction and disparities in HPV- and HPV vaccine-related cognitions and acceptability among US-born African Americans (AA) and Black immigrants, and between US-born Latinas and Latina immigrants. Secondary data analyses were conducted with 383 female adults divided into non-Hispanic Blacks-(1) AA born in the US (n = 129) and (2) Black immigrants (n = 53), and Hispanics-(3) Latinas born in the US (n = 57) and (4) Latina immigrants (n = 144). HPV-related cognitions are assessed by measuring HPV-related knowledge and HPV vaccine-related awareness, beliefs, accessibility, and acceptability. Black and Latina immigrants were less likely to know where they can get/refer for HPV vaccine (p = .007) than their US-born counterparts. Latina immigrants were less likely to have heard of HPV vaccine (p = .033), know where they can get more information about HPV vaccine (p = .045), and know where they can get/refer for HPV vaccine (p = .001) than US-born Latinas. Both immigrant groups (Black: p = .046; Latina: p = .044) were more likely to report cost concerns than their counterparts. US-born AA were the least likely to endorse HPV vaccine safety (31.0%) and efficacy (39.7%), whereas US-born Latinas endorsed efficacy (63.2%) but less safety (44.6%). Overall, vaccine acceptability was low across all groups. Group disparities in HPV vaccine cognitions emerged, but they all had notable HPV vaccine acceptability (safety and efficacy) barriers. HPV vaccine safety and efficacy were highly unfavorable in US-born AA. The HPV vaccine safety concerns are demonstrated with only 31-54% reporting that the "HPV vaccine is safe"-potentially increasing their risk of HPV vaccine negation. With regards to HPV vaccine efficacy, only 40-63% of this study population endorsed HPV vaccine efficacy. Additionally, immigrants reported greater HPV vaccine cost barriers and healthcare access

  6. Cardiovascular risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.

  7. Epidemiology of bone fracture across the age span in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Kendig, Tiffany D; Frencher, Stanley K; Barlow, Barbara; Quitel, Lodze; Waqar, Fauzia

    2011-11-01

    Gender and racial disparities in injury mortality have been well established, but less is known regarding differences in fracture-related hospitalizations across the age span. Cross-sectional analysis of annual incident fracture hospital admissions used statewide acute care hospital discharge data (Statewide Program and Research Cooperative System) for non-Hispanic White (n = 138,763) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 19,588) residents of New York State between 2000 and 2002. US census data with intercensal estimates were used to ascertain the population at risk. Gender- and race-specific incident fracture was calculated in 5-year age intervals. The χ test was used to analyze categorical variables. Mechanisms of injury vary by race and gender in their relative contribution to injury-related fractures across the age span. Black males exhibited higher fracture incidence until approximately age 62, while incidence in women diverged around age 45. Total motor vehicle traffic-related fracture hospitalization is bimodal in Whites but not in Blacks. Over the life span, all groups exhibited bimodal pedestrian fractures with pedestrian fractures accounting for 8.8% and 2.5% of all fractures in Blacks and Whites, respectively. Racial disparities were present from preschool through age 70. Violence-related fractures were 10 times higher in Blacks, accounting for 18.2% of hospitalizations. Black males exhibit higher fracture incidence due to violence by age 5 and higher gun violence by age 10; both remain elevated through age 75. Despite historical studies demonstrating higher bone density in Blacks, this study found racial disparities with increased fracture risk in both Black children and adults across most nonfall-related injury mechanisms examined.

  8. Health-Related Conditions and Depression in Elderly Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Residents of a United States-Mexico Border County: Moderating Effects of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  9. Decomposition Analysis of Black-White Disparities in Birth Outcomes: The Relative Contribution of Air Pollution and Social Factors in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Huang, Jonathan; Basu, Rupa; Wu, Jun; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-10-04

    Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) are well documented in the epidemiological literature, but little is known about the relative contribution of different social and environmental determinants of such disparities in birth outcome. Furthermore, increased focus has recently turned toward modifiable aspects of the environment, including physical characteristics, such as neighborhood air pollution, to reduce disparities in birth outcomes. To apply decomposition methods to understand disparities in preterm birth (PTB) prevalence between births of non-Hispanic black individuals and births of non-Hispanic white individuals in California, according to individual demographics, neighborhood socioeconomic environment, and neighborhood air pollution. We used all live singleton births in California spanning 2005 to 2010 and estimated PTBs and other adverse birth outcomes for infants borne by non-Hispanic black mothers and white mothers. To compare individual-level, neighborhood-level, and air pollution [Particulate Matter, 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] predictors, we conducted a nonlinear extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose racial/ethnic disparities in PTB. The predicted differences in probability of PTB between black and white infants was 0.056 (95% CI: 0.054, 0.058). All included predictors explained 37.8% of the black-white disparity. Overall, individual (17.5% for PTB) and neighborhood-level variables (16.1% for PTB) explained a greater proportion of the black-white difference in birth outcomes than air pollution (5.7% for PTB). Our results suggest that, although the role of individual and neighborhood factors remains prevailing in explaining black-white differences in birth outcomes, the individual contribution of PM2.5 is comparable in magnitude to any single individual- or neighborhood-level factor. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP490.

  10. Proteomic-coupled-network analysis of T877A-androgen receptor interactomes can predict clinical prostate cancer outcomes between White (non-Hispanic and African-American groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Zaman

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR remains an important contributor to the neoplastic evolution of prostate cancer (CaP. CaP progression is linked to several somatic AR mutational changes that endow upon the AR dramatic gain-of-function properties. One of the most common somatic mutations identified is Thr877-to-Ala (T877A, located in the ligand-binding domain, that results in a receptor capable of promiscuous binding and activation by a variety of steroid hormones and ligands including estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, and several anti-androgens. In an attempt to further define somatic mutated AR gain-of-function properties, as a consequence of its promiscuous ligand binding, we undertook a proteomic/network analysis approach to characterize the protein interactome of the mutant T877A-AR in LNCaP cells under eight different ligand-specific treatments (dihydrotestosterone, mibolerone, R1881, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dexamethasone, and cyproterone acetate. In extending the analysis of our multi-ligand complexes of the mutant T877A-AR we observed significant enrichment of specific complexes between normal and primary prostatic tumors, which were furthermore correlated with known clinical outcomes. Further analysis of certain mutant T877A-AR complexes showed specific population preferences distinguishing primary prostatic disease between white (non-Hispanic vs. African-American males. Moreover, these cancer-related AR-protein complexes demonstrated predictive survival outcomes specific to CaP, and not for breast, lung, lymphoma or medulloblastoma cancers. Our study, by coupling data generated by our proteomics to network analysis of clinical samples, has helped to define real and novel biological pathways in complicated gain-of-function AR complex systems.

  11. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  12. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...... to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  13. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  14. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  15. ANGPTL4 variants E40K and T266M are associated with lower fasting triglyceride levels in Non-Hispanic White Americans from the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pownall Henry J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4 is a metabolic factor that raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL. In non-diabetic individuals, the ANGPTL4 coding variant E40K has been associated with lower plasma triglyceride levels while the T266M variant has been associated with more modest effects on triglyceride metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M are associated with triglyceride levels in the setting of obesity and T2D, and whether modification of triglyceride levels by these genetic variants is altered by a lifestyle intervention designed to treat T2D. Methods The association of ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M with fasting triglyceride levels was investigated in 2,601 participants from the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial, all of whom had T2D and were at least overweight. Further, we tested for an interaction between genotype and treatment effects on triglyceride levels. Results Among non-Hispanic White Look AHEAD participants, ANGPTL4 K40 carriers had mean triglyceride levels of 1.61 ± 0.62 mmol/L, 0.33 mmol/L lower than E40 homozygotes (p = 0.001. Individuals homozygous for the minor M266 allele (MAF 30% had triglyceride levels of 1.75 ± 0.58 mmol/L, 0.24 mmol/L lower than T266 homozygotes (p = 0.002. The association of the M266 with triglycerides remained significant even after removing K40 carriers from the analysis (p = 0.002. There was no interaction between the weight loss intervention and genotype on triglyceride levels. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that the ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M variants are associated with lower triglyceride levels in the setting of T2D. In addition, our findings demonstrate that ANGPTL4 genotype status does not alter triglyceride response to a lifestyle intervention in the Look AHEAD study.

  16. Relationships Between Smoking and Sleep Problems in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Choi, Kelvin; Lewin, Daniel; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sleeping and smoking during adolescence remains unclear and is likely complex. We aim to evaluate the longitudinal reciprocal associations between sleep problems, sleep duration, and smoking among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) youth. Prospective cohort study. NEXT Generation Health Study. A national sample (N = 1394) of NHB and NHW 10th graders were surveyed annually between 2009 (Wave 1) and 2012 (Wave 3). N/A. Past 30-day smoking, chronic difficulty falling asleep, recent difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and weekday and weekend sleep duration were measured at each wave. Using structural equation models, we observed significant autocorrelations over time for sleep problems and sleep duration. We found significant reciprocal, prospective relationships between smoking and sleep problems. The strengths of the relationships differed by race, with a stronger association between sleep problems and subsequent smoking for NHB than NHW youth. Conversely, a stronger association between smoking and subsequent sleep problems for NHW than NHB youth was observed. These association were independent of demographics, snoring or sleep apnea, body mass index, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and soda consumption. Reciprocal and prospective relationships exist for youth smoking and sleep problems and duration in both NHW and NHB youth. Further research is needed to unravel the complex relationship between the direct effects of nicotine, lifestyle choices that may link smoking and sleep problems, and racial differences.

  17. Education and black-white interracial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullickson, Aaron

    2006-11-01

    This article examines competing theoretical claims regarding how an individual's education will affect his or her likelihood of interracial marriage. I demonstrate that prior models of interracial marriage have failed to adequately distinguish the joint and marginal effects of education on interracial marriage and present a model capable of distinguishing these effects. I test this model on black-white interracial marriages using 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. census data. The results reveal partial support for status exchange theory within black male-white female unions and strong isolation of lower-class blacks from the interracial marriage market. Structural assimilation theory is not supported because the educational attainment of whites is not related in any consistent fashion to the likelihood of interracial marriage. The strong isolation of lower-class blacks from the interracial marriage market has gone unnoticed in prior research because of the failure of prior methods to distinguish joint and marginal effects.

  18. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K; Noel, Sabrina E; Grant, Rachael; Judd, Suzanne; Shikany, James M; Ard, Jamy

    2012-04-13

    Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States). Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16), and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32) and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46) compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P women in the Other regions consumed the lowest dietary cholesterol and calcium while black women in the Belt consumed the lowest trans fat. Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  19. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby P K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. Methods This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Results Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16, and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32 and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46 compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P P Conclusions Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  20. Color to black-and-white converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic plate, when sandwiched between pair of conventional light polarizers, forms electrically controlled coverter for television camera. Assembly can be used with camera at remote site to enable camera to transmit color or black and white signal on command.

  1. The Association Between Obesity and Weight Loss Intention Weaker Among Blacks and Men than Whites and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2015-09-01

    Although obesity is associated with weight loss intention, the magnitude of this association may differ across various populations. Using a nationally representative data of the United States, this study tested the variation of the association between obesity and weight loss intention based on race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003, which enrolled 5,810 nationally representative sample of adults (3,516 African Americans, 1,415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Socio-demographics, body mass index (BMI), and weight loss intention were measured. We fitted logistic regression models in the pooled sample with weight loss intention as outcome, obesity (BMI > 30) as predictor, while the effect of covariates were controlled. To test our moderation hypotheses, we entered race * obesity and gender * obesity interactions to the model. Although the association between obesity and weight loss intention was significant among both race and gender groups, the magnitude of the association between obesity and weight loss intention was larger for women than men and Whites than Blacks. That means individuals with obesity have less intention for weight loss if they are Black or men. The link between obesity and weight loss intention depends on race and gender. Weight loss intention may not increase in response to obesity among Blacks and men, compared to Whites and women. Healthy weight programs in the United States may benefit from tailoring based on race and gender.

  2. Black and white civil religion as ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The author points out that the term ideology has changed to a negative connotation following the initially positive connotation it had. The negative connotation has been reinforced following its association with Marxism. In this article it is pointed out that ideology has increasingly gained the nature of civil religion because soteriological issues have come to be settled in terms of some immanent frame of reference. The author looks at White(Afrikaner civil religion in South Africa as well as at Black civil religion. The conclusion is inevitably drawn that in both Black and White civil religion in South Africa the fundamental message of the Gospel has been identified with the suffering, oppression or nationalistic aspirations of some or other specific group. The author concludes by saying that to the extent that Afrikaners have done this in the process of history their experience of history ought to be subjected to a critical test in the light of Scripture. To the extent that Blacks are tempted to harness the fundamental message of the Gospel to their own cultural and national aspirations, the same test has to be applied.

  3. Facial attractiveness and juvenile delinquency among black and white offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, N; Howard, L R

    1973-04-01

    Facial pictures of black and white delinquents were significantly less attractive than pictures of corresponding groups of high school students, as judged by same-race raters. Significant differences were found among the white delinquents, but not among the black, for Quay's four behavioral dimensions of delinquency. Black delinquents were significantly darker in skin color than the black high school students, and lightness of skin color was positively correlated with physical attractiveness ratings made by both black and white raters, indicating that neither race has yet assimilated the saying "black is beautiful." This and other evidence suggest that facial attractiveness may be causal in delinquency.

  4. Seatbelt law enforcement and motor vehicle crash fatalities among blacks and whites in Louisiana and Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert S; Briggs, Nathaniel C; Schlundt, David G; Stinson, Nathan; Warren, Rueben C; Goldzweig, Irwin A

    2006-02-01

    Seatbelt laws save lives. Primary enforcement (allowing citations solely for seatbelt nonuse) is a more effective means of saving lives, yet seven southern states have no primary laws, due in part to concern about racial profiling. Non-Hispanic, black:white (B:W), occupant motor vehicle crash mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were compared across the 15 to 64 age range over two time periods in two demographically comparable southern states (Louisiana and Mississippi). From 1992 to 1994 (when neither state had primary law) to 1996 to 1998 (when Louisiana had primary law) B:W MRRs were 0.73 (95% confidence interval = 0.61, 0.88) and 0.72 (0.60, 0.86) in Louisiana and 1.01 (0.9, 1.12) and 1.22 (1.10, 1.35) in Mississippi. Successful opposition to primary seat belt enforcement may have the unintended effect of producing racial disparities in motor vehicle crash mortality that adversely affects blacks.

  5. Dante between White Party and Black Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zorzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the conflict between the Florentine factions of Whites and Blacks which involved Dante, as expression of a culture of vendettas largerly widespread in Italian cities. It retraces the origins of this conflict in the feud between Circles and Donati, his evolution, linked to the bonds of solidarity and enmity relationships with other local families and the strategies put in place by the parties until the arrival of Charles of Valois (1301 that marked the final outcome, leading among other things to the banishment of the poet.

  6. Separate and combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on subjective health among black, hispanic and non-hispanic white men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  7. Gender differences in education effects on all-cause mortality for white and black adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    The existence of education differentials in adult mortality has been well established. The issue of gender differences in the education-mortality association, however, remains an open question, despite its importance for understanding of causal pathways through which education affects health outcomes. The goal of this paper is to analyze gender differences in education gradients in mortality among non-Hispanic white and black U.S. adults born between 1906 and 1965. The analysis is based on data from the 1986-2000 National Health Interview Surveys linked to the National Death Index through 2002 (NHIS-LMF) with over 700,000 respondents. Full-sample and cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models of all-cause mortality were estimated. Results indicate a great deal of similarity between men and women in the education-mortality association, with some exceptions. The most notable difference is the steeper educational gradient at high schooling levels for white men compared to white women. This difference was fully explained by marital status. No systematic gender differences in the relationship between education and adult mortality were observed among black adults in any birth cohorts. The findings suggest that men do not benefit from educational attainment uniformly more than women.

  8. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  9. Black-White Differences on the Vocational Preference Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughtie, Eugene B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was administered to black and white undergraduates. The overall VPI profiles of the two groups were significantly different. The black students scored higher on the Social, Conventional, Enterprising, Self-Control, Status, and Infrequency scales. The white students scored higher on the Masculinity scale.…

  10. Correlates of Ideal Body Size among Black and White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole; Kaur, Harsohena; Pulvers, Kim; Choi, Won; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Li, Chaoyang; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Cultural differences have been found in body image perceptions among Black and White adolescents, however little is known about the factors associated with perceptions of an ideal body size (IBS). This study examined differences in correlates of IBS among 265 Black (116 girls and 62 boys) and White (63 girls and 24 boys) adolescents. IBS for White…

  11. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  12. Childhood Misfortune and Handgrip Strength Among Black, White, and Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie R; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Kemp, Blakelee R; Morton, Patricia M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2016-12-07

    Although early-life insults may affect health, few studies use objective physical measures of adult health. This study investigated whether experiencing misfortune during childhood is associated with handgrip strength (HGS) in later life. Data on childhood misfortune and adult characteristics from the Health and Retirement Study were used to predict baseline and longitudinal change in HGS among White, Black, and Hispanic American men and women. Regression analyses revealed that multiple indicators of childhood misfortune were related to HGS at baseline, but the relationships were distinct for men and women. Over the study, having one childhood impairment predicted steeper declines in HGS for men, but childhood misfortune was unrelated to HGS change among women. Hispanic Americans had lower baseline HGS than their non-Hispanic counterparts and manifested steeper declines in HGS. The relationship between childhood exposures and adult HGS varied by the type of misfortune, but there was no evidence that the relationship varied by race/ethnicity. The significant and enduring Hispanic disadvantage in HGS warrants greater attention in gerontology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Predicting the Adjustment of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chalmer E.; Fretz, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    A set of variables termed "bicultural adaptive strategies" was formulated and tested for predicting Black students' (n=171) levels of adjustment to a predominantly White university. Findings suggest that the incorporation of variables reflecting Black cultural frame of reference is fruitful in studying Black student adjustment and retention.…

  14. Black and White Adolescent Males' Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied ideal body size beliefs of 337 white and 159 black adolescent males. Findings point toward a greater approval and social acceptance of a larger body size for black females by black males. Cultural differences may be a factor to consider in designing appropriate weight control programs. (SLD)

  15. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.

  16. Obesity Trends and Perinatal Outcomes in Black and White Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R.; Marshall, Nicole E.; Kunovich, Robert M.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy BMI for Black and White teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n=38,158) born to Black (34%) and White teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17% to 26%. White and Black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal weight teenagers while postpartum hemorrhage was only increased in obese Black teenagers and infant complications only in overweight and obese White teenagers. Conclusion As the percent of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in White teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. PMID:23174388

  17. Obesity trends and perinatal outcomes in black and white teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Marshall, Nicole E; Kunovich, Robert M; Caughey, Aaron B

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) for black and white teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n = 38,158) born to black (34%) and white (66%) teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17-26%. White and black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal-weight teenagers; postpartum hemorrhage was increased only in obese black teenagers, and infant complications were increased only in overweight and obese white teenagers. Because the percentage of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in white teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paset, P S; Taylor, R D

    1991-12-01

    50 white women and 50 black women, US citizens between the ages 18 and 23 years, were asked to rate their attitudes about interracial marriage on a 10-point response scale. The white women were somewhat more favorable, if not significantly so, than the black women about men and women of their race marrying persons of another race. However, scorers at the extremes of the scale were significantly different. The white women tended to cluster at the scale extreme favoring interracial marriage, whereas the black women tended to cluster at the other unfavorable extreme. Implications and research needs are discussed.

  19. Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students' Perceptions of Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…

  20. Transcript expression in endometrial cancers from Black and White patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G Larry; Allard, Jay; Gadisetti, Chandramouli V R; Litzi, Tracy; Casablanca, Yovanni; Chandran, Uma; Darcy, Kathleen M; Levine, Douglas A; Berchuck, Andrew; Hamilton, Chad A; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that differences in molecular features of endometrial cancers between racial groups may contribute to the poorer survival in Blacks. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether gene expression among endometrial cancers is different between Blacks and Whites. Fresh frozen tumors from 25 Black patients were matched by stage, grade, and histology to endometrial cancer specimens from 25 White patients. Each case was macrodissected to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 75% cancer cellularity. A subset of 10 matched pairs was also prepared using laser microdissection (LMD) to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 95% cancer cells. Total RNA isolated from each sample was analyzed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and binary class comparison analyses. Unsupervised analysis of the 50 endometrial cancers failed to identify global gene expression profiles unique to Black or White patients. In a subset analysis of 10 matched pairs from Blacks and Whites prepared using LMD and macrodissection, unsupervised analysis did not reveal a unique gene expression profile associated with race in either set, but associations were identified that relate to sample preparation technique, histology and stage. Our microarray data revealed no global gene expression differences and identified few individual gene differences between endometrial cancers from Blacks and Whites. More comprehensive methods of transcriptome analysis could uncover RNAs that may underpin the disparity of outcome or prevalence of endometrial cancers in Blacks and Whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 2010 - Black & White - Bennington and Windham (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_2010 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  2. Hunting Black Bears on White River Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1985 Annual Work Plan Advice calls for the White River manager's recommendations on hunting black bears on the Refuge. The recommendation was made to not hunt...

  3. Television and College Football: In Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II

    1978-01-01

    This article's basic aim is to examine empirical evidence bearing upon the question of the relative competitive superiority of the predominantly white Division I football teams over the predominantly black Division II teams. (Author)

  4. 1994 - Black & White - Rutland and Windsor (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_1994 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  5. 1998 - Black & White - Randolph Village (0.13m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_13M_PAN_1998 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:1250 scale (0.125 meter cell...

  6. Black-White Gap Widens Faster for High Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    New research into what is commonly called the black-white "achievement gap" suggests that the students who lose the most ground academically in U.S. public schools may be the brightest African-American children. As black students move through elementary and middle school, these studies show, the test-score gaps that separate them from their…

  7. Closeness among Black Students at a Predominantly White University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandra S.; Moore, Mignon R.

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a case study of black students at a predominantly white college by examining the closeness of black students on campus; how they rely on one another for need satisfaction and social interaction; and how they share similar values, experiences, and attitudes. Finds a variation in levels of closeness. (CMK)

  8. How African American Is the Net Black Advantage? Differences in College Attendance among Immigrant Blacks, Native Blacks, and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that although a smaller proportion of black high school graduates than white high school graduates attend college, black high school graduates are more likely than white high school graduates to attend college net of differences in socioeconomic family background and academic performance. Yet, the overrepresentation of…

  9. Trends in Black/White Intermarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    1993-01-01

    Marriage license data from 33 states for 1968-86 show that intermarriage between African Americans and whites increased rapidly during the period, particularly between African-American men and white women. Intermarriage was more likely for either African-American men or women if they had attended college but was more likely for white women who…

  10. Black + white = black: hypodescent in reflexive categorization of racially ambiguous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Destiny; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2008-10-01

    Historically, the principle of hypodescent specified that individuals with one Black and one White parent should be considered Black. Two experiments examined whether categorizations of racially ambiguous targets reflect this principle. Participants studied ambiguous target faces accompanied by profiles that either did or did not identify the targets as having multiracial backgrounds (biological, cultural, or both biological and cultural). Participants then completed a speeded dual-categorization task requiring Black/not Black and White/not White judgments (Experiments 1 and 2) and deliberate categorization tasks requiring participants to describe the races (Experiment 2) of target faces. When a target was known to have mixed-race ancestry, participants were more likely to rapidly categorize the target as Black (and not White); however, the same cues also increased deliberate categorizations of the targets as "multiracial." These findings suggest that hypodescent still characterizes the automatic racial categorizations of many perceivers, although more complex racial identities may be acknowledged upon more thoughtful reflection.

  11. Black-on-white polymer-stabilized cholesteric formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John L.; Magyar, Gregory R.; Francl, James J.; Nixon, Christine M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent research by Doane, Yang, and Chien demonstrated the use of cholesteric liquid crystals in multiplexed, high resolution, reflective diplays. These materials utilize the bistability of the cholesteric planar and focal conic states for displays with a colored image on a black background. Many commercial applications of these materials, such as electronic books and newspapers, portable faxes and personal data assistants, require, or at least prefer, black-on- white images. We report on relatively high polymer content (equalsV 20% by weight) dispersions of cholesteric liquid crystals that produce a white, reflecting, planar state. The polymer network appears to form cholesteric domains with varying pitch lengths resulting in planar states that reflect in the red, green, and blue portions of the spectrum. Utilizing a black absorbing layer behind a display using these materials offers white images on a black background, or vice-versa.

  12. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White siblings versus matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D K; Holmes, S D; Arheart, K; Alpert, B S

    1995-09-01

    Elevated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity may be a marker or mechanism for the early development of essential hypertension (EH) and may contribute to the greater prevalence of EH observed in Black adults. Previous research has demonstrated that Black children show greater CV reactivity than White children to psychological stressors, however, the role of heritability in understanding these racial differences is still unknown. Evidence which supports a genetic influence on CV reactivity comes from animal studies, research on family history of EH, and from twin and sibling studies. The present study expands on previous findings by examining racial differences in CV reactivity in 15 pairs of Black siblings, 15 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated Black control subjects, 17 pairs of White siblings, and 17 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated White control subjects. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) measurements were obtained at rest and during a stress task (competitive video game). Black siblings demonstrated a significantly higher intraclass correlation for DBP reactivity than Black controls or White siblings (r=0.73, versus 0.16, 0.14, respectively). Additionally, Black siblings demonstrated a steeper rise and then a plateau in DBP and HR reactivity to the video game task, while White siblings showed a more gradual increase in these measures over the course of playing three video games. The results for DBP and HR reactivity, however, were not consistent among either of the matched control groups. These results expand on previous research by suggesting a stronger genetic influence of CV reactivity in Black than in White children.

  13. Trends of racial disparities in assisted reproductive technology outcomes in black women compared with white women: Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology 1999 and 2000 vs. 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, David B; Zackula, Rosey; Grainger, David A

    2010-02-01

    To determine trends in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in black and white women by comparing Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) database outcomes for 2004-2006 with previously reported outcomes for 1999 and 2000. Retrospective, cohort study. The SART member clinics that performed at least 50 cycles of IVF and reported race in more than 95% of cycles. Women receiving 158,693 IVF cycles. In vitro fertilization using nondonor embryos. Live birth rate per cycle started. Reporting of race increased from 52% to 60%. The proportion of black, non-Hispanic (BNH) women increased from 4.6% to 6.5%. For BNH women using fresh embryos and no prior ART, significant increasing trends were observed for older age, male factor, uterine factor, diminished ovarian reserve, and ovulation disorders. The BNH women were 2.5 times more likely to have tubal factor for those cycles with no prior ART. The proportion of live births per cycle started increased across all groups over time, although greater increases occurred for white women. There seems to be widening disparities in IVF outcomes between BNH and white women, perhaps attributable to poor prognostic factors among black women. Race continues to be a marker for prognosis for ART outcomes and should be reported. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  15. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  16. Dimensions Of Social Stratification For Whites And Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L J

    1982-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major dimensions of social stratification for whites as well as blacks. A survey was conducted with household heads in the Toledo, Ohio area of both races, using an interview that covered a comprehensive set of potentially important variables. Eighteen first-order factors were found for whites and 19 for blacks. Five factors matched in the two samples: social status, residence, organization activity, political activity and efficacy, and main support's social status. Other important factors, unique to each sample, were: for whites, self-employed and majority group membership, and for blacks, class consciousness and method variance. Second- and third-order factors were also obtained, but they were difficult to interpret. The findings indicate that stratification is more complex than anticipated by current conceptualizations and previous research.

  17. The Black and White of Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, LaMar P.; Sommerfeld, Donald A.

    This paper focuses on the use of the variable race in educational research. Researchers are clearly considered to have the right to choose their variables. But, the use of race in a nonscholarly fashion is held to be professionally inadequate and often detrimental to black Americans. For years, researchers using race to make comparison s between…

  18. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  19. Injuries in working populations: black-white differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, D K; Winn, D W

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although "accidents and adverse effects" mortality is higher among Blacks than Whites, annual injury rates reported in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are lower among Blacks. We evaluated the influence of sociodemographic risk factors on injury rates among working adults. METHODS. NHIS data from 1983 through 1987 for currently working adults were used. Methods were developed to estimate standard errors using data from different sample frames and sample sizes. RESULTS. Working Blacks had fewer reported injuries requiring medical attention or restriction of usual activities than working Whites (22.0 vs 27.0 per 100 persons per year). The difference was pronounced among younger adults in both sexes and among both poor and nonpoor. However, age, sex, and income could not completely explain racial differentials. "At-work" injury rates (36% of all injury episodes) were similar for Blacks and Whites (9.2 vs 9.9 per 100 persons per year), except low-income Blacks and Blacks in service or blue-collar occupations had nonsignificantly smaller at-work injury rates. CONCLUSION. Possible reporting biases could not be completely eliminated. However, available evidence does not rule out a true difference in injury rates by race, highlighting the complexity of understanding the etiology of injuries and, hence, developing public health programs to prevent injuries. PMID:1951796

  20. Exponential fading to white of black holes in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.

    2017-05-01

    Quantization of the gravitational field may allow the existence of a decay channel of black holes into white holes with an explicit time-reversal symmetry. The definition of a meaningful decay probability for this channel is studied in spherically symmetric situations. As a first nontrivial calculation, we present the functional integration over a set of geometries using a single-variable function to interpolate between black-hole and white-hole geometries in a bounded region of spacetime. This computation gives a finite result which depends only on the Schwarzschild mass and a parameter measuring the width of the interpolating region. The associated probability distribution displays an exponential decay law on the latter parameter, with a mean lifetime inversely proportional to the Schwarzschild mass. In physical terms this would imply that matter collapsing to a black hole from a finite radius bounces back elastically and instantaneously, with negligible time delay as measured by external observers. These results invite to reconsider the ultimate nature of astrophysical black holes, providing a possible mechanism for the formation of black stars instead of proper general relativistic black holes. The existence of both this decay channel and black stars can be tested in future observations of gravitational waves.

  1. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  2. Black Grade 9 learners in historically white suburban schools and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    obtained by means of a literature study, questionnaires and individual interviews. ... share in a prosperous future by making a concentrated effort to utilise .... educators. • relationships with fellow black and white learners. • participation in sporting/cultural activities. • belonging to the school. • changes that they would like to ...

  3. Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Gidney, Calvin L; Maddox, Keith B; Gidney, Calvin L; Gidney, Calvin L

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that priming one's racial identity can alter a biracial individuals' social behavior, but can such priming also influence their speech? Language is often used as a marker of one's social group membership and studies have shown that social context can affect the style of language that a person chooses to use, but this work has yet to be extended to the biracial population. Audio clips were extracted from a previous study involving biracial Black/White participants who had either their Black or White racial identity primed. Condition-blind coders rated Black-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more Black and White-primed biracial participants as sounding significantly more White, both when listening to whole (Study 1a) and thin-sliced (Study 1b) clips. Further linguistic analyses (Studies 2a-c) were inconclusive regarding the features that differed between the two groups. Future directions regarding the need to investigate the intersections between social identity priming and language behavior with a biracial lens are discussed.

  4. Genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... The study investigates the genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ectotypes of the giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata) from Cross River State in Niger. Delta region of Nigeria. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed in this study.

  5. Linking Communalism to Achievement Correlates for Black and White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth; Love, Keisha; Brown, Carrie; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Thomas, Deneia; Garriott, Patton O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between home-based communal activities and beliefs and student reports of various achievement correlates with 290 black and white undergraduates. MANOVA procedures examined differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, identified motivation, motivation to know, and amotivation and scores on Home Communalism Measure…

  6. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  7. A Comparison of Colour and Black and White T. V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol; Meisner, Alan

    The relative educational effectiveness of color vs. black and white television has not been exhaustively explored. While previous studies have concentrated on the factual retention of subject matter--bypassing the subjective attitudes--this study was designed to thoroughly analyze both areas. Using Osgood's Semantic Differential and the Liking…

  8. Genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ectotypes of the giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata) from Cross River State in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed in this study. Five (5) ...

  9. Outdoor Recreation Participation: Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Asians in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer

    1992-01-01

    Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Asians in Illinois attach a high level of significance to outdoor recreation. However, there are important differences in the outdoor recreation participation patterns of these four groups, including the activities participated in and where they participate, that have important implications for recreation resource planning and research....

  10. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  11. Intergenerational Family Predictors of the Black-White Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Varner, Fatima; Greene, Nereira; Richman, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap among 4,406 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. An intergenerational model of the process by which family factors contribute to the achievement gap was also tested. The results showed that the ethnic gaps in socioeconomic status…

  12. 'Black Pain is a White Commodity': Moving beyond postcolonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The slogan 'Black Pain is a White Commodity' in the #MustFall campaigns is critically analysed within the framework of postcolonial theory and imperialistic power categories. The basic hypothesis of the article is that in early Christianity, pantokrator images of God were influenced by iconography stemming mostly from the ...

  13. Career maturity of black, coloured and white university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Reid-Van Niekerk

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Career maturity attitudes of black, coloured and white first year university students were compared. Black students were found to have lower maturity scores than both their coloured and white counterparts. The result could be attributed to cultural differences, differential exposure to the world of work and differences in educational background. The findings suggest a need for career development interventions to be directed at both the coloured and black population groups. Opsomming Die mate van volwassenheid van loopbaangesindhede onder swart, blanke en kleurlingstudente is met mekaar vergelyk. Daar is bevind dat swart studente laer volwassenheidpunte-tellings as hulle kleuriing- en blanke ewekniee behaal. Die resultaat kan toegeskryf word aan kulturele verskille, 'n andersoortige blootstelling aan die arbeidswereld en verskille in opvoedkundige agtergrond. Die bevindings dui op 'n behoefte aan ingryping in die loopbaanontwikkeling van kleurling- en swart bevolkingsgroepe.

  14. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Geler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  15. Drinking in different social contexts among white, black, and Hispanic men.

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, R.; HERD, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes alcohol use by White, Black, and Hispanic men in eight different social settings. Data were obtained from a multi-stage probability sample of the household population of White, Black, and Hispanic adults aged 18 years and over, residing in the 48 contiguous United States. The response rate was 73 percent for Whites, 76 percent for Blacks, and 72 percent for Hispanics. Results show that Whites go more frequently and drink more frequently than Blacks and Hispanics at restau...

  16. Explaining the Female Black-White Obesity Gap: A Decomposition Analysis of Proximal Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, David W.; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    There exists remarkably large differences in body weights and obesity prevalence between black and white women in the US, and crucially these differences are a significant contributor to black-white inequalities in health. In this paper, we investigate the most proximal explanations for the weight gap, namely differences in diet and exercise. More specifically, we decompose black-white differences in body mass index and waist-to-height ratio into components reflecting black-white differences ...

  17. From the Halls of Hough and Halstead: A Comparison of Black Students on Predominantly White and Predominantly Black Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmons, Willa Mae

    1982-01-01

    Compared attitudes and perspectives of Black college students attending a predominatly White college with those of students attending a predominantly Black college. Found that both groups expected to achieve higher economic and occupational status, though the White college was not seen as responding adequately to the needs of Black students. (GC)

  18. Postprandial ghrelin is elevated in black compared with white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Bragdon, Edith E; Hinderliter, Alan L; West, Sheila G

    2004-09-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide that signals hunger, is normally suppressed after meals. Subnormal suppression of postprandial ghrelin, previously noted in obese, insulin-resistant individuals, may contribute to increased food intake. Given the ethnic disparities in obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular morbidity in the United States, the present study compared a single postprandial ghrelin measure in 43 women (22 white, 21 black). Each completed a rigorously controlled 4-d dietary intervention designed to maintain weight and constant daily sodium and potassium intake (220 mEq Na, 40 mEq K). Two hours after consuming a test meal of identical content, blood samples were drawn to assess postprandial ghrelin, leptin, and norepinephrine; resting cardiovascular function was measured; and a 24-h urinary cortisol sample was obtained. Independent of body mass index, postprandial ghrelin was significantly higher in black vs. white women, and higher ghrelin was associated with higher cortisol in blacks, who failed to show the expected inverse relation between ghrelin and central obesity seen in whites. Higher ghrelin was correlated with higher blood pressure but lower norepinephrine in obese women. These findings suggest subnormal postprandial ghrelin suppression (or faster ghrelin rebound) in black women, especially the obese, that might play a role in their increased prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disorders.

  19. The Factor Structure of the Vocational Preference Inventory for Black and White College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom, B. Lee; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In the present study, the Vocational Preference Inventory scores for a group of black students and white students were factor analyzed and the black structure was rotated to correspond to the white structure. The correspondence between the variables for black and white students was found to be very similar. (Author)

  20. Black holes turn white fast, otherwise stay black: no half measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Geometría y Topología, Facultad de Ciencias,Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-26

    Recently, various authors have proposed that the dominant ultraviolet effect in the gravitational collapse of massive stars to black holes is the transition between a black-hole geometry and a white-hole geometry, though their proposals are radically different in terms of their physical interpretation and characteristic time scales http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021827181442022X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.104020. Several decades ago, it was shown by Eardley that white holes are highly unstable to the accretion of small amounts of matter, being rapidly turned into black holes http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.442. Studying the crossing of null shells on geometries describing the black-hole to white-hole transition, we obtain the conditions for the instability to develop in terms of the parameters of these geometries. We conclude that transitions with long characteristic time scales are pathologically unstable: occasional perturbations away from the perfect vacuum around these compact objects, even if being imperceptibly small, suffocate the white-hole explosion. On the other hand, geometries with short characteristic time scales are shown to be robust against perturbations, so that the corresponding processes could take place in real astrophysical scenarios. This motivates a conjecture about the transition amplitudes of different decay channels for black holes in a suitable ultraviolet completion of general relativity.

  1. Black Border Increases Stomoxys calcitrans Catch on White Sticky Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archie K. Murchie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a biting fly that can cause severe irritation to livestock resulting in reduced productivity. The most common method of monitoring S. calcitrans is through the use of sticky traps and many designs have been developed using different colours and materials such as alsynite fibreglass and polypropylene sheeting. Laboratory experiments and some field experimentation have demonstrated that colour contrast can attract S. calcitrans. However, this response has not been fully utilised in trap design. To test that simple colour contrast could increase trap efficacy, white sticky traps were mounted on three differently coloured backgrounds (white, yellow, and black and positioned at five sites on a mixed livestock farm. White sticky traps on a black background caught significantly more S. calcitrans than the yellow or white backgrounds. An incidental result was that Pollenia sp. were caught in greater numbers on the yellow framed traps. The reasons for S. calcitrans attraction to black–white contrast are most likely due to conspicuousness in the environment although the extent to which flies are using this feature as a host-location cue or a perching site are unknown.

  2. Differences between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Families in Social Capital and Child Development: First-Year Findings from an Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamoran, Adam; Turley, Ruth N. Lopez; Turner, Alyn; Fish, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Disadvantages faced by Hispanic children in the U.S., compared to non-Hispanic Whites, have been widely reported. Economic differences account for some of the gaps, but the social isolation of Hispanic families also serves as a barrier to children's success. Whereas Hispanic families tend to have strong kinship networks, their social ties often do…

  3. The black-and-white coloring problem on circle graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kloks, Ton; Wang, Yue-Li

    2012-01-01

    Given a graph G and integers b and w. The black-and-white coloring problem asks if there exist disjoint sets of vertices B and W with |B|=b and |W|=w such that no two vertices x in B and y in W are adjacent. In this paper we show that the problem is polynomial when restricted to permutation graphs and, more generally, to circle graphs.

  4. Brumation of introduced Black and White Tegus, Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research of brumation behavior.

  5. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  6. Dynamics of Interracial Relationships Involving White Faculty in Black Colleges: Review, Systematization, and Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan L.; Borgstedt, Kaye W.

    Factors that affect interracial relationships of white faculty at predominantly black colleges are considered. Based on theoretical writings and research, five dynamics influencing black-white interaction are identified: prejudice and stereotyping, dominance by whites, racial role-playing, social acceptance/social distance, and value differences.…

  7. The Dynamics of White Dwarfs, Black Holes and Stellar Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    This thesis contains topics related mostly to the dynamics of white dwarfs (chapter 2), the dynamics of stars around binary super massive black holes (chapters 4, 5 and 6) and dynamics in the singular isothermal sphere (chapter 7). In chapter 2 the kinematics of young (white dwarfs are investigated. A relationship between the mass and kinematics of white dwarfs is demonstrated, whereby high-mass white dwarfs have low velocity dispersion. This is the result of less scattering during the shorter lifetime of their more massive precursors. The kinematics of the highest-mass white dwarfs (> 0.95 M⊙ ) are also investigated, and it is shown that they are consistent with the majority being formed via single-star evolution from massive progenitor stars. In chapter 3 it is shown that the coolest, oldest white dwarfs can be identified photometrically from their unique colors, and five new ultracool white dwarfs are spectroscopically confirmed. In chapter 4 it is shown that close binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should produce a burst of tidal disruptions of up to 0.1 yr-1 as they form. The quiescent rate is ˜ 10-5 yr-1 per galaxy, and it is therefore shown that binary SMBHs can potentially be identified via multiple tidal disruptions from the same system. In chapter 5 we perform more extensive simulations of the dynamics of stars around binary SMBHs to better quantify and understand the stellar dynamics. By incorporating general relativistic corrections, we also investigate the processes undergone by compact remnants orbiting the binary SMBHs, analyzing both objects that plunge directly into the SMBHs, and those that undergo extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs). The potential used to mimic general relativistic precession in these simulations is novel, and more accurate for the type of nearly parabolic orbits considered in this work: It is described in chapter 6. In chapter 7 an analytic solution to the manner in which stars diffuse in the background of a singular

  8. Simultaneous use of black, green, and white certificates systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bye, Torstein

    guidance for future investments in green and white electricity. In order to get clear cut results, specific assumptions of parameter values and functional forms are needed. An example of this, based on a calibrated model founded on Norwegian data, is provided in the article. Also, gains and losses in terms......We formulate a model with black, green and white certificates markets that function in conjunction with an electricity market. The markets function well in the sense that a common equilibrium solution exists, where all targets are satisfied (e.g. share of green electricity and share of energy...... saving/ efficiency increase.) The equilibrium solution adapts to changing targets (e.g. harsher target on energy saving), but it is in general impossible to tell whether this will lead to more, less, or unchanged consumption of ”black”, ”green” or ”white” electricity. These, markets give thus a poor...

  9. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: my body my story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Krieger

    Full Text Available To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504 and white (n = 501 participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate, using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination; and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964.Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.28, 2.89 and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07; among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64 and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08. All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score.Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss

  10. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  11. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chithambo, Taona P.; Huey, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body...

  12. The Effect of School Quality on Black-White Health Differences: Evidence From Segregated Southern Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984 through 2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability. PMID:23839102

  13. The Lived Experience of Discrimination of White Women in Committed Interracial Relationships with Black Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Walt, Anina; Basson, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a descriptive phenomenological approach, this study explores the experiences of discrimination of white women in committed interracial relationships with black men within the South African context...

  14. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  15. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  16. Marriage among unwed mothers: whites, blacks and Hispanics compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, Deborah Roempke; Lichter, Daniel T

    2002-01-01

    Much of the debate over welfare reauthorization centers on whether marriage promotion should play a key role. Few studies, however, have tracked the marriage and divorce histories of unwed mothers, including minority women, who are often the main targets of welfare reform. Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were used to estimate the hazards of the transition to marriage for women who delayed childbearing until marriage and for teenagers and older women who had a nonmarital first birth, and of the transition to divorce among the ever-married. Life-table estimates calculated with these estimated transition hazards show the cumulative proportions married and divorced, by race and ethnicity, for women who had a nonmarital first birth and for those who did not. RESULTS Nonmarital childbearing reduces the likelihood of marriage. Some 82% of white women, 62% of Hispanics and 59% of blacks who had a nonmarital first birth had married by age 40; the corresponding proportions among those who avoided nonmarital childbearing were 89%, 93% and 76%, respectively. There is no evidence to suggest that the negative effect of nonmarital childbearing on marriage is caused by other observed or unobserved differences between unwed mothers and women who remain childless until marriage. Nonmarital childbearing raises the likelihood of divorce among unwed mothers who eventually marry, a finding that also varies by race and ethnicity. Marriage promotion policies should focus on lowering rates of nonmarital childbearing. Reductions in nonmarital childbearing, however, may not eliminate long-standing discrepancies in marriage rates between black and white women.

  17. Counselor Intake Judgments About White and Black Clients in a University Counseling Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, John B.; Richards, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Compared counselor intake judgment about White and Black clients at a university counseling center. Counselors reported significantly higher ratings on judged potential for change in Black as compared to White clients. Type and severity of presenting problem, client anxiety level, ease of expression, motivation, realism of goals, and physical…

  18. The Canary in the Mine: The Achievement Gap Between Black and White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    1998-01-01

    Favored explanations for the achievement gap between black and white students reflect experts' positions on the ideological spectrum, while overlooking fundamental problems with the educational delivery system. The situation of black students is not hopeless, thanks to new research that abandons whites' academic performance as the norm and…

  19. The Status of Interethnic Contact and Ethnocentrism among White, Hispanic, and Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.

    Research in the areas of friendship selection, interracial acceptance, interracial contact, and interracial dating was reviewed to determine the nature of intergroup relations for White, Hispanic, and Black adolescents. The findings indicate that Black, White and Hispanic adolescents prefer same-race friends. When cross-race friendships occur in…

  20. Holland's Theory and College-Degreed Working Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, W. Bruce; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigated differences between Black and White women employed in traditional male occupations who took the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Self-Directed Search (SDS). Findings indicate that White women when compared to Black women in the same occupation tend to report similar mean raw scores. (Author)

  1. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardus, J. H.; Kunst, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A sample population of the National

  2. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A

  3. White spruce meets black spruce: dispersal, postfire establishment, and growth in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wirth; J.W. Lichstein; J. Dushoff; A. Chen; F.S.III. Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Local distributions of black spruce (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) are largely determined by edaphic and topographic factors in the interior of Alaska, with black spruce dominant on moist permafrost sites and white spruce dominant on drier upland sites. Given the recent evidence for climate warming and...

  4. Comparison of the Psychological Recovery of Black and White Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Patricia H.

    Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…

  5. Invited Reaction: Black and White Women Managers--Access to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities…

  6. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  7. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  8. A Comparison of Colour and Black and White Television as Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol; Meisner, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Black and white television is adequate for educational purposes. Color has an advantage over black and white in that it creates more emotional involvement, but only when the material to be taught is highly visual in both content and presentation. (LS)

  9. Why Did the Black-White Dropout Gap Widen in the 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Suhyun; Malchow, Ashley; Suh, Jingyo

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates causes of the widening Black-White gap in dropout rates during the 2000s using two cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, NLSY79 and NLSY97. The authors found four factors which contributed to the widening of the Black-White gap: school suspension policies, peer impact, fatherless households, and the…

  10. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  11. Dimensions of Marital Well-Being among White and Black Newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohan, Susan E.; Veroff, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Four dimensions of marital well-being--happiness, equity, competence, and control--emerged in a factor analysis of 12 items asking 199 Black and 174 White newlywed couples to evaluate their overall marital quality. Dimensions were related to respondents' gender, cohabitation history, education, and income, differentially for Blacks and Whites. (TE)

  12. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  13. Multiple Realities: A Relationship Narrative Approach in Therapy with Black-White Mixed-Race Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockquemore, Kerry Ann; Laszloffy, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    Emerging empirical research on racial identity formation among persons with one Black and one White parent reveals that multiple identity options are possible. Presents a relational narrative approach to therapy with Black-White mixed-race clients who experience systematic invalidation of their chosen racial identity through a detailed case…

  14. Improved Black Hole Fireworks: Asymmetric Black-Hole-to-White-Hole Tunneling Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    A new scenario for gravitational collapse has been recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli. Presenting the model under the name of black hole fireworks, they claimed that the accumulation of quantum gravitational effects outside the horizon can cause the tunneling of geometry from a black hole to a white hole, allowing a bounce of the collapsing star which can eventually go back to infinity. In this paper we discuss the instabilities of this model and propose a simple minimal modification which eliminates them, as well as other related instabilities discussed in the literature. The new scenario is a time-asymmetric version of the original model with a time-scale for the final explosion that is shorter than m log m in Planck units. Our analysis highlights the importance of irreversibility in gravitational collapse which, in turn, uncovers important issues that cannot be addressed in detail without a full quantum gravity treatment.

  15. Differences in beliefs about the causes of health disparities in Black and White nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Dobie, Susan; Joram, Elana; Devlin, Michele; Ambroson, DeAnn; Chen, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether Black and White nurses' beliefs about causes of health disparities differ. Analyses reveal that overall Black nurses perceived external factors to contribute significantly more to health disparities than White nurses. Black nurses considered four specific causes dealing with physician and societal factors, such as "discrimination in society," to be more significant contributors to health disparities than White nurses, whereas White nurses considered genetic factors to be a greater contributor. Different views of the causes of health disparities are discussed, particularly in light of cultural competency training and other efforts to ameliorate health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Jack, Ruth H.; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK.DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups.PARTICIPANTS: 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean wom...

  17. Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.

  18. Epidemiology of hypertension from childhood to young adulthood in black, white, and Hispanic population samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, G. S.; Wattigney, W A; Webber, L. S.

    1996-01-01

    RESEARCHERS RECORDED BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS of children and adolescents in the Bogalusa Heart Study (black and white populations) and in the Brooks Country Study (Hispanic population). Hispanic children had smaller stature, while whites and Hispanics tended to be fatter than blacks in childhood. In Bogalusa, black boys showed higher blood pressure levels. Hispanic girls showed lower systolic blood pressure than the other ethnic groups. In cultures with a high prevalence of hypertension, such a...

  19. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  20. Black/white outdoor recreation preferences and participation: Illinois State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Paul H. Gobster

    1992-01-01

    Black/white comparisons of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior from a statewide survey identify a significantly greater black orientation to “developed sites” and “social interaction.” Strategies are recommended to enhance outdoor recreation opportunities for blacks, and long-term research needs are identified.

  1. The Black Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2010-01-01

    Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the Black college student experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) is presented to assist counselors in understanding how Black college students' relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in Black student organizations can become assets or…

  2. A comparison of skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue characteristics in white and black Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Andrade de Freitas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue characteristics in white and black Brazilian subjects presenting normal occlusions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised the lateral cephalograms of 106 untreated Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion, divided into two groups: Group 1- 50 white subjects (25 of each gender, at a mean age of 13.17 years (standard deviation 1.07; and Group 2- 56 black subjects (28 of each gender, at a mean age of 13.24 years (standard deviation 0.56. Variables studied were obtained from several cephalometric analyses. Independent t tests were used for intergroup comparison and to determine sexual dimorphism. RESULTS: black subjects presented a more protruded maxilla and mandible, a smaller chin prominence and a greater maxillomandibular discrepancy than white subjects. Blacks presented a more horizontal craniofacial growth pattern than whites. Maxillary and mandibular incisors presented more protruded and proclined in black subjects. The nasolabial angle was larger in whites. Upper and lower lips were more protruded in blacks than in whites. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a bimaxillary skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue protrusion in black Brazilian subjects compared to white Brazilian subjects, both groups with normal occlusion. Upper and lower lips showed to be more protruded in blacks, but lip thickness was similar in both groups.

  3. Black/white differences in perceived weight and attractiveness among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithambo, Taona P; Huey, Stanley J

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI) and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (M = 28.89 years). Black (n = 531) or White (n = 1163) obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women.

  4. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taona P. Chithambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health ( years. Black ( or White ( obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women.

  5. Culture-Sensitive Question Order Effects of Self-Rated Health Between Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Schwarz, Norbert; Goldstein, Leanne Streja

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine context effects created by the question order for self-rated health (SRH) by race/ethnicity and language. Differences in SRH estimates for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics were first examined with multiple observational data that asked SRH in different contexts. To examine context effects by socio-demographics and health-related characteristics, we conducted experiments on SRH question order. While Hispanics reported poorer health than non-Hispanic Whites, this difference, in part, depended on question contexts. With SRH asked after rather than before specific health questions, Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, reported better health, while non-Hispanic Whites' reports remained consistent. Among Spanish-speaking Hispanics, the context effect was larger for unmarried and less educated persons and those with comorbidities. Question contexts influence SRH reports by Spanish-speaking older adults. Cross-cultural inquiries on the meaning of health and its dynamics with question contexts may explain what SRH measures for increasingly diverse populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Black-White health inequalities in Canada at the intersection of gender and immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew C; Veenstra, Gerry

    2016-10-20

    Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey. We used binary logistic regression to model Black- White inequalities in hypertension, diabetes, self-rated health, self-rated mental health and asthma separately for native-born women, native-born men, immigrant women and immigrant men. After controlling for potentially confounding factors we found that immigrant Black women had significantly higher odds of hypertension, diabetes and fair/poor self-rated health than immigrant White women. Native-born Black women and immigrant Black men had higher odds of hypertension and diabetes than native-born White women and immigrant White men respectively, and native-born White women were more likely than native-born Black women to report asthma. There were no statistically significant health differences between native-born Black and White men. Socio-economic status, smoking, physical activity and body mass index were implicated in some but not all of these racial health inequalities. None of the three-way interactions between racial identity, gender and immigration status was statistically significant. We found relatively high risks of ill health for Black Canadians in three of the four samples. Overall, however, we found little support for the intersectional hypothesis that Black-White health inequalities in Canada are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way.

  7. The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S; Zaug, J M

    2009-06-05

    The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The {alpha} phase was found to transform into the {alpha}' phase at 0.87 {+-} 0.04 GPa with a volume change of 0.1 {+-} 0.3 cc/mol. A fit of a second order Birch-Murghanan equation to the data gave Vo = 16.94 {+-} 0.08 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 6.7 {+-} 0.5 GPa for the {alpha} phase and Vo = 16.4 {+-} 0.1 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 9.1 {+-} 0.3 GPa for the {alpha}' phase. The {alpha}' phase was found to transform to the A17 phase of black phosphorus at 2.68 {+-} 0.34 GPa and then with increasing pressure to the A7 and then simple cubic phase of black phosphorus. A fit of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation to our orthorhombic and rhombohedral black phosphorus data gave Vo = 11.43 {+-} 0.02 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 34.7 {+-} 0.5 GPa for the A17 phase and Vo = 9.62 {+-} 0.01 cc/mol and K{sub o} = 65.0 {+-} 0.6 GPa for the A7 phase.

  8. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  9. Comparison of strength of the human-animal bond between Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners of pet dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Kogan, Lori R; Wright, Mary L

    2010-03-01

    To assess differences in strength of the human-animal bond between Hispanic and non-Hispanic owners and determine whether these variations were associated with differences in medical care for pets. Survey. 419 pet owners presenting a dog or cat for veterinary services at private veterinary clinics in Aurora, Colo; Chula Vista, Calif; and Mexico City. Procedures-Owner and pet demographic information was obtained via open-ended interview questions. The human-animal bond was assessed through the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale. Pet health data were obtained from medical records for the specific visit observed, and a body condition score was assigned. Hispanics were more likely to own sexually intact dogs and cats as pets than were individuals of other race-ethnicity groups. Overall, owners were most likely to classify their pets as providing companionship. When data for the 2 US locations were examined separately, no significant difference existed between how non-Hispanic White and Hispanic owners viewed their pets, and scores for the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale did not differ significantly among race-ethnicity groups. There was a strong human-animal bond among Hispanic respondents, and Hispanic pet owners in the United States and Mexico verbalized this attachment in similar ways to non-Hispanic White owners. There was no observed association between owner race-ethnicity and strength of the human-animal bond for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White pet owners in the United States. Thus, other factors must be considered to explain the observed difference in percentages of neutered animals between groups.

  10. Epidemiology of hypertension from childhood to young adulthood in black, white, and Hispanic population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, G S; Wattigney, W A; Webber, L S

    1996-01-01

    RESEARCHERS RECORDED BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS of children and adolescents in the Bogalusa Heart Study (black and white populations) and in the Brooks Country Study (Hispanic population). Hispanic children had smaller stature, while whites and Hispanics tended to be fatter than blacks in childhood. In Bogalusa, black boys showed higher blood pressure levels. Hispanic girls showed lower systolic blood pressure than the other ethnic groups. In cultures with a high prevalence of hypertension, such as blacks in the United States, it is important to understand the effect of environmental factors like dietary intake and electrolytes and obesity on the control of hypertension. PMID:8898760

  11. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  12. Meanings of political participation among black and white women: political identity and social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E R; Stewart, A J

    1996-07-01

    This study examined the correlates of midlife political participation among 64 Black and 107 White women of the college classes of 1967-1973. Compared with White women, Black women scored higher on political participation, generativity, power discontent, and politicization. Factor analysis of personality and political attitude variables yielded three factors labeled Political Identity, Power Discontent, and Social Responsibility. Adult political participation was regressed on level of student activism and index scores of political identity, power discontent, and social responsibility. For both racial groups, social responsibility was associated with midlife political participation. For White women, political identity was also related; for Black women, student activism bore a significant relationship. The findings suggest that Black and White women's historical and political contexts imbued their political activities with different meanings.

  13. 1995 - Black & White - Addi, Frank, Grand, Lam, Wash (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_1995 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  14. 2007 - Black & White - Chitt, Lam, Calendonia, Wash (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_2007 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  15. 2006 - Black & White - Add, Orange, Rut, Wash, Wind (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_2006 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  16. 1999 - Black & White - Caledonia, Chitt, Essx, Orlean (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_1999 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  17. Comparison of Prevalence and Types of Mutations in Lung Cancers Among Black and White Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.

  18. Psychophysiological correlates of systemic inflammation in black and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Kimberly G; Jennings, J Richard; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and levels of circulating inflammatory markers are associated with future CVD risk. However, the physiological mechanisms that control systemic levels of circulating inflammatory markers are not well understood. Here, we explore possible autonomic nervous system mechanisms by testing whether resting and stressor-evoked cardiovascular responses are associated with two markers of systemic inflammation: interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). Subjects were 159 black and 129 white men (M=33.0years) who completed a laboratory protocol including an anger recall speech task. Electrocardiography and impedance cardiography data were collected during a resting baseline, the speech task, and a final recovery period. Hierarchical regressions tested whether resting or stressor-evoked levels of heart rate (HR), high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and pulse transit time (PTT) were associated with CRP or IL-6. Higher resting HR was associated with higher CRP (β=0.19, p=0.003) and IL-6 (β=0.13, p<0.05). Similarly, shorter resting PTT was associated with higher CRP (β=-0.21, p<0.001) and IL-6 (β=-0.14, p=0.02). In addition, greater stressor-evoked decreases in HF-HRV were associated with higher CRP (β=-0.14, p=0.01). Associations were independent of age, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking behavior, and socioeconomic status. Resting HF-HRV and PEP were also associated with CRP and IL-6, but associations were not significant after controlling for BMI and smoking behavior. These findings indicate that resting HR and PTT, as well stressor-evoked HF-HRV reactivity, are associated with systemic inflammation. Our results suggest that both tonic and stressor-evoked sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity may contribute to regulation of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Life Events and Black-White Differences in Adult Children's Financial Assistance to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung S

    2017-05-23

    Parents who experience life events with negative economic consequences may rely on adult children for financial assistance. This study provided national estimates of Black and White mothers' financial help from adult children. It also examined whether the Black-White difference in the likelihood of a mother's receipt of financial assistance persisted after accounting for life events reflecting parental need and children's ability to provide help. The Health and Retirement Study was used to examine late middle aged (51-70) Black and White mothers' financial help from adult children. Cross-sectional point estimates of financial help from noncoresident and coresident children were based on pooling these data. Random effects logistic regression at the mother-wave level was used to estimate the likelihood of receipt of financial assistance from noncoresident children. On average, 9% (8%) of Blacks and 3% (4%) of Whites reported help from noncoresident (coresident) children in a given interview wave, but Blacks received lower amounts. Changes signifying greater parental financial need and noncoresident children's greater resources were positively associated with receiving financial help from noncoresident children. After accounting for these factors, race differences remained. Black mothers are more likely to rely on children for financial help than Whites. Since this help hinges on the ability of their children to provide, the strength of Blacks' economic safety net as they age also depends on the socioeconomic well-being of the younger generation.

  20. Passing as White: Race, Shame, and Success in Teacher Licensure Testing Events for Black Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative portraiture study explored how race becomes a conscious and salient dimension of teacher licensure exams for black preservice teachers. The findings focus on one black preservice teacher and how she identified as white on the demographic survey preceding her licensure exam due to the racialized nature of the experience and the…

  1. The Dialectical Problematic of Resolving the Black-White Academic Achievement Gap and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I argue that resolving the Black-White academic achievement gap is incompatible with the emerging issues of global climate change. That is, solutions (equitable funding of schools and resources, school integration movements, and after-school and mentoring programs) for closing the gap in order so that Blacks in America and…

  2. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag

    2017-01-01

    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  3. Perceptions of Financial Aid: Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichavakunda, Antar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides qualitative context for statistics concerning Black college students and financial aid. Using the financial nexus model as a framework, this research draws upon interviews with 29 Black juniors and seniors at a selective, -private, and predominantly White university. The data suggest that students -generally exhibited high…

  4. Explaining black-white differences in receipt of recommended colon cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dobie, Sharon A; Billingsley, Kevin; Cai, Yong; Wright, George E; Dominitz, Jason A; Barlow, William; Warren, Joan L; Taplin, Stephen H

    2005-08-17

    Black-white disparities exist in receipt of recommended medical care, including colorectal cancer treatment. This retrospective cohort study examines the degree to which health systems (e.g., physician, hospital) factors explain black-white disparities in colon cancer care. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program; Medicare claims; the American Medical Association Masterfile; and hospital surveys were linked to examine chemotherapy receipt after stage III colon cancer resection among 5294 elderly (> or = 66 years of age) black and white Medicare-insured patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with black-white differences in chemotherapy use. All statistical tests were two-sided. Black and white patients were equally likely to consult with a medical oncologist, but among patients who had such a consultation, black patients were less likely than white patients (59.3% versus 70.4%, difference = 10.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1% to 16.4%, P statistically significant in the regression analysis. Overall, patient, physician, hospital, and environmental factors accounted for approximately 50% of the disparity in chemotherapy receipt among patients aged 66-70 years; surgical length of stay and neighborhood socioeconomic status accounted for approximately 27% of the disparity in this age group, and health systems factors accounted for 12%. Black and white Medicare-insured colon cancer patients have an equal opportunity to learn about adjuvant chemotherapy from a medical oncologist but do not receive chemotherapy equally. Little disparity was explained by health systems; more was explained by illness severity, social support, and environment. Further qualitative research is needed to understand the factors that influence the lower receipt of chemotherapy by black patients.

  5. For Selected Services, Blacks And Hispanics More Likely To Receive Low-Value Care Than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schpero, William L; Morden, Nancy E; Sequist, Thomas D; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Colla, Carrie H

    2017-06-01

    US minority populations receive fewer effective health services than whites. Using Medicare administrative data for 2006-11, we found no consistent, corresponding protection against the receipt of ineffective health services. Compared with whites, blacks and Hispanics were often more likely to receive the low-value services studied. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Joe Louis as a Key Functionary: White Reactions toward a Black Champion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Art

    1985-01-01

    Investigates White Americans' responses toward Joe Louis, the Black champion. Focuses on the Louis-Schmeling heavyweight title fight of 1938 as exemplifying Louis' role as a key functionary for the American system. Argues that Louis's achieved status as the American representative fighting against Nazism did not negate Whites' negative perception…

  7. Career Aspirations and Expectations of Black, Mexican American, and White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Novy, Diane M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined career aspirations and expectations of Black (n=126), Mexican-American (n=107), and White (n=633) college freshmen. There appeared to be more gender than ethnic differences in students' career aspirations/expectations. Differences in career aspirations and expectations among Mexican-American and White students followed traditional gender…

  8. Soft skills, hard skills, and the black/white earnings gap

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, C. Simon; Wei, Xiangdong; ZHANG, JUNSEN

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides both a theoretical and an empirical investigation into the impact of job skill types on the black/white pay differentials. The theoretical analysis derives that the more intensively soft/hard skills are used in an occupation, the greater/smaller the black/white pay differential is there in that occupation. Moreover, in response to the differential pay gaps across jobs requiring different levels of soft/hard skills, blacks are more likely to self-select themselves into the ...

  9. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, PBody Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.

  10. Using Constructivist Grounded Theory to Understand How Black Males Graduate from Predominantly White Four-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marcus Latrell

    2017-01-01

    Black males graduate from college at rates lower than their female counterparts. They also graduate at lower rates than Asian, Hispanic, and White males and females. This study used Constructivist Grounded Theory to understand the experiences of Black males who graduated from predominantly White four-year institutions. Responses from 10 Black male…

  11. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutinda Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. Findings In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Conclusions Our study highlights (i that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations.

  12. Perception of racism explains the difference between Blacks' and Whites' level of healthcare trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbembo, Albert O; Tomar, Scott L; Logan, Henrietta L

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the level of healthcare trust does not differ between Blacks and Whites. Cross-sectional telephone-based survey. This study recruited low-income residents of Miami-Dade and Duval counties in Florida by using random-digit dialing (RDD). One thousand and five residents participated; however, analyses were limited to Black (n=550) or White (n=374) respondents. Trained interviewers used a structured questionnaire to obtain information about respondent demographics, trust in health care, perception of racism, and access to care. Black respondents included fewer males (P=.0146) and younger subjects (P racism than did Whites (Pracism into the model eliminated differences in trust between White and Black respondents. Overall, the model explaining healthcare trust accounted for 21.2% of the variance in trust; the model adjusted for respondents' county, demographics, access to care, and liking treatment during routine appointment. This study observed that perception of racism accounted for the residual differences in healthcare trust between Whites and Blacks; therefore, healthcare distrust may not be an attribute of Blacks. Respondents' experience with the healthcare system accounted for most of the difference in trust.

  13. Measurement equivalence of the Empowerment Scale for White and Black persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott B; Huang, Jialin; Zhao, Lei; Sergent, Jessica D; Neuhengen, Jonas

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined the measurement equivalence on a measure of personal empowerment for Black and White consumers of mental health services. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess measurement equivalence of the 28-item Empowerment Scale (Rogers, Chamberlin, Ellison, & Crean, 1997), using data from 1,035 White and 301 Black persons with severe mental illness. Metric invariance of the Empowerment Scale was supported, in that the factor structure and loadings were equivalent across groups. Scalar invariance was violated on 3 items; however, the impact of these items on scale scores was quite small. Finally, subscales of empowerment tended to be more highly intercorrelated for Black than for White respondents. RESULTS generally support the use of Empowerment Scale for ethnic group comparisons. However, subtle differences in the psychometric properties of this measure suggest that Black and White individuals may conceptualize the construct of empowerment in different ways. Specifically, Black respondents had a lower threshold for endorsing some items on the self-esteem and powerlessness dimensions. Further, White respondents viewed the 3 dimensions of empowerment (self-esteem, powerlessness, and activism) as more distinct, whereas these 3 traits were more strongly interrelated for Blacks. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2017-07-21

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging.

  15. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  16. Mapping Geographic Variation in Infant Mortality and Related Black-White Disparities in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Lauren M; Khan, Diba; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2016-09-01

    In the US, black infants remain more than twice as likely as white infants to die in the first year of life. Previous studies of geographic variation in infant mortality disparities have been limited to large metropolitan areas where stable estimates of infant mortality rates by race can be determined, leaving much of the US unexplored. The objective of this analysis was to describe geographic variation in county-level racial disparities in infant mortality rates across the 48 contiguous US states and District of Columbia using national linked birth and infant death period files (2004-2011). We implemented Bayesian shared component models in OpenBUGS, borrowing strength across both spatial units and racial groups. We mapped posterior estimates of mortality rates for black and white infants as well as relative and absolute disparities. Black infants had higher infant mortality rates than white infants in all counties, but there was geographic variation in the magnitude of both relative and absolute disparities. The mean difference between black and white rates was 5.9 per 1,000 (median: 5.8, interquartile range: 5.2 to 6.6 per 1,000), while those for black infants were 2.2 times higher than for white infants (median: 2.1, interquartile range: 1.9-2.3). One quarter of the county-level variation in rates for black infants was shared with white infants. Examining county-level variation in infant mortality rates among black and white infants and related racial disparities may inform efforts to redress inequities and reduce the burden of infant mortality in the US.

  17. Understanding the racial perspectives of White student teachers who teach Black students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Trinna S.

    Statement of the problem. Most student teachers successfully complete their educational programs; however, some continue to express concern about becoming an actual practicing teacher. One of these concerns deals with White teachers interactions with Black students. This study investigated White student teachers' perceptions of teaching Black students. In particular, the study examined the racial perceptions student teachers expressed about being a White person in a racially diverse school and examined the student teachers' perceptions on race. The following questions guided the study: (1) What are the perceptions of White student teachers concerning being White? (2) What are the perceptions of White student teachers on teaching science to Black students in a racially diverse secondary school? (3) What recommendations can White student teachers give to teacher education programs concerning the teaching of Black students? Methods. Semi-structured interviews, personal profiles and reflective journals were used as the means for collecting data. All three sources of data were used to understand the racial perceptions of each student teacher. Analysis of the data began with the identification of codes and categories that later developed into themes. Cross analyses between the data sources, and cross analysis between participants' individual data were conducted. The use of semi-structured interview, personal profiles, and reflective journals provided in-depth descriptions of the participants' racial perceptions. These data sources were used to confirm data and to show how student teaching experiences helped to shape their racial perceptions. Results. Data analysis revealed three themes, various life experiences, variety of opinions related to teaching Black students, and limited recommendations to teacher education programs. Although all teachers remained at the contact stage of the White racial identity model (Helms, 1990), they were open to dialogue about race. The

  18. ERPs to Alcohol Images among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Female College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ceballos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that young women, particularly Latinas, may be at risk for problem drinking during the home-to-college transition. In this study, we used ERP cue-reactivity to explore physiological correlates of alcohol use and expectancies across the freshman year in Hispanic (H and Non-Hispanic White (N-H women. In the fall (t1 and spring (t2 semesters of their freshman year of college, 40 women (16 H reported alcohol use and expectancies. At each session, N200 and P300 ERPs were elicited by two oddball tasks (counterbalanced within session: 1 to detect alcohol targets while ignoring control items (household object distracters and frequently presented nonsense shapes and 2 to detect object targets while ignoring alcohol distracters and nonsense shapes. P300 amplitude was larger for targets (versus non-targets and for alcohol images (versus control images, but did not change over time or differ by ethnicity. P300 latency results included time x target and ethnicity x target interactions. Latency differences for target images were attenuated at t2, and N-Hs were more reactive to stimuli classed as targets regardless of whether these depicted alcohol or control images. N200s had higher amplitude and longer latency at t2, suggesting a change with acclimation to the college setting, but did not differ by target status, image type or ethnic group. P300 latency was positively correlated with the personalismo subscale of acculturation indicating that individuals with more social, people-oriented personalities were more distracted by alcohol images when they appeared as non-targets. N200 amplitude was correlated with positive alcohol expectancies, and this pattern changed over time (t1 versus t2, suggesting subtle, expectancy-related changes in alcohol processing as students acclimated to the college setting. Taken together, these results suggest that the cue-reactivity paradigm described here may be a useful tool for examining subtle physiological

  19. Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1992-01-01

    Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.

  20. 'Black Pain is a White Commodity': Moving beyond postcolonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-08

    Sep 8, 2017 ... 'chaos' (disorder and distress) in decolonising campaigns, it will be paramount ... What are the paradigmatic issues behind the slogan: Black. Pain is a ..... said that Western knowledge and science must be removed in Africa.

  1. Selected correlates of white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B S

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients and variables selected within a theoretical framework of prejudice which included socialization factors and personality-based factors. The variables selected were: authoritarianism and self-esteem (personality-based factors), parents' attitudes toward black Americans, peer attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and socioeconomic status (socialization factors). The study also examined the differences in the relationship among white nursing students enrolled in baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma nursing programs. Data were collected from 201 senior nursing students enrolled in the three types of nursing programs in Rhode Island during the late fall and winter of 1979-1980. Although baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma students were similar in terms of peer attitudes toward black Americans, fathers' attitudes toward black Americans, self-esteem and attitudes toward black American patients, they were significantly different in terms of age, socioeconomic status, mothers' attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and authoritarianism. The major findings of this study indicate that the socialization explanation of prejudice is more significant than the personality-based explanation. The variables socioeconomic status, interracial contact and peer attitudes toward black Americans (all socialization variables) accounted for 22.0% of the total variance in attitudes toward black American patients for the total sample of nursing students. However, this relationship was not generalizable across the three different types of nursing programs.

  2. Mental health disparities between Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeske, Kathleen A; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Hamilton, Ann S; Olson, Anamara Ritt; Slaughter, Rhona; Kuperberg, Aura; Milam, Joel

    2013-09-01

    Parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience considerable distress related to their child's cancer. However, little is known about cultural variation in this experience. We examine parental distress, specifically symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTSS) and depression, comparing Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of CCS. Seventy-nine Hispanic and 60 non-Hispanic parents of CCS (currently aged 14-25, off treatment ≥2 years) completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depression, PTSS, perceived stress, and child's health status/quality of life (QOL). t-Tests and chi-square statistics were used to compare differences in demographic characteristics between Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents and multivariable regression was used to determine independent risk factors associated with parental PTSS and depression. Hispanic parents were significantly younger, had less education, lower incomes and reported significantly more PTSS and depressive symptoms than non-Hispanic parents (all P-values parents, foreign birthplace predicted higher PTSS after controlling for other factors (P parents, regardless of birthplace, reported more depressive symptoms than non-Hispanic parents (US-born, P parental stress and negative relationships with the child's psychosocial QOL. Hispanic and non-Hispanic CCS did not differ significantly on disease and treatment factors or health-related QOL. Hispanic parents of CCS may be at greater risk for poorer mental health outcomes. Ethnic-specific factors (e.g., acculturation, immigration status, and previous trauma) may influence parents' responses and adjustment to their child's cancer. Research is needed to determine how to meet the needs of the most vulnerable parents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Semantics of White and Black in Italian and Spanish Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša Stanič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the semantic values of "white" and "black" in Italian and Spanish phraseology. These two colors are among all those that form the greatest number of phraseological units. Consulting Italian and Spanish dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, phraseological dictionaries and chosen corpora of the two languages, 232 phraseological units with "white" and "black" were found. The most common type are collocations of the type adjective plus noun. In this paper, the phraseological units are classified according to their semantic values. It has been discovered that while the semantic values of "white" can in both languages be positive (in the majority and negative, the values of "black" are almost all negative. Variants of phraseological units that can be formed with both colours as well as examples of phraseological units containing both colours were highlighted. In most of these examples the "white" and "black" represent the opposite. Only a few phraseological units with "white" and "black" directly linked to the Italian and Spanish culture were found. They refer to mafia, football, fascism and bullfighting.

  4. Black holes will break up solitons and white holes may destroy them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Fiki T., E-mail: ftakbar@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Gunara, Bobby E., E-mail: bobby@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha no. 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Susanto, Hadi, E-mail: hsusanto@essex.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • What happens if a soliton collides with a black or white hole? • Solitons can pass through black hole horizons, but they will break up into several solitons after the collision. • In the interaction with a white hole horizon, solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it. - Abstract: We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose–Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a ‘stream flow’ potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. A reduced equation describing the position of the dark solitons was obtained using variational method. Through numerical computations and comparisons with the analytical approximation we show that solitons can pass through black hole horizons even though they will break up into several solitons after the collision. In the interaction with a white hole horizon, we show that solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it.

  5. “Church” in Black and White: The Organizational Lives of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys H. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The religious lives of young adults have generally been investigated by examining what young people believe and their self-reported religious practices. Far less is known about young adults’ organizational involvement and its impact on religious identities and ideas about religious commitment. Using data from site visit observations of religious congregations and organizations, and individual and focus group interviews with college-age black and white Christians, we find differences in how black and white students talk about their religious involvement; and with how they are incorporated into the lives of their congregations. White students tended to offer “organizational biographies” chronicling the contours of belonging as well as disengagement, and emphasizing the importance of fulfilling personal needs as a criterion for maintaining involvement. On the other hand, black students used “family” and “home” language and metaphors to describe how their religious involvement, a voluntary choice, was tied to a sense of “calling” and community. We show that this variation is aligned with organizational differences in black and white congregations that situate white youth as separate and black youth as integrated into the larger church community.

  6. Racial Disparities in the Association between Alcohol Use Disorders and Health in Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Carty, Denise C; Cogburn, Courtney D; Williams, David R

    2017-01-01

    Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Generalized linear regression tested how race interacted with the association between 12-month DSM-IV AUD in Wave 1 (2001-2002) and health in Wave 2 (2004-2005), adjusted for covariates (age group, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and arthritis). Black women with AUD had poorer health than white women with AUD (β = -3.18, SE = 1.28, p health care, and psychosocial factors (β = -2.64, SE = 1.27, p health for black but not white women. Accounting for black-white differences in AUD and physical and functional health among women requires investigation beyond traditional explanatory mechanisms.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with More Hopelessness among White than Black Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-01-01

    Hopelessness is a core component of depression. Our information is, however, very limited on ethnic variations in the magnitude of the link between depression and hopelessness. Using a national sample of older adults in United States, we compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the association between depressive symptoms and hopelessness. With a cross-sectional design, we used baseline data of the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) and hopelessness were conceptualized as independent and dependent variables in different models, respectively. Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (education and marital status), and health (self-rated health) were covariates. Ethnicity was the moderator. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms were predictive of hopelessness, above and beyond all covariates. We also found significant interactions suggesting that the association between depressive symptoms and hopelessness is weaker among Blacks compared to Whites. In ethnic-specific models, there were significant associations between depressive symptoms and hopelessness among Whites but not Blacks. Depressive symptoms accompany more hopelessness among Whites than Blacks. This finding may explain why Blacks with depression have a lower tendency to commit suicide. Future research should test whether or not Whites with depression better respond to psychotherapies and cognitive behavioral therapies that focus on hope enhancement. This finding may explain differential correlates of depression based on race and ethnicity.

  8. Natural occurrence of ochratoxin A contamination in commercial black and white pepper products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, M; Jinap, S; Radu, S

    2010-10-01

    The concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 120 commercial pepper (84 pre-packed and 36 bulk samples), which consist of local and imported white and black pepper in powder and seed form in Malaysia were determined. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare OTA concentration in black pepper and white pepper being commercialized in Malaysia. Determination method was based on HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up step. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (49.5:49.5:1.0, v/v/v), and flow rate was 1 ml/min. The LOD was 0.02 ng/g, and the average recovery values of OTA ranged from 79.5 to 92.0% in black pepper and 81.2-90.3% in white pepper. A total of 57 samples (47.5%) were contaminated with OTA ranging from 0.15 to 13.58 ng/g. The results showed that there was a significant difference between type of pepper and brands. OTA concentration in black pepper was significantly higher than white pepper (p black pepper seed followed by 12.64 ng/g in a sample of black pepper powder, both were bulk samples purchased from open market.

  9. Small-area Variation in Hypertension Prevalence among Black and White Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kellee; Stewart, John E; Lòpez-DeFede, Ana; Wilkerson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-21

    To examine within-state geographic heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence and evaluate associations between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual characteristics for Black and White South Carolina Medicaid enrollees in urban vs rural areas. Ecological. South Carolina, United States. Hypertension prevalence. Data representing adult South Carolina Medicaid recipients enrolled in fiscal year 2013 (N=409,907) and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level contextual measures (racial segregation, rurality, poverty, educational attainment, unemployment and primary care physician adequacy) were linked in a spatially referenced database. Optimized Getis-Ord hotspot mapping was used to visualize geographic clustering of hypertension prevalence. Spatial regression was performed to examine the association between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual indicators. Significant (alpha=.05) hotspot spatial clustering patterns were similar for Blacks and Whites. Black isolation was significantly associated with hypertension among Blacks and Whites in both urban (Black, b=1.34, Photspots for Black and White Medicaid enrollees provides an opportunity for targeted health intervention. Provider adequacy findings suggest the value of ACA network adequacy standards for Medicaid managed care plans in ensuring health care accessibility for persons with hypertension and related chronic conditions.

  10. Volume and composition of hand sweat of White and Black men and women in desert walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, D B; Yousef, M K; Goldman, A; Hillyard, S D; Davis, T P

    1983-05-01

    Many investigators have sought, but failed to find, ethnic differences in the number and regional distribution of active sweat glands. In this study measurements have been made of sweat secreted on one hand and also on the whole body of Whites and Blacks walking in desert heat. Whites numbered 31 men and 27 women, ages 30 to 88 years; there were 21 Black men and 31 Black women, ages 16 to 61 years. Each walked on three occasions for 1 hour at a rate that required an oxygen consumption of about 40% of aerobic capacity. Ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 44 degrees C in 1979 and 1980; means were 38.4 degrees C in 1979 and 36.7 degrees C in 1980. There was no sweat in the gloves of many Blacks; this was true of only a few Whites. Volume of body sweat increased in both races with rate of walking; volume of hand sweat increased more in Whites than in Blacks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that volumes of hand sweat were significantly greater for Whites than for Blacks. It was concluded that in desert walks most Whites and few Blacks sweat freely on their hands. In samples of hand sweat, Na+, K+, and Cl- were determined. Concentrations of each ion varied widely in both races, and were unrelated to race. Concentrations of Na+ and Cl- generally are somewhat higher in hand sweat than in body sweat; concentrations of K+ are much higher. It follows that the values for concentration of Na+ and Cl- reported in Table 3 probably are somewhat higher than would have been found in body sweat, and concentrations of K+ are probably much higher.

  11. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  12. An ecological approach to understanding black-white disparities in perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Richman, Alice R; Clayton, Heather B; Jeffers, Delores F; Wathington, Deanna J; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2010-07-01

    Despite appreciable improvement in the overall reduction of infant mortality in the United States, black infants are twice as likely to die within the first year of life as white infants, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There is consensus in the literature that a complex web of factors contributes to racial health disparities. This paper presents these factors utilizing the socioecological framework to underscore the importance of their interaction and its impact on birth outcomes of Black women. Based on a review of evidence-based research on Black-White disparities in infant mortality, we describe in this paper a missing potent ingredient in the application of the ecological model to understanding Black-White disparities in infant mortality: the historical context of the Black woman in the United States. The ecological model suggests that birth outcomes are impacted by maternal and family characteristics, which are in turn strongly influenced by the larger community and society. In addition to infant, maternal, family, community and societal characteristics, we present research linking racism to negative birth outcomes and describe how it permeates and is embedded in every aspect of the lives of African American women. Understanding the contribution of history to the various factors of life of Black women in the United States will aid in developing more effective policies and programs to reduce Black infant mortality.

  13. A chronicle of racism: the effects of the white medical community on black health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charatz-Litt, C

    1992-08-01

    At no time in history has the health of black Americans equaled that of white Americans. This distinction is particularly evident in the South, where blacks have been subjected to governmental policies promoting discrimination and segregation. The explanations offered for this difference in health status are numerous. The argument presented in this article is that the health status of blacks in the United States has been greatly affected by the attitudes and perceptions of white physicians. From the days of slavery to 1992, the policies and practices of the white medical community have had an enormous impact on the health of blacks. Black physicians have played a large role in changing the delivery of health-care services to the black population. Their fight was a microcosm of the Civil Rights activities taking place in the world around them. This article describes the history of medical care as it relates to black patients and physicians. The progress that has been made over the past century is analyzed, and the need for continued education and persistence is emphasized. Legalized segregation may have been outlawed in the 1960s, but the nation's vital statistics indicate that equality has yet to be achieved.

  14. Race Differences in Diet Quality of Urban Food-Insecure Blacks and Whites Reveals Resiliency in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol and cigarette use, and comorbid diseases. The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p = 0.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p food insecurity with diet quality. Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race.

  15. Black God and white devil in the urban ghettos of America: Religion and black nationalism of the Nation of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nation of Islam, commonly known as the Black Muslim movement,appeared during the Great Depression in the black ghettos of the big urban andindustrial centers in the northern United States. It was founded by W. Fard Muhammad,one of the probably most mysterious figures in the history of Black America,in whom his followers saw the incarnation of Allah. Its doctrine was a combinationof an extremely heterodox or “heretical” Islam and a separatist variety of blacknationalism. A quarter of century later, the marginal sect led by Elijah Muhammadas Messenger of Allah became the most important new religious movement to emerge in the U.S. in the twentieth century. It has proved to be the largest and longest-lived nationalist movement among the American blacks. Its activities, including the preaching of “black internationalism”, were seen by the federal authorities as a threat to national security. The outstanding revolutionary leader Malcolm X emerged from its bosom. Rooted in the lowest layers of the black working class, the Nation of Islam durably and successfully questions the liberal middle-class leadership of the northern black communities, which aspires toward integration into white society.

  16. Subliminal exposure to faces and racial attitudes : Exposure to whites makes whites like blacks less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Dijksterhuis, A.; Chaiken, S.

    Despite recent social and political advances, most interracial contact is still superficial in nature, and White individuals interact mainly with other Whites. Based on recent mere exposure research, we propose that repeated exposure to Whites may actually increase prejudice. In a series of

  17. Racial identity and the quality of life among blacks and whites in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Kiecolt, K; Hughes, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Social identity theory and research on mental health among racial minority groups suggest that a stronger, more positive racial identity will be related to a higher subjective quality of life. We investigate how ingroup closeness, ingroup evaluation, and ingroup bias are associated with happiness, positive affect about life, and generalized trust for blacks and whites, using partial proportional odds models. Data came from the 1996-2014 General Social Surveys (N = 6553). Ingroup closeness and more favorable ingroup evaluation had mostly positive associations with the quality of life dimensions. Contrary to what social identity theory would predict, ingroup bias was either unrelated or negatively related to them. Racial identity functions somewhat differently for blacks and whites. Ingroup evaluation and ingroup bias were related to greater positive affect about life for blacks but lower positive affect about life for whites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. From Accretion to Explosion and Beyond: Transforming White Dwarfs to Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Harris, R.

    2010-03-01

    White dwarfs accreting at high rates can grow in mass, exhibiting episodes of supersoft-source activity. Some can achieve the Chandrasekhar mass and will either become Type Ia supernovae or else will collapse, becoming neutron stars. We consider white dwarfs with giant donors, computing the rates of both supernovae and collapses. For the collapses, we follow each system to the end of accretion. Some of these systems will appear as ultraluminous x-ray sources and some will go on to become low-mass black holes. This scenario should be fairly common in young stellar populations and links a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Indeed, it is a veritable cornucopia for the high-energy astrophysicist, offering accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supersoft sources, ultraluminous sources, and neutron star and black hole binaries in globular clusters.

  19. Another look at the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the black-white health benefit inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jonathan; McMahon, Lauren; Carter, Tony

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the black-white disparity in health benefit coverage and the socioeconomic variables-unemployment, income, and education. The health benefit disparity is strongly related to the disparity in underlying socioeconomic variables. Moreover, the time-series examination reveals that the change in white workers' health insurance coverage is largely determined by its year-to-year persistence and the labor market tightness (or the business cycle), while that of black workers is largely determined by the change in their earnings with a slight persistence. The effect of the change in annual earnings seems to dominate the effect of the labor market condition (unemployment rate) and other variables. Finally, although marginally significant, an increase in the attainment of higher education (college) has a positive effect on the black-white health benefit disparity.

  20. Black holes will break up solitons and white holes may destroy them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Susanto, Hadi

    2017-06-01

    We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose-Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a 'stream flow' potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. A reduced equation describing the position of the dark solitons was obtained using variational method. Through numerical computations and comparisons with the analytical approximation we show that solitons can pass through black hole horizons even though they will break up into several solitons after the collision. In the interaction with a white hole horizon, we show that solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it.

  1. Comparison of Corneal Biomechanical Properties between Healthy Blacks and Whites Using the Ocular Response Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mauro T.; Alencar, Luciana M.; Gore, Charlotte; Weinreb, Robert N.; Sample, Pamela A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and compare corneal biomechanical properties in healthy black and white subjects using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Inc, Depew, NY) and to evaluate their relationship with other ocular parameters. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred eighty eyes (46 blacks, 134 whites) of 119 patients (37 blacks, 82 whites) were recruited from the longitudinal Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) and from the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) at the University of California, San Diego. Corneal curvature, axial length, central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were obtained from all participants. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between ORA measurements and age, CCT, axial length, corneal curvature and race. Results Black subjects had significantly lower values of CH (9.7mmHg versus 10.4 mmHg; P=0.033), CRF (9.84mmHg versus 10.70mmHg; P=0.028) and CCT (534μm versus 562μm; P=0.001) compared to whites. A significant relationship was found between CH and CCT (R2=0.25; Pcorneal curvature, the difference between blacks and whites in CH (P=0.077) and CRF (P=0.621) measurements lost statistical significance. Conclusion Black subjects tended to have lower measurements of corneal hysteresis compared to white subjects, however, this was largely explained by differences in corneal thickness. Therefore, it is unlikely that CH would have an independent effect in explaining differences in susceptibility of disease between these two racial groups. PMID:20538248

  2. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-01-01

    Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black-White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the U.S. This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n = 734) and White (n = 759) older adults (age 66 or more) in U.S. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socioeconomics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. However, race interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high-school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high-school graduation, but not college graduation, was associated with ever drinking. Blacks and Whites differ in how socioeconomic status (i.e., education) shapes behaviors, especially health behaviors (i.e., drinking). How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Weaker effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  3. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  4. Nutritional value of black and white oat cultivars ensiled in two phenological stages

    OpenAIRE

    David,Diego Bitencourt de; Nörnberg,José Laerte; Azevedo,Eduardo Bohrer de; Brüning,Gilmar; Kessler,Julcemar Dias; Skonieski,Fernando Reimann

    2010-01-01

    It was evaluated in this work, crop yield, fermentative quality and nutritional value of the silage of cultivars of white (Avena Sativa L.) and black (Avena Strigosa Schreb) oats cut at two development stages. It was used an experimental randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, consisting of four oat cultivars (two cultivars of black oats: Aveia Preta Comum and UTFP 971; and two cultivars of white oats: ER 91156- 1- 2- 1 and SI 98105- b), with four replicates. The cultivars were e...

  5. Impact of "Roots" on Black and White Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon

    1978-01-01

    Racial attitudes, race, and other demographic factors differentiated viewers' perceptions and reactions to the "Roots" series. The effects on teenagers were apparent in the viewers' immediate perceptions of the series, entertainment and information values of the series, and realistic presentation of black history. (JEG)

  6. Occupational Differences between Hispanics and Non-Hispanics. A Rand Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Ross M.

    A study examined the occupational differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. The study focused on the determinants of Hispanic occupational achievement; differences in the process of occupational achievement among different Hispanic ethnic subgroups; variations in the process of occupational achievement across geographic areas; and…

  7. Patterns of contraception choice among Hispanic and non-Hispanic female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Florence; Arden, Martha; Fisher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines contraception choices among Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls, to determine if there are differences when the barrier of cost is removed by facilitating enrollment in a Title X Family Planning Program. Charts of adolescent females aged 13-19 years, seen for the first time at a university hospital clinic from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007, were reviewed. Access to contraception was facilitated by enrollment in the Title X Family Planning Program. Patients were categorized as public insurance if they had Medicaid or Child/Family Health Plus or chose to enroll in the Title X program. Among the 666 eligible patients, 27% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 14.9 years. At least 20% had used one form of contraception before their first clinic visit. About one-third of the youth were enrolled in the Title X Family Planning Program, with no statistical difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth. Three hundred and ninety subjects (58%) chose contraception during their visit. Hispanic subjects, who represented 32% of the group, were more likely to choose condoms and oral contraceptive pills compared to non-Hispanic subjects. The privately insured adolescents chose condoms less often than the publicly insured adolescents, and this was true regardless of ethnicity. There are significant differences in contraception choices between Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth. The Title X Family Planning Program allowed young women to make independent choices. Adolescents may benefit from further improvements in culturally sensitive family planning programs.

  8. White theology in dialogue with Black Theology: Exploring the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-30

    May 30, 2016 ... This article explores the contribution of Klippies Kritzinger, a South African missiologist and theologian, to a white critical and anti-racist theology. As will be pointed out below, this emphasis has been central to Kritzinger's academic work since his doctoral studies (completed in 1988) but has not been ...

  9. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  10. Theories about Black-White Interracial Marriage: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jeanette R.

    1992-01-01

    Directs attention to a number of theories about African-American-white interracial marriage found in the literature of the social sciences. Notes that theories suggest that couples who marry interracially generally have ulterior motives for doing so. Soundness of these theories is refuted, and suggestions are presented for clinicians working with…

  11. Prevalence ofhyaline membrane disease in black and white low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mature newborn infants appears to differ according to ethnic group. Previously reported figures from Cape ... to the neonatal unit at Johannesburg Hospital have been white, while those admitted to Baragwanath ... requg-ed mechanical ventilation for early-onset respira- toty distress died before a chest radiograph could be.

  12. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  13. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  14. Neuroticism Predicts Subsequent Risk of Major Depression for Whites but Not Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD 25 years later. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study, 1986–2011. We used data on 1219 individuals (847 whites and 372 blacks who had data on baseline N in 1986 and future MDD in 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline N, measured using three items in 1986. The main outcome was 12 months MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at 2011. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, socioeconomics (education and income, depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D], stress, health behaviors (smoking and driking, and physical health [chronic medical conditions, obesity, and self-rated health (SRH] measured in 1986. Logistic regressions were used to test the predictive role of baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later, net of covariates. The models were estimated in the pooled sample, as well as blacks and whites. In the pooled sample, baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later (OR = 2.23, 95%CI = 1.14–4.34, net of covariates. We also found a marginally significant interaction between race and baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.12–1.12, suggesting a stronger effect for whites compared to blacks. In race-specific models, among whites (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.22–5.32 but not blacks (OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.24–3.39, baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD. Black-white differences in socioeconomics and physical health could not explain the racial differences in the link between N and MDD. Blacks and whites differ in the salience of baseline N as a psychological determinant of MDD risk over a long period of time. This finding

  15. Comparative Self-Esteem of Blacks and Whites in Segregated and Integrated Dyads. Technical Report No. 73-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, John A.; Hill, Walter

    The purpose of the study is to provide information concerning the self esteem of blacks and whites under conditions of integrative and segregative simulated work groups. Subjects were 96 undergraduate students, half black and half white, who performed three laboratory tasks. Ziller's self esteem scales were used to measure the self esteem of…

  16. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  17. Ethnic Differences in Alcohol Use: A Comparison of Black and White College Students in a Small Private University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Kristie S.

    2010-01-01

    An identified gap in the literature associated with college student alcohol use is the exploration of the problem based on ethnicity, specifically possible differences in use between Black and White college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in alcohol use for Black and White college students at a small private…

  18. Factors Affecting African American Faculty Job Satisfaction at a Historically Black University and a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to discover job satisfaction factors of African American faculty at a historically black university and a predominantly white institution. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews of 6 faculty members from a historically black university and 5 faculty from a predominantly white institution. Several themes…

  19. Doing Race in Different Places: Black Racial Cohesion on Black and White College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Edwards, Keisha L.; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the range of factors that contribute to Black students' success requires scholars to examine resiliency from multifaceted perspectives that include aspects of social competency, social responsibility, and agency. Using a national sample of 242 Black college students, the current study examines the indicators that inform racial…

  20. Hospice Use among Urban Black and White U.S. Nursing Home Decedents in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Michael J.; Miller, Susan C.; Gozalo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare hospice is a valuable source of quality care at the end of life, but its lower use by racial minority groups is of concern. This study identifies factors associated with hospice use among urban Black and White nursing home (NH) decedents in the United States. Design and Methods: Multiple data sources are combined and multilevel…

  1. The Agony of Education. Black Students at White Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Joe R.; Vera, Hernan; Imani, Nikitah

    This book examines the barriers that African American students encounter in colleges that are predominantly white. Although many people, and much of the media, have presented a picture of U.S. universities as strongholds of multiculturalism that are devoted to racial equality. Interviews with 36 randomly selected black juniors and seniors at a…

  2. Holland's Theory and Non-College-Degreed Working Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, W. Bruce; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) were administered to 110 Black and White non-college-degreed workers in three occupations (laboratory technicians, sales clerks, and clerk-typists) corresponding to three of Holland's environmental categories (Investigative, Enterprising, and Conventional). Findings for…

  3. The rate of value increase for black cherry, red maple,and white ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1972-01-01

    In this paper we present the dollar values and value increases, as well as the rates of value increase, for three of the most important tree species of the Allegheny Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.).

  4. A prospective study of iron status in white and black pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the haemodilution and increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy, over 70% of women had depleted iron stores in the third trimester. No beneficial effect on fetal birth weights was found on withholding of maternal iron supplementation. This study clearly demonstrated that white and urban black pregnant women.

  5. Black Skin, White Pioneer: Non-Traditional Casting in an Israeli School Pageant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2013-01-01

    The casting of a black Ethiopian Jewish girl to play a white Zionist pioneer character in an Israeli school pageant causes feelings of discomfort among the teachers, especially the vice-principal. The vice-principal uses theatrical and historical reasons to justify her opposition to the casting which can actually be perceived as new/colour-blind…

  6. Horn growth rates of free-ranging white and black rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pienaar

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic and observed anterior hom growth of white and black rhinoceroses is discussed. The effect of age and hom rubbing on hom growth is explained. Species and sex related differences in hom size and mass are investigated.

  7. Measuring Social Support and School Belonging in Black/African American and White Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the suitability of the Elementary School Success Profile for Children (ESSP-C) for assessment and comparison of social support and school belonging between Black/African American and White students. Methods: Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing were conducted to determine the ESSP-C's validity…

  8. Variation in corneal hysteresis and central corneal thickness among black, hispanic and white subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Sarah J; Pae, Jennis; Ehrlich, Joshua R; Shammas, Maya; Radcliffe, Nathan M

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether differences in corneal hysteresis (CH) and central corneal thickness (CCT) between black, Hispanic and white subjects exist independently of one another. Retrospective, cross-sectional data were reviewed for 807 eyes of 410 patients consecutively evaluated for glaucoma. Included patients had open angles, at least one reliable 24-2 perimetric examination and no evidence of nonglaucomatous vision loss. Patients underwent CH measurement with the ocular response analyzer followed by CCT measurement and full ocular examination. Patients were asked to self-classify their race or ethnicity. Statistical analyses were performed to identify characteristics that varied between black, Hispanic and white subjects and to explain this variation. Of the 270 patients (511 eyes) included, 84 were black, 96 Hispanic and 90 white. There were no significant differences in diagnosis, sex, age, intraocular pressure or glaucoma severity between races/ethnicities (p ≥ 0.16). Blacks were found to have lower CCT (529.3 μm) and CH (8.7 mmHg) compared to Hispanics (544.7 μm, p = 0.008; 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.007) and whites (549.9 μm, p corneal properties and their relationship to open-angle glaucoma. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Gifted Black Males in a Predominantly White University: Portraits of High Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    The experiences of five gifted black males in a predominantly white university setting were examined. Significant factors that influenced their achievement included influential mothers, recognition of giftedness, and support from significant teachers and mentors. Additional factors included involvement in extracurricular activities and positive…

  10. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  11. Effects of Black and White, Authentic and Contrived Color on Children's Perceptions of Dynamic Picture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollan, Clayton J.

    A study was devised to determine whether, if color is found superior to black-and-white for communicating dynamic picture content, that superiority can be attributed to the realism of authentic color, or whether that superiority is the effect of the simple presence of color. A sample of 90 sixth grade students were shown slides, half of which…

  12. Coital and Non-Coital Sexual Behaviors of White and Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward A.; Udry, J. Richard

    1985-01-01

    Data were collected in 1980 and 1982 on the non-coital and coital sexual experiences of male and female adolescents. Findings indicate that Whites are more likely than Blacks to engage in a predictable series of non-coital behaviors before their first intercourse experience. This may partly explain racial differences in adolescent pregnancy rates.…

  13. Thinking in Black and White: Conscious thought increases racially biased judgments through biased face memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Stoeckart, P.F.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In

  14. Perceived Discrimination and Interracial Contact: Predicting Interracial Closeness among Black and White Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and…

  15. Japanese Inbreeding Depression Scores: Predictors of Cognitive Differences between Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    1989-01-01

    Genetic influence was estimated on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children subtests from inbreeding depression scores calculated on cousin marriages in Japan (n=1,854 children) and correlated with American Black-White racial differences. The genetic contribution of racial differences in cognitive performance may be more robust than was previously…

  16. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  17. Correctness and concurrent complexity of the Black-White Bakery Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Willem H.

    Lamport’s Bakery Algorithm (Commun ACM 17:453–455, 1974) implements mutual exclusion for a fixed number of threads with the first-come first-served property. It has the disadvantage, however, that it uses integer communication variables that can become arbitrarily large. Taubenfeld’s Black-White

  18. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  19. Black Survival Units and the Economy of the White Supremacy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsing, Frances C.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that there exists specific economic practices directed toward black families, which force the latter to exist as survival units in the so-called American economy (translated as white supremacy economy). These practices cannot be adequately understood it is held, and thus cannot be effectively countered unless viewed in the total context of…

  20. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…

  1. From black holes to white holes: a quantum gravitational, symmetric bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Javier; Saini, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a consistent non-perturbative quantization of the Schwarzschild interior resulting in a bounce from black hole to white hole geometry has been obtained by loop quantizing the Kantowski-Sachs vacuum spacetime. As in other spacetimes where the singularity is dominated by the Weyl part of the spacetime curvature, the structure of the singularity is highly anisotropic in the Kantowski-Sachs vacuum spacetime. As a result, the bounce turns out to be in general asymmetric, creating a large mass difference between the parent black hole and the child white hole. In this manuscript, we investigate under what circumstances a symmetric bounce scenario can be constructed in the above quantization. Using the setting of Dirac observables and geometric clocks, we obtain a symmetric bounce condition which can be satisfied by a slight modification in the construction of loops over which holonomies are considered in the quantization procedure. These modifications can be viewed as quantization ambiguities, and are demonstrated in three different flavors, all of which lead to a non-singular black to white hole transition with identical masses. Our results show that quantization ambiguities can mitigate or even qualitatively change some key features of the physics of singularity resolution. Further, these results are potentially helpful in motivating and constructing symmetric black to white hole transition scenarios.

  2. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Maya A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  3. Are Black-White Differences in Females' Body Dissatisfaction Decreasing? A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Cash, Thomas F.; Feingold, Alan; Johnson, Blair T.

    2006-01-01

    Proponents of the sociocultural model of eating disorders have suggested that ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction may be diminishing as the thin ideal of beauty becomes more widely disseminated among minority women. In a meta-analysis, the authors examined temporal trends in Black-White differences and also examined whether these…

  4. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  5. Success Factors of Black Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Black faculty at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) have historically been underrepresented and made to endure with academic isolation, scholarship marginalization and other challenges to the tenure process. When it comes to science, technology, engineering and math, also known as STEM, as it relates to race and success, little is known of…

  6. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  7. Predictors of initiation of early sex in black and white adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Gwen M; Bartoces, Monina

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which problem solving, self-image, and other health-related factors predict age at first intercourse among Black and White adolescent females. The volunteer sample was 16 to 19 years old; 52% were Black (n=105), and 48% (n=97) were White. Adolescents were recruited from family planning clinics throughout South Carolina. Stratified analyses identified race as a modifier of the relationship between problem solving and time of first intercourse (early or delayed). Logistic regression revealed three predictors of early age at first intercourse in Black girls, but only one predictor in White girls. There were no race differentials in either age or the proportion of girls initiating early intercourse. However, Black girls who had less problem solving skill than their peers were five times more likely to have early intercourse, three times more likely to practice fewer health-promoting behaviors, and seven times more likely to have 10 or fewer years of education. Early intercourse was significantly associated with unprotected first intercourse. Our findings suggest that interventions may need to be tailored for different risk groups within Black populations of adolescent girls.

  8. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  9. Smoking initiation after marriage and parenting among Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Azure B

    2014-07-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Black-White differences in smoking initiation after transitions into marriage and/or parenting is associated with racial disparities in quitting. Cox models were used on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a cohort of women surveyed from 1968-2003. Black women (58%) were more likely than white women (40%) to initiate after marriage and/or parenting. Adjustment for these differences did not reduce disparities in quitting (HR 0.53, CI 0.30-0.95). Only after adjustment for sociodemographics were disparities reduced (HR 0.67, HR 0.36-1.22). Other factors associated with smoking initiation among young adult black women (ie, limited economic opportunities, racial discrimination) should be examined for their influence on quitting.

  10. Thinking in Black and White: Conscious thought increases racially biased judgments through biased face memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Stoeckart, Peter F; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2015-11-01

    It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In Experiments 1 and 2, university students formed impressions of Black and White housemate candidates. They judged the candidates either immediately (immediate decision condition), thought about their judgments for a few minutes (conscious thought condition), or performed an unrelated task for a few minutes (unconscious thought condition). Conscious thinkers and immediate decision-makers showed a stronger face memory bias than unconscious thinkers, and this mediated increased judgment bias, although not all results were significant. Experiment 3 used a new, different paradigm and showed that a Black male was remembered as darker after a period of conscious thought than after a period of unconscious thought. Implications for racial prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production on black and white pepper and the inhibitory action of their chemical constituents.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhyastha, M S; Bhat, R V

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus Speare NRRL 2999 growth and aflatoxin production in black and white pepper and the penetration of the fungus in black pepper corn over various incubation periods were studied. Also, the effects of piperine and pepper oil on growth and aflatoxin production were studied. Under laboratory conditions, black and white pepper supported aflatoxin production (62.5 and 44 ppb (ng/g), respectively) over 30 days of incubation. Fungal growth measured in terms of chitin was conside...

  12. Weight loss attitudes and social forces in urban poor Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, NiCole R; Hemmerlein, Kimberly A; Clark, Daniel O

    2015-01-01

    To explore differences between Blacks and Whites in perceived influences on weight-related behaviors among obese urban poor women. Participants (N = 27) received physician referrals to a weight loss program located in Federally Qualified Health Centers and either never attended or stopped attending. We conducted in-depth, in home interviews using a script informed by focus groups, pilot discussions, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to learn about participants' weight loss attitudes, social forces and perceived behavioral control. White women reported having more social support and social pressure for weight management activities. Black women reported eating for positive reasons whereas white women associated eating with negative emotions. Social networks and emotions may be critical factors in weight management and lifestyle program participation.

  13. Race in virtual environments: competitive versus cooperative games with black or white avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Mao H; Fox, Jesse

    2014-04-01

    Often, virtual environments and video games have established goals, and to achieve them, users must either compete or cooperate with others. The common ingroup identity model predicts that individuals maintain multiple identities at any given time based on roles, demographics, and contextual factors, and that they interpret others based on similarity (i.e., perceived ingroup) or dissimilarity (i.e., perceived outgroup) to these identities. In this experiment, we manipulated two aspects of a virtual partner's identity-race and task collaboration-to determine how users would perceive others in a virtual world. White participants (N=99) played an anagram game competitively (outgroup) or cooperatively (ingroup) in a virtual environment with a black (outgroup) or white (ingroup) virtual partner. Contrary to hypotheses, performing either task led to more positive evaluations of black avatars than white avatars.

  14. Social disadvantage and the black-white disparity in spontaneous preterm delivery among California births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Peiyi; Padula, Amy M.; Rehkopf, David H.; Oehlert, John W.; Mayo, Jonathan A.; Weber, Ann M.; Wise, Paul H.; Shaw, Gary M.; Stevenson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the contribution of social disadvantage to the black-white disparity in preterm birth. Analyses included linked vital and hospital discharge records from 127,358 black and 615,721 white singleton California births from 2007–11. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by 4 logistic regression models for 2 outcomes: early (<32 wks) and moderate (32–36 wks) spontaneous preterm birth (ePTB, mPTB), stratified by 2 race-ethnicity groups (blacks and whites). We then conducted a potential impact analysis. The OR for less than high school education (vs. college degree) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6, 2.1) for ePTB among whites but smaller for the other 3 outcome groups (ORs 1.3–1.4). For all 4 groups, higher census tract poverty was associated with increased odds (ORs 1.03–1.05 per 9% change in poverty). Associations were less noteworthy for the other variables (payer, and tract percent black and Gini index of income inequality). Setting 3 factors (education, poverty, payer) to ‘favorable’ values was associated with lower predicted probability of ePTB (25% lower among blacks, 31% among whites) but a 9% higher disparity, compared to probabilities based on observed values; for mPTB, respective percentages were 28% and 13% lower probability, and 17% lower disparity. Results suggest that social determinants contribute to preterm delivery and its disparities, and that future studies should focus on ePTB and more specific factors related to social circumstances. PMID:28800643

  15. Early Intervention to Preempt Major Depression in Older Black and White Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Albert, Steven; Dew, Mary Amanda; Begley, Amy; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel; Butters, Meryl A.; Stack, Jacqueline A.; Kasckow, John; Miller, Mark D.; Quinn, Sandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to assess the efficacy of Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST-PC) for preventing episodes of major depression and mitigating depressive symptoms in older black and white adults, as compared with an active control condition-- coaching in healthy dietary practices (“DIET”), Methods 247 participants (90 blacks, 154 whites, 3 Asians) with subsyndromal depressive symptoms were recruited into a randomized, “indicated” depression prevention trial comparing effects of PST-PC and DIET on time to episodes of major depressive disorder (SCID/DSM-IV) and level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) over two years. Cumulative intervention time was similar in PST-PC or DIET, averaging 5.5- 6.0 hours in each arm. Results PST-PC and DIET did not differ significantly in time to major depressive episodes (HR = .87; p > .748). Participants in both arms experienced low incidence of such episodes (blacks: n=8, 9%; whites n=13, 8%), compared to published rates of one in four or five over one year in persons with subsyndromal symptoms receiving care as usual. Participants also showed a mean decrease of 4 points in depressive symptoms, sustained over two years. Despite greater burden of depression risk factors among blacks, no significant differences with whites were found in the primary outcome Conclusion Both PST-PC and DIET are potentially effective in protecting older black and white adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms from developing episodes of major depression over two years. Absent a control for concurrent usual care, this conclusion is preliminary. If confirmed, both interventions hold promise as scalable, safe, non-stigmatizing interventions for delaying or preventing episodes of major depression in the nation’s increasingly diverse older population. PMID:24632760

  16. Black or white? Physiological implications of roost colour and choice in a microbat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Anna C; Stawski, Clare; Currie, Shannon E; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Although roost choice in bats has been studied previously, little is known about how opposing roost colours affect the expression of torpor quantitatively. We quantified roost selection and thermoregulation in a captive Australian insectivorous bat, Nyctophilus gouldi (n=12) in winter when roosting in black and white coloured boxes using temperature-telemetry. We quantified how roost choice influences torpor expression when food was provided ad libitum or restricted in bats housed together in an outdoor aviary exposed to natural fluctuations of ambient temperature. Black box temperatures averaged 5.1°C (maximum 7.5°C) warmer than white boxes at their maximum daytime temperature. Bats fed ad libitum chose black boxes on most nights (92.9%) and on 100% of nights when food-restricted. All bats used torpor on all study days. However, bats fed ad libitum and roosting in black boxes used shorter torpor and spent more time normothermic/active at night than food-restricted bats and bats roosting in white boxes. Bats roosting in black boxes also rewarmed passively more often and to a higher skin temperature than those in white boxes. Our study suggests that N. gouldi fed ad libitum select warmer roosts in order to passively rewarm to a higher skin temperature and thus save energy required for active midday rewarming as well as to maintain a normothermic body temperature for longer periods at night. This study shows that colour should be considered when deploying bat boxes; black boxes are preferable for those bats that use passive rewarming, even in winter when food availability is reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic differences in bone geometry between White, Black and South Asian men in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, A; Pye, S R; Cook, M J; Adams, J E; Wu, F C W; O'Neill, T W; Ward, K A

    2016-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the bone health of ethnic groups within the UK and data are largely restricted to women. The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry and strength in UK men. White European, Black Afro-Caribbean and South Asian men aged over 40years were recruited from Greater Manchester, UK. aBMD at the spine, hip, femoral neck and whole body were measured by DXA. Bone geometry, strength and vBMD were measured at the radius and tibia using pQCT at the metaphysis (4%) and diaphysis (50% radius; 38% tibia) sites. Adjustments were made for age, weight and height. Black men had higher aBMD at the whole body, total hip and femoral neck compared to White and South Asian men independent of body size adjustments, with no differences between the latter two groups. White men had longer hip axis lengths than both Black and South Asian men. There were fewer differences in vBMD but White men had significantly lower cortical vBMD at the tibial diaphysis than Black and South Asian men (pbones with thicker cortices and greater bending strength than the other groups. There were fewer differences between White and South Asian men. At the metaphysis, South Asian men had smaller bones (p=0.02) and lower trabecular vBMD at the tibia (p=0.003). At the diaphysis, after size-correction, South Asian men had similar sized bones but thinner cortices than White men; measures of strength were not broadly reduced in the South Asian men. Combining pQCT and DXA measurements has given insight into differences in bone phenotype in men from different ethnic backgrounds. Understanding such differences is important in understanding the aetiology of male osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma renin and cardiovascular responses to the cold pressor test differ in black and white populations: The SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafane, L F; Schutte, R; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, A E

    2016-05-01

    Low plasma renin levels and augmented cardiovascular reactivity to stress are common in blacks and have been linked to the development of hypertension in this population. We (i) compared cardiovascular and plasma renin reactivity to a cold pressor test between a black and white population; and (ii) investigated the associations between cardiovascular and plasma renin reactivity within the black and white populations. Our population consisted of 153 black and 188 white men and women (age range, 20-65 years). We measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), total peripheral resistance (TPR), Windkessel arterial compliance, and determined plasma renin levels at rest and during the cold pressor test. Reactivity was calculated for each participant as the percentage change from the resting value. We found lower renin and elevated BP in blacks compared with whites at rest and during stress (both, Prenin reactivity in blacks only (β=0.17; P=0.041), while in whites diastolic BP reactivity was positively associated with renin reactivity (β=0.21; P=0.005). Although blacks had suppressed renin levels at rest and during acute stress, vascular resistance reactivity associated positively with renin reactivity only in the black population. These results suggest that low renin levels in blacks during rest and stress are linked to increased peripheral vascular responses to stress, which may contribute to elevated BP in blacks.

  19. [White walls for black holes: essay on graffiti psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheline-Antipoff, N; Soulayrol, R

    1995-01-01

    Through a clinical case, the authors propose a psychological approach of tagging. The phenomenon that started in Harlem's black ghettos at the end of seventies and appeared in France less than ten years after, does not seem to be a simple sociological one, but seems to take place within the psychic economy of certain adolescents as an attempt to operate the necessary identity work to become an adult. Tagging as well as wandering can be considered adolescents' acting out behaviors and show the externalization of the psychic processes, thus proving a basic insecurity in their psychic space, invaded by anaclitic depression. Graffing, on the other hand, bears a resemblance to strolling in a psychopathologic approach, and already shows an attempt to become a person, and a quest of the Other.

  20. Heritability of the Severity of the Metabolic Syndrome in Whites and Blacks in 3 Large Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Solomon K; Martin, Lisa J; Woo, Jessica G; Olivier, Michael; Gurka, Matthew J; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-04-01

    Although dichotomous criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) appear heritable, it is not known whether MetS severity as assessed by a continuous MetS score is heritable and whether this varies by race. We used SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) to evaluate heritability of Adult Treatment Panel-III MetS and a sex- and race-specific MetS severity Z score among 3 large familial cohorts: the JHS (Jackson Heart Study, 1404 black participants), TOPS (Take Off Pounds Sensibly, 1947 white participants), and PLRS (Princeton Lipid Research Study, 229 black and 527 white participants). Heritability estimates were larger for Adult Treatment Panel-III MetS among black compared with white cohort members (JHS 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.68 and PLRS blacks 0.93 [95% CI, 0.73-1.13] versus TOPS 0.21 [95% CI, -0.18 to 0.60] and PLRS whites 0.27 [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.58]). The difference by race narrowed when assessing heritability of the MetS severity score (JHS 0.52 [95% CI, 0.38, 0.66] and PLRS blacks 0.64 [95% CI, 0.13-1.15] versus TOPS 0.23 [95% CI, 0.15-0.31] and PLRS whites 0.60 [95% CI, 0.33-0.87]). There was a high degree of genetic and phenotypic correlation between MetS severity and the individual components of MetS among all groups, although the genetic correlations failed to reach statistical significance among PLRS blacks. Meta-analyses revealed a combined heritability estimate for Adult Treatment Panel-III MetS of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.11-0.36) and for the MetS severity score of 0.50 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.99). MetS severity seems highly heritable among whites and blacks. This continuous MetS severity Z score may provide a more useful means of characterizing phenotypic MetS in genetic studies by minimizing racial differences. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Profiles of Depression Help Seeking Among Black Americans: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Krystal; Gilreath, Tamika

    2017-08-01

    Although Black Americans have lower prevalence of depression compared to non-Hispanic Whites (10% vs. 17%), they are nearly twice as likely to have worse outcomes. One contributor to poor depression outcomes involves the ways in which Black Americans seek help for depression. However, little is known about depression help-seeking behavior, and the use of multiple sources of help, among Black Americans. This study used latent class analysis to identify unique constellations of depression help seeking, from multiple sources, among African American and Black Caribbeans. Results indicated four profiles of depression help seeking including Informal/Primary Care Utilizers (41.4%), Formal Mental Health Utilizers (40.6%), All Support Utilizers (9.8%), and Mixed Source Utilizers (8.2%). The constellation of each profile and demographic differences in class assignment are discussed. Results have implications for tailored depression interventions for Black Americans including community-based psychoeducation and cultural competence training for mental health providers.

  2. Patient understanding of radiation risk from medical computed tomography—A comparison of Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic emergency department populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afton McNierney-Moore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural differences and language barriers may adversely impact patients with respect to understanding the risks/benefits of medical testing.Objective. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic patients’ knowledge of radiation risk that results from CT of the abdomen/pelvis (CTAP.Methods. We enrolled a convenience sample of adults at an inner-city emergency department (ED. Patients provided written answers to rate agreement on a 10-point scale for two correct statements comparing radiation exposure equality between: CTAP and 5 years of background radiation (question 1; CTAP and 200 chest x-rays (question 3. Patients also rated their agreement that multiple CT scans increase the lifetime cancer risk (question 2. Scores of >8 were considered good knowledge. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the independent effect of the Hispanic variable.Results. 600 patients in the study group; 63% Hispanic, mean age 39.2 ± 13.9 years. Hispanics and non-Hispanics whites were similar with respect to good knowledge-level answers to question 1 (17.3 vs. 15.1%; OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.74–2.0], question 2 (31.2 vs. 39.3%; OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.54–1.1], and question 3 (15.2 vs. 16.5%; OR = 1.1; 95% CI [0.66–1.8]. Compared to patients who earned 40,000 were more likely to answer question 2 with good knowledge (OR = 1.96; 95% CI [1.2–3.1].Conclusion. The study group’s overall knowledge of radiation risk was poor, but we did not find significant differences between Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic patients.

  3. Evaluation of hospice care by family members of Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, Abbie; Holland, Jason M; Keene, Jennifer R; Luna, Nora

    2015-05-01

    The Hispanic older adult population is increasing rapidly and past research suggests that this demographic group underutilizes hospice services, highlighting the need to improve our understanding of their needs in end of life. This study relied upon information from the family evaluation of hospice care survey provided by 2980 caregivers, 152 of whom cared for a Hispanic patient and 2828 who cared for a non-Hispanic patient. Caregivers of Hispanic patients were more likely to report that hospice was inconsistent with the patient's wishes, and that they received more attention than desired for emotional issues. Caregivers of Hispanic patients were also more likely to express that emotional/spiritual forms of support were insufficient. Similar levels of satisfaction were reported for caregivers of Hispanics and non-Hispanics regarding dignity/respect, information received, care coordination, and overall satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Enhanced Religiosity Following Illness? Assessing Evidence of Religious Consolation Among Black and White Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Gary L

    2013-12-01

    This study assesses variation among Black and White Americans in the impact of ill-health on public and subjective religiosity. It is the first longitudinal assessment of race-based variation in "religious consolation." The under-explored consolation thesis anticipates ill-health influencing religiosity rather than the reverse, with religiosity functioning as a coping resource marshaled by the ill. Effects across races of physical ill-health indicators (chronic illnesses and impaired functioning) on religiosity outcomes are the main focus; but across-race variation in psychological distress-induced "consolation" is also assessed. Findings yield only limited evidence of consolation in each race, and restricted variation across races: Change in impaired functioning slightly enhances Whites' subjective religiosity; but that effect does not significantly eclipse the impact among Blacks. There is no evidence of physical illness-induced consolation among Blacks; and the proposition that Blacks are more inclined toward consolation than Whites is affirmed only for psychological distress. There are no signs in either race that consolation is intensified by aging or higher religiosity, and no significant across-race differentials in effects of these illness-age and illness-religiosity interactions on subsequent religiosity. The multi-population model utilizes Americans' Changing Lives data.

  5. Characterization of black and white chromium electrodeposition films. Surface and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M.; Palomar-Pardave, M. [Departamento de Materiales, UAM-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Mexico D.F. 02200 (Mexico); Barrera, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Huerta, L.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2003-11-01

    Thin films of black and white chromium have been prepared by electrodeposition on stainless steel substrates. The potentiodynamic and potentiostatic technique was used in order to prepare these materials. XRD, XPS, SEM and spectral reflectance in the UV-Visible-near IR and medium IR ranges, for both films coatings were characterized. From the SEM analysis, it was found while the black chromium has a lamellar morphology that leads to a strong dispersion level, the white one has a flat morphology. The chemical composition of these thin films was determined by XRD and XPS technique. The XRD results showed that in both cases chromium is the main bulk chemical compound in both films. However, from XPS analysis of these surfaces, it was possible to determine that the most external layers of the films are made of different kinds of chromium compounds. The black chromium film has better optical properties to transform solar energy into thermal energy, and these properties remain practically constant even when heat treated to a high temperature, 400 C. On the other hand the white chromium film is a better substrate for hydrogen evolution reactions than the black one.

  6. Social Environments, Genetics, and Black-White Disparities in Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Rutherford, Caroline G; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Genes and environments often interplay to produce population health. However, in some instances, the scientific literature has favoured one explanation, underplaying the other, even in the absence of rigorous support. We examine parental race disparity on the risk of infant mortality to see if such an analysis might provide clues to understanding the extent to which genes and environment may shape perinatal risks. We assessed parental racial disparities in infant mortality among singletons by analysing the risk of infant mortality among racially consonant vs. dissonant couples over time between 1989-1997 and 1998-2006 in the state of Michigan (n = 1 428 199). We calculated the degree of modification of the relation between maternal race and infant mortality by paternal race dynamically across the two time periods. Infant mortality among interracial couples decreased with time relative to white-white couples, while infant mortality among black-black couples increased with time after adjusting for socio-economic, demographic, and prenatal care differences. The degree to which paternal black race strengthened the relation between maternal black race and higher infant mortality risk relative to white mothers increased with time throughout our study. Evidence from these data suggests that environmental factors likely play the greater role in explaining the parental race disparity and risk of infant mortality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Black identity in biracial black/white people: a comparison of Jacqueline who refuses to be exclusively black and Adolphus who wishes he were.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillem, A R; Cohn, L R; Throne, C

    2001-05-01

    Two biracial college freshmen, both of whom identify as Black, were chosen from a larger sample of participants in a qualitative study of biracial identity development to exemplify the differences in the paths that 2 biracial individuals could take to achieve racial identity resolution. Through the case study method, the authors describe the course and progression of racial identity development (RID) in these 2 individuals and discuss some key themes in their lives that have contributed to the development of their RID. The purposes are fourfold: to describe nonclinical subjective experiences of being biracial in the United States, to explore the differences in the paths that 2 biracial individuals can take to achieve what looks superficially like similar Black racial identity resolution, to demonstrate how identifying as Black can have different meanings and consequences for 2 biracial people, and to contribute to the differentiation of Black RID from biracial Black/White RID. The authors raise questions about the generalizability of monoracial Black and ethnic identity theories to biracial individuals.

  8. Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  9. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  10. State-Level Progress in Reducing the Black-White Infant Mortality Gap, United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Speights, Joedrecka S; Goldfarb, Samantha Sittig; Wells, Brittny A; Beitsch, Leslie; Levine, Robert S; Rust, George

    2017-05-01

    To assess state-level progress on eliminating racial disparities in infant mortality. Using linked infant birth-death files from 1999 to 2013, we calculated state-level 3-year rolling average infant mortality rates (IMRs) and Black-White IMR ratios. We also calculated percentage improvement and a projected year for achieving equality if current trend lines are sustained. We found substantial state-level variation in Black IMRs (range = 6.6-13.8) and Black-White rate ratios (1.5-2.7), and also in percentage relative improvement in IMR (range = 2.7% to 36.5% improvement) and in Black-White rate ratios (from 11.7% relative worsening to 24.0% improvement). Thirteen states achieved statistically significant reductions in Black-White IMR disparities. Eliminating the Black-White IMR gap would have saved 64 876 babies during these 15 years. Eighteen states would achieve IMR racial equality by the year 2050 if current trends are sustained. States are achieving varying levels of progress in reducing Black infant mortality and Black-White IMR disparities. Public Health Implications. Racial equality in infant survival is achievable, but will require shifting our focus to determinants of progress and strategies for success.

  11. Kidney function, endothelial activation and atherosclerosis in black and white Africans with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H Dessein

    Full Text Available To determine whether kidney function independently relates to endothelial activation and ultrasound determined carotid atherosclerosis in black and white Africans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.We calculated the Jelliffe, 5 Cockcroft-Gault equations, Salazar-Corcoran, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR equations in 233 (112 black RA patients.The CKD-EPI eGFR was 0.1 for comparisons of AUC (SE for the other 8 equations. Based on optimal eGFR cutoff values with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 42 to 60% and 70 to 91% respectively, as determined in ROC curve analysis, a low eGFR increased the odds ratio for plaque 2.2 to 4.0 fold.Reduced kidney function is independently associated with atherosclerosis and endothelial activation in black and white Africans with RA, respectively. CKD is highly prevalent in black Africans with RA. Apart from the MDRD, eGFR equations are useful in predicting carotid plaque presence, a coronary heart disease equivalent, amongst black African RA patients.

  12. Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than whites (Caucasian Americans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Charmane I; Molina, Thomas A; Dziepak, Marissa E; Smith, Mark R

    2012-10-01

    The length of the free-running period (τ) affects how an animal re-entrains after phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Those with shorter periods adapt faster to phase advances than those with longer periods, whereas those with longer periods adapt faster to phase delays than those with shorter periods. The free-running period of humans, measured in temporal isolation units and in forced desychrony protocols in which the day length is set beyond the range of entrainment, varies from about 23.5 to 26 h, depending on the individual and the experimental conditions (e.g., temporal isolation vs. forced desychrony). We studied 94 subjects free-running through an ultradian LD cycle, which was a forced desychrony with a day length of 4 h (2.5 h awake in dim light, ~35 lux, alternating with 1.5 h for sleep in darkness). Circadian phase assessments were conducted before (baseline) and after (final) three 24-h days of the ultradian LD cycle. During these assessments, saliva samples were collected every 30 min and subsequently analyzed for melatonin. The phase shift of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) from baseline to final phase assessment gave the free-running period. The mean ± SD period was 24.31 ± .23 h and ranged from 23.7 to 24.9 h. Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period than Whites (24.18 ± .23 h, N =20 vs. 24.37 ± .22 h, N = 55). We had a greater proportion of women than men in our Black sample, so to check the τ difference we compared the Black women to White women. Again, Black subjects had a significantly shorter free-running period (24.18 ± .23, N = 17 vs. 24.41 ± .23, N = 23). We did not find any sex differences in the free-running period. These findings give rise to several testable predictions: on average, Blacks should adapt quicker to eastward flights across time zones than Whites, whereas Whites should adjust quicker to westward flights than Blacks. Also, Blacks should have more difficulty adjusting to night

  13. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  14. Perceived Physical Appearance: Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Black, Latino, and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, AE; Depaoli, S; Song, AV; Wallander, JL; Elliott, MN; Cuccaro, P; Emery, ST; Schuster, M

    2017-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine whether the construct of physical appearance perception differed among the three largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States using an adolescent sample.Black (46%), Latino (31%), and White (23%) adolescents in Grade 10 from the Healthy Passages study ( N  = 4,005) completed the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Physical Appearance Scale (SPPA-PA) as a measure of physical appearance perception.Overall, Black adolescents had a more posi...

  15. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  16. Comparison of characteristics from White- and Black-Americans with venous thromboembolism: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, John A; Beckman, Michele G; Bockenstedt, Paula L; Grant, Althea M; Key, Nigel S; Kulkarni, Roshni; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J; Moll, Stephan; Ortel, Thomas L; Philipp, Claire S

    2010-07-01

    When compared with Whites, Black-Americans may have a 40% higher incidence venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence. However, whether other VTE characteristics and risk factors vary by race is uncertain. To compare demographic and baseline characteristics among White- and Black-Americans with VTE, we used data prospectively collected from consecutive consenting adults enrolled in seven Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centers from August 2003 to March 2009. These characteristics were compared among Whites (n = 2002) and Blacks (n = 395) with objectively diagnosed VTE, both overall, and by age and gender. When compared with Whites, Blacks had a significantly higher proportion with pulmonary embolism (PE), including idiopathic PE among Black women, and a significantly higher proportion of Blacks were women. Blacks had a significantly higher mean BMI and a significantly lower proportion with recent surgery, trauma or infection, family history of VTE, and documented thrombophilia (solely from reduced factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A prevalence). Conversely, Blacks had a significantly higher proportion with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease and dialysis, HIV, and sickle cell disease. When compared with White women, Black women had a significantly lower proportion with recent oral contraceptive use or hormone therapy. We conclude that Whites and Blacks differ significantly regarding demographic and baseline characteristics that may be risk factors for VTE. The prevalence of transient VTE risk factors and idiopathic VTE among Blacks appears to be lower and higher, respectively, suggesting that heritability may be important in the etiology of VTE among Black-Americans. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Successful White teachers of Black students: Teaching across racial lines in urban middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bobbie

    The majority of urban minority students, particularly Black students, continue to perform below proficiency on standardized state and national testing in all areas that seriously impact economically advanced career options, especially in areas involving science. If education is viewed as a way out of poverty, there is a need to identify pedagogical methodologies that assist Black students in achieving higher levels of success in science, and in school in general. The purpose of this study was to explore White teachers' and Black students' perceptions about the teaching strategies used in their low socioeconomic status (LSES) urban science classrooms, that led to academic success for Black students. Participants included three urban middle school White teachers thought to be the best science teachers in the school, and five randomly selected Black students from each of their classrooms. Methods of inquiry involving tenets of grounded theory were used to examine strategies teachers used to inspire Black students into academic success. Data collection included teacher and student interviews, field notes from classroom observations, group discussions, and questionaires. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The teachers' perceptions indicated that their prior belief systems, effective academic and personal communication, caring and nurturing strategies, using relevant and meaningful hands-on activities in small learner-centered groups, enhanced the learning capabilities of all students in their classrooms, especially the Black students. Black students' perceptions indicated that their academic success was attributable to what teachers personally thought about them, demonstrated that they cared, communicated with them on a personal and academic level, gave affirmative feedback, simplified, and explained content matter. Black students labeled teachers who had these attributes as "nice" teachers. The nurturing and caring behaviors of "nice" teachers

  18. Arsenic and ultraviolet radiation exposure: melanoma in a New Mexico non-Hispanic white population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Janice W; Erdei, Esther; Myers, Orrin; Siegel, Malcolm; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-06-01

    Cases of cutaneous melanoma and controls were enrolled in a New Mexico population-based study; subjects were administered questionnaires concerning ultraviolet (UV) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure. Historical iAs exposure was estimated. UV exposure estimates were also derived using geospatial methods. Drinking water samples were collected for iAs analysis. Blood samples were collected for DNA repair (Comet) and DNA repair gene polymorphism assays. Arsenic concentrations were determined in urine and toenail samples. UV exposures during the previous 90 days did not vary significantly between cases and controls. Mean (±SD) current home iAs drinking water was not significantly different for cases and controls [3.98 μg/L (±3.67) vs. 3.47 μg/L (±2.40)]. iAs exposure showed no effect on DNA repair or association with melanoma. Results did not corroborate a previously reported association between toenail As and melanoma risk. Arsenic biomarkers in urine and toenail were highly significantly correlated with iAs in drinking water. A UV-DNA repair interaction for UV exposure over the previous 7-90 days was shown; cases had higher DNA damage than controls at low UV values. This novel finding suggests that melanoma cases may be more sensitive to low-level UV exposure than are controls. A UV-APEX1 interaction was shown. Subjects with the homozygous rare APEX1 DNA repair gene allele had a higher risk of early melanoma diagnosis at low UV exposure compared with those with the homozygous wild type or the heterozygote. Notably, a UV-arsenic interaction on inhibition of DNA repair was not observed at iAs drinking water concentrations below 10 ppb (μg/L).

  19. Educational assortative mating across marriage markets: non-Hispanic whites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S K; Oppenheimer, V K

    2000-02-01

    Whether local marriage market conditions shape marriage behavior is a central social demographic question. Most work on this subject, however, focuses on one type of market condition--sex ratios--and on a single outcome--marital timing or sorting. We examine the impact of local marriage markets' educational composition on educational assortative mating and on how sorting varies with age. We estimate a discrete-time competing-risks model of educational sorting outcomes, using individual data from the NLSY and community descriptors aggregated from census microdata. Results show that residents of educationally less favorable marriage markets are more likely to marry down on education, and that (for women) their chance of doing so increases with age more than for residents of more favorable markets.

  20. Traffic law knowledge disparity between hispanics and non-hispanic whites in California

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, KL; Patel, CV; Vaca, F; Anderson, CL; Mendoza, R; Barton, RL; Lekawa, ME; Hoonpongsimanont, W; Lotfipour, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Hispanic population is one group that is involved in a disproportionately high percentage of fatal motor vehicle collisions in the United States. Study Objectives: This study investigated demographic factors contributing to a lack of knowledge and awareness of traffic laws among Hispanic drivers involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in southern California. Methods: The cross-sectional study enrolled adults (n = 190) involved in MVCs presenting to a Level I trauma center ...

  1. Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmieri, R.T.; Wilson, M.A.; Iversen, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    a significantly associated IL18 haplotype and there was an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer per rs1834481 allele (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). In a replication stage, 12 independent studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) genotyped rs1834481...

  2. Black-White Differences in Incident Fatal, Nonfatal, and Total Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gamboa, Christopher M; Richman, Joshua S; Levitan, Emily B; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M

    2017-07-11

    Blacks have higher coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality compared with whites. However, a previous study suggests that nonfatal CHD risk may be lower for black versus white men. We compared fatal and nonfatal CHD incidence and CHD case-fatality among blacks and whites in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ARIC), the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (REGARDS) by sex. Participants 45 to 64 years of age in ARIC (men=6479, women=8488) and REGARDS (men=5296, women=7822), and ≥65 years of age in CHS (men=1836, women=2790) and REGARDS (men=3381, women=4112), all without a history of CHD, were analyzed. Fatal and nonfatal CHD incidence was assessed from baseline (ARIC=1987-1989, CHS=1989-1990, REGARDS=2003-2007) through up to 11 years of follow-up. Age-adjusted hazard ratios comparing black versus white men 45 to 64 years of age in ARIC and REGARDS were 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.06) and 2.11 (1.32-3.38), respectively, for fatal CHD, and 0.82 (0.64-1.05) and 0.94 (0.69-1.28), respectively, for nonfatal CHD. After adjustment for social determinants of health and cardiovascular risk factors, hazard ratios in ARIC and REGARDS were 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.92) and 1.09 (0.62-1.93), respectively, for fatal CHD, and 0.64 (0.47-0.86) and 0.67 (0.48-0.95), respectively, for nonfatal CHD. Similar patterns were present among men ≥65 years of age in CHS and REGARDS. Among women 45 to 64 years of age in ARIC and REGARDS, age-adjusted hazard ratios comparing blacks versus whites were 2.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.57-4.34) and 1.79 (1.06-3.03), respectively, for fatal CHD, and 1.47 (1.13-1.91) and 1.29 (0.91-1.83), respectively, for nonfatal CHD. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios in ARIC and REGARDS were 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-1.24) and 1.00 (0.54-1.85), respectively, for fatal CHD, and 0.70 (0.51-0.97) and 0.70 (0.46-1.06), respectively, for

  3. Compact Objects in Astrophysics White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Camenzind, Max

    2007-01-01

    Compact objects are an important class of astronomical objects in current research. Supermassive black holes play an important role in the understanding of the formation of galaxies in the early Universe. Old white dwarfs are nowadays used to calibrate the age of the Universe. Mergers of neutron stars and black holes are the sources of intense gravitational waves which will be measured in the next ten years by gravitational wave detectors. Camenzind's Compact Objects in Astrophysics gives a comprehensive introduction and up-to-date overview about the physical processes behind these objects, covering the field from the beginning to most recent results, including all relevant observations. After a presentation of the taxonomy of compact objects, the basic principles of general relativity are given. The author then discusses in detail the physics and observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars (including the most recent equations of state for neutron star matter), the gravitational field of rapidly rotating c...

  4. Plasma Selenium Biomarkers in Low Income Black and White Americans from the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Liu, Jianguo; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Patel, Kushal A.; Larson, Celia O.; Schlundt, David G.; Kenerson, Donna M.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers of selenium are necessary for assessing selenium status in humans, since soil variation hinders estimation of selenium intake from foods. In this study, we measured the concentration of plasma selenium, selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX3) activity and their interindividual differences in 383 low-income blacks and whites selected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 40–79 years, who were participating in a long-term cohort study in the southeastern United States (US). We assessed the utility of these biomarkers to determine differences in selenium status and their association with demographic, socio-economic, dietary, and other indicators. Dietary selenium intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire designed for the cohort, matched with region-specific food selenium content, and compared with the US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) set at 55 µg/day. We found that SEPP1, a sensitive biomarker of selenium nutritional status, was significantly lower among blacks than whites (mean 4.4±1.1 vs. 4.7±1.0 mg/L, p = 0.006), with blacks less than half as likely to have highest vs. lowest quartile SEPP1 concentration (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.2–0.8). The trend in a similar direction was observed for plasma selenium among blacks and whites, (mean 115±15.1 vs. 118±17.7 µg/L, p = 0.08), while GPX3 activity did not differ between blacks and whites (136±33.3 vs. 132±33.5 U/L, p = 0.320). Levels of the three biomarkers were not correlated with estimated dietary selenium intake, except for SEPP1 among 10% of participants with the lowest selenium intake (≤57 µg/day). The findings suggest that SEPP1 may be an effective biomarker of selenium status and disease risk in adults and that low selenium status may disproportionately affect black and white cohort participants. PMID:24465457

  5. Plasma selenium biomarkers in low income black and white americans from the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K Hargreaves

    Full Text Available Biomarkers of selenium are necessary for assessing selenium status in humans, since soil variation hinders estimation of selenium intake from foods. In this study, we measured the concentration of plasma selenium, selenoprotein P (SEPP1, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX3 activity and their interindividual differences in 383 low-income blacks and whites selected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 40-79 years, who were participating in a long-term cohort study in the southeastern United States (US. We assessed the utility of these biomarkers to determine differences in selenium status and their association with demographic, socio-economic, dietary, and other indicators. Dietary selenium intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire designed for the cohort, matched with region-specific food selenium content, and compared with the US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA set at 55 µg/day. We found that SEPP1, a sensitive biomarker of selenium nutritional status, was significantly lower among blacks than whites (mean 4.4 ± 1.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.0 mg/L, p = 0.006, with blacks less than half as likely to have highest vs. lowest quartile SEPP1 concentration (Odds Ratio (OR 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.2-0.8. The trend in a similar direction was observed for plasma selenium among blacks and whites, (mean 115 ± 15.1 vs. 118 ± 17.7 µg/L, p = 0.08, while GPX3 activity did not differ between blacks and whites (136 ± 33.3 vs. 132 ± 33.5 U/L, p = 0.320. Levels of the three biomarkers were not correlated with estimated dietary selenium intake, except for SEPP1 among 10% of participants with the lowest selenium intake (≤ 57 µg/day. The findings suggest that SEPP1 may be an effective biomarker of selenium status and disease risk in adults and that low selenium status may disproportionately affect black and white cohort participants.

  6. Differences in Physicians' Verbal and Nonverbal Communication With Black and White Patients at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Andrea M; Alexander, Stewart C; Mescher, Craig A; Mohan, Deepika; Barnato, Amber E

    2016-01-01

    Black patients are more likely than white patients to die in the intensive care unit with life-sustaining treatments. Differences in patient- and/or surrogate-provider communication may contribute to this phenomenon. To test whether hospital-based physicians use different verbal and/or nonverbal communication with black and white simulated patients and their surrogates. We conducted a randomized factorial trial of the relationship between patient race and physician communication using high-fidelity simulation. Using a combination of probabilistic and convenience sampling, we recruited 33 hospital-based physicians in western Pennsylvania who completed two encounters with prognostically similar, critically and terminally ill black and white elders with identical treatment preferences. We then conducted detailed content analysis of audio and video recordings of the encounters, coding verbal emotion-handling and shared decision-making behaviors, and nonverbal behaviors (time interacting with the patient and/or surrogate, with open vs. closed posture, and touching the patient and physical proximity). We used a paired t-test to compare each subjects' summed verbal and nonverbal communication scores with the black patient compared to the white patient. Subject physicians' verbal communication scores did not differ by patient race (black vs. white: 8.4 vs. 8.4, P-value = 0.958). However, their nonverbal communication scores were significantly lower with the black patient than with the white patient (black vs. white: 2.7 vs. 2.9, P-value 0.014). In this small regional sample, hospital-based physicians have similar verbal communication behaviors when discussing end-of-life care for otherwise similar black and white patients but exhibit significantly fewer positive, rapport-building nonverbal cues with black patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in Physicians’ Verbal and Nonverbal Communication With Black and White Patients at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Andrea M.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Mescher, Craig A.; Mohan, Deepika; Barnato, Amber E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Black patients are more likely than white patients to die in the intensive care unit with life-sustaining treatments. Differences in patient- and/or surrogate-provider communication may contribute to this phenomenon. Objectives To test whether hospital-based physicians use different verbal and/or nonverbal communication with black and white simulated patients and their surrogates. Methods We conducted a randomized factorial trial of the relationship between patient race and physician communication using high-fidelity simulation. Using a combination of probabilistic and convenience sampling, we recruited 33 hospital-based physicians in western Pennsylvania who completed two encounters with prognostically similar, critically and terminally ill black and white elders with identical treatment preferences. We then conducted detailed content analysis of audio and video recordings of the encounters, coding verbal emotion-handling and shared decision-making behaviors, and nonverbal behaviors (time interacting with the patient and/or surrogate, with open vs. closed posture, and touching the patient and physical proximity). We used a paired t-test to compare each subjects’ summed verbal and nonverbal communication scores with the black patient compared to the white patient. Results Subject physicians’ verbal communication scores did not differ by patient race (black vs. white: 8.4 vs. 8.4, P-value = 0.958). However, their nonverbal communication scores were significantly lower with the black patient than with the white patient (black vs. white: 2.7 vs. 2.9, P-value 0.014). Conclusion In this small regional sample, hospital-based physicians have similar verbal communication behaviors when discussing end-of-life care for otherwise similar black and white patients but exhibit significantly fewer positive, rapport-building nonverbal cues with black patients. PMID:26297851

  8. Obesity and cancer risk among white and black United States veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanic, Claudine; Gridley, Gloria; Chow, Wong-Ho; Lubin, Jay; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F

    2004-02-01

    Obesity has been linked to excess risk for many cancers, but the evidence remains tenuous for some types. Although the prevalence of obesity varies by race, few studies of obesity-related cancer risk have included non-white subjects. In a large cohort of male US veterans (3,668,486 whites; 832,214 blacks) hospitalized with a diagnosis of obesity between 1969 and 1996, we examined risk for all major cancer sites and subsites. Person-years accrued from the date of first obesity diagnosis until the occurrence of a first cancer, death, or the end of the observation period (September 30, 1996). We calculated age- and calendar-year adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer among white and black veterans, comparing obese men to men hospitalized for other reasons, with obesity status as time-dependent. For selected cancers, we performed additional analyses stratified by specific medical conditions related to both obesity and risk of those cancers. To determine whether obesity-related cancer risks differed significantly between white and black men, we evaluated heterogeneity of risk for each cancer site. Among white veterans, risk was significantly elevated for several cancers, including cancers of the lower esophagus, gastric cardia, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbladder and ampulla of vater, male breast, prostate, bladder, thyroid, and connective tissue, and for malignant melanoma, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Excess risks initially observed for cancers of the liver and pancreas persisted among men without a history of diabetes or alcoholism. Among black veterans, risks were significantly elevated for cancers of the colon, extrahepatic bile ducts, prostate, thyroid, and for malignant melanoma, multiple myeloma, CLL and AML. Obese men are at increased risk for several major cancers as well as a number of uncommon malignancies, a pattern generally similar for white and black men

  9. Geometries with integrable singularity -- black/white holes and astrogenic universes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukash, V. N.; Strokov, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    We briefly review the problem of generating cosmological flows of matter in GR (the genesis of universes), analyze models' shortcomings and their basic assumptions yet to be justified in physical cosmology. We propose a paradigm of cosmogenesis based on the class of spherically symmetric solutions with {\\it integrable} singularity $r=0$. They allow for geodesically complete geometries of black/white holes, which may comprise space-time regions with properties of cosmological flows.

  10. Exploring the genetic background of parasite resistance in selected lines of black and white cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Brügemann, Kerstin; May, Katharina; Scheper, Carsten; Strube, Christina; König, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Regaining importance of keeping dairy cows in grassland systems implies a detailed evaluation of breeding strategies on genetic resistances against endoparasite infections. The present study aimed on i) a comparison of different black and white cattle selection lines for three endoparasite traits, and ii) the estimation of genetic parameters for parasite resistances. A research design was implemented to create three different genetic lines within herds on the basis of a German Holstein cow (G...

  11. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is e...

  12. Parenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black families

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hannah Soo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONParenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black familiesByHannah S. KangDoctor of Philosophy in Psychology and Social BehaviorUniversity of California, Irvine 2014Professor Chuansheng Chen, ChairA large body of research has demonstrated the crucial role of parenting in children's socioemotional and academic development (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). This literature, however, has major limitations in the following th...

  13. Causality between White Pepper and Black Pepper: Evidence from Six Markets in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Evan; Puah, Chin-Hong; Oh, Swee-Ling; Lo, Yan-Ching

    2008-01-01

    The study of various spatial price relationships is indeed crucial and has been greatly sought after. Likewise, this study is rather a debatable topic these days especially towards the pricing activity and competitiveness within the pepper industry. Evidence from six markets within Sarawak had found that a long run relationship between the pepper markets does actually exist. And using the MWALD test though, findings revealed that the white pepper prices do Granger cause the black pepper price...

  14. The lived experience of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. Committed interracial relationships within the South African context have been associated with controversy as these relationships were once considered immoral and illegal. Since the abolishment of the anti-miscegenation and racial segregation laws, committed interracial relationships have slowly increased but are still fraught with difficulties. The experience of discrimination remains a prominent concern for individuals in committed interracial relationships. Black male-white female ...

  15. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  16. Association of selenium status and blood glutathione concentrations in blacks and whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, John P.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Ellison, Irina; Calcagnotto, Ana; Kleinman, Wayne; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2011-01-01

    Selenium deficiency has been linked with increased cancer risk and, in some studies, selenium supplementation was protective against certain cancers. Previous studies suggest that selenium chemoprevention may involve reduced oxidative stress through enhanced glutathione (GSH). Our objectives were to examine the relationships between selenium and GSH in blood and modifying effects of race and sex in free living adults and individuals supplemented with selenium. Plasma selenium concentrations and free and bound GSH concentrations and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity in blood were measured in 336 healthy adults, (161 blacks, 175 whites). Plasma selenium and blood GSH were also measured in 36 healthy men from our previously conducted placebo-controlled trial of selenium-enriched yeast (247 μg/day for 9 months). In free-living adults, selenium concentrations were associated with increased blood GSH concentration and GCL activity (Pselenium was significantly higher in whites than in blacks (Psupplementation, plasma selenium was increased 114% in whites and 50% in blacks (Pselenium and GSH in blood of both free-living and selenium-supplemented individuals, with race being an important modifying factor. PMID:21462082

  17. Characterization of white and black deposits on the surface of Korean stone cultural heritages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Ran Hee; Shin, Eun Jeong

    2013-08-01

    White and black deposits have been frequently observed on the surface of Korean stone cultural heritages, and they are considered as damage factors in both conservation and esthetic points of view. In order to set up the appropriate conservation remedy, it is important to know their origins, characteristics, and compositions. In this study, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer were employed to determine the white and black deposits. It was found that both deposits consisted mainly of calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium sulfate (gypsum). The calcite and gypsum were characterized by bladed, rhombohedral, tabular, and amorphous morphologies under a SEM. The black deposit was not only composed of calcite or gypsum, but also accompanied amorphous and irregular matrix. SEM-EDS analysis revealed an abundance of silicon, aluminum, iron, phosphorus, and carbon on the matrix, which were major elements of soil, atmospheric deposits, and organisms. The white deposit, on the other hand, barely contained those coloring substances. These salts and deposited substances were caused by chemical reaction and physical adhesion between rock-forming minerals, lime mortar, sulfur in polluted air environment, soil dust, and microorganisms.

  18. Wing Whiteness as an Indicator of Age, Immunocompetence, and Testis Size in the Eurasian Black-Billed Magpie (Pica pica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Blanco; Juan A. Fargallo

    2013-01-01

    ... them. We investigated covariation of the white wing patch of the Eurasian Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) with age, sex, feather wear, spleen size, parasite infection, and testis size to evaluate whether this trait is indicative of individual quality...

  19. A bibliography of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis (Linnaeus, 1758 and white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum (Burchell, 1817 for southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Wildi

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A general bibliography of reference material relevant to wildlife managers and researchers involved in the conservation of black and white rhinoceros in southern Africa is provided. It includes both key word and full reference listings.

  20. Examining impulsivity as a moderator of the relationship between body shame and bulimic symptoms in Black and White young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M K; Lin, Stacy L; Alvarez, Alexandra; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity has been linked to bulimic symptomatology in a number of studies; however, few have examined this relationship among Black women. We investigated the correlations between impulsivity and bulimic symptoms, and tested impulsivity as a moderator of the body shame/bulimic symptoms relationship among a sample of female undergraduates (N=276; 97 Blacks, 179 Whites). These participants provided data on body shame, impulsivity, and bulimic symptoms (EDE-Q binge eating frequency, BULIT-R, EDI-Bulimia). Among Blacks, impulsivity was significantly positively associated with all bulimic symptoms measures; among Whites, impulsivity was only positively correlated with binge eating frequency. Furthermore, among Blacks, the combination of high body shame and high impulsivity was associated with the highest levels of bulimic symptoms; these findings were not observed among Whites. This study highlights the importance of impulsivity and body shame in identifying bulimic symptomatology among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implicit race bias decreases the similarity of neural representations of black and white faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Bar-David, Eyal; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Implicit race bias has been shown to affect decisions and behaviors. It may also change perceptual experience by increasing perceived differences between social groups. We investigated how this phenomenon may be expressed at the neural level by testing whether the distributed blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) patterns representing Black and White faces are more dissimilar in participants with higher implicit race bias. We used multivoxel pattern analysis to predict the race of faces participants were viewing. We successfully predicted the race of the faces on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in early occipital visual cortex, occipital face area, and fusiform face area (FFA). Whereas BOLD activation patterns in early visual regions, likely reflecting different perceptual features, allowed successful prediction for all participants, successful prediction on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in FFA, a high-level face-processing region, was restricted to participants with high pro-White bias. These findings suggest that stronger implicit pro-White bias decreases the similarity of neural representations of Black and White faces.

  2. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  3. Survival by genotype: patterns at Mc1r are not black and white at the White Sands ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, S; Sollmann, R; Calhoun, K; Rothstein, A P; Rosenblum, E B

    2017-01-01

    Measuring links among genotype, phenotype and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a 4-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched coloration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S. cowlesi showed minimal association between colour phenotype and Mc1r genotype. Second, the frequency of the derived Mc1r allele in ecotonal S. cowlesi appeared to decrease over time. Third, our capture-recapture data revealed a lower survival rate for S. cowlesi individuals with the derived Mc1r allele. Thus, our results suggest that selection at the ecotone may have favoured the wild-type allele in recent years. Even in a system where a genotype-phenotype association appeared to be black and white, our study suggests that additional factors - including phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, pleiotropy and gene flow - may play important roles at the White Sands ecotone. Our study highlights the importance of linking molecular, genomic and organismal approaches for understanding adaptation in the wild. Furthermore, our findings indicate that dynamics of natural selection can be particularly complex in transitional habitats like ecotones and emphasize the need for future research that examines the patterns of ongoing selection in other ecological 'grey' zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Black-White Disparity in Student Loan Debt More than Triples after Graduation. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The moment they earn their bachelor's degrees, black college graduates owe $7,400 more on average than their white peers ($23,400 versus $16,000, including non-borrowers in the averages). But over the next few years, the black-white debt gap more than triples to a whopping $25,000. Differences in interest accrual and graduate school borrowing lead…

  5. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnik, J M; Land, K C; Blazer, D; Fillenbaum, G G; Branch, L G

    1993-07-08

    Persons of low socioeconomic status are known to have reduced life expectancy. In a study of the relation of socioeconomic status to disability-free or active life expectancy among older persons, we analyzed prospectively gathered data on 2219 blacks and 1838 whites who were 65 years of age or older in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We defined disability as the inability to perform independently one or more basic functional activities such as walking, bathing, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. For subgroups defined by sex, race, and education, statistical models were used to estimate, for persons at each year of age, the probability of transition from not being disabled or being disabled at base line to not being disabled, being disabled, or having died one year later. These transition probabilities were then entered into increment-decrement life tables to generate estimates of total, active, and disabled life expectancy (with total life expectancy equal to active life expectancy plus disabled life expectancy). Sixty-five-year-old black men had a lower total life expectancy (11.4 years) and active life expectancy (10 years) than white men (total life expectancy, 12.6 years; active life expectancy, 11.2 years), although the differences were reduced after we controlled for education. The estimates for 65-year-old black women (total life expectancy, 18.7 years; active life expectancy, 15.9 years) were similar to those for white women. Black men and women 75 years old and older had higher values for total life expectancy and active life expectancy than whites, and the differences were larger after stratification for education. Education had a substantially stronger relation to total life expectancy and active life expectancy than did race. At the age of 65, those with 12 or more years of education had an active life expectancy that was 2.4 to 3.9 years longer than the values for those with less education in all the four subgroups defined by sex and race

  6. The Impact of Veteran Status on Life-Space Mobility among Older Black and White Men in the Deep South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskill, Gina M; Sawyer, Patricia; Burgio, Kathryn L; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney P; Clay, Olivio J; Brown, Cynthia J; Allman, Richard M

    2015-08-07

    To examine life-space mobility over 8.5 years among older Black and White male veterans and non-veterans in the Deep South. A prospective longitudinal study of community-dwelling Black and White male adults aged >65 years (N=501; mean age=74.9; 50% Black and 50% White) enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging. Data from baseline in-home assessments with follow-up telephone assessments of life-space mobility completed every 6 months were used in linear mixed-effects modeling analyses to examine life-space mobility trajectories. Life-space mobility. In comparison to veterans, non-veterans were more likely to be Black, single, and live in rural areas. They also reported lower income and education. Veterans had higher baseline life-space (73.7 vs 64.9 for non-veterans; Pspace trajectories for White non-veterans (P=.009), but not for White veterans (P=.807) nor Black non-veterans (P=.633). Mortality at 8.5 years was 43.5% for veterans and 49.5% for non-veterans (P=.190) with no significant differences by race-veteran status. Veterans had significantly higher baseline life-space mobility. There were significantly greater declines in life-space trajectories for White non-veterans in comparison to other race-veteran subgroups. Black veterans and non-veterans did not have significantly different trajectories.

  7. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Metabolic dysregulation and cancer mortality in a national cohort of blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Moore, Justin Xavier; Judd, Suzanne; Lakoski, Susan; Goodman, Michael; Safford, Monika M; Pisu, Maria

    2017-12-15

    We examined the association between metabolic dysregulation and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of Black and White adults. A total of 25,038 Black and White adults were included in the analysis. Metabolic dysregulation was defined in two ways: 1) using the joint harmonized criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 2) based on factor analysis of 15 variables characterizing metabolic dysregulation. We estimated hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of MetS and metabolic dysregulation with cancer mortality during follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models. About 46% of Black and 39% of White participants met the criteria for MetS. Overall, participants with MetS (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) were at increased risk of cancer-related death. In race-stratified analysis, Black participants with MetS had significantly increased risk of cancer mortality compared with those without MetS (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.72), increasing to more than a 2-fold risk of cancer mortality among those with five metabolic syndrome components (HR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.01-5.51). There are marked racial differences in the prevalence of metabolic dysregulation defined as MetS based on the harmonized criteria. The strong positive associations between MetS and cancer mortality suggests that efforts to improve cancer outcomes in general, and racial disparities in cancer outcomes specifically, may benefit from prevention and management of MetS and its components.

  9. Black White Mortality From HIV in the United States Before and After Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levine, Robert S; Briggs, Nathaniel C; Kilbourne, Barbara S; King, William D; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Baltrus, Peter T; Husaini, Baqar A; Rust, George S

    2007-01-01

    ..., contextual socioeconomic status (SES) was not a significant predictor of Black:White mortality rate ratio after we controlled for percentage of the population who were Black and percentage of the population who were Hispanic, and neither contextual SES nor race/ethnicity were significant predictors after we controlled for pre-HAART mortality. Contextu...

  10. Conversations among Black Staff Members at a Historically White Afrikaans University Campus on Issues of Race, Social Justice and Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Willy

    2012-01-01

    In an ethnographically designed study, guided by a critical community psychology framework, Black staff members at a historically White Afrikaans university campus conducted email conversations relating to issues of race, social justice and reconciliation. The conversations were initiated by the author (Black) who mainly used prompts found in the…

  11. The Impact of Social Comparisons on Stereotype Threat for Black College Students Attending Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Odessia

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of various social comparisons on stereotype threat for Black college students attending predominantly White colleges and universities (PWCUs). Additionally, explored was whether the student's Black racial identity would moderate the relationship between social comparison and academic achievement. Social comparison theory posits that to gain an accurate self-evaluation, individuals compare themselves to others who are similar; therefore, for Black...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake's Association with Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Factors among Homeless Blacks and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Charles R.; Robinson, Cendrine D.; Arroyo, Cassandra; Obidike, Ogechi Jessica; Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2017-01-01

    The homeless represent an extremely disadvantaged population that fare worse than minority groups in access to preventive services and health, and minority groups fare worse than Whites. Early detection screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) saves lives, but empirical data about CRC screening practices among homeless Blacks and Whites are limited.…

  13. It's Not about "You," It's about "Us": A Black Woman Administrator's Efforts to Disrupt White Fragility in an Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lori D.; Jordan, Jodi L.

    2017-01-01

    This case centers on a Black woman school administrator and efforts to disrupt Whiteness among an urban elementary school teaching staff. The case details the resistance she encounters while encouraging teachers to confront "White fragility" and consider how their fragile perspectives on race and racism shape how they educate Black…

  14. Comparison of Platelet Reactivity in Black Versus White Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes After Treatment With Ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglia, Michael A; Lipinski, Michael J; Lhermusier, Thibault; Steinvil, Arie; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Pokharel, Shreejana; Torguson, Rebecca; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Wallentin, Lars; Storey, Robert F; Waksman, Ron

    2017-04-15

    Ticagrelor, a potent platelet inhibitor, has primarily been studied in white patients. Platelet reactivity among black patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on ticagrelor, however, is unknown. Our objective was to compare platelet reactivity in black versus white patients with ACS treated with ticagrelor. We conducted a prospective, pharmacodynamic study of 29 black patients with ACS treated with ticagrelor. Platelet reactivity was assessed at 1, 4, and 8 hours after a loading dose of ticagrelor 180 mg and at 30 days on a maintenance dose of ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily. Assays included light transmission aggregometry, VerifyNow P2Y12, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. We provided comparison with a historical white cohort. Platelet reactivity among blacks with ACS on ticagrelor was similar to that in whites, except that blacks had lower values at 4 hours, 8 hours, and on maintenance therapy for light transmission aggregometry with 20 μmol/L adenosine diphosphate. Among blacks, high-on-treatment platelet reactivity for all 3 assays was uncommon at 1 hour and nonexistent at 4 hours, 8 hours, and while on maintenance therapy. Blacks preloaded with clopidogrel (n = 17) had significantly lower results of VerifyNow (64 ± 65 vs 198 ± 86, p ticagrelor, levels of platelet reactivity in blacks are similar to that in whites. This suggests that the cardiovascular benefits of ticagrelor observed in the platelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) trial are likely to be observed in blacks and whites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  16. Malinchismo and Misogyny in Fanon’s Black Skin, White Masks: Reading Fanon from the Hispanic Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Valldejuli, Luis Galanes

    2015-01-01

    In the second chapter of Black Skin, White Masks (BSWM), “The Women of color and the white man” (1967[1952]), Frantz Fanon makes some assertions about black Martiniquais women that gained him the criticism of some feminist theorists as a misogynist. Fanon will find in the expressed xenocentrism or malinchismo of black Martiniquais women a perhaps radical expression of the “dependency complex” he will attempt to document for Negroes in general. Reading Fanon against the backdrop of a Caribbean...

  17. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  18. Structural invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) scores in Black and White young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Laura L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Brown, Christopher; Jensen, Dane; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji, et al., 2008; Chrishon, Anderson, Arora, & Bailey, 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. In this study, we used multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a nonclinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  19. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  1. Social identities and racial integration in historically white universities: A literature review of the experiences of black students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiso Bazana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South African government has been promulgating pieces of legislation aimed at ensuring racial integration, especially in higher education, and indirectly enforcing acculturation in historically white universities. Studies have proven that institutional cultures in historically white universities alienate and exclude black students’ identities. These students’ sense of social identity, which includes culture, heritage, language and traditions, and consequently self-esteem and self-concept, is altered in these institutions. Research has been scant regarding the shape and form that black students’ identity assumes when they get to these spaces. Using Tajfel and Turner’s (1979 social identity theory and Berry’s (2005 theory of acculturation, this article explores the experiences of black students in negotiating their social identities in historically white universities. Evoking Steve Biko’s analysis of ‘artificial integration’ (1986, we hope to illustrate how the ‘integration’ narrative sought to discard the identity of black students and psychologically enforce a simulation of black students into white-established identities. The study has implications for policy development as we hope to sensitise theoretically the historically white universities to, apart from mere opening of spaces of learning, understand the social identity challenges of black students in these institutions.

  2. The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America’s Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Parisi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional wisdom is that racial diversity promotes positive race relations and reduces racial residential segregation between blacks and whites. We use data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and 2007–2011 ACS to test this so-called “buffering hypothesis.” We identify cities, suburbs, and small towns that are virtually all white, all black, all Asian, all Hispanic, and everything in between. The results show that the most racially diverse places—those with all four racial groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian present—had the lowest black-white levels of segregation in 2010. Black-white segregation also declined most rapidly in the most racially diverse places and in places that experienced the largest recent increases in diversity. Support for the buffering hypothesis, however, is counterbalanced by continuing high segregation across cities and communities and by rapid white depopulation in the most rapidly diversifying communities. We argue for a new, spatially inclusive perspective on racial residential segregation.

  3. Comparison of epicardial fat volume by computed tomography in black versus white patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Schindler, Andreas; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Tricarico, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ullrich; McQuiston, Andrew D; Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Bamberg, Fabian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2014-02-01

    Disparities in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) between races may be influenced by differences in the thoracic adipose tissue. We compared computed tomography (CT)-derived volumes of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT), and pericoronary fat thickness (PFT) and correlations with CAD between black and white patients. This institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study included 372 age- and gender-matched black versus white patients (186 black, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men; 186 white, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men) who underwent CT for chest pain evaluation. EAT, MAT, and PFT were measured. The amount of coronary calcium was quantified as calcium score. CAD was defined as ≥50% coronary artery narrowing. EAT and MAT volumes were significantly lower in black than white patients (59 [twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentile 39 to 84] vs 97 [67 to 132] cm(3) and 44 [27 to 77] vs 87 [52 to 157] cm(3), for both p patients was slightly lower than white patients (17.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.1 ± 3.4 mm, p patients (r = 0.19 to 0.26, p patients. In conclusion, CT-derived measurements of thoracic fat differ between symptomatic black and white patients, suggesting a differential relation between thoracic adipose tissue and CAD pathophysiology by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Black gill disease of Pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Dewangan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiology of black gill disease in white leg shrimp which is a major problem being faced by the commercial shrimp farmers who are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei in India. Methods: The normal and infected shrimps were collected from shrimp pond and the gill was preserved in appropriate preservative for histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope analysis. Pathogenic fungus was isolated from black gill of L. vannamei in potato dextrose agar medium. Morphological study and fungal strain identification were done by using light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Fungal DNA was amplified by ITS4 and ITS5 primers and gene sequencing was done by Macrogen Inc., Korea. Phylogenetic tree was prepared by using MEGA 6 software. Results: Fungal spores and hyphae were observed both in internal and external gill surface of infected shrimps. Fungal spores were round in shape and mature sporangium was observed. The histopathology study showed clearly that infected gill was damaged by the fungi. Scanning electron microscopic study showed adherence of fungi in infected gill. Internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing revealed that it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Conclusions: The outcome of the present study would help to know the cause of black gill disease and to understand the effect of pathogenic fungi in shrimp culture. This study will initiate researchers for work in field of treatment or prevention of black gill disease in commercial L. vannamei culture.

  5. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  6. Examining the Association Between Body Mass Index and Weight Related Quality of Life in Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L; Ard, Jamy D; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R; Howard, Virginia J; Kolotkin, Ronnete L; Crosby, Ross D; Affuso, Olivia

    2012-09-01

    Obesity not only increases risk for morbidity/mortality, but also impacts the quality of life of obese individuals. In the United States, black women have the highest prevalence of obesity of any other group with approximately 80% of black women over age 20 having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . We aimed to examine the association between BMI and quality of life in this high risk population compared to this association in white women, using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Lite questionnaire. Data from 172 black women (mean BMI= 35.7; age=40.5) and 171 white women (mean BMI= 35.5; age=40.4) were collected between 2000 and 2010 analyzed in 2010. The mean IWQOL-Lite total score was 81.6 for black women compared to 66.9 for white women, a statistically significant difference. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed a significant BMI-by-race interaction indicating that the relationship between BMI and IWQOL-Lite score was moderated by race. Our findings suggest notable differences in weight-related quality of life in black and white women. At similar BMIs, black women consistently reported better quality of life than white women on all IWQOL-Lite subscales. The greatest difference in IWQOL-Lite scores between black and white women was seen in the self-esteem subscale. Additional research is needed to understand how to incorporate the weight perspectives of black women into weight management messages and interventions.

  7. Office and Home Blood Pressures as Determinants of Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Among Black Nigerians Compared With White Flemish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Yang, Wen-Yi; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Jacobs, Lotte; Wei, Fang-Fei; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-11-01

    The association of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) with blood pressure (BP) in Blacks living in sub-Saharan Africa remains poorly documented. In 225 Black Nigerians and 729 White Flemish, we analyzed QRS voltages and voltage-duration products and 12 criteria diagnostic of ECG-LVH in relation to office BP (mean of 5 consecutive readings) and home BP (duplicate morning and evening readings averaged over 1 week). In multivariable analyses, QRS voltage and voltage-duration indexes were generally higher in Blacks than Whites. By using any of 12 criteria, ECG-LVH was more prevalent among Black than White men (54.4% vs. 36.0%) with no ethnic difference among women (17.1%). Precordial voltages and voltage-duration products increased with office and home systolic BP (SBP), and increases were up to 3-fold steeper in Blacks. In Blacks vs. Whites, increases in the Sokolow-Lyon voltage associated with a 10-mm Hg higher SBP were 0.18 mV (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.26) vs. 0.06 mV (0.02-0.09) and 0.17 mV (0.07-0.28) vs. 0.11 mV (CI, 0.07-0.15) for office and home BP, respectively, with a significant ethnic gradient (P office and home BP in Blacks than Whites. Associations of ECG voltages and voltage-duration products and risk of ECG-LVH with BP are steeper in Black Nigerians compared with a White reference population. In resource-poor settings of sub-Saharan Africa, the ECG in combination with office and home BP is an essential instrument in risk stratification across the entire BP range.

  8. Social ties and colorectal cancer screening among Blacks and Whites in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Bloor, Lindsey E; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social networks and colorectal cancer screening in diverse populations. Prior research suggests that the type of social support as well as the amount or frequency of support available from one's social network may be associated with health outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between both structural (i.e., quantitative aspects of the social network, such as number of ties and frequency of contact with ties) and functional (i.e., functions provided by social network ties, such as offering emotional or instrumental support) aspects of social ties and utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests. Analyses included 697 randomly selected Blacks and Whites ages 51 to 80 years enrolled as controls in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Social tie and screening information was obtained from face-to-face interviews. Forty-seven percent of participants (40% Blacks and 51% Whites) reported use of one of the options for colorectal cancer screening according to the guidelines at that time. Compared with those with the fewest social connections, those who were most socially connected were more likely to report recent use of colorectal cancer screening [odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-6.2]. This association was stronger among Blacks (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-10.7) than Whites (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.9; P for interaction = 0.006). There were also positive associations between being a church group (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and other group member (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2) and screening. Neither emotional (e.g., offering reassurance that one is cared for) nor instrumental (e.g., giving material assistance) support was associated with screening behavior. These data suggest that structural rather than functional aspects of social ties may be important in influencing colorectal cancer screening behavior.

  9. A black-white comparison of the quality of stage-specific colon cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jamillah; Caplan, Lee; Davis, Sharon; Minor, Patrick; Counts-Spriggs, Margaret; Glover, Roni; Ogunlade, Vickie; Bumpers, Kevin; Kauh, John; Brawley, Otis W; Flowers, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have attributed racial disparities in cancer incidence and mortality to variances in socioeconomic status and health insurance coverage. However, an Institute of Medicine report found that blacks received lower quality care than whites after controlling for health insurance, income, and disease severity. To examine the effects of race on colorectal cancer outcomes within a single setting, the authors performed a retrospective cohort study that analyzed the cancer registry, billing, and medical records of 365 university hospital patients (175 blacks and 190 whites) diagnosed with stage II-IV colon cancer between 2000 and 2005. Racial differences in the quality (effectiveness and timeliness) of stage-specific colon cancer treatment (colectomy and chemotherapy) were examined after adjusting for socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, sex, age, and marital status. Blacks and whites had similar sociodemographic characteristics, tumor stage and site, quality of care, and health outcomes. Age and diagnostic stage were predictors of quality of care and mortality. Although few patients (5.8%) were uninsured, they were more likely to present at advanced stages (61.9% at stage IV) and die (76.2%) than privately insured and publicly insured patients (p = .002). In a population without racial differences in socioeconomic status or insurance coverage, patients receive the same quality of care, regardless of racial distinction, and have similar health outcomes. Age, diagnostic stage, and health insurance coverage remained independently associated with mortality. Future studies of disparities in colon cancer treatment should examine sociocultural barriers to accessing appropriate care in various healthcare settings. Copyright 2009 American Cancer Society.

  10. Leachates analysis of glass from black and white and color televisions sets

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Kukla; Tomáš Vítěz; Petr Junga; Pavel Mach

    2012-01-01

    The aim of work was to determine the content of selected elements in the glass from color and black and white television (TV) sets. The amount of back taken TV sets in the Czech Republic increases annualy, which is associated with higher production of the waste glass. Currently there is 1.4 television sets for each household and the number of it should increase in future, because of higher standard of living and new technologies used. Waste glass treatment or landfilling may present, because ...

  11. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... and possibly modify the adaptation requirements, models and programs of an autonomic system....

  12. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brédart

    Full Text Available Color deficient (dichromat and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A', response bias (B"D, response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  13. Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

  14. Germination and health quality of mucuna white and black seeds used as a green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Garcés Fiallos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the germination and sanitary quality of mucuna (Stizolobium spp. white and black used as green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Plant, Universidade Técnica Estatal de Quevedo-UTEQ. The seeds of mucuna white and black were from the experimental field in La María 2010 harvest. The work consisted of two treatments for each type of seed of mucuna (white and black, totaling four. In each Petri plates were plated five (5 seeds, ten (10 plates per treatment, totaling 50 in each. Transferred to a growth chamber (incubator control temperature of 25°C ± 2 without photoperiod. We evaluated the physiological quality (germination for six days and rate (r of growth of the radicle and health (incidence of pathogens its seeds. The germination was between 68 (BDA medium and 40% (filter paper for white velvet, among both black velvet, half were between 70 (BDA medium and 34 (paper. The pathogens found in seeds of white and black velvet, were the fungi Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., as well as an unidentified bacterium, with averages for each of 10, 29, 30 and 33% incidence, respectively.

  15. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  16. From colour photographs to black-and-white line drawings: an assessment of chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes') transfer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, James; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over two experiments, we investigated the ability of two adolescent and two adult chimpanzees to generalise a learnt, pictorial categorisation to increasingly degraded and abstract stimuli. In Experiment 2, we further assessed the ability of the adolescent chimpanzees to engage in open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings. The current results confirmed and extended previous findings, showing that sub-adult chimpanzees outperform adult chimpanzees in the categorisation of pictorial stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are more degraded and abstract in nature. However, none of the four chimpanzees showed positive transfer of their category learning to a set of black-and-white line drawings, and neither of the adolescent chimpanzees evidenced reliable open-ended categorisation of the black-and-white line drawings. The latter findings suggest that both sub-adult and adult chimpanzees find it difficult to recognise black-and-white line drawings, and that open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings is challenging for chimpanzees.

  17. "Look at the Whole Me": A Mixed-Methods Examination of Black Infant Mortality in the US through Women's Lived Experiences and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Green, Carmen; Richardson, Lisa; Theall, Katherine; Crear-Perry, Joia

    2017-07-05

    In the US, the non-Hispanic Black infant mortality rate exceeds the rate among non-Hispanic Whites by more than two-fold. To explore factors underlying this persistent disparity, we employed a mixed methods approach with concurrent quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. Eighteen women participated in interviews about their experience of infant loss. Several common themes emerged across interviews, grouped by domain: individual experiences (trauma, grieving and counseling; criminalization); negative interactions with healthcare providers and the healthcare system; and broader contextual factors. Concurrently, we estimated the Black infant mortality rate (deaths per 1000 live births) using linked live birth-infant death records from 2010 to 2013 in every metropolitan statistical area in the US. Poisson regression examined how contextual indicators of population health, socioeconomic conditions of the Black population, and features of the communities in which they live were associated with Black infant mortality and inequity in Black-White infant mortality rates across 100 metropolitan statistical areas with the highest Black infant mortality rates. We used principal components analysis to create a Birth Equity Index in order to examine the collective impact of contextual indicators on Black infant mortality and racial inequity in mortality rates. The association between the Index and Black infant mortality was stronger than any single indicator alone: in metropolitan areas with the worst social, economic, and environmental conditions, Black infant mortality rates were on average 1.24 times higher than rates in areas where conditions were better (95% CI = 1.16, 1.32). The experiences of Black women in their homes, neighborhoods, and health care centers and the contexts in which they live may individually and collectively contribute to persistent racial inequity in infant mortality.

  18. Perceived Physical Appearance: Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Black, Latino, and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Anna E; Depaoli, Sarah; Song, Anna V; Wallander, Jan L; Elliott, Marc N; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Schuster, Mark

    2017-03-01

    This aim of this study was to examine whether the construct of physical appearance perception differed among the three largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States using an adolescent sample. Black (46%), Latino (31%), and White (23%) adolescents in Grade 10 from the Healthy Passages study ( N  = 4,005) completed the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Physical Appearance Scale (SPPA-PA) as a measure of physical appearance perception. Overall, Black adolescents had a more positive self-perception of their physical appearance than Latino and White adolescents. However, further analysis using measurement invariance testing revealed that the construct of physical appearance perception, as measured by SPPA-PA, was not comparable across the three racial/ethnic groups in both males and females. These results suggest that observed differences may not reflect true differences in perceptions of physical appearance. Measures that are equivalent across racial/ethnic groups should be developed to ensure more precise measurement and understanding.

  19. Variation in the maternal corticotrophin releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP gene and birth weight in Blacks, Hispanics and Whites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathik D Wadhwa

    Full Text Available Given the unique role of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH system in human fetal development, the aim of our study was to estimate the association of birth weight with DNA sequence variation in three maternal genes involved in regulating CRH production, bioavailability and action: CRH, CRH-Binding Protein (CRH-BP, and CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1, respectively, in three racial groups (African-Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites.Our study was carried out on a population-based sample of 575 mother-child dyads. We resequenced the three genes in mouse-human hybrid somatic cell lines and selected SNPs for genotyping.A significant association was observed in each race between birth weight and maternal CRH-BP SNP genotypes. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes established three common haplotypes marked by the rs1053989 SNP in all three races. This SNP predicted significant birth weight variation after adjustment for gestational age, maternal BMI, parity, and smoking. African American and Hispanic mothers carrying the A allele had infants whose birth weight was on average 254 and 302 grams, respectively, less than infants having C/C mothers. Non-Hispanic White mothers homozygous for the A allele had infants who were on average 148 grams less than those infants having A/C and C/C mothers.The magnitudes of the estimates of the birth weight effects are comparable to the combined effects of multiple SNPs reported in a recent meta-analysis of 6 GWAS studies and is quantitatively larger than that associated with maternal cigarette smoking. This effect was persistent across subpopulations that vary with respect to ancestry and environment.

  20. Associations between Race and Eating Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Black and White Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-06-23

    Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.

  1. Diet and blood pressure: differences among whites, blacks and Hispanics in New York City 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Katherine; Jung, Molly; Yi, Stella

    2014-01-01

    Our study examined: 1) racial/ethnic differences in sodium and potassium intake; and 2) racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between dietary intake and blood pressure. Data were collected in New York City in 2010, and included a telephone health survey, a 24-hour urine collection and an in-home clinical exam. Linear regression was used to examine the association of sodium and potassium intakes with blood pressure separately by race/ethnicity, age and sex among 1568 participants. The results indicate large differences by population subgroup in: 1) nutrient intake, and 2) the relationship between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. Black and Hispanic males aged White counterparts. The regression results indicate a strong association between diet and blood pressure among Blacks and Hispanics only. Based on our assessment of the association of sodium and potassium intakes and blood pressure measurements, we find that young Black and Hispanic males aged diet quality and may be the most at risk for developing diet-related hypertension.

  2. Success factors of Black science, technology, engineering and mathematics faculty at predominantly White institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michelle A.

    Black faculty at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) have historically been underrepresented and made to endure with academic isolation, scholarship marginalization and other challenges to the tenure process. When it comes to science, technology, engineering and math, also known as STEM, as it relates to race and success, little is known of how tenured Black STEM faculty have developed an interest in STEM, navigated the unfamiliar waters of academia and maintained longevity at their respective postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this study is to look at the similar experiences of this population and provide insight regarding any factors and or influences that have impacted their success. Grounded in critical race theory (CRT), this qualitative study will utilize a Delphi technique to determine the similar experiences and influences of 17 Black STEM, tenured (and tenure-track) faculty working at PWIs in a Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states. The study highlighted the importance of: mentoring in college, graduate school and as a junior faculty and; STEM related opportunities such as summer camps or programs, internships, and research.

  3. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Similarities in affect, perceived stress, and weight concerns between Black and White women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Marcus, Marsha D; Leon-Verdin, MaGuadalupe

    2008-10-01

    Mood and weight concerns may relate to postpartum smoking, and racial differences in these concerns may be important in developing interventions to prevent postpartum relapse. We compared differences in the smoking patterns, mood, and weight concerns of Black and White women who quit smoking during pregnancy (N = 174). In univariate comparisons, there were no consistent differences in nicotine dependence, smoking history, or motivation to remain abstinent postpartum. Moreover, although there were univariate differences in negative affect, smoking for weight control, and eating disinhibition, after controlling for differences in income and educational background between Black and White women, these differences in mood and weight concerns were no longer significant. In our sample of pregnant women who had quit smoking, Black and White women did not differ in mood and weight concerns, two potentially modifiable variables that may affect smoking postpartum relapse.

  5. Black:white disparities in breast cancer mortality in the 50 largest cities in the United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Bijou R; Hurlbert, Marc S

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents race-specific breast cancer mortality rates and the corresponding rate ratios for the 50 largest U.S. cities for each of the 5-year intervals between 2005 and 2014. The 50 largest cities in the U.S. were the units of analysis. Numerator data were abstracted from national death files where the cause was malignant neoplasm of the breast (ICD-10=C50) for women. Population-based denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau for 2010-2014. To measure the racial disparity, we calculated Black:White rate ratios (RRs) and confidence intervals for each 5-year period. To determine whether changes over time in the disparity were statistically significant, we calculated a 2-sided z score for the change in the relative percent difference between the Black and White rates for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. At the most recent time point (2010-2014), the RR was significantly greater than 1.00 in the US and 24 cities. The change in the Black:White disparity was statistically significant in five cities and the US. The percent difference increased significantly in Atlanta, GA (from 4.1 to 117.4, pcancer mortality data for Black and White women through 2014, and reveals that in the US and 24 of the 43 largest US cities, Black women continue to die from breast cancer at a higher rate than their White counterparts. Importantly, however, a few cities, Memphis, Boston and Philadelphia, showed a decrease in the Black:White breast cancer mortality disparity between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual well-being: a comparison of U.S. black and white women in heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Change and Mortality Risk Among Black and White Patients: Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the relationship of change in cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality risk in Black patients. This study assessed change in cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with all-cause mortality risk in Black and White patients. This is a retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of 13,345 patients (age = 55 ± 11 years; 39% women; 26% black) who completed 2 exercise tests, at least 12 months apart at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. All-cause mortality was identified through April 2013. Data were analyzed in 2015-2016 using Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk of mortality associated with change in sex-specific cardiorespiratory fitness. Mean time between the tests was 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.9-5.6 years). During 9.1 years (interquartile range 6.3-11.6 years) of follow-up, there were 1931 (14%) deaths (16.5% black, 13.7% white). For both races, change in fitness from Low to the Intermediate/High category resulted in a significant reduction of death risk (HR 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-0.87] for Black; HR 0.41 [95% CI, 0.34-0.51] for White). Each 1-metabolic-equivalent-of-task increase was associated with a reduced mortality risk in black (HR 0.84 [95% CI, 0.81-0.89]) and white (HR 0.87 [95% CI, 0.82-0.86]) patients. There was no interaction by race. Among black and white patients, change in cardiorespiratory fitness from Low to Intermediate/High fitness was associated with a 35% and 59% lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A longitudinal study of Latino and non-Hispanic mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and its association with parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M; Yueqi, Yan; DiCorcia, Daley; Padilla, Yolanda

    2018-02-01

    Roughly 8% of the U.S. population report moderate or severe depression for two or more weeks and Latinos (3.7%) report higher rates of severe depression compared to non-Hispanic whites (2.6%) (Pratt and Brody, 2014). As the Latino population continues to grow in the U.S., there is little research on the manifestations for depression, and how this affects the family system longitudinally. Based on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a 3-step latent class analysis examined the association of self-reported parental depressive symptoms and their children's perceived levels of closeness and openness to communicate with their parents over 9 years (N=3956 families). Latino parents reported four different depressive patterns, while non-Hispanic parents were more diversified and had six patterns in terms of latent class analysis. Latinos reported episodic symptoms, while NH parents were more likely to report chronic depressive symptoms over time. Regardless of race/ethnicity, parental depressive symptoms negatively affected their children's reported level of parental closeness and openness to communicate with mothers and fathers. As with any self-report data, the risk of social desirability bias is likely still present. Additionally, these results cannot be generalized to the broader U.S. Due to the different mental health presentations over 9 years, and following the federal initiatives (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015) of early and consistent surveillance, we advise that clinicians and primary care physicians screen for depressive symptoms at least yearly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Vakili; Seyyed Ali Yasini Ardakani

    2018-01-01

    Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and ...

  10. CHEMOTHERAPY INTENSITY AND TOXICITY AMONG BLACK AND WHITE WOMEN WITH ADVANCED AND RECURRENT ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, John H.; Tian, Chunqiao; Rose, G. Scott; Brown, Carol L.; Birrer, Michael; Risinger, John I; Thigpen, J. Tate; Fleming, Gini F.; Gallion, Holly H.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to confirm whether Black and White women with endometrial cancer are equally tolerant of chemotherapy and identify factors that impact survival. METHODS: A retrospective review of 169 Black women and 982 White women with FIGO Stage III/IV or recurrent endometrial carcinoma was performed. All patients received doxorubicin combined with cisplatin. Chemotherapy parameters that were reviewed included relative dose (RD), relative time (RT), and relative dose intensity (RDI). Treatment cycles ≥ 7 were defined as treatment completion. RESULTS: Although Black patients were more likely to experience grade 3-4 anemia (20% vs. 14%) and genitourinary (5% vs. 1%) toxicity, and less likely to experience severe GI toxicity (10% vs. 17%), the overall incidence of grade 3-4 treatment-related chemotoxicity was the same between the two groups (82% vs. 82%). There were no differences in the number of cycles received, RD (0.57 vs. 0.58), RT (0.77 vs. 0.78), or RDI (0.76 vs. 0.76) for Black and White patients. CONCLUSION: Black patients with advanced stage or recurrent endometrial cancer, treated on four GOG protocols, had similar dose intensity and severe chemotherapy-related toxicity compared to White patients, suggesting that previously described racial disparities in survival among patients in GOG trials may have an novel etiology. PMID:19924790

  11. Measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio: dissociation of black/white preference and novel tank test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Blaser

    Full Text Available The effects of wall color stimuli on diving, and the effects of depth stimuli on scototaxis, were assessed in zebrafish. Three groups of fish were confined to a black, a white, or a transparent tank, and tested for depth preference. Two groups of fish were confined to a deep or a shallow tank, and tested for black-white preference. As predicted, fish preferred the deep half of a split-tank over the shallow half, and preferred the black half of a black/white tank over the white half. Results indicated that the tank wall color significantly affected depth preference, with the transparent tank producing the strongest depth preference and the black tank producing the weakest preference. Tank depth, however, did not significantly affect color preference. Additionally, wall color significantly affected shuttling and immobility, while depth significantly affected shuttling and thigmotaxis. These results are consistent with previous indications that the diving response and scototaxis may reflect dissociable mechanisms of behavior. We conclude that the two tests are complementary rather than interchangeable, and that further research on the motivational systems underlying behavior in each of the two tests is needed.

  12. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  13. Residential Racial Composition and Black-White Obesity Risks: Differential Effects of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between neighborhood racial composition and adult obesity risks by race and gender, and explores whether neighborhood social and built environment mediates the observed protective or detrimental effects of racial composition on obesity risks. Cross-sectional data from the 2006 and 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey are merged with census-tract profiles from 2005–2009 American Community Survey and Geographic Information System-based built-environment data. The analytical sample includes 12,730 whites and 4,290 blacks residing in 953 census tracts. Results from multilevel analysis suggest that black concentration is associated with higher obesity risks only for white women, and this association is mediated by lower neighborhood social cohesion and socioeconomic status (SES in black-concentrated neighborhoods. After controlling for neighborhood SES, black concentration and street connectivity are associated with lower obesity risks for white men. No association between black concentration and obesity is found for blacks. The findings point to the intersections of race and gender in neighborhood effects on obesity risks, and highlight the importance of various aspects of neighborhood social and built environment and their complex roles in obesity prevention by socio-demographic groups.

  14. Social identities and racial integration in historically white universities: A literature review of the experiences of black students

    OpenAIRE

    Sandiso Bazana; Opelo P. Mogotsi

    2017-01-01

    South African government has been promulgating pieces of legislation aimed at ensuring racial integration, especially in higher education, and indirectly enforcing acculturation in historically white universities. Studies have proven that institutional cultures in historically white universities alienate and exclude black students’ identities. These students’ sense of social identity, which includes culture, heritage, language and traditions, and consequently self-esteem and self-concept, is ...

  15. A Comparison of Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses among Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Dene T.; Lebbon, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the trends and changes in patterns of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among Hispanic workers versus non-Hispanic minority workers in the United States between 1992 and 2009. Injuries and illnesses are also examined by the severity of cases and across industry sectors. The differences in the mean share of…

  16. Binge-Drinking Attitudes and Behaviors among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic College Students: Suggestions for Tailoring Health Campaign Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Julie Delaney; Archiopoli, Ashley M.; Bentley, Joshua M.; Weiss, David; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; White, Judith McIntosh; Sharp, Mercedes Kelsey; Hong, Zhibin; Kimura, Miwa

    2016-01-01

    This study explores binge-drinking behaviors and attitudes among Hispanic and non-Hispanic college students. The authors surveyed students at the same large Hispanic-serving university used in a 1999 study by Bennett et al., partially replicating that earlier research. While the percentage of students who reported binge drinking in the present…

  17. Environmental factors affecting black/white coloration of the silken girdle in the swallowtail butterfly, Atrophaneura alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masami; Yamanaka, Akira; Masaki, Hisashi; Nishijima, Ayako; Harada, Yumiko; Kitazawa, Chisato; Abe, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masao; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    The silken girdles of pupae of the swallowtail butterfly Atrophaneura alcinous show black and white color diphenism. Field observations revealed that all pupae observed on non-food plants and the leaves and stems of the larval food plant Aristolochia debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type, while a large portion of pupae pupating on the twigs and trunks of cherry trees in close proximity to A. debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type. Additionally, all pupae observed on the surfaces of artificial objects in areas where there are no surrounding plants or trees were classified as a silken girdle of a white type. We demonstrated the effect of day length and the texture, light, plant odor and humidity of pupation sites on the coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous. Regardless of long-day or short-day day length conditions, light conditions of constant light or dark, or the presence of a plant odor of A. debilis as environmental cues, all larvae placed at over 80% relative humidity (R.H.) developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a black type. However, all larvae developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a white type when R.H. was below 75%. Furthermore, when pupae with a silken girdle of a white type were transferred to conditions of 90% R.H. within 24 hr of pupation, the white color of the silken girdle changed into a black type within 24 hr of the transfer. The present data suggest that the induction of a black coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous requires a R.H. of approximately 80% or more as an environmental factor.

  18. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  19. Class advantages and disadvantages are not so Black and White: intersectionality impacts rank and selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Higginbotham, Gerald D; Henderson, Kyshia

    2017-12-01

    At the intersection of race and class the consequences of being working-class or middle-class are not so Black and White. Rather, established and emerging research suggests that race/ethnicity and social class intersect to differentially afford benefits and burdens. For instance, racial/ethnic minorities often do not reap the social, psychological or economic benefits of higher social class; yet, in some key life domains (e.g. health and mortality) racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. seem to be buffered from some burdens of lower social class. We integrate empirical evidence to suggest that such differential advantages and disadvantages along racial lines reflect that social class exists alongside, rather than separate from, race/ethnicity as two distinct yet intersecting sources of rank and in turn selves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of glucose on the Reactive Black 5 (RB5 decolorization by two white rot basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacities of glucose in the decolorization process of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by two white rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 were investigated. The results indicated that the dye degradation by the two fungi was extremely correlated with the presence of glucose in the culture and the process of fungi growth. Decolorization of 200 mg dye/l was increased from 62% and 69% to 100% within 20–25 h with the increase of glucose from 5 to 15 g/l, and the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP increased by 2–9 fold in this case. Hydrogen peroxide of 0.55 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l were detected in 10 h in Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 cultures.

  1. Perceptions of Racism by Black Medical Students Attending White Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Samuel C.; Houston, Earline

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one black medical students attending five white medical schools were seen in individual interviews of one to two hours to evaluate their perceptions of racism in their medical school education. The interviews focused on racism experienced in high school, college, and medical school. Over one half of the population experienced racism during their high school and college education, while 30 of 31 subjects reported racist experiences in their medical school education. The students reported a variety of methods of coping with racist experiences and emphasized the importance of fellow minority students, faculty, and the minority office in coping with the stresses of racist experiences. Those offering counseling services to minority students should recognize the reality of racist experiences in medical education. PMID:3612829

  2. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Lin, Xiaohui; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements.

  3. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for non-Hispanic white women. For non-Hispanic black women, preterm-related causes of death account for most of their higher infant mortality ... Infant mortality rates were higher for non-Hispanic black than for non-Hispanic ... of the causes of death shown in ( Figure 3 ). The largest difference was ...

  4. COLORS FERTILE T. UYAR WAYS OF READING IN THE DILEMMA / FIRST CHOICE: BLACK AND WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since all light from the sun, which is still dominated by the first light of the sky or the sun. World time gave even at their disposal. They do people, he must realize that, albeit in different forms in the light. the main source of artificial light until it has never been changed. Poetry actually crushed under the light, will be written. He said the poet who want to reach an unknown time, the intention is to go on the road as close to divine theology. Take under the influence of the environment as a soul the dust of the poem depends to spread the spirit of all known. That's why we look at our poets, they move beyond what we see at a glance. The sense of light known by everyone. Special meaning is a reflection of the property. İknci Yeni, has witnessed a time of poetic intensity in the Turkish poetry tradition. Different trends in the world, has seen a time when the break occurred. All transitions have very different reactions in the human world of poets exception. Turgut Uyar, then all the values of the semi-urban stuck together as a personality we can say that to their climate. Light is a double value illuminating or decision they want to see him. Besides the special general sense, it also carries a qualified sense. Particularly striking is filled with black and white images load. White is interesting to carry the same attributes in the black space of the tragic point. This Turgut Uyar, adds a different dimension to the meaning of the poem.

  5. Black and White Parents' Willingness to Seek Help for Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Decker, Kristina; Arnold, Trisha; Howell, Kathryn H; Phares, Vicky

    2017-06-16

    Understanding social and environmental factors that contribute to parental help-seeking intentions is an important step in addressing service underutilization for children in need of treatment. This study examined factors that contribute to parents' intentions to seek formal and informal help for child psychopathology (anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). A total of 251 parents (N = 128 mothers, N = 123 fathers; 49% Black, 51% White) read 3 vignettes describing children with anxiety, ADHD, and no diagnosis. Measures of problem recognition, perceived barriers, and formal (pediatricians, psychologists, teachers) and informal (religious leaders, family/friends, self-help) help seeking were completed. Four separate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine parental help-seeking likelihood from formal and informal sources for internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Predictors were socioeconomic status, parent race, age, and sex, parent problem recognition (via study vignettes), and perceived barriers to mental health service utilization. Mothers were more likely than fathers to seek help from pediatricians, psychologists, teachers, and religious leaders for child anxiety and pediatricians, religious leaders, and self-help resources for child ADHD. Black parents were more likely to seek help from religious leaders and White parents were more likely to use self-help resources. Problem recognition was associated with greater intentions to seek help from almost all formal and informal sources (except from friends/family). Understanding factors that contribute to parental help seeking for child psychopathology is critical for increasing service utilization and reducing the negative effects of mental health problems. This study highlights the importance of decreasing help-seeking barriers and increasing problem recognition to improve health equity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Construct equivalence of the OPQ32n for Black and White people in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The construct equivalence of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32n for black and white groups was investigated.Research purpose: The objective was to investigate the structural invariance of the OPQ32n for two South African population groups.Motivation for the study: The OPQ32n is often used for making a variety of personnel decisions in South Africa. Evidence regarding the suitability of personality questionnaires for use across South Africa’s various population groups is required by practitioners for selecting appropriate psychometric instruments.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. The sample consisted of 248 Black and 476 White people from the SHL (South Africa database. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the structural equivalence of the OPQ32n scale scores for these two groups.Main findings: A good fit regarding factor correlations and covariances on the 32 scales was obtained, partially supporting the structural equivalence of the questionnaire for the two groups. The analyses furthermore indicated that there was structural invariance, with the effect of the Social Desirability scale partialled out.Practical/managerial implications: The present study focused on aspects of structural equivalence only. The OPQ32n therefore passed the first hurdle in this particular context, but further investigation is necessary to provide evidence that the questionnaire is suitable for use in personnel decisions comparing the population groups.Contribution: Despite the positive findings with regard to structural equivalence and social desirability response style, it should be borne in mind that no assumptions regarding full scale equivalence can be made on the basis of the present findings.

  7. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  8. Cross-cultural Conflicts in Fire Management in Northern Australia: Not so Black and White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andersen

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available European ("scientific" and Aboriginal ("experiential" perspectives on fire management in northern Australia are often contrasted with each other. For Europeans, management is portrayed as a science-based, strategically directed and goal-oriented exercise aimed at achieving specific ecological outcomes. In contrast, landscape burning by Aboriginal people is more of an emergent property, diffusely arising from many uses of fire that serve social, cultural, and spiritual, as well as ecological, needs. Aboriginal knowledge is acquired through tradition and personal experience, rather than through the scientific paradigm of hypothesis testing. Here I argue that, in practice, science plays only a marginal role in European fire management in northern Australia. European managers often lack clearly defined goals in terms of land management outcomes, and rarely monitor the ecological effects of their management actions. Management is based primarily on tradition, intuition, and personal experience rather than on scientific knowledge, and there is often a reluctance to accept new information, particularly when it is provided by "outsiders." In these ways, the processes by which European land managers acquire and utilize information are actually similar to those of indigenous Australians, and can be considered characteristic of a management culture. In this context, the conventional European vs. Aboriginal contrast might be more accurately described as a conflict between scientists on one hand and land managers in general, both black and white, on the other. That is not to say that science has all the answers and that researchers always deliver useful research outcomes. Cultural tensions between Australia's colonists and its original inhabitants rank highly on the national agenda, particularly in relation to land access and ownership. For the effective management of such land, another difficult but rewarding challenge lies in reconciling tensions between

  9. Parental Job Loss and Children's Educational Attainment in Black and White Middle-Class Families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #10-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle class families. Methods: We use data from the Panel…

  10. Skull shape differentiation of black and white olms (Proteus anguinus anguinus and Proteus a. parkelj): an exploratory analysis with micro-CT scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanović, A.; Aljančič, G.; Artzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of the morphology of the cranium in the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and the black olm (P. a. parkelj) with micro-CT scanning and geometric morphometrics. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) was used as an outgroup. The black olm falls outside the white

  11. Anxiety, Knowledge and Help: A Model for How Black and White College Students Search for HIV/AIDS Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Using the "think aloud" protocol, which allows for the collection of data in real time, the researcher audio taped comments from 13 white college students from a predominately white university in the Southeastern United States and 15 black students from a predominately black university, as they explained how they searched for HIV/AIDS…

  12. A Comparison of the Perceptions of the Characteristics of Teachers by Black and White Secondary School Students in an Urban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Robert W.

    Teachers may fail with junior high school age and black students because these groups differ from their senior high school age and white counterparts in their perceptions of which teacher behaviors are important. To test this hypothesis, black and white ninth and twelfth graders were asked to select their three best and three worst teachers and…

  13. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  14. The compressibility of cubic white and orthorhombic, rhombohedral, and simple cubic black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Simon M; Zaug, Joseph

    2010-03-10

    The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The ?alpha phase was found to transform into the alpha' phase at 0.87 +- 0.04 GPa with a volume change of 0.1 +- 0.3 cc/mol. A fit of a second order Birch- Murnaghan equation to the data gave Vo = 16.94 ? 0.08 cc/mol and Ko = 6.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the alpha phase and Vo = 16.4 +- 0.1 cc/mol and Ko = 9.1 +- 0.3 GPa for the alpha' phase. The alpha' phase was found to transform to the A17 phase of black phosphorus at 2.68 +- 0.34 GPa and then with increasing pressure to the A7 and then simple cubic phase of black phosphorus. A fit of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation to our data combined with previous measurements gave Vo = 11.43 +- 0.05 cc/mol and Ko = 34.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the A17 phase, Vo = 9.62 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 65.0 +- 0.6 GPa for the A7 phase and , Vo = 9.23 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 72.5 +- 0.3 GPa for the simple cubic phase.

  15. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    *Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition)  *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder.  *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation.  *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge  *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia……

  16. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  17. Hispanic Segregation and Poor Health: It's Not Just Black and White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne; Zheng, Cheng; Iceland, John

    2017-10-15

    Despite the importance of understanding the fundamental determinants of Hispanic health, few studies have investigated how metropolitan segregation shapes the health of the fastest-growing population in the United States. Using 2006-2013 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we 1) examined the relationship between Hispanic metropolitan segregation and respondent-rated health for US-born and foreign-born Hispanics and 2) assessed whether neighborhood poverty mediated this relationship. Results indicated that segregation has a consistent, detrimental effect on the health of US-born Hispanics, comparable to findings for blacks and black-white segregation. In contrast, segregation was salutary (though not always significant) for foreign-born Hispanics. We also found that neighborhood poverty mediates some, but not all, of the associations between segregation and poor health. Our finding of divergent associations between health and segregation by nativity points to the wide range of experiences within the diverse Hispanic population and suggests that socioeconomic status and structural factors, such as residential segregation, come into play in determining Hispanic health for the US-born in a way that does not occur among the foreign-born. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  19. Agreement on Reporting of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Field, Craig; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Lipsky, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article examines agreement on reports of male-to-female and female-to-male psychological, physical, and sexual violence among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. Using a probability sample, separate face-to-face interviews were conducted in respondents' homes with both members of 1,025 intact couples living in the 48…

  20. Updating the Trainability Tests Literature on Black-White Subgroup Differences and Reconsidering Criterion-Related Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Philip L.; Buster, Maury A.; Bobko, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A number of applied psychologists have suggested that trainability test Black-White ethnic group differences are low or relatively low (e.g., Siegel & Bergman, 1975), though data are scarce. Likewise, there are relatively few estimates of criterion-related validity for trainability tests predicting job performance (cf. Robertson & Downs,…

  1. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  2. Black-White Differences in Child Maltreatment Reports and Foster Care Placements: A Statistical Decomposition Using Linked Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.

  3. Abdominal adiposity change in white and black midlife women: The study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A; Avery, Elizabeth F; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2015-12-01

    The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning Study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. The subjects' total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4 -L5 ) annually over up to 4 years. The total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1% ± 8.2%) when compared with white women (41.3% ± 8.7%, P < 0.001) and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow-up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of IAAT (4.4% ± 0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. These data inform future research aimed to prevent IAAT gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Abdominal Adiposity Change in White and Black Midlife Women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. Methods A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. The subjects’ total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4–L5) annually over up to 4 years. Results Total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1±8.2%) compared to white women (41.3±8.7%, p<0.001), and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (4.4±0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. Conclusions During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. This data informs future research aimed to prevent intra-abdominal adipose tissue gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. PMID:26523609

  5. The Role of Parent Education and Parenting Knowledge in Children's Language and Literacy Skills among White, Black, and Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was…

  6. An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

  7. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  8. Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white girls: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Obesity may be a possible explanation for the higher cardiovascular disease mortality in Black women compared with White women. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) is designed to assess factors associated with the development of obesity in Black and White preadolescent girls and its effects on major cardiovascular-disease risk factors. METHODS. NGHS is a 5-year cohort study of 2379 girls, aged 9 through 10 years at entry. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and maturation staging are measured annually, and blood lipids biannually. Information on education, income, and family composition is also obtained from parents. RESULTS. At baseline, compared with White girls, Black girls were slightly older, biologically more mature, taller, heavier, and had higher Quetelet Indices, skinfolds, and blood pressures. Black girls had lower triglycerides and higher HDL cholesterol than White girls. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS. Baseline descriptive characteristics of the NGHS cohort showed that, in subjects aged 9 and 10 years, racial differences in obesity and blood pressure were already present. PMID:1456335

  9. Black Hope, White Power: Emancipation, Reconstruction and the Legacy of Unequal Schooling in the US South, 1861-1880

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Current explanations for the gap between African-American and white school achievement are inadequate; most cannot explain the high level of black school achievement in the decade after Emancipation. Further, traditional accounts of the origins of educational discrimination against African-Americans are inaccurate. The roots of educational…

  10. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  11. The Impact of Student-Faculty Interaction on Academic Achievement and College Satisfaction for Black Males Attending Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Lamar R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student-faculty interactions on academic achievement and college satisfaction among Black males at predominately White institutions. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine if there was a difference in levels of academic achievement and college satisfaction based on how often Black…

  12. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  13. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  14. Ethnic Comparisons in HIV Testing Attitudes, HIV Testing, and Predictors of HIV Testing Among Black and White College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melanie P; Javier, Sarah J; Abrams, Jasmine A; McGann, Amanda Wattenmaker; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2017-08-01

    This study's primary aim was to examine ethnic differences in predictors of HIV testing among Black and White college students. We also examined ethnic differences in sexual risk behaviors and attitudes toward the importance of HIV testing. An analytic sample of 126 Black and 617 White undergraduatestudents aged 18-24 were analyzed for a subset of responses on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) (2012) pertaining to HIV testing, attitudes about the importance of HIV testing, and sexual risk behaviors. Predictors of HIV testing behavior were analyzed using logistic regression. t tests and chi-square tests were performed to access differences in HIV test history, testing attitudes, and sexual risk behaviors. Black students had more positive attitudes toward testing and were more likely to have been tested for HIV compared to White students. A greater number of sexual partners and more positive HIV testing attitudes were significant predictors of HIV testing among White students, whereas relationship status predicted testing among Black students. Older age and history of ever having sex were significant predictors of HIV testing for both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in number of sexual partners or self-reports in history of sexual experience (oral, vaginal, or anal). Factors that influence HIV testing may differ across racial/ethnic groups. Findings support the need to consider racial/ethnic differences in predictors of HIV testing during the development and tailoring of HIV testing prevention initiatives targeting college students.

  15. A Comparison of the Social Networks of Blacks and Whites in a Sample of Elderly in a Southern Border State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, R. Wayne; Kernodle, Ruth L.

    The social network of elderly blacks was compared with whites in a sample of 241 ambulatory persons interviewed in congregate settings in a planning district of a border Southern state. Questions were asked about monthly patterns of social interaction, such as visiting and phone contacts with children, other kin, neighbors, friends, involvement in…

  16. Relationships between mastitis and functional longevity in Danish Black and White dairy cattle estimated using survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis

  17. Do Parents, Teachers, and Psychoeducational Evaluators Agree in Their Perceptions of the Problems of Black and White Emotionally Disturbed Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The most disturbing result was the extent of disagreement in parents' and teachers' perceptions of the problem behaviors of Black emotionally disturbed children. There was agreement in perceptions of White emotionally disturbed children, facilitating communication. High levels of parental involvement are recommended. (Author)

  18. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  19. Student-Faculty Interaction, Faculty Caring, and Black Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Brenda LaJoyce

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the issues of student-faculty interaction and faculty caring as experienced by Black students attending a Predominantly White Institution in a Mid-western urban city. Specifically, the study reviewed the questions related to student-faculty engagement as posed on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This study used…

  20. Black Male Graduates' Reflections on Their College Experiences at a Private, Faith-Based, Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This study takes an in-depth look at the experiences of 12 Black males who graduated between 2001 and 2012 from a private, faith-based, predominantly White institution of higher education, with a purpose to better understand the essence of their collegiate experiences. Most research on minority college enrollment has focused on reasons why…

  1. Retrospective Understandings: Individual-Collective Influences on High Achieving Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Candice Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an exploratory qualitative study that examined the influences of individual and collective sociocultural identities on the community involvements and high academic achievement of 10 Black alumni who attended a predominantly White institution between 1985 and 2008. Syntagmatic narrative analysis and…

  2. Quasisoft X-Ray Sources: White Dwarfs? Neutron Stars? Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    Two of the most exciting areas of current research in astrophysics are black holes and Type Ia supernovae. We propose archival work that has the potential to shed light on both areas. The focus of our research is a newly-established class of x-ray sources called Quasisoft X-ray Sources (QSSs). Although they comprise a significant fraction of the x- ray sources in galaxies of all types, including M31, it has proved difficult to identify members of this class in the Milky Way or Magellanic Clouds. We have developed methods to find these sources, and have begun to meet with success in the application of our methods. The three-year project we propose will allow us to identify QSSs. We will then use the full range of archived data to determine which QSS candidates are highly luminous, and which are members of less luminous classes, such as quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries (qLMXBs), or even isolated neutron stars. Many will be nearby x-ray active stars, or else distant AGN, whose discovery will also be of interest to a range of researchers. In the end, we will have a subset of intriguing physical systems, some of which may be accreting black holes and some of which may be unusual states of neutron stars or even of nuclear-burning white dwarfs. The systems identified through this ADAP program will be targets of future observing programs, from space and from the ground. The information we derive from NASA archived data will provide insight into important astrophysical questions. Do intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) exist? It has only been during the past 15 years or so that accreting compact objects that were considered as black hole candidates have been promoted to black holes. This achievement required years of observations of candidates in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. The discovery of ultraluminous X- ray source in external galaxies suggests that there are black holes with masses larger than the 10-30 solar masses typical of the known black holes. To

  3. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  4. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  5. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (padvertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (padvertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; padvertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (padvertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  6. Can White children grow up to be Black? Children's reasoning about the stability of emotion and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2016-06-01

    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children who were happy or angry and Black or White and were asked to indicate which of 2 adults (a race but not emotion match or an emotion but not race match) each child would grow up to be. White adults, White 9- to 10-year-olds, and racial minority 5- to 6-year-olds selected race matches, whereas White 5- to 6-year-olds selected race and emotion matches equally. These data suggest that beliefs about racial stability vary by age and social group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Blood quantum and perceptions of black-white biracial targets: the black ancestry prototype model of affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Good, Jessica J; Chavez, George

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the causal role of amount of Black ancestry in targets' perceived fit with Black prototypes and perceivers' categorization of biracial targets. Greater Black ancestry increased the likelihood that perceivers categorized biracial targets as Black and perceived targets as fitting Black prototypes (e.g., experiencing racial discrimination, possessing stereotypic traits). These results persisted, controlling for perceptions of phenotype that stem from ancestry information. Perceivers' beliefs about how society would categorize the biracial targets predicted perceptions of discrimination, whereas perceivers' beliefs about the targets' self-categorization predicted trait perceptions. The results of this study support the Black ancestry prototype model of affirmative action, which reveals the downstream consequences of Black ancestry for the distribution of minority resources (e.g., affirmative action) to biracial targets.

  8. Comparing Black and White Drug Offenders: Implications for Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice and Reentry Policy and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-01-01

    Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.

  9. Data on the density of xanthophores in a whole scale of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Mizusawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Expression of genes for melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change in goldfish Carassius auratus” (Mizusawa et al., In press [1]. This article describes data on the density of xanthophores in the scales of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color. To determine the effects of acclimation history during long-term background color adaptation, fish were transferred from a white tank to a white or black tank and vice versa halfway through the acclimation process. To observe xanthophores, the iridophore layer was scraped from the scale and the pteridine/carotenoid pigments were aggregated. The number of xanthophores was calculated after image processing.

  10. United States black:white infant mortality disparities are not inevitable: identification of community resilience independent of socioeconomic status.

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    Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W; Levine, Robert; Rowley, Diane; Agboto, Vincent; Rust, George

    2010-01-01

    U.S. disparities in Black:White infant mortality are persistent. National trends, however, may obscure local successes. Zero-corrected, negative binomial multivariable modeling was used to predict Black infant mortality (1999-2003) in all U.S. counties with reliable rates. Independent variables included county population size, racial composition, educational attainment, poverty, income and geographic origin. Resilient counties were defined as those whose Black infant mortality rate residual score was Mortality data was accessed from the Compressed Mortality File compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics and found on the CDC WONDER website. Demographic information was obtained from the US Census. The final model included the percentage of Blacks, age 18 to 64 years, speaking little or no English (P infant mortality in the resilient stratum (23.6 per 1000 live births) exceeded Black US infant mortality (22.6). By 2001, Black infant mortality in the resilient stratum (5.6) was below the corresponding value for Whites (5.7). Resilient county neonatal mortality declined both early and late in the observation period, while post-neonatal declines were most marked after 1996. Models for reduction/elimination of racial disparities in US infant mortality, independent from county-level contextual measures of socioeconomic status, may already exist.

  11. Computed Tomography-Derived Parameters of Myocardial Morphology and Function in Black and White Patients With Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Abro, Joseph A; Nance, John W; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Bamberg, Fabian; Carr, Christine M; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Blacks have higher mortality and hospitalization rates because of congestive heart failure compared with white counterparts. Differences in cardiac structure and function may contribute to the racial disparity in cardiovascular outcomes. Our aim was to compare computed tomography (CT)-derived cardiac measurements between black patients with acute chest pain and age- and gender-matched white patients. We performed a retrospective analysis under an institutional review board waiver and in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance. We investigated patients who underwent cardiac dual-source CT for acute chest pain. Myocardial mass, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV end-systolic volume, and LV end-diastolic volume were quantified using an automated analysis algorithm. Septal wall thickness and cardiac chamber diameters were manually measured. Measurements were compared by independent t test and linear regression. The study population consisted of 300 patients (150 black-mean age 54 ± 12 years; 46% men; 150 white-mean age 55 ± 11 years; 46% men). Myocardial mass was larger for blacks compared with white (176.1 ± 58.4 vs 155.9 ± 51.7 g, p = 0.002), which remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and hypertension. Septal wall thickness was slightly greater (11.9 ± 2.7 vs 11.2 ± 3.1 mm, p = 0.036). The LV inner diameter was moderately larger in black patients in systole (32.3 ± 9.0 vs 30.1 ± 5.4 ml, p = 0.010) and in diastole (50.1 ± 7.8 vs 48.9 ± 5.2 ml, p = 0.137), as well as LV end-diastolic volume (134.5 ± 42.7 vs 128.2 ± 30.6 ml, p = 0.143). Ejection fraction was nonsignificantly lower in blacks (67.1 ± 13.5% vs 69.0 ± 9.6%, p = 0.169). In conclusion, CT-derived myocardial mass was larger in blacks compared with whites, whereas LV functional parameters were generally not statistically different, suggesting that LV mass might be a possible contributing factor to the higher rate of cardiac events

  12. End-stage renal disease in young black males in a black-white population: longitudinal analysis of the Bogalusa Heart Study

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    Aguilar Erwin A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors in childhood create a life-long burden important in the development of cardiovascular (CV disease in adulthood. Many risk factors for CV disease (e.g., hypertension also increase the risk of renal disease. However, the importance of childhood risk factors on the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD is not well characterized. Methods The current observations include data from Bogalusa Heart Study participants who were examined multiple times as children between 1973 and 1988. Results Through 2006, fifteen study participants subsequently developed ESRD in adulthood; seven with no known overt cause. Although the Bogalusa Heart Study population is 63% white and 37% black and 51% male and 49% female, all seven ESRD cases with no known overt cause were black males (p 2 among ESRD cases and 18.6 kg/m2 and 18.9 kg/m2 among black and white boys who didn't develop ESRD, respectively. Plasma glucose in childhood was not significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusion These data suggest black males have an increased risk of ESRD in young adulthood. Elevated body mass index and blood pressure in childhood may increase the risk for developing ESRD as young adults.

  13. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

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    Paula Braveman

    Full Text Available The causes of the large and persistent Black-White disparity in preterm birth (PTB are unknown. It is biologically plausible that chronic stress across a woman's life course could be a contributor. Prior research suggests that chronic worry about experiencing racial discrimination could affect PTB through neuroendocrine, vascular, or immune mechanisms involved in both responses to stress and the initiation of labor. This study aimed to examine the role of chronic worry about racial discrimination in Black-White disparities in PTB.The data source was cross-sectional California statewide-representative surveys of 2,201 Black and 8,122 White, non-Latino, U.S.-born postpartum women with singleton live births during 2011-2014. Chronic worry about racial discrimination (chronic worry was defined as responses of "very often" or "somewhat often" (vs. "not very often" or "never" to the question: "Overall during your life until now, how often have you worried that you might be treated or viewed unfairly because of your race or ethnic group?" Prevalence ratios (PRs with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated from sequential logistic regression models, before and after adjustment for multiple social/demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, to estimate the magnitude of: (a PTB risks associated with chronic worry among Black women and among White women; and (b Black-White disparities in PTB, before and after adjustment for chronic worry.Among Black and White women respectively, 36.9 (95% CI 32.9-40.9 % and 5.5 (95% CI 4.5-6.5 % reported chronic worry about racial discrimination; rates were highest among Black women of higher income and education levels. Chronic worry was significantly associated with PTB among Black women before (PR 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.67 and after (PR 2.00, 95% CI 1.33-3.01 adjustment for covariates. The unadjusted Black-White disparity in PTB (PR 1.59, 95%CI 1.21-2.09 appeared attenuated and became non-significant after

  14. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen S; Curtis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The causes of the large and persistent Black-White disparity in preterm birth (PTB) are unknown. It is biologically plausible that chronic stress across a woman's life course could be a contributor. Prior research suggests that chronic worry about experiencing racial discrimination could affect PTB through neuroendocrine, vascular, or immune mechanisms involved in both responses to stress and the initiation of labor. This study aimed to examine the role of chronic worry about racial discrimination in Black-White disparities in PTB. The data source was cross-sectional California statewide-representative surveys of 2,201 Black and 8,122 White, non-Latino, U.S.-born postpartum women with singleton live births during 2011-2014. Chronic worry about racial discrimination (chronic worry) was defined as responses of "very often" or "somewhat often" (vs. "not very often" or "never") to the question: "Overall during your life until now, how often have you worried that you might be treated or viewed unfairly because of your race or ethnic group?" Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated from sequential logistic regression models, before and after adjustment for multiple social/demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, to estimate the magnitude of: (a) PTB risks associated with chronic worry among Black women and among White women; and (b) Black-White disparities in PTB, before and after adjustment for chronic worry. Among Black and White women respectively, 36.9 (95% CI 32.9-40.9) % and 5.5 (95% CI 4.5-6.5) % reported chronic worry about racial discrimination; rates were highest among Black women of higher income and education levels. Chronic worry was significantly associated with PTB among Black women before (PR 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.67) and after (PR 2.00, 95% CI 1.33-3.01) adjustment for covariates. The unadjusted Black-White disparity in PTB (PR 1.59, 95%CI 1.21-2.09) appeared attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for

  15. Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in Their Implicit Racial Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakou, Domna; Hanumanthu, Parasuram D; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's body by a life-sized virtual one. Such embodiment results in a perceptual illusion of body ownership over the virtual body (VB). Previous research has shown that the form of the VB can influence implicit attitudes. In particular, embodying White people in a Black virtual body is associated with an immediate decrease in their implicit racial bias against Black people. We tested whether the reduction in implicit bias lasts for at least 1 week and whether it is enhanced by multiple exposures. Two experiments were carried out with a total of 90 female participants where the virtual body was either Black or White. Participants were required to follow a virtual Tai Chi teacher who was either Asian or European Caucasian. Each participant had 1, 2, or 3 exposures separated by days. Implicit racial bias was measured 1 week before their first exposure and 1 week after their last. The results show that implicit bias decreased more for those with the Black virtual body than the White. There was also some evidence of a general decrease in bias independently of body type for which possible explanations are put forward.

  16. Neurolaw: Differential brain activity for black and white faces predicts damage awards in hypothetical employment discrimination cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Harrison A; Johnson, Micah A; Chun, Marvin M

    2012-07-01

    Currently, potential jurors' racial biases are measured by explicit questioning--a poor measure because people often hide their views to adhere to social norms, and people have implicit views they are not consciously aware of. In this experiment, we investigated whether two alternative methods of measuring racial bias--a standard black/white, good/bad implicit association test (IAT) and neural activity, measured by fMRI, in response to seeing faces of black and white individuals--could predict how much money subjects would award Black victims in hypothetical employment discrimination cases. IAT scores failed to predict how much money subjects awarded victims. However, in right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and in right superior/middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/10)--which have both previously been implicated in measuring biases and implicit preferences--the difference in neural activity between when subjects viewed black faces paired with neutral adjectives and when subjects viewed white faces paired with neutral adjectives was positively correlated with the amount of money the subjects awarded victims. This suggests that brain activity measures racial bias with more practical validity, at least in this situation and with our sample size, than a common behavioral measure (the IAT).

  17. Virtual Embodiment of White People in a Black Virtual Body Leads to a Sustained Reduction in their Implicit Racial Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domna Banakou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person’s body by a life-sized virtual one. Such embodiment results in a perceptual illusion of body ownership over the virtual body (VB. Previous research has shown that the form of the VB can influence implicit attitudes. In particular, embodying White people in a Black virtual body is associated with an immediate decrease in their implicit racial bias against Black people. We tested whether the reduction in implicit bias lasts for at least one week and whether it is enhanced by multiple exposures. Two experiments were carried out with a total of 90 female participants where the virtual body was either Black or White. Participants were required to follow a virtual Tai Chi teacher who was either Asian or European Caucasian. Each participant had 1, 2 or 3 exposures separated by days. Implicit racial bias was measured one week before their first exposure and one week after their last. The results show that implicit bias decreased more for those with the Black virtual body than the White. There was also some evidence of a general decrease in bias independently of body type for which possible explanations are put forward.

  18. Black Football Players on a Predominantly White College Campus: Psychosocial and Emotional Realities of the Black College Athlete Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Mickey C.

    2008-01-01

    Black student-athletes have been the focus of study regarding academic and psychosocial adjustment to college since the 1960s. Although recent literature generally reports higher graduation rates for Black student-athletes compared to their nonathlete peers, little attention has been given to their psychosocial experiences on predominantly White…

  19. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mondul, Alison M; Jacobs, Eric J; Chao, Ann; Patel, Alpa V; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2006-02-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that intake of red meat may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Few studies, however, have examined these associations by race. We examined intake of red meat, processed meat, and poultry in relation to incident prostate cancer among Black and White men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in the study completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle in 1992 to 1993. After excluding men with a history of cancer and incomplete dietary information, 692 Black and 64,856 White men were included in the cohort. During follow-up through August 31, 2001, we documented 85 and 5,028 cases of incident prostate cancer among Black and White men, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). No measure of meat consumption was associated with risk of prostate cancer among White men. Among Black men, total red meat intake (processed plus unprocessed red meat) was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.2 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.05); this increase in risk was mainly due to risk associated with consumption of cooked processed meats (sausages, bacon, and hot dogs; RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.3 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.008). This study suggests that high consumption of cooked processed meats may contribute to prostate cancer risk among Black men in the United States.

  20. Spiritual Well-Being in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Patricia; Mitchell, Sandra A; Wehrlen, Leslie; Childs, Richard; Savani, Bipin; Yang, Li; Bevans, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that spiritual well-being positively contributes to quality of life during and following cancer treatment. This relationship has not been well-described in ethnically diverse survivors of allogeneic transplantation.  This study compares spiritual well-being and quality of life of Hispanic (n = 69) and non-Hispanic (n = 102) survivors. Hispanic participants were significantly younger and reported significantly greater spiritual well-being than non-Hispanic survivors. Survivors with higher spiritual well-being had significantly better quality of life. Meaning and Peace significantly predicted quality of life. Although Hispanic survivors report greater spiritual well-being, Meaning and Peace, irrespective of ethnicity, have a salutary effect on quality of life.